As the pattern is changing and becoming more client-oriented, the development industry is also facing many ongoing challenges, like:

  • Greater efficiency expectation
  • Increased competition
  • Restructuring of work practices
  • Need of information and communication technologies

A construction project requires varied involvements and sharing updated data amongst them, typically leads to errors and delays. However, improvement of technologies, internet and ICT have supplied solutions like e-commerce which supplies information and workflow control, course of management, as well as improved communication.

Description and analysis:

Electronic commerce or e-commerce is a vital sector of the Internet world.

It includes sharing of information and processing it for a enterprise. (B 2 B & B 2 C)

There are ways during which E-commerce helps:

1. Better work alternatives inside industry/organization.

2. Access to information turns into easy and dependable.

3. Speedy working practices.

4. Reduction in value.

5. Monitoring on the quality that would be supplied.

6. A great mixture of design & construction.

7. Less disputes due to high transparency.

E-commerce also performs a vital role within the sector of development because it improves a key a part of the section i.

e. it enhances the availability chain process or supplies and efficient medium for provide chain management.

Efficient materials – dealing with in data processing using data technology where it contributes to inventory discount and reduce in the number of rebuilding with accurate design data and manufacturing of energy-efficient buildings, which finally saves project value & time. It features a record of benefits from Client to Manufactures including Designers, Contractors, Building merchants. Such as:

1. Project total efficiency.

2. Reduce price of development.

3. Compresses the development section.

4. Communications is enhanced.

5. Lower administrative cost.

6. Project control and its security.

7. Channel price is reduced.

8. Purchasing and categorizing for customers turns into straightforward.

Along with advantages there are few challenges additionally:

  • Challenges Information Management System
  • Organisational Policies
  • Human Resource and Learning
  • Training Learning and Knowledge Sharing

Problems in current practices and operations:

  • Inability of subcontractors/suppliers to adopt the applied sciences.
  • Lack of in-house technical expertise.
  • [newline]

  • Lack of integrated info administration system.
  • Lack of IT coaching and knowledge sharing .
  • Costly and complicated e-commerce system.
  • Less consciousness in prime management of organizations.
  • Different organizational culture.
  • Fear of implementation of course of change in any business.
  • Less assist from the chief stage.
  • Lack of software program that meets the required wants.
  • Lack of methods, belief, and commitment.
  • Less/delayed return on investment.
  • Less clarity about imaginative and prescient and objectives.
  • Clients irregularity.

Analysis of the Case

The growing need or growing application of the e-commerce applied sciences in development supply chain:

  • Better work opportunities.
  • Increases the speed of working.
  • Information and system management Reduced time in clerical works.
  • Ease of working with CAD and numerous software.
  • Barriers
  • Lack of in-house technical experience and personnel
  • Reluctance/inability to undertake laptop applied sciences amongst subcontractors and suppliers
  • Lack of suitable methods that meets the company’s needs
  • Different organizational culture
  • Inability to Acceptance Case ( Interviewed Carried out and Results: as per paper)

With a Project Coordinator of a large building company background present e-commerce technology applications challenges of implementing of e-commerce technology

W ith a Contract Administrator of a large development firm background challenges of E-commerce technology:

1. Problems with Emails.

2. Problems with WWW.

3. Problems with reaching and retrieving project information.

4.Problems of IT studying.

With a Design Coordinator of a Medium Engineering Company. Background challenges of implementing e-commerce:

  • Technology
  • Alternate Solutions
  • More consciousness concerning the project’s goals and goals.
  • More person pleasant, and integrated e-commerce system.
  • IT coaching and knowledge sharing.
  • Supportive group tradition.
  • Setting business requirements.
  • Cost discount of technologies.
  • Better profits/savings.
  • Better compatibility of software.
  • Client’s energetic participation.
  • Better safe services.
  • Integration pf building members through the community .



2. //www.liaison.com/blog/ 2017 /02 /10 /benefits-supply-chain-management/

3. //www.ukessays .com/essays/information-technology/the-ecommerce-impacts-on-supply-chain-management-information-technology-essay.php

Are Grades and Effective Means of Motivation?


Grades are sometimes seen to be considered one of, if not the simplest methodology of motivating a student to work to their fullest potential. For example, a pupil who receives an A-grade goes to be encouraged by the grade, as they see it to be an affirmation of their tutorial efforts. An A-student views their grade with satisfaction, and can work very exhausting to maintain up mentioned grade, as soon as achieved. An example of that is as follows.

John recently received an A on his Math check.

He then goes house with a sense of pride, bragging about it to all of his pals.

John now realizes that he should keep up the nice work and continue to work hard for school, in order to proceed to feel nearly as good as he does at present. Conversely, a failing pupil will regard his/her grades with shame, and will be more motivated to raise their grade from the gutter as a result. An example of this is as follows. John receives an F for failing to complete an assignment on time. As a reaction to this, John decides that he will turn his life around utterly and alter his studying habits in order that he turns in his assignments on time in the future. In conclusion, grades are by all means the best way of motivating a pupil to excel.


Grades are the least efficient way of motivating a pupil. This could be stated with such certainty due to the very nature of grades themselves.

They serve to rank college students in opposition to each other. Personally, when I really feel as though somebody is placing me up towards a good friend, I feel much much less keen to work harder for the class than in the event that they have been to easily tell me what I wanted to alter in order to excel. The Whitehall Study, carried out in England 1967, has proven us with certainty that people positioned in a competitive hierarchical situation over extended durations of time will increase their chances of gaining cardiovascular disease by 40%.

This exhibits us that college students placed under similar circumstances (as they’re with the grade system) usually are not only much less motivated to work, however are also at threat of dying. Another important factor to consider when discussing high-school students and their educational achievements is that many people are apathetic. This means that after we see a grade, we simply simply don’t care about it and it doesn’t serve to encourage us somehow. This leads me to conclude that grades, when critically thought of by the student, are not only the least effective method of motivating college students to do their finest work, however are also a severe health concern.


This writing activity was in contrast to anything I had seen before. It challenged me to write from two totally different views, which is something very new to me. The main issue I confronted with this project was the task itself. While it might seem redundant to say so, the task asked us to write about one thing from two polarized views, and that was what challenged me probably the most. I found it simple enough to put in writing the doubting response, as it is what I can most easily associate with. When it came to writing the believing response, I felt as though I was stuck. I stared blankly at my page for a quantity of minutes until I lastly determined to ask an A-student what their perspective on the matter was.

Doing so helped me greatly, because it broadened my mind and aided me in writing about something from a wholly foreign perspective. After completing this task I can honestly say that I am a more well-rounded individual, as I discover it simpler to narrate to what others are saying, even if it goes towards each fiber of my existence. Believing and doubting helps me wallow in complexity by reminding me not to forget that there’s a flip-side to what I am arguing at any given time, and I’ve caught myself excited about a number of of my foundational beliefs and the way they are often contradicted by anyone with a special outlook on life. In conclusion, I believe that this task has helped me to grasp that there are several other points of view to assume about.

Answer Key for Effective Writing

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Effective Academic Writing three: Answer Key an engineer .

Both my mother and father were born in several international locations, so my relations are scattered all round the world . I actually like traveling and have been to Europe and Asia . Although we attempt to get together for important events, this was the primary time everyone could attend . Most importantly, my good friends had never met my relatives . Developing good friendships takes a lot of work .

Watching them all dancing, laughing, and having a wonderful time will keep in my reminiscence eternally . The band we hired played music that the visitors liked and we danced for hours .

An Effective Teacher

The qualities that outline an efficient instructor are very complicated in my view. Everyone seems to have totally different ideas as to what the key indicators are. They range from; professionalism, communication, professional improvement, managing, guiding and techniques. There are even those of the opinion that it doesn’t matter what you do, children will always learn. However I have chosen professionalism as I believe that it is a vital attribute to being an effective teacher. Professionalism is outlined by Merriam-Webster’s dictionary as “Characterised by or conforming to the technical or ethical commonplace of one’s occupation.

(Belcher). In order to achieve and protect the respect and trust of students, dad and mom and colleagues alike and to supply college students with the most effective education potential you will want to show professional conduct and apply. The guidelines for professionalism within the instructing occupation are offered by Code of Ethics, National Professional Standards for Teachers and Duty of Care. These outline the “what”. The key nonetheless is being or performing skilled, this is the “how”, the effectiveness of a trainer.

This is the true measure of professionalism.

Some of the first demonstrable characteristics or attributes of knowledgeable instructor are communication, morals and ethics and professional growth. Communication is an important facet in schooling, the means to send and receive clear messages to and from college students, lecturers, mother and father and community members. It establishes positive and efficient relationships and connections with the involved parties. Communication could be in many types namely verbal, non-verbal or written and utilized by academics to continuously impart new data or essential data.

The capacity for academics to apply the traits of excellent and efficient communication in all its forms, to a various audience with totally different backgrounds and interests and to minimise the obstacles, for instance noise, misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the messages are the makings of an effective instructor. In the article by Prozesky, he states that probably the most effectual method to overcome these obstacles is to have two-way communication with regular feedback offered by the receivers.

Professional ethics just isn’t achieved by solely purely making use of the ethical codes of practice nor skilled requirements which embody the core ideas however by also making use of skilled abilities and private expertise (caring and nurturing) and ethical behaviour within the type of angle, intention, phrases, acknowledgement, respect (inside and outdoors of the classroom), equity and fairness as regards to individual circumstances, color, creed, age, social-economic standing, to name a couple of.

Brock (1998) says that when dealing with ethics and professional standards there are two inquiries to ask; what ought to one do and what one should not do, what is right and what’s wrong and what’s applicable and what’s inappropriate. These questions result in a number of moral dilemmas that face the instructor corresponding to truth versus loyalty, particular person versus group and faith versus morals. Early Childhood Australia has revealed a guide to help teachers cope with daily moral dilemmas.

According to Marsh (2010) moral choices have been categorised into 5 different ranges of determination making. Open choice making, limited decision making, choices made by the trainer, safety seeking (delegation) and avoidance. Several ethical relationships exist within the dynamics of a faculty environment; these embrace moral relationship between the instructor and the schooling system for example, the education system restricts academics on what they should educate.

The teacher and the principal, an example being that the teacher and principal have different values and the principal’s values will over experience those of the trainer. The instructor and the students the place the trainer develops emotional bonds together with his or her students and there’s a mutual respect between instructor and student. The third high quality that defines an efficient instructor is professional growth. In order to be a great trainer you should be an excellent learner too.

The calls for on teachers to find new ideas and forms of instructing are rising. Teachers must be revolutionary and due to this fact attend professional growth days which is in a position to help them repeatedly improve their competencies and supply their students with problem solving abilities and superior thinking thus elevating them to higher levels of achievement. The want to increase their information base, stay present and gain a broader publicity to info offers this opportunity.

Through quite a few examples it is clear how important communication, ethics and professional development are to professionalism. These attributes will help academics to be simpler in imparting information and knowledge to their college students. All of those attributes will enable the students to really focus their energies on learning and fascinating with their training. Even although all of the attributes are vital for efficient instructing one should never forget that the purpose of effective instructing is “that lecturers make a difference”, (Boyd, 2009).

An Effective Weapon to Save the World

“What we see unlocks what we can’t see. What we see unlocks the invisible ties and bonds of sympathy that convey us collectively to turn out to be a human neighborhood.” This is considered one of the few issues that Mr. Brown has mentioned during his discuss which struck me essentially the most. A British politician, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and a strong advocate for a coordinated international response, began a chat entitled, “Wiring an online for world good” in TED Talks method back July 2009, through displaying photos that went viral within the web neighborhood back then.

These footage showcased the struggles which other folks from different components of the world were experiencing at the moment and as I look again on those occasions, I am amused how time has handed by. As Mr. Brown elaborates what the photographs reveal, he emphasised that there’s a moral sense evident throughout all continents – we share and really feel the pain of others even from a distance.

We share that feeling as a result of we’ve entry to the data of each scenario that spreads all through the world. There is a mutual understanding because of the platform where we all share these experiences – the internet – and we create a fair stronger world ethic.

There was one image shown within the talk that caught my consideration. It was the Sudanese woman, a few moments from demise, the place a vulture was hovering in the background. I was solely eight years old in 2009, but I am acquainted with that picture. Despite of not being ready to see all components of the world, not even with the flexibility to absolutely talk with different people around the globe but, I was already conscious of poverty and lots of different points that, to my surprise, were occurring across the globe, and it was all as a result of it had reached me through the internet.

True sufficient, I catch myself empathizing with different individuals, even though they’re miles away from the place I am, whenever I see news articles, posts, and photos in regards to the current issues they are dealing with.

It amazes me how with just a few clicks, one publish could make a complete group act within minutes. I think that having the capability to communicate with totally different folks right away regardless of the perimeters of each human race, we are capable of finding a deeper compassion among ourselves to defeat and face difficulties collectively regardless of our differences. As some would call it, “there is unity in diversity”, however this attainment is simply attainable through passionate concern for alternative, in an setting surrounded by social belief (Lalonde, 1994). I strongly believe that the web makes us realize something that we are likely to overlook; we have shared goals of building a better and safer world for everybody.

From the largest and richest international locations to the smallest islands on the earth, hundreds of thousands of individuals are discovering their lives altering due to the Internet. It is described as “the most necessary innovation for the rationale that growth of printing press”, with the prospective to radically transform the very essence of what it means to be a human being in society (Hoffman, 2000, as cited by Kamssu, Siekpe, & Ellzy, 2004). Now, greater than ever, I realize that the fashionable technique of communication by way of the web is vastly stretching and evolving, reaching parts of the world I didn’t know were experiencing issues that wanted to be addressed. I can see that globalization is clearly present at this era of know-how and developments, as mentioned in our Purposive Communication course discussion, and it calls for a worldwide ethic. I could only imagine how exhausting it must have been decades ago, when individuals had no entry to the Internet, solely relying on verbal conversations, and creating campaigns about present issues that needed to final years before being recognized.

Today, all of these have been resolved and I personally experience the convenience that the web brings, but together with that comfort, there are additionally drawbacks in terms of utilizing it. I suppose that Mr. Brown is true when he mentioned that the modern technology is able to strengthening the ability of our moral sense allied with the facility of communications and our ability to prepare internationally, but I additionally suppose that the modern know-how is capable of manipulating data into being misguided. Any and all information within the internet might be subject for falsification that may exacerbate the tension of discussing world points somewhat than solve them. Also, I don’t think that many individuals spread consciousness for the worldwide good with the intention of truly making a change, but more for becoming a member of the bandwagon and only commenting on what’s trending. Despite that, I firmly consider that there are nonetheless individuals out there who’re wiring a web for international good and there may be an immense chance of reaching an even developed international ethic.

Ultimately, I advocate listening to the discuss especially to students like me, as a outcome of it enlightened me to march in path of a global society by being a accountable web person. More so, being part of the youth, who is expected to construct a better future for the world,

I am challenged to do one of the best I can in disseminating and reacting righteously on global matters. Being in a place to hear Mr. Brown’s ideas on this matter, I am to reflect and contemplate on how I use the web in confronting the rising challenges confronted by many. Most especially that I am a student majoring in Tourism, I share Nandish Singh’s (2016) sentiment: Tourism is the simplest weapon to save lots of the world. What more if the power of tourism and its globalization is allied with the ability of communication?


  • Brown, G. (2009). Wiring an internet for global good. Retrieved September 27, 2019, from
  • Kamssu, A., Siekpe, J., Ellzy, J., & Kamssu, A. (2004). Shortcomings to Globalization: Using Internet Technology and Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 38(1), 151-169. Retrieved from
  • Lalonde, R. (1994-04). Unity in Diversity. Retrieved September 27, 2019, from
  • Singh, N. (2016). Retrieved September 29, 2019, from
  • Widdows, H. (2011). What is international ethics? Global Ethics, 1-12. doi: 10.1017/upo9781844652839.001.

Why is Act one Scene five of Romeo and Juliet an effective piece of drama?

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by Shakespeare and is probably Shakespeare’s most well-known and momentous play. The themes of forbidden love, romance, secrecy and tragedy are portrayed all through the play. The story is located in Fair Verona and deals with an extended standing dispute between two families the ‘Montague’s’ and the ‘Capulet’s’. Romeo is the heir to the Montague household, and attends a masquerade held by the Capulet’s where he encounters Juliet and finds a place in her coronary heart.

They yet to seek out out that they belong to families who share enmity, which destiny brings collectively as a pair of star crossed lovers. However, because of their family’s rivalry their love is forbidden. They proceed to like one another even after finding out about their identities, which leaves them surprised and distraught. The consequences of the rivalling households lead to major issues for the couple and results in their tragic demise the place they each commit suicide.

Furthermore the two households realise that this might have been averted and resolve to finish their feud and unite to guarantee that the forgiveness of their children. In this essay I will try and clarify how act one scene five is an affective piece of drama. In Act one Scene 5 we see how Shakespeare presents the themes of love and hate when Romeo and Juliet first lay eyes on each other and immediately fall in love and when Tybalt attempts to have Romeo faraway from the celebration, as he loathes Romeo who’s his sworn enemy.

Shakespeare has used the strategy of dramatic irony quite cleverly all through the scene in addition to the play, as the audience is within the know of events taking place within the play that the characters are unaware of. An instance of that is when Romeo thinks that Juliet is dead so he commits suicide, however, the audience are aware that she just isn’t actually useless and has taken some poison. This has a extra dramatic effect as the audience is kept in suspense and engaged.

Shakespeare has structured Act one scene 5 fairly ingeniously as he continuously changes the moods and feelings within the play which keeps the viewers engaged as they want to keep watching. Firstly he presents us with excitement and enthusiasm on the Capulet’s masquerade. “Welcome gents. Ladies which have their toes unplagued with corns will walk a bout with you. Ah ha my mistresses which of you all will now deny to dance?” As Lord Capulet welcomes friends and encourages them to bop he’s in a nice temper and is optimistic that his party will unite his daughter with Paris the prince of Verona as he wishes them to be married. This is then contrasted by curiosity when Romeo arrives at the celebration and sees Juliet dancing and asks a servings man who she is. “What lady’s that which doth enrich the hand of yonder knight?” Juliet is dancing together with her cousin Tybalt who’s enemies with Romeo. Romeo then goes on and compliments her magnificence by pouring out a soliloquy and is falling deeply in love along with her. “O she doth teaches the torches to burn bright.” This exhibits that Romeo is sort of a romantic character in addition to poetic as he is describing her beauty as an ‘earth treading star’ meaning she outshines the torches using similes and metaphors. . He additionally describes her beauty ‘As a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear..beauty too rich to be used, for earth too dear…” In those days black folks had been know as ‘Ethiop’s’ and folks thought-about them to be low normal nonetheless Romeo is saying that she is rare and useful and different people of earth are not worthy of her magnificence, which is too good to be used and too uncommon and unique for the earth.

Tension will increase within the audience because young Romeo shouldn’t be on the Capulet Ball and this tells us that he’s fairly daring and even a little bit troublesome. Following on from this anger and fury enters the scene when Tybalt realizes that there could be a Montague at the get together when he hears Romeo converse. “This by his voice should be a Montague.” Romeo and Tybalt are enemies so he believes that Romeo is a threat to the celebration, and an undercurrent of issues.”What, dares the slave to return hither, cover’d with an antic face, to fleer and scorn at our solemnity? Now by the stock and honour of my kin, to strike him useless I maintain it not a skin…” In this quote Tybalt is saying that’s he killed Romeo it will not b a sin as he could be protecting his family’s honour so from this we be taught that family and honour means a lot to Tybalt. There is a lot of rigidity between these to characters which inspires to viewers to want to no more, they’d most likely expect to see a struggle or brawl nevertheless this doesn’t happen leaving the audience ready in suspense.

Romance and passion fills the scene when Romeo and Juliet lay eyes on one another. Romeo continues to make use of metaphoric and non secular imagery when he finally does discuss to Juliet, which shows he is passionate and respects her. “If I profane with my unworthiest hand this holy shrine, the light sin is that this, my lips two blushing pilgrims prepared stand, to smooth that rough touch with a gentle kiss…” In this quote Romeo is evaluating Juliet to a shrine, a place of worship as he believes that she is pure, treasured and respects her, he is saying that he within the pilgrim and that he’s unworthy of her love however shall be if he touched or kissed her. He used religious imagery as a outcome of as to get her consideration and show her that his love for her is pure and is approved by God. The non secular imagery makes the scene between Romeo and Juliet much more romantic.

Romeo’s language matches his character as a end result of he speaks in verse, which has the final word of each line rhyme especially in his soliloquy about Juliet’s magnificence. This technique matches his character as a end result of solely the numerous characters of the play communicate in this way. This is proven especially between the lines 42 and forty nine the place Romeo first lays he eyes on Juliet. The soliloquy incorporates many couplets the place the final phrases of every line rhyme. “O she doth teaches the torches to burn bright….It appears she hangs upon the cheek of the night..” This soliloquy is spoken by Romeo as it is necessary and expresses how deep his love is and how a lot he admires her beauty.

Juliet is being fairly disobedient as her father expects her to marry the wealthy younger man called Paris, nonetheless she does not seem to be giving a direct response of a yes or a no when her mother asks her. She could consider that she is simply too young and doesn’t feel she is ready for marriage as she says the strains, “..it’s an honour that I dream not of..” This scene may make the viewers extra engaged with Juliet’s character as fashionable folks wouldn’t think about marriage on the age of 13. Nor would they marry unwillingly or for household status. From this we are able to say that her love for Romeo is real as does the finest way by which she uses religious imagery. “Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand an excessive amount of, which mannerly devotion reveals on this; for saints have arms that pilgrims’ arms do contact, and palm to palm is holy palmer’s kiss…” This is the primary time Juliet speaks to Romeo, and the place she realises that that is no little crush it’s true love!

Like Romeo, Juliet is also romantic however not as expertise as he is. “You kiss by th’book” This line is alleged after Romeo and Juliet share their first kiss, what she is trying to say that his is an experienced kisser as this will likely have been her first time and she will see that he is assured. This could depart her feeling shy but excited as she is receiving such passionate compliments.

The temper of the scene modifications when Juliet realises that Romeo is an enemy. “My solely love sprung from my only hate, too early seen unknown and know too late!…” Juliet is heartbroken and shocked as she learns that the primary boy she has ever fallen in love with, is the son of her enemy. When she first seen him it was too early to say that she liked him, but as quickly as she had came upon about his identification it was far too late as she had already fallen deeply in love.

Tybalt is the opposite of Romeo and his language exhibits this “Fetch me my rapier, boy. What does the slave come hither, lined with an antic face, to fleer and scorn our solemnity? Now by the stock and honour of my kin, to strike him useless I maintain it not a sin.” Shakespeare had Tybalt say this after he hears Romeos voice and realizes that a Montague has dared to come back to the get together. You can tell that his family honour means lots to him as he talks in regards to the ‘honour of my kin..’. He sees the Montague’s as a risk to his family and believes that if he kills Romeo he will not be committing a sin as he is looking for his household. He believes that Romeo has come to the party to mock and make fun of the get together and his family. Through the traces Tybalt speaks, you presumably can say that he is fairly violent and aggressive as he talks about putting Romeo dead. Tybalt additionally has an enormous ego and lots of pride, Lord Capulet permits Romeo to remain in the party which infuriates him. “It matches when such a villain in a guest, I’ll not endure him” Tybalt is reluctant to Capulet as he says that Romeo is allowed to stay on the party, he can’t stand Romeo and despises the concept of him being at a Capulet celebration. In the top Tybalt accepts that Romeo might be on the get together. “Patience perforce with wilful choler…makes my flesh tremble…I will withdraw, however this intrusion shall, now seeming candy, convert to bitterest gall” In this quote Tybalt is saying that he’s compelled to be patient to get his revenge, so to be loyal to his uncle he is keen to withdraw and accept Romeo on the celebration. He can also be saying that he’ll act candy in entrance of Lord Capulet however quickly the sweetness will convert into poison and his true evil aspect will come out.

When Tybalt enters the scene the mood becomes fairly tense and irritated, especially when Capulet his uncle embarrasses and humiliates him ” He shall be endured. What goodman boy! I say, he shall; Go to, am I the master right here or you? …You’ll make a mutiny amongst my guests? ..set a cock hoop, you’ll be the man?” Lord Capulet is being sarcastic when he calls Tybalt ‘goodman’ which suggests the pinnacle of the house, as he believes that Tybalt will let free insolence and trigger a insurrection in entrance of his guests, he believes that Tybalt ought to stop being so petty and arrogant and depart Romeo within the get together. He is asking a rhetorical query, which he knows Tybalt won’t dare to try to answer, Capulet is now annoyed at Tybalt and now not needs to debate the matter. Tybalt is left feeling utterly humiliated and embarrassed.

When Tybalt enters the scene the temper turns into fairly tense and electrical, especially when Capulet his Uncle embarrasses and humiliates him ‘He shall be endured: What, goodman boy! I say, he shall: go to; am I the master here, or you? go to’. In this quote Capulet orders Tybalt to let Romeo be and to not be so boastful. He calls Tybalt names and asks a rhetorical question. This exhibits that Capulet is now actually offended and has turn into uninterested in Tybalt’s request to throw Romeo out.

Shakespeare has Tybalt use an aggressive and violent language style to counsel that Tybalt is vicious and mean, virtually like a ‘baddie’. He will get Tybalt to talk about death and revenge on Romeo, constantly throughout the play. “To strike him dead…” He also talks about his family honour and gets indignant very quickly when he thinks that Romeo is on the party to mock his family. This is the exact opposite of the way in which by which Romeo talks and words like “If I profane with my unworthiest had…” These are the words of a innocent and delicate hearted character, who does not speak about demise or revenge.

Tybalt’s role on this scene is essential to the the rest of the play as a outcome of he decides he will take revenge on Romeo, as he had come to the Capulet party. This scene is pivotal as his actions cause occasions to happen later on in the play. His actions in act one scene 5 are in connection to t he scene act three scene one the place he needs to fight Romeo but fights Romeos best pal Mercutio, as Romeo is now related to Tybalt after being married to Juliet. This has disastrous outcomes, as Mercutio is killed by Tybalt, leading to Romeo taking revenge on Tybalt by killing him. In this scene we see a unique side of Romeos character as he is extra distraught, and offended as his finest friend had been murdered so he seeks revenge. Due to this, Romeo is banished and after many different occasions and confusion both lovers commit suicide. So because Tybalt reacted the means in which he did at the celebration and as a outcome of reality he needed to take out revenge, he was answerable for the events that had adopted, and the results of the demise of his cousin Juliet and her lover Romeo.

Capulet behaves as the proper host on this scene as he welcomes visitors at his get together and addresses numerous folks at his get together. “Welcome gentlemen….” “The girls who don’t have on their feet will be part of you in dance!…” “Come musicians play!” He welcomes the gents, and encourages the ladies to dance and the musicians to play, he is quite a merry and joyful individual as he needs his friends to have a good time.

Shakespeare has Capulet in this scene introduce the theme of authority and energy. This happens when he disciplines Tybalt “…I would not for the wealth of all this city here in my house do him disparagement. Therefore be affected person, take no note of him; it’s my will, the which is thou respect, present a fair presence and postpone these frowns…” Lord Capulet clearly states that he thinks that Romeo is an efficient boy and isn’t in a place to trigger any bother, in addition to that he doesn’t wish to shame or dishonour Romeo in entrance of everybody and wants to save himself embarrassment. He says that Tybalt must be affected person and take no extra of him, and that if he respects Lord Capulet he is not going to worry about Romeo and forget him.

Capulet brings the theme of authority and energy afterward in the play as nicely as has a change of character in act three scenes 5. He wishes her to marry young Paris nevertheless she retaliates and does not accept the proposal which enrages her father. ” … doth she not give us thanks? Is she not proud? doth she not rely her blest, Unworthy as she is, that we’ve wrought So worthy a gentleman to be her bridegroom?” Lord Capulet approaches to offer Juliet a guilt trip and is making her really feel damage and upset, by saying that she is ungrateful for the issues her dad and mom have carried out for her. Shakespeare has him say that she just isn’t good enough for Paris nonetheless, he’s prepared to marry her, and that she just isn’t being grateful for this. Juliet goes on to say that she is grateful but not proud of being a Capulet, as she is aware of that her love for Romeo is forbidden and blames the truth that she is a Capulet. This infuriates Lord Capulet and we see a more ferocious and aggressive facet to him. “Hang thee, young baggage! Disobedient wretch! I tell thee what: get thee to church o’ Thursday, Or by no means after look me in the face: Speak not, reply not, do not reply me…” He isn’t asking Juliet to marry Paris, he’s now ordering her and dragging her as he does so, he refers to her as baggage and is warning her that’s she doesn’t marry on the Thursday he could have nothing extra to do along with her, in other words he will disown her. This exhibits that he could be vicious and unstable when he doesn’t get what he needs. In my opinion I consider that Lord Capulet has a Jekyll and Hyde kind of character as his temper continuously changes throughout this scene as properly as the play; he starts off as a really enthusiastic and merry character, that is then contrasted by the theme of authority and power, this once more changes in a while where he is more vicious and volatile.

To conclude, an viewers would discover act one scene 5 dramatic and tense because the play consists of many different themes including: tragedy, coincidence, forbidden love, destiny and household rivalry. He has cleverly used the technique of utilizing more than one mood and feelings in his scenes and constantly keeps the environment tense by continuously using contrasting moods, for example uses love and romance then moves onto hatred and anger. As a result of this, the viewers is extra engaged and stays fascinated in play. This scene is relevant as it is a pivotal scene where events happen which causes a sequence reaction, the place extra occasions happen due to it. Despite the reality that ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was written a few years ago a lot of its themes and ideas nonetheless exist today. The concept of family hatred, and the deaths of lovers can nonetheless be seen in present day whether it as a end result of religion race or status. This play sends out a message to its audience that love occurs and takes place, and is not something you could control.

Why Effective Communication is important in developing Positive Relationships

A positive relationship will enable a Child, Young Person or Adult to flourish with confidence in the security of knowing that the significant adult or carer in the position of authority respects and understands them and has their best interests at heart. This can be an adult to child or adult to adult relationship. This is a consequence of Effective Communication. We should treat all as individuals without preconceptions, assumptions and stereotypes. When intentions are clear and transparent a bond of trust can be formed. To communicate this successfully we must first take into account to whom we are speaking to. For example if it is a child, to be effective we must speak at their level, physically and verbally. Children learn how to communicate from significant adults in their lives and the world around them. We must be the role models that they can learn from. Children gain confidence through praise and encouragement and also constructive correction.

A child who is assured that you understand their feelings and will not be taking sides or dismissing them will be more willing to open up to you and in turn listen to what you have to say in return. My 7 year old daughter and her friends have disagreements occasionally and instead of me just telling her to ‘play nicely!’ and ‘because I told you so!’ when I calmly explain at a similar physical and verbal level to them and say ‘sharing can be double the fun’, and ‘how would you feel if….?’ This has proven a lot more effective for diffusing issues that children concern themselves with. They feel secure that they have been heard and that no sides were taken and have learnt that a problem can be solved by discussing it with each other. Effective communication with ‘Young People’ can be more challenging because there are other issues such as ‘raging hormones’ and changes in their lives such as school expectations and family responsibilities.

As children grow up and develop they are expected to be more mature. This can be frustrating, and can generate feelings of anger and negativity. Trust and empathy are huge factors when communicating with Young People. It is important to have an adult that they can approach and feel safe talking to. Young People will have formed their opinions and morals from their world around them and are more articulate at sharing them than younger children. However, now can be a time of conflict with authority figures and it can be emotionally difficult. They need to feel that they are respected and listened to and that they can communicate without being judged, it is also important that they are not left feeling vulnerable. Adults have had a wealth of life experiences that make us the individuals that we are. It is likely that most adults will be more confident and secure in their opinions and choices that they have made in their lives. Being respectful and listening to each other and ensuring that all parties understand, whether it is a colleague or parent will reinforce the relationships they hold.

Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Nursing is an occupation that work with people of all ages, cultural background and lifestyle to help them accomplish the highest level of care possible. They play an important role in society as well as in economy since they are the ones that provide care to people with illness and not capable to take care of themselves. Recent studies demonstrate that population of nurses is declining and hospitals are desperately struggling to keep hold of their current nurses. Shortages in nurses are definitely shocking , given that the evolving population require skilled nurses to take of them throughout their desperate times.

A nursing shortage is determined when the amount of nurses being retired and the amount of nurses entering the nursing field is not the equivalent. Nurses educate people to support and sustain their own wellness and to avoid illness. Research studies have shown that majority of US citizen are overweight, and unhealthy. This study demonstrates major cause to promote more to enter nursing field since there are so many diseases on the rise like obesity cause people to have diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pleasure, and other harmful qualities, cancer, heart attacks etc.

If rate of nurses keep dropping, patients would have to wait longer to treatment and there will be lot of patients that are being admitted in the hospital. People with severe conditions will have to wait for long time before the nurses can attend them, which could result in either death or other serious condition since most of the operations that saves a person’s life happens in a millisecond. A second can mean life or death to the patient’s existence. Nurse turnover is the description given to nurses that quit, or terminated from nursing industry over the nurses that join it (Huber, 2010). High standards, hard labor, major skills, and high education are various factors that cause nurse turnover to increase over the past few years. This paper will be focusing over the causes of nurse turn over and solution to resolve issue from a leader’s stance than a manager’s point of view.

Comparing and Contrasting the Approach of Nursing and Manger Nurses and a supervising manager make up the essence of every nursing association. The manager is in charge and is given the opportunity to make a difference in the work environment. The managers have many goals, including directing, teaching, and encouraging the nurses and staff. By doing this, those under the manager can achieve more on a professional level, while being satisfied with their career. Even though the managers might not have much of a status in certain hospitals and work environments, they still strive to encourage and influence critical settlements. A manager must always be supportive of the nurses and staff.

There are some work environments where the managers always provide help and advice. It is very difficult for nurses to stay in the field and work when their manager does not show respect or satisfaction towards their efforts. Thus, the manager must not only be responsible for critical decision making, but the happiness and motivation of the employees. Even though the nurses are in charge of their patients, the manager is the one who overlooks both the patients, nurses, and staff. To be a nursing leader, one must direct the nurses, employees, and other staff members throughout all situations. Their personality must be one that is knowledgeable, strict and fair. They must be able to lead others, take care of monetary issues, and talk with different types of people. Nursing leaders must also have great people skills.

This includes taking with fellow employees and overcoming language obstacles. An important example is conducting interview sessions with different types of people and being able to make conclusions on their personalities, as well as grading the individual based on their ethical values. A nursing leader should also be able to provide an enjoyable territory in a difficult environment. This can be completed by organizing and arranging everything from budget costs to special occasions. In this way, a nurse can have something to look forward to after they have finished taking care of their patient. The nursing leader can also help raise money to help those around them by hosting fundraisers. By advocating the study of nursing, a nursing leader can conserve the nurses and staff in the work environment.

They can promote the career of nursing to the younger generation. For example, there have been recent articles discussing problems between the United States of America and Syria. If there is a possibility of a war, the United States must have many nurses to help with the crisis. Thus, promoting the nursing career is crucial because it will be very beneficial. One way this can be completed is by having the nursing manager step up as a role model to the younger generation. Another possibility is to publicize the career to those who are still studying in college with undeclared majors. Personal and Professional Beliefs of Nursing

Nursing is a profession that concentrates on the desires of others and taking care of patients that need professional care. Nurses are believed to provide holistic care for the patients as it is the finest method to heal a patient quicker. Nurses deserve respect for the work they perform on a daily basis basis. Over the past few years, media have been demonstrating false illustration of nurses. The famous TV series known as Gray’s Anatomy is a perfect example of the misleading ideas about hardworking nurses. Even though its purpose is to entertain people, people take it seriously. As by the writer the best to contradict the declining rates of nurse turnover is to prove good leadership skills, people skills, financial skills, and quality care skills. Conclusion

Over the past few years the number of nurse turnover has amplified. As we all know, nurses play an significant role in culture, physically mentally and financially in the United States as well as in other countries. Hospital and clinics are trying hard to hold onto their nurses because the number of nurses joining the medical field is declining. In order to convey more people to enter medical field, one must educate the rising students about the benefits about being a nurse and how they affect the society. Another technique is using advertisement to as way to encourage people to enter medical field. Using these strategy, it can help the medical field increase population of nurses.

Huber, D.L., (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management, (4th ed.). W.B. Saunders,
092009, retrieved from http://www.gcu.edu
Steven T. Hunt, (2009) Nursing Turnover: Costs, Causes, & Solutions, Success factors for
Healthcare retrieved from www.nmlegis.gov/lcs/handouts/LHHS%20081312%20NursingTurnover.pdf

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Effective approaches in leadership and management

Healing hospital paradigm represent the whole health care system which mainly focus on the whole recovery of the body mentally physically and spiritualy.The traditional style of cure model is only to eradicate the disease. But in the case of healing health it mainly focus on the total wellness of the entire body by addressing the patients emotional and spiritual needs.There are three major important elements in the hospital paradigm.They are loving care healthy healing surroundings and the technology.In this paper we are going to discuss the elements and challenges of the healing hospital when we implement the healing environment.

Components of the healing hospital Patients curing environment is the most highlighting element of the healing hospital paradigm.It always concentrate on the care of the patient, the atmosphere of the hospital while on treatment (Samueli Institute ,2010).In the case of healing hospital paradigm it is not only restricted on the patient’s treatment or the diagnostic procedure nor the medicine but also it consider the patient’s health care person or the care giver or even the family members in the progression of cure.This theory is based on the knowledge that a patient’s full recovery connect with the patient’s emotional and spiritual well beingness.Healing hospital paradigm states if a whole person is to be okay it needs to be his physical body and all its parts ,the mind and the spirit must be healthy.Therefor healing hospital perception , the treatment of a patient is with compassion and a culture of concern and fundamental loving.

Under healing hospital paradigm, health care practioners have to support physical wellness as well as the mental health of the patient instead of only taking care of the treatment of the illness or disease(Baptist healing trust).It is important to prepare the patient mentally to receive the treatment. Health practioners need not only show their skills in the treatment but also have to show their ability to deliver their loving care and make extra step to make the patient feel more better(Samueli Institute ,2010).Showing compassion to the patient is also a way of meeting their needs of mental and spiritual needs. Healing physical environment is the second element of the healing hospital paradigm.It clearly says the physical environment is very important for the healing process of a patient(Samueli Institute 2010).Rest is very important in the healing process.

A hospital environment supposed to be very calm and quiet in order to make the patient feel better.Eventhough the hospital are provided information about keeping silence inside the hospital ,many of the hospital surroundings are characterized by noisy environment with the nurses spectra link phones,pagers,and nurses conversations. On the top of that family and relative gatherings in the corridors of the hospitals. These challenges always a matter for the entire patients recovery. Most hospital are facing these challenging situations and cannot make a comfortable stay of the patient. The healing paradigm came up with some suggestions which includes providing an relaxing environment by the hospital that improves the service level of the hospital and improve the patients satisfaction. Entertainment program for the patient and decent meals also provides greater satisfaction to the patient.

Work design and the technology is the third component of the healing hospital paradigm. Healing hospital has to have a well advanced work design which help the health professional to deliver quality care.(Samueli Institute 2010).Healing has the technologies which aid the patient to have competent service,confidence,cost effective, and confidentiality in their treatment. Patient get satisfied with these psychological needs and which proceed to have a fast recovery from their disease. Healing hospital participate with the patient with their advanced technologies and design to meet such needs. The modern technology and design helps the health practioners to work without difficulty and provide better care that can proceed to an effective healing development to the patient.

Challenges involved in implementing a healing environment

There are number of challenges to implement the noble concept of healing hospital in the traditional hospital settings.One of the main challenges to implement the noble concept of the healing hospital in the traditional hospital is to do with the finances(Geffin,2004).To provide the healing environment need a huge amount of investment.To provide the advance technology ,recruitment of the skilled people and their training need a big amount of money. Requirement of investment in facilities and technology is necessary to make sure that the hospital physical environment has been incorporated with the healing process. Also it is very important have a terms of mind set ,ability and culture of medical practioners in order to provide a devoted and sympathetic care in regards the requirement of the hospital healing paradigm.It must be a discouraging job for the traditional hospital authorities to accept such expensive projects.

One of the other main challenges to implement the healing concept is the legal problems. Hospitals must have already many legal challenges including higher rate of court cases and problems with the insurance. Since this perception is not yet fully activated in the health care the healing concept also may attract the people to file court cases.One of the challenges in these concept is the current employ organizations. The current system treat the employees in a graded system. But the healing hospital system treats all the employees equal. There are philosophical challenges also can see in this. The treatment model is exactly different in the old traditional style .They only focus on eliminating the disease by using the scientific methods and procedures. But the healing hospital always give importance to physical mental and spiritual needs of the patients. This type of treatment based on the patients beliefs and values. Conclusion

Holistic approach to the health care is the main element in the healing hospital paradigm.It is a concept of entire wellbeing of a patient. Not only curing or treating the disease but also taking care of the entire physical as well as emotional and spiritual needs of the body by using healing physical environment and high advanced work design and technology. There are challenges to bring this in to live .This assignment discussed about the elements of healing concept and its challenges to bring into practice.

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Effective Study Skills are the Sole Foundation of a Sound Education

This essay intends to discuss whether effective study skills are the sole foundation to a sound education. A helpful start is to try to understand what is meant by the term study skills. Wikipedia (2014) defines study skills as “techniques to assess the individual to be an effective learner” and suggests that “any skill which boosts a students ability to study and pass exams can be termed as a study skill.” The word, skill, is further explained by Cottrell (2013) as “…a learned activity, something that can be developed through practice.” This suggests that anyone can successfully achieve a sound level of education. If skills such as time management, research skills, written skills and people skills can be learned, then perhaps everyone has the equal chance of success in their chosen topic of study. The C.R.E.A.M. Strategy for learning (Cottrell 2013) allows us to build further on the subject of study skills by looking at the learning process and breaking it down into four areas. It is then easy to see where individual study skills can be applied in the learning process.

The acronym C.R.E.A.M. Stands for: C – creative, R – reflective, E – effective, A – active, M- motivation. Looking into each of these areas in more depth may give the student opportunity to examine the factors that may influence the learning process and be able to focus on, develop and apply the skills and strategies that they might find most effective. At the same time, weakness that may hinder the learning process, could be identified and dealt with. It seems to suggest that study skills and strategies can be taught, learned and implemented by any individual, so allowing anyone to gain a sound education by using these learned skills. However, there are many factors that may heavily influence the teaching and learning ofthese study skills in the first place, so affecting the implementation of the skills in order to succeed in education. Taylor (2014) believes that “in order for a student to learn there, are several factors that must be considered.

Most of these factors are external…”. Indeed, Mondal (2014) tell us there are seven factors that may influence a student: The intellectual factor ie. (i)the individuals intelligence level; (ii)learning factors such as poor or faulty teaching or learning methods; (iii)physical factors eg. physical development or defects, sensory defects or general ill health; (iv)mental factors especially attitude; (v)emotional and social factors such as instincts, emotions, cooperation or rivalry;(vi)teachers personality; (vii)environmental factors for example, physical conditions at home or place of study.

These factors go some way to identifying what may affect the way in which study skills can be learned and used effectively and of course many more could be mentioned too such as cultural and economic factors. In conclusion, effective study skills are vital for the development and continuing success in the education of an individual. However, the successful learning and implementation of these skills can be so heavily influenced by an abundance of outside factors, that it would be difficult to ultimately say that effective study skills are the sole foundation of a sound education.

Cottrell, S. (2013). The Study Skills Handbook, 4th Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke Mondal, P. (2014). http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/learning 21 March 2014 Taylor, D (January 2014). Factors That influence Student Learning, http://www.educationspace360.com/index.php/factors_that_influence_student_learning, 21 March 2014 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/study_skills 20 March 2014

Effective adjustment to a new environment

Adjusting to College

Welcome to college! Attending college is one of the first major life transitions for many young adults. Some students are excited to take on the new experiences of campus life, while others feel apprehensive about making this change. Regardless of your outlook when beginning your first year of college, you may benefit from talking with others who have already made that transition.

Making the Transition
What are some of the most common changes you can expect in the first year on campus?

• New environment and relationships. First year students must adapt to an unfamiliar environment, adjust to different living arrangements, and develop new relationships. Living with roommates may be the first ‘test’ freshmen experience. Students face the challenge of adjusting to roommates who may have very different boundaries and individual needs than family and friends from home. Roommates may or may not develop close friendships, but communication and compromise can build a smoother transition. College brings a unique opportunity to interact and live with students from various backgrounds and cultures. Expanding your worldview by learning about each other’s differences and similarities will likely enhance your college experience.

• Greater personal freedom. Living on your own for the first time means that you will gain independence and take charge of the many choices and decisions that your parents and teachers made for you in the past. While this new found freedom can be exciting, it may also feel overwhelming and less predictable than what you are accustomed to. The freedom to manage your daily life is a learning process, but one that can be very satisfying.

• Added responsibility. First-year students must manage the important daily responsibilities that accompany their increased personal freedom. Students must manage basic tasks such as eating, sleeping, exercising, and going to class. New students must also address more complex responsibilities such as balancing studying and socializing, participating in clubs and activities, and handling finances. Managing time is a demand that all first-year students experience. A typical day in college is less structured than high school, and there is more reading and studying that is required outside of class. Some students may feel as if they have no free time to do anything but schoolwork, while others feel like they have too much free time outside of the classroom.

• Changing relationships. While there are many changes occurring in your new campus life, there will also be changes in your relationships. New students often face challenges such as best friends going to other universities, beginning new romantic relationships or maintaining existing ones, and juggling newly formed relationships with already established ones. Students must balance a sense of connectedness and separation while at college. Some freshmen feel the need to call or e-mail home several times a week in the first few months away, while others require less frequent communication with their family and friends.

Common Stressors
The first year of college is a new and exciting adventure, but one that may come with a few challenges along the way. What are some of the most common stressors that first-year students experience?

• Time Management. Now that you are in college, there are no more eight hour school days like those in many high schools. You may have class for six, three, or even zero hours a day. The rest of your time must be negotiated between homework, clubs and activities, work, socializing, and self-care. College students often feel as if there is just not enough time to do everything that needs to be done. Using a schedule and some organizational skills will help you to effectively manage your hectic and changing life.

• Academic Performance. By nature, college coursework is challenging, and it can be hard to keep up with the increased academic demands. Some students undergo pressure from both themselves and their parents. There may be requirements for scholarships and graduate school admission that you have not previously experienced. In order to manage the increased demands and expectations, it is important to attend class regularly, keep up with readings and assignments, and ask for help when you need it. Professors and teaching assistants are there to assist you, and want you to succeed. If you need additional help, various organizations on campus offer tutoring services, many of which are free. Alpha Lambda Delta: Freshman Honor Society, Office of Minority Student Affairs, and University Residence Halls Academic Assistance are a few such services that offer tutoring at no cost.

• Roommate Conflict. Learning to live with someone new can be one of the most challenging aspects of going to college. Different living habits are the most common source of roommate conflict (i.e. neat vs. messy; quiet vs. noisy; early-to-bed vs. up-all-night). Failure to communicate your expectations about living together can lead to tension and eventually conflict. To avoid “roommate fallout” you should communicate your needs and expectations respectfully, while recognizing your own habits and quirks that might affect your relationship. If conflict does escalate you should take it to a Resident Advisor, Resident Director, or a Counselor to determine a course of action.

• Long Distance Dating Relationships. It is not uncommon for first-year students to begin college in a long distance dating relationship. Where at one time this relationship may have helped you cope with everyday stress, it could now be a source of distress due to the distance between you and your partner. Uncertainty in what the future holds for the relationship is one of the most common stressors experienced by college students in long distance dating relationships. There are a few key efforts that each partner can make to lessen the sting of separation. Verbal communication, openness, and assurance of one another can reduce stress associated with being separated. It is also essential for each partner to seek social support from others and remain active in their individual lives while apart.

• Body Image. Many college students also struggle with body image. Our culture pays a great deal of attention to the appearance of our bodies, particularly during young adulthood. Media representations of the ideal body, messages from peers, and other cultural factors shape what we perceive as “normal” or “good”. It can be difficult to have a clear, healthy perspective on ourselves and our bodies when our culture sends so many confusing, conflicting, and sometimes unhealthy messages. This can be stressful at a time when many are trying to “fit in” with others and make new, exciting relationships. If you find yourself preoccupied with how you look or become distressed about your body, discussing your concerns and ideas with someone can be extremely helpful in creating, developing, and maintaining a body image that is healthful and fulfilling.

Recommendations for First-Year College Students
What steps can you take to have a great first year of college?

• Be patient. While campus may seem new and overwhelming for new students, it becomes more familiar with time. Refer to the many resources available to assist you in navigating your surroundings. Maps, your R.A., upper-level students, and the university Website are all useful tools to get you through the initial transition to campus.

• Connect with other students. If you talk to other students, you are likely to discover that they share similar questions and concerns. Your R.A. is an excellent person to go to when issues arise. She or he is equipped to help you solve problems and refer you to appropriate resources.

• Get involved. Student organizations are a fun way to interact with other students and faculty. Meeting people with similar interests and goals is an exciting way to make friends and participate in social activities.

• Utilize resources. There are numerous resources on campus designed to create a rewarding college experience. A range of offices and programs, such as cultural houses and the LGBTQ office, are offered to assist the diverse campus’s needs. In addition, there are numerous sources of support such as the Office of Dean of Students, the Counseling Center, the Career Center, your Academic Advisor, financial aid programs, and mentoring/tutoring programs offered to address various student needs.

• Care for yourself. The foundation for a productive college career is a healthy lifestyle. Take the necessary steps for nurturance, getting adequate rest, socializing, and physical activity. Campus Recreation offers several resources that students can utilize to work towards wellness. The ARC, CRCE, and the Wellness Center are just a few campus facilities that strive to promote healthy practices and to educate the campus community on various health topics.

Effective communication unit 1 D2

(D2) –
Whist taking part in both group interactions and one to one interactions there are many factors that influence the effectiveness of each. This essay will therefore evaluate the factors in which I came across which were an influence to my effectiveness in the interactions.

Firstly in the one to one interaction I feel the factors that came across which made my interaction effective was my speech as I feel that I used a clear pronunciations to the service user which allowed her to understand me better so that they weren’t confused with the words I spoke. I also took my time when speaking to her so that she didn’t feel I was rushing her, I did this in order to try and make her open up slightly as she would know I am there to help and spend time focusing on her and her needs so that she didn’t feel that I had better things to do with my time and that I didn’t want to be with her. Also this may make her gain a level of trust with me during the duration which will make her feel like she has someone she can rely on is not alone. I also feel that in my interaction making myself aware of her needs/situation before hand made it easier for me to understand why she was in that state as a service user in the first place and so therefore I didn’t have to recap over the bad parts of her life as that may of got her upset and made her not want to talk even more.

This also helped me as I was able to think of advice beforehand so it could be better thought out advice which would hopefully be helpful to her and if she felt the advice was good then this may make her feel that I actually can help her and that there is hope in overcoming her situation. Whilst talking to her I showed my full interests into the communication and interpersonal skills that were taking place and I did this by looking interested and being focused on just her and not having any distractions around me. This would hopefully have made her feel like I am not interested in something else as that may have made her feel that I am not there to help. I felt by doing this it was a strength as it made her open up slightly due to acting as though I want to hear what she has to say and giving her the time to say it and that I was defiantly listening to her. Throughout the period of talking to her I showed assertiveness which made me portray that I was positive and confident.

This hopefully then made her feel like I am not going to give up on her and that would make her have hope in herself that there is a positive outcome. This then would hopefully have made her open up and talk due to wanting to give me information which I can then help her with in order to get her back on track and to have the positive outcome she wants. She spoke about her past in the interaction and about how her mother and father were in prison, at this point she showed a sense of embarrassment and disappointment in them and so therefore I portrayed an appropriate attitude by not judging what is being said to me and saying that this is all in confidence. So that she felt that there is nothing to be ashamed of. When speaking to her I used reflective listening as this would make her understand that I have taken into account what she has been telling me due to me repeating it in a different way, this also lets her know that I understand what she is trying to tell me and will get her to speak more in depth so that I understand exactly what she wants to happen and how she feels. When we were talking I was sitting upright in order to show that I was alert and listening as I would need to look alert in order for the service user to feel that I am aware of what they are saying and that I am bothered about the conversation.

I feel that weaknesses to my one to one interaction was that I repeated myself slightly in some conversations due to her body language looking as though she wasn’t listening and this made her feel frustrated as her tone changed acting as though I was patronizing her and that she heard it the first time and wasn’t stupid, to improve this I would therefore give her time to answer what was said and not repeat myself even if she looks like she isn’t listening, if she still doesn’t answer after some time I will repeat the question again although word it in a different way so that it is not the same. I also feel I could of improved on a part of the interaction as I entered a sensitive subject quite early on in the interaction about the death of her auntie which seemed to have put her in an upset frame of mind as I feel that she hadn’t got comfortable enough with me at that time of the conversation to talking about a close subject so I feel that this was a weakness to the interaction, although I brought it back to being effective by showing her the support networks available to her which put her mind at rest and made her feel like she wasn’t alone. In the group interaction I feel the factors that came across which made my interaction effective was the way in which I spoke out in the group to make my point clear to the other professionals, this also broke the barrier of silence between one another and this brought the others to speak out and share what they feel would be best so I felt that I was an influence on the group here.

As a group I feel are strength was that we had good eye contact with one another when speaking which made us realise that we were all listening and interacting so therefore it kept the conversation going. We expressed our thought on things that we felt were negative and explained why so that we understood why we shouldn’t do certain things in certain ways. I feel that I had good use of body language in the group as I sat up straight when speaking and used hand gestures to bring the others to understand more about what I was explaining. Also I feel that my use of nodding my head to indicate that I agree with what people were saying was a good effective interaction as then people in the group knew that I was keeping on track with what they were saying and understood. Also the way in which we worked effective as a group was the way in which we were all aware of the needs and preferences of Mrs.Signh so that we understood about her past and therefore could go straight into what we are going to do with her. I also feel that I made the communication and interpersonal skills effective in the group due to asking questions in order to verify things so that I understood them correctly so that no faults in the system occurred when the meeting was over, as if we go the wrong idea about something then Mrs.Signh’s health may be at risk.

In this meeting jargon was used due to it being with 3 professionals in the same profession of health care so they therefore understood the jargon used in the conversation as it was medical terminology. This helped us understand certain aspects of her health in more depth. I also feel that an effective way of communication in the meeting was that we respected each other’s opinions on Mrs.Signh and then came to a conclusion as a group with the final decision, also if we did not feel that someone else’s thoughts were very good we did not put them down we just suggested how we could improve them. I also feel in the meeting that I had a good clear voice with a calm tone so that the meeting stayed at a calm level and stopped it from becoming an intense discussion when disagreements on the care plan occurred, as an intense discussion could of lead to an argument and that would not have been professional. This also helped the other people in the group understand me clearly so that there was no miscommunication or misinterpretations as these could of lead to the wrong inappropriate care plan which may not have benefitted Mrs. Singh. Ways to improve the meeting as a group in order to gain more effective communication and interpersonal skills may be to not rush the meeting as much as we did and to make it go on for longer stating more information in it.

Also we could have introduced ourselves and our care profession at the start of the meeting and shook one another’s hand showing courtesy and politeness. Other ways which we could of improved it is by not having our coats on and so that we are more comfortable and can move about easily for use of good body language. Another way which we could have improved it in our group would be by sitting in more of a closed circle so that we can hear one another efficiently and can see each other clearly in order to see body language and facial expressions.

This will help make communication effective and avoid misinterpretations so that no mistakes in the meeting are made. I feel that I could of improved the way that I acted with the group as I feel that I took a direct approach which made me out to be the main person/leader of the group who was in charge due to be speaking up and setting up the topic for discussion. By speaking up in the group with my opinions this may have made the others in the group shy and they may not feel as confident in expressing their opinions. Therefore I would improve this by making it all equal between one another so that others feel that they are on the same level and can speak up and say what they would like to discuss. References:

– Robinson, L Segal, J . (2012). Effective Communication. Available: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/effective_communication_skills.htm. Last accessed 17th October 2012. – Skills you need . (2011-2012). Interpersonal Communication Skills . Available: http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk/IPS/Interpersonal_Communication.html. Last accessed 17th October . – Stretch, B Whitehouse, M (2010). Health and Social Care Level 3 Book 1. England and Wales: Pearson Limited Education – Collins Education . (2011). Developing effective communication in health and social care. Available: http://www.collinseducation.com/resources/hscbtecnationalch01.pdf. Last accessed 17th October 2012.

Strategies for Building Effective Relationships

Building effective relationships requires time and effort. The most effective relations take many forms and are fruitful, effective and satisfying. This only occurs when the parties involved cultivate a level of high trust in their relationships, also called inter-dependence. For this paper we will discuss the basic skills that a leader must possess in order to succeed in building effective relationships. We will also discuss some of the methods used to build effective relationships with superiors and peers. Finally we will look at the role of the leader in different participatory management methods.

Leader Skills

These features not only facilitate a relationship to mature and deliver exceptional results, but just as importantly, they also preclude a relationship from unravelling under the weight of confusion and external stimuli – a vital aspect in today’s fast-paced and ever-changing world Anyone coming up thru the ranks in the military and in the civilian sector knows that in order for a leader to be successful that they must possess certain leadership skills. Although not all inclusive, these skills will set up a leader to be successful. These skills include: organization and time management, selling skills, resource acquisition and management, technologically savvy, persuasive and negotiating skills, and ethics (Javitch, 2009). Companies are not only looking for leaders who will be able to take over and get the job done, they are looking for leaders with the ability to be organized. Keeping everything running smoothly is part of a good leader. This includes the proper management of time. A good leader creates and follows a schedule, leaving room for unforeseeable changes that occur.

Another skill that a leader should possess are selling skills: Wheater it is a product to be sold, a business opportunities or a new processes, a good leader must be able to sell the item or idea both inside and outside the organization. The next skill a leader should possess is resource acquisition and management: In today’s shrinking markets, the ability to locate and effectively use assets goes a long way towards the success of process implementation. This includes knowing how to manage these processes in order to succeed. Continuing with skills that leaders should possess is knowledge of a leader being technologically savvy. This requires a leader to have the ability to learn and operate current technologies: This skill is of utmost importance, since software and hardware change on a regular basis. A good leader must be able to follow those changes in order to stay relevant in todays’ world of business.

The next skill that leaders should possess is the ability to persuade and negotiate. A leader must be able to persuade others to execute a certain action and then negotiate the terms. These skills are important in both the selling of products and convincing other leaders to implement a particular process or program. The last skill but certainly not the least important are ethics. Discerning the proper from the inappropriate at the workplace is getting increasingly tough, as the line separating the two keeps blurring. A leader must possess the moral ground to distinguish between right and wrong and the strength to take the appropriate action no matter the consequences. It takes a great deal of persistence and willpower to create an ethical working place, but the leader knows that it will foster the professional and personal growth in the organization as the years progress. These are just a few of the many skills that a leader must possess. A leader still has to have strength, courage, listening skills, writing skills, and a slew of others skills in order to be well rounded and balanced. While the above skills are not all inclusive, they are a good starting point for leaders.

Methods for Effective Work Relation

Now that we have addressed some of the skills that a leader must possess we must discuss some of the methods that a leaders can used to build effective relationships with their superiors and peers. Effective work connections create the foundation for success and fulfilment in a job. A leader can sink their career and work associations by their actions and the behaviors they display at work. No matter their education, title, or experience, if a leader cannot play well with others, they will never achieve their goals (Miksen, n.d). It can be that that if there are no effective work relationships then there are no promotions, pay increases, goal accomplishment, and job satisfaction. To build effective work relationships a leader must: bring suggestions to the table, not play the blame game, keep commitments, share credit, don’t blind-side a coworker or boss, and help other co-workers when they need it (Miksen, n.d).

Bringing to the meeting table solutions to a problem earns leaders the respect and admiration from coworkers and bosses. There are some personnel who devote an extravagant sum of time pinpointing problems, yet they offer no way to solve the problems. Anyone can find a problem, the challenging part is finding thoughtful solutions. A leader that brings solutions to the table is sought out by everyone, thus creating relationships with others. The next method to build effective work relations is not playing the blame game. A leader that does so alienates supervisors, and coworkers. Remember that as a leader you need allies at work. While it may be required to ascertain who was involved in a problem, it does not require them to be publicly identified and blamed for the failure. If a leader does this then it will create adversaries. These adversaries will, in turn, help a leader to be unsuccessful. Remember that as a leader one of the skills that you must possess is to be organized and a manager of time. This skill crosses over to helping build effective work relationships. As a leader you must keep your obligations. In any organization, work is interrelated.

A leader that fails to keep deadlines and obligations, affects the performance and output of other employees. If a commitment cannot be kept, as a leader inform all affected employees who need to know and arrange for a new makeup date, making all conceivable efforts to honor the new deadline. Another method to build effective relationships is to share credit for ideas, accomplishments, and contributions. A leader must make the effort, time, and expend the energy, to thank, reward, recognize and identify the assistances of the personnel who aided them succeed. This is a fool-proof tactic to developing effective work associations (Miksen, n.d). One more method to building effective work relationships is to never blind side a coworker, or boss. As a leader always address difficulties, first, with the individuals openly involved. If an employee learns about an issue during a staff gathering or from an email sent to their supervisor, as a leader you have just blindsided the fellow worker. A leader will certainly not construct effective work associations unless their coworkers trust them. The final method to build effective work relationships it to aid fellow workers in find their skills.

Remember that each employee in a group has abilities, expertise, and knowledge. A leader that helps colleague to harness their capabilities, increases the benefit for the organization immensely. Some of the benefits include compliment, praise, and notice contributions. You don’t have to be a manager to help develop an encouraging, inspiring atmosphere for employees. Frequently carrying out these actions will cultivate effective work relationships. Partners will value you as a teammate. Superiors will have confidence that you play on the right team. As a leader you will achieve your work objectives, and you may even experience fun, acknowledgement, and personal motivation. It does not get any better than that.

Leaders Role in Participatory Management

Participatory management is a system in which employees of an organization take an active role in the decision-making process as it relates to the way the business operates. There are numerous methods depending on the level of participatory management a business engages in. Some examples are information management, mentoring and training management, teaching management, recognition management, and finally shared decision-making management (Rampur, 2012). In information management information is shared readily with all employees. This includes earnings and operational budgets, financial projections, as well as information related to long-term strategic planning. This method provides transparency in all business aspects and allows for employee input and suggestions.

The next type of participatory management is mentoring and training management. This type of management provides ongoing training, skills development, professional enrichment and mentoring to employees at all levels. This allows all employees to cross-train in different areas of the business, take on new or additional responsibilities, and give their newfound skills a hands-on try under the supervision of a mentor. This method encourages all employees to share knowledge and information with the goal of being a diversely trained, well-rounded workforce. Another type of participatory management is teaching management. This method features a teaching component in which employees are guided on the fundamentals of the decision-making process. Employees receive insight into a particular problem, issue or strategy and the cognitive tools necessary for breaking down the issue into problem-solving components (Rampur, 2012).

Using this management style, employees continually enhance their knowledge of how the company operates and are able to bring ever-improving skills to the workplace. One more form of participatory management includes a forum in which employees are recognized regularly for their achievements and contributions. The reward approach is designed to increase performance, motivate employees and provide positive reinforcement for a job well done. Employees also have the opportunity to see how their contributions directly affect the company in a positive manner. The final method of participatory management is shared decision-making management. In this method employees participate in focus group, complete surveys, participate in brainstorming sessions and often work in self-monitored groups on specific tasks and projects.

Management typically provides parameters for employees to work within and to contribute suggestions and ideas, and many also feature a formal review process to ensure every idea is weighed and vetted carefully. As a leader there is purely no healthier way to make people feel valued than to ask them openly, for their advice. A leader can pat people on the back and recognize their efforts but this is not as effective in encouraging people as incorporating them in the decision making process. Employees who play a part in deciding what to do feel a much greater amount of ownership over making it happen. Depending on the organization and the leader will determine which method of participatory management to use if any.


Leaders are many things to different people. They are the ones making decisions, communication with people, resolving issues. A leader has to have many attributes to be effective. This includes being able to cultivate relations with other people and departments, not to mention being able to lead, develop and enhance coworkers, and the organization. For this paper we have discussed the basic skills that a leader must possess in order to succeed in building effective relationships. We also discussed some of the methods used to build effective relationships with superiors and peers. Finally we looked at the role of the leader in different participatory management methods.

Effective Communication

1.1 Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationships with children, young people, and adults. Communicating effectively within the children, young people and adults are very important to enable strong relationship to build between children, young people and adults. We should consider both we you approach other people and how we respond to them. We are more likely to communicate information to one another if we have positive relationships. (Burnham 2011). To developing positive relationships with the children is the main key to a happy and calm environment. Without a positive and supportive attitude there will be no trust and honesty between ourself and the children. They will not feel like they can talk to us which may mean they could be keeping something important inside, which could affect their learning or social skills.

Having good communication skills will help us develop better relationships especially with younger people. Some students who lack in confidence may find it hard to communicate at all with us, so if we come across to that student in a positive and gentle manner they are more likely to open up to us and talk. We would not like to be spoken to in a negative way so therefore we should also be careful of how we speak to others too. To Communicating positively with adults is an important part in helping build a strong and trusting relationship with each other. Communicating in the right way will show adults that we are able to talk to them about any aspects of our role as a teaching assistant or show them that we are willing to take on any task within that role.

It will also help to discuss about concerns about a child, discuss about lesson planning or activities. If good communication exists between everyone involved (the child, the staff, and parents/carers) it may prevent misunderstandings and unnecessary worry. For example if a child is having problems at home which is not being communicated to staff then it may affect that child’s behaviour or attitude to school. By being open to all involved, we can prevent this and be immediately aware of any issues and therefore assist that child in coping. If communication is effective parents/carers are more likely to contribute to and offer support to the school. It is so important that good relationships are developed with pupils, parents/carers.

Communicating effectively within the children, young people and adults are very important to enable strong relationship to build between children, young people and adults. To developing positive relationships with the children is the main key to a happy and calm environment. Without a positive and supportive attitude there will be no trust and honesty between yourself and the children. They will not feel like they can talk to you which may mean they could be keeping something important inside, which could affect their learning or social skills. Having good communication skills will help us develop better relationships especially with younger people.

Some students who lack in confidence may find it hard to communicate at all with us, so if we come across to that student in a positive and gentle manner they are more likely to open up to us and talk. We would not like to be spoken to in a negative way so therefore we should also be careful of how we speak to others too. To Communicating positively with adults is an important part in helping build a strong and trusting relationship with each other. Communicating in the right way will show adults that you are able to talk to them about any aspects of your role as a teaching assistant or show them that you are willing to take on any task within that role. It will also help to discuss about concerns about a child, discuss about lesson planning or activities.

How to become an effective member in an Interprofessional Team

Using Gibb’s reflective cycle and the Inter professional Capability Framework explain how your knowledge, skills and attitudes considered on this module will enable you to become an effective member of an inter professional team in your working environment

The National Health Service (NHS) employs more than a million employees; therefore, a system that allows the services to run in sync with the skilled and responsive workforce cannot be denied (Daly, 2004). However, does it give us the privilege to say we have overcome the barriers to collaboration and communication within NHS? Certainly not otherwise, cases like the death of Victoria Climbe and Baby Peter would have been avoided, whereby consistent failing in communication and collaborative working among various concerned professionals and agencies was unearthed (Jelphs & Dickinson, 2008).

Because of the word limitation for the essay, the essay will only seek to explore the interprofessional capabilities (i.e. knowledge, skills and attitudes) about collaborative working and communication that can enable me becoming an effective team member of an inter professional team in the future. To achieve this, I am going to exploit the first domain of the interprofessional capability (IPC) framework namely collaborative working using Gibb’s reflective cycle. The first stage of Gibb’s (1988) reflective cycle requires the description of the events (Jasper, 2003); Approximately 800 students undertook the Interprofessional education (IPE) module from various disciplines of health and social care courses.

IPE can be defined as “education that occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes” (WHO, 2010 pp-7). The interprofessional group I was allocated to comprise of a mental health nurse, a midwife, two adult nurses, a physiotherapist and myself, a diagnostic radiographer. It was within the group; we had to undertake various facilitated activities as well as independent group works. The module was to offer awareness and learning about the issues of collaborative working, communication and many other topics; collaterally, it was also about demonstrating my knowledge, skills and attitudes towards these problems according to my experience as well aslearn from other  team members.

By the end of the event, I was not only exposed to the notions of collaborative working and effective communication, but also to the barriers that can stop us from achieving them. The second stage of Gibb’s (1988) reflective cycle is about expression of the feelings about the event (Jasper, 2003). Initially, I was unsure about the benefits of ‘common learning’ however, it became clear as we progressed through the module (Barr, 2003). Everyone was friendly, showed respect and trusted other people’s knowledge. Moreover, a group work approach was apparent rather than an individual approach to the problems we encountered. I felt valued within the team because I could share my perception about the problems and discuss them effectively with other team members.

I also observed that although some cases were not directly related to my profession, however, the team members ensured that I was on board with what they were proposing, hence maintaining a supportive and collaborative learning environment. There was a sense of all team members wanting to work collaboratively and effectively to perform well. Nevertheless, I was little annoyed when two of the nursing students were not engaging fully with the group work. However, it was interesting to note that as soon as they apologised about their inappropriate behaviour, justified why it happened (stress about doing another essay) and agreed not to repeat it; it had a really positive effect on me, and I was easily able to let off their behaviour.

Although with hindsight, I think this may have a negative effect on the group if they had carried on repeating such behaviour (Jelphs & Dickinson, 2008). Furthermore, there was one of team members who did not attend any group works sessions in the second week, and even did not communicate with the team about her non attendance, which I thought was an unprofessional behaviour at this level. Nevertheless, the support given by the teaching team during facilitated sessions was commendable. Overall, my feeling about the whole event was quite positive. The third stage of Gibb’s (1988) reflective cycle involves evaluation of my experiences encountered during the event (Jasper, 2003). Gorman (1998) suggests that considerate amount of attention should be given to the structure of the team, the culture (interprofessional relationships) and processes as they can influence the behaviour of the team i.e. leading to collaborative working or hindrance.

This was well recognised by all members at the beginning itself and therefore time was spent on discussion about it, as a result of which the team was found to have congruity about shared commitment throughout the module. All the team members became clear about the roles of the professionals involved and their interaction with the patient-care pathway. Thus, it provided a good outline about role clarity, which was maintained throughout without any conflict (West & Markiewicz, 2006). Any challenges encountered within the group were well focused to the relevant question or working practice. Thereby, better understanding and sharing of accountability were seen. All these helped reduce the hindrance to effective collaboration.

Also shared was information about the problems experienced at the clinical placement namely incorrect filing, assumption made about illegible handwriting, acronyms and short abbreviations, etc. that can often risk the patients care and can be seen as potential source for errors. The team leader maintained a well balance about the time that was to be spent for each activity. Therefore, we were all able to share successfully our values and perceptions about the issues relating to communication and collaboration. No personality issues were encountered (Jelphs & Dickinson, 2008). There were some brilliance movement of innovation and creativity seen, e.g. during poster creating activities and rich picture activity and each member participated in one way or the other e.g. I and a physiotherapist student put forward to present it to the other groups.

Thus, overall I felt there was a good positive attitude maintained by all the team members as everyone was willing to collaborate and communicate effectively. I felt that synergy produced by contribution from everyone through interprofessional group works had far exceeded the potential of what I could have contributed individually (Jelphs & Dickinson, 2008). Although there was no absence of trust and fear of conflict among the group members however, lack of commitment was present as consistent non attendance was an issue for one of the team member, and it was felt that there was avoidance of accountability as that person did not feel it important to inform the team (Lencione, 2002). Another issue about inattention from two of the team members was resolved effectively by the team leader through good communication skills he possessed and it was a good learning example for me.

Therefore, team leaders are required to facilitate the group to stay focused and help stop getting fragmented (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2006). I also learned about other factors that may contribute as barriers to effective collaboration which included social conformity, risk shift, group think and diffusion of responsibility (West & Markiewicz, 2006). The stage four of the Gibb’s (1988) reflective cycle includes analysis of the event. The fact that in the UK, communication is still one of the commonest roots of problems described in complaints against the professionals should make us realise that communication should not take for granted (Health and social care information services, 2006 cited from Jelphs and Dickinson, 2008).

The Oxford dictionary (2010) defines communication as “the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.” And Mehrabian (1972) suggests that non-verbal communication (body language) can contribute around 70%, when interacting. Therefore, it is vital that the healthcare professionals are not only effective in communicating verbally but also non-verbally. We all agreed and aware that every one of us had in their codes of professional conduct about clearly documenting any intervention offered or given to the patient (HPC, 2009; The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, 2005; NMC, 2009). As a result, I felt that the team were unified on decisions made about poor documentation that were noted within the examples/cases given and videos shown.

As a group we all agreed that clear documentation can help reduce the risk of breakdown in communication and increase the likelihood of adequate sharing of information and hence quality of care. As whenever any critical information is transmitted through any medium there is always a risk of miscommunication attached to it and that is why effective communication is much more difficult to achieve in practice (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2006). Although this was conflicted with what the Nursing students (mental nurse and adult nurse), and physiotherapy student mentioned during the debate as they felt that there was the surplus amount of paper work to be done, which was affecting the quality of care provided to the patients, especially during handovers.

Unlike in radiography, this is not the case as we often x-ray the patients without any notes, but a request form (legal document) is required indicating the type of examination required. Nevertheless, every patient needs to be registered on the system before we can do x-rays, which can take a while. However, we have to schedule the in-patients needed to be done out of ours and therefore, have to communicate with the ward nursing staff and porters. Furthermore, during any emergency situation requiring mobile x-rays or Computerised Tomography examination effective communication with the accident and emergency (A&E) is necessary as otherwise it can delay the treatment and jeopardise patient’s well-being.

Besides, I observed that the ‘nurses’ role was quiet at the core when it came about caring patients in the hospital. Therefore, I felt that it was necessary to work collaboratively and maintain good communication with the nurses in practice as they can help me by providing crucial information about patient’s physical and psychological status that I may need to consider when taking the x-ray’s requiring some adaption of techniques (Burzotta & Noble, 2011). The group did well to work in collaboration maybe because good communication was maintained all the time between the members. Mead and Ashcroft (2005) suggest that working in collaboration is vital as it helps to avoid any misunderstandings and hence keeping it immune from barriers of interprofessional collaboration.

Nevertheless, an interprofessional team can comprise of individuals from different professional background and have a possibility of sharing same skills and knowledge, in which case clarity about their role and scope of responsibilities should get agreed as otherwise it can easily become a potential source of conflict for the teams (Thompson, Melia & Boyd, 2000). Care priorities can be affected by the codes of conduct, e.g. the main focus of doctor will be on patient’s medical condition, a physiotherapist will mainly remain concerned about the mobility issues; a social worker priority will be making available required care and support at home, nurses’ priorities to coordinate patients discharge, transport and medications to take home.

Therefore, although we see everyone wanting to work collaboratively their priorities can differ (Thompson et al, 2000). I felt there was a positive feeling until the last day between the team members, and everyone felt proud about this opportunity through which we all mutually enjoyed. I am convinced that the experience gained will certainly enhance my practice as well as attitude towards other professionals with whom I will come in contact. Overall, I have gained a profound understanding and knowledge about how individuals’ responses and behaviour can influence others and the events, the need for good communication not only with service users and their family members, but also with other team members through this experience.

I had become self-aware about my interprofessional skills and factors that contribute to communication; and feel that this experience will be a very useful to support my understanding of how to be an effective member of an interprofessional team in the future. Also, as a healthcare professional I should always try to act responsibly and try to develop stronger relationships with other team members, therefore, allowing every chance of working collaboratively and communicating adequately, which could result into better health and well-being of patients and reduce the risk of failures (Jelphs & Dickinson, 2008; DOH, 2000).

The next stage of Gibb’s (1988) reflective cycle includes discussion about the action plans. Therefore, if faced with similar scenarios or situations experienced while undertaking this module, I will ensure that the knowledge and skills acquire are well implemented to the situations and seek help from other interprofessional team members without any prejudice, but with pride (Daly, 2004). I also feel that to become more effective as a team member, continuous interprofessional development and active participation in these areas should not be neglected. Reading and reflecting through IPC framework domains can help me identify my progress as well as help me to engage and assimilate more within the interprofessional team (Interprofessional Capability framework, 2010).

To conclude, this module has really helped me get myself out of my normal area of practice and to reach out for other disciplines; learn and relate positive and negative outcomes about working in collaboration and communication. In hindsight, the module was an eye-opener for me as, despite being aware about the need for collaborative working and importance of communicating appropriately; consistency of its application in practice was seen to be lacking. Nevertheless, it will be unfair to say that we have completely failed in these areas.

I am quite convinced that although the ethos of working in collaboration can arguably be seen as a challenging aspect, however, the truth is real-life problems are always more complicated to be dealt single-handedly. Therefore, fostering of collaborative working culture through Interprofessional education can revolutionise the thinking of students as it has done mine too, thereby helping me prepare to become an effective member of future interprofessional teams, who will have collaboration and communication as one of their core parts of their practice.

Barr, H. (2003). Undergraduate interprofessional education: Education Committee Discussion Document. Retrieved December 10,2011, from http://www.gmc-uk.org/Undergraduate_interprofessional_education.pdf_25397207.pdf Burzotta, L. & Noble, H. (2011). The dimensions of interprofessional practice. British Journal of Nursing, 20(5),310-315. Daly, G. (2004). Understanding the barriers to multiprofessional collaboration. Nursingtimes.net. 100(09) 78. Retrieved December 22, 2011, from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-specialisms/management/understanding-the-barriers-to-multiprofessional-collaboration/204513.article. Gorman, P. (1998). Managing multidisciplinary teams in the NHS. London: Kogan Page. Health Professional Council (2009). Standard of proficiency. Retrieved January 01,2012, from http://www.hpc-uk.org/assets/documents/10000DBDStandards_of_Proficiency_Radiographers. Interprofessional Capability Framework (2010) Mini-guide. Interprofessional Education Team, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University. Higher Education Academy. Jasper, M. (2003). Beginning Reflective Practice: Foundations in Nursing and Health Care. London: Nelson Thornes.

Jelphs, J. & Dickinson, H. (2008). Working in teams. Bristol: The Policy Press. Lencioni, P. (2002). The five dysfunction of a team. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Meads, G. & Ashcroft, J. (2005). The Case for Interprofessional Collaboration – In Health and Social Care. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Mehrabain, A. (1972). Nonverbal communication. Chicago: Aldine Atherton. Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2009). The Code. Retrieved January 2,2012, from http://tinyurl.com/6kdup6. O’Daniel, M. & Rosenstein, A. H. (2006). Professional communication and team collaboration. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. ‘Retrieved December 19,2011’, from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nurseshdbk/docs/O’DanielM_TWC.pdf Oxford Dictionaries (2010). Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 01,2012, from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/communication. The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. (2005). Rules and standards. Retrieved January 2,2012, from http://tinyurl.com/6aptc99 Thompson I.E., Melia, K &
Boyd, K. (2000). Nursing ethics. (4th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone. World Health Organisation.(2010). Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Retrieved December 22,2011, from http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/framework_action/en/. West, M. & Markiewicz,L. (2006). The effective partnership working inventory. Working Paper. Birmingham: Aston Business School. Department of Health (2000) A Health Service for All the Talents: Developing the NHS Workforce. London: Department of Health

Effective partnership working

A partnership is an arrangement between two or more groups, organizations or individuals to work together to achieve common aims. Effective partnership working must have some sort of personal stake in the partnership. All partners should work towards the same goal. The partners should have similar system of beliefs and work together over a reasonable period of time. Partners should understand the value of what each of them can contribute to the set aim. Both should respect and trust each other. Partnership working also shares creativity, and responsibility. Working together can highlight different issues, problem and solutions and there is more potential for productivity or effectiveness. All partners must always tell each other what is planned and consult everything together before making any decisions. They must act together as everyone working towards the same outcome.


Working in partnership with colleagues it’s very important .We all need to work in the same way and be consistent. People I work with on daily basis are the best source of advice and information needed when some issues may arise. By working together I am able to see all recorded information and being able to use them when needed .Communication within the home is a key to effective support .By working together everyone can be supported and all ideas can be taken into consideration on meetings and solving issues become easiest. Working with other professionals like Learning Disability team or Intensive support team also gives me a different point of view on situation and this way I receive support from qualified and understanding people. I can share information and seek advice .This way I get an excellent feedback and much needed support .Some individuals have a complex needs which are very difficult to cope and seeking support from others is very important .Organization receive different training and do specialize in giving help .Therefore maintaining good relationship with them is important to provide the quality support for Service Users. Working in partnership with advocates is needed when Individuals have a lack of capacity and have no one who can act on their behalf .

Working together with independent advocates shows that setting follows the guidelines and regulations .Independent person can see the different point of the situations discussed and help to decide what is the best for the person concerned .As a support staff will share all relevant information with them and act on the best interest of the individual. Working with families, Service users, friend of individuals give me a never ending source of information’s so I’m able to provide the care they want .By working together we gain information and that can help make Individuals live easier in the care setting. This way parents feel valued and respected. Parents and family feel comfortable when visiting the setting talking to and planning with workers .Every opinion must be valued and treated seriously as we all want the best for the Service Users .Talking and working together with individuals gives us a chance to get to know they likes and dislikes and be able to make them happy.


Partnership is about relationship between people and the aim of it is to achieve what couldn’t be achieved alone. By working together we build a relationship. We improve outcomes and achieve more equal life for the individuals and better future for them. Because everyone works together Service User can feel safe and have choice of where and how they want to live. As staff I need to listen to them and give them choice and information’s must be available in the right format .Individuals feel valued and respected. They know that there is a lot of different people who are happy to help and give advice .It also makes staff feel more valued as they have they say and their opinion is more valued what means that they are more happy to stay in the work place like that.

The factors to consider when promoting effective communication

Use of language is important when talking to children. Factors you need to consider when trying to communicate effectively with others could be their age. For example, In my childminding settings the first thing I consider when working with children is simplifying my language. In order to communicate with the child effectively, I meet them at there level, this insures that we maintain eye contact and the child doesn’t feel patronized. I am aware of my own posture and body language, whilst also assessing theirs so that I am able to gauge their emotions, this gives me the opportunity to be able to respond appropriately. It is important that I show that I am listening to the child and interested in what they are trying to communicate to me. Sometimes it takes a while for a child to communicate there needs, so I continuously focus on looking interested. If I seem uninterested or bored, the child is less inclined to carry on communicating which may affect their confidence for when communicating in the future. Communicating with an adult is different, the language we use will be more complex and the sentences will flow much faster. Good eye to eye contact and facial expressions still remains important to help communicate with one another. Adults also need to feel valued, so good listening skills are key to effective communication.

Allowing the other person time to respond before you start to talk again is also an important factor in effective communication. Effective communication isn’t just achieved by verbally expressing yourself. Modern technology can also used to exchange communication such as feelings, choices, wants, needs and information. This can be particularly useful for children with speech delay or learning difficulties. For example, In my setting photos of the toys/equipment on the front of the boxes and draws tells the children where the items are to go after use. Or at snack time the children can see the choices available on the snack chart in photo or picture form. Phone calls, emails and reports are also factors to consider when promoting effective communication. A louder more direct communication maybe required, if trying to get the attention of a group of children to come back inside from the garden/ outdoors. However, this would not be suitable in a situation where a child is upset, a more calm and understanding tone is needed in a sensitive situation such as wetting themselves.

Ways of non verbal communication are:

Facial gestures, again this must be tailored to the situation or topic. For example: in the case of a child wetting themselves, a smile and a gentle hand on their shoulders is sufficient to the situation whereby a frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the child. Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on the discussion. By making eye contact your are directing your conversation at that person and showing that you are devoting your time to listen. Body language: Your body language can indicate a number of ways of communication like folded arms can indicate you are defensive or not open to suggestions. In the case of a deaf or hard hearing child/adult, Lip reading is a vital form of communication to avoid the person feeling isolated. It is important that the person is able to read the sound of speech and clearly see the movement of the lips, this enables the communicator to effectively communicate with the deaf person in a way that produces a desired result.

Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

The enactment of the affordable care act has significantly changed the structure of all health care. As the focus of treatment at health care facilities all across the country transitions from specialty care and acute illnesses to preventative and long term health management, many changes have taken effect that have directly affected the approach and delivery of care. One of the greatest changes is the vast amount of patients that are now seeking health care. In an attempt to keep up with these high demands, many facilities have been left scrambling to adjust their budgets, reduce excess spending, and implement more efficient means of care delivery. Nurses throughout this process have had to adapt to a work environment that is constantly being changed and restructured. As a result, decreased job satisfaction, increased incidence of compassion fatigue, and nurse to patient ratios involving higher acuity levels have all contributed to the vast nursing shortage that is being experienced today. In addition, patient satisfaction scores and Medicare reimbursement have been greatly affected as well.

Despite all of the aforementioned issues, there are some facilities that are taking the extra step to recognize and promote nursing excellence by setting the standards higher in an attempt to gain Magnet status. The focus of this writing is to compare and contrast the expectations of the approaches that nurse leaders and managers may use regarding magnet status as well as discuss the approach that most identifies with the values and beliefs of this author. Magnet status, as defined by Miriam Hospital, is a designation awarded to hospitals for their creation of a “Magnet Culture”; an environment that not only supports nursing practice, but focuses on professional autonomy, decision making at the bedside, nursing involvement in determining the nursing work environment, professional education, career development and nursing leadership (Miriam Hospital, n.d.).

The concept of magnet status was first conceived in the early 1980’s and was born of an inquiry as to how certain hospitals were able to retain and motivate nursing staff. This concept was identified based on the results of several research studies and documented in an article entitled “Magnet Hospitals: Attraction and Retention of Professional Nurses,” written and published in 1983 by Dr. McClure president of the American Academy of Nursing (AAN), professor at New York University, and a member of the original task force (Hawke, 2004). Currently in the United States only six percent, or 389 hospitals, have achieved Magnet status with twenty-six of these located in California (“Magnet,” 2013, para. 2).

Statistics have shown that Magnet hospitals have excellent patient satisfaction scores, safer patient environments, fewer repeat admissions, and better patient outcome overall. There are many rigorous qualifications that must be met and maintained throughout a facilities’ designation. It is imperative that nursing leadership and management work together within their defined roles to accomplish the goal of recognizing, organizing and accomplishing the tasks and to ensure the staff participation needed to achieve nursing excellence. Only by existing within these defined roles, can the most efficient and accurate results be obtained. The role of management is to identify the resources that are required to accomplish the target goal of the organization. A manager must also plan, organize and implement strategies from an organizational level that outline what is required of subordinates in order to meet the proposed goal (Huber, 2010, p. 31).

It is the responsibility of the manager to ensure that policies and procedures are implemented and carried out correctly. To achieve Magnet status the nurse manager would need to survey patients and staff to define areas of weakness that would need to be addressed by staff to improve patient satisfaction. These actions can include steps to becoming more financially efficient by reducing waste, ensuring Medicare reimbursement through patient satisfaction, and nursing practices that reflect these decisions such as bedside reporting, user-friendly patient education, hourly rounding and updating whiteboards. The role of the nursing leader is to assist the nurse manager in accomplishing the organizational goals by facilitating smoother transitions through communication, guidance and assisting staff in the understanding of what the vision is, why they are being asked to do certain things, and how they relate to the larger picture.

This is accomplished by establishing trust and striving toward cohesion and mutual tolerance while managing conflict (“The difference between leadership and management,” 2012, para. 2). In comparing and contrasting managers and leaders there are some points to consider. In management, many goals are established by other people and carried out by the managers within the organization. Leaders will act to develop new and fresh approaches to problems that may exist within the organization. The leader’s instinct is to take risks and to challenge those people and ideas within an organization that may be holding it back. Managers work to accomplish the tasks and usually will continue to do whatever is necessary to get the job done without taking on too much risk or moving forward (“The difference between leadership and management,” 2012, para. 7). Magnet culture is one of empowerment, shared decision-making and accountability (Frellick, 2011, para. 8). In order for this vision to succeed, health care facilities must demonstrate mastery of specific core principles known as the Fourteen Forces of Magnetism which includes a high quality of nursing management, and an environment that is built upon strong participation, where nurses are recognized by the top levels of management.

Another key to success is strong interdisciplinary relationships; meaning members from all departments of the health care team are able to work together; this includes nurses, physicians, pharmacists and therapists. Participatory leadership focuses on the mutual respect and involvement of all parties. It is democratic in nature and promotes shared responsibility for actions; it is this leadership style that this author most identifies with. It is of the opinion of this author that personal involvement and the inclusion of everyone is key to maintaining a working professional relationship between management and subordinates because it empowers everyone to work together to achieve a vision or goal.

If employees on all levels feel that their opinions and ideas matter and are important, than they will be willing to go the extra mile to see that goals get accomplished as the organization’s visions become their visions as well. This cannot be accomplished without managers and leaders who have the ability to harness this commitment and facilitate unity between all parties involved. True success is not gained through the dictation of what is and what will be, it is gained through the understanding that if we all work together, we can be really great because we all have something to contribute and when joined together, these contributions will make us the best we can be.

Frellick, M. (2011). A Path to Nursing Excellence. Hospitals & Health Networks. Advance online publication. Retrieved from
http://www.hhnmag.com/hhnmag/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=HHNMAG/Article/data/04APR2011/0411HHN_FEA_workforce&domain=HHNMAG Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Magnet. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/nurse/magnet/faq.html Hawke, M. (2004, January). Magnet Status Attracts Mettle. Nursing Spectrum, 19-21. Retrieved from http://www.nsna.org/portals/0/skins/nsna/pdf/career_jan04_hawke.pdf Huber, D. L. (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management (4th ed.). []. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/9781416059844/pages/49495303 Miriam Hospital. (n.d.). http://www.miriamhospital.org/services/nursing/magnet-hospital.html The difference between leadership and management. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.strategiesfornursemanagers.com/ce_detail/208037.cfm

Effective communication

Describe situations where you have effectively demonstrated each of the forms of communication mentioned

Effective communication is an important part of my job role. On a daily basis I need to communicate with various different people. Firstly, I have to collect the information from various parts of our organisation, this is normally done over email, however on some occasions this requires further explanation and this would be done over the telephone or face to face. Once the information is prepared, I distribute this via emails, internally to the managers to review. Once this has been reviewed by the management team, I then distribute this externally to the client. What did you do to help communicate effectively?

I send out the ‘raw data’ to the client each week, however I then send out a pack that summarises the figures in a clear and precise format. For the period review, the data is put into a PowerPoint presentation. The client gets a copy of the slides that we discuss. We discuss each meeting whether anything should be changed going forward. There have been occasions we have gone into more detail, and others where we have summarised as the client is happy with the figures behind this. How have your communication skills helped you to improve your performance elsewhere? The effective communication in this particular example has increased my confidence in certain areas. I also think that by asking for feedback regularly, I can ensure I am reporting exactly what people want to see in the formats they want too. I have applied this to other areas of my job role.

Effective Human Resources Leadership for Nursing Home and Assisted Living Facilities

Management Style for Assisted Living and Nursing Home Facilities Human Resource Management in Healthcare Organizations

The type of organization I chose to discuss is an independent the assisted living facility and nursing home. They both provide some of the same functions, although the name of the facility may be slightly different. While these are separate types of organizations now, in the future, they will blend due to the fact that the longer the clientele is a “resident” of the Assisted Living Facility (ALF), the more likely they will be in need of full-time nursing care. (NursingCenter). I chose this particular type of organization because it is one that I am interested in due to the fact that such a large portion of our population will be served by these organizations in the near future and for some time to come based on our aging population statistics. Forty-two percent of the population that lives until the age of seventy will spend time in a nursing home before they die. (Knickman).

Residents, or patients, in those facilities will receive services from a variety of providers like physical and occupational therapists, medication management for mental and physical ailments and perhaps social service support services as they move toward the nursing home in lieu of assistance from family members when they have none to call for assistance. Because the environment is clinical and service oriented over longer periods of time, it is important to examine what kind(s) of management style is successful in order to manage the intensive daily clinical needs and the ongoing relationships that develop among the staff and residents.

One report on the study of leadership styles suited for nursing homes and assisted living facilities reported that a consensus leadership style had a strong association with quality of care. (Castle). Models indicate that consensus leadership style is also the best approach in limiting staff turnover, which is essential in how the residents rate their satisfaction of service. (Donoghue).

Consensus management style is not a majority vote. After management has reached a decision, consensus approach seeks to determine if all the team members find it acceptable and if they are in support of the decision. In this management style we would ask what could be changed in order to obtain staff support. All members of the group should feel that their ideas and views were heard and that they heard the others in the group as well. The idea is that the team will support the management because decisions were arrived at fairly. (Mayoclinic).

To meet all the demands of infection control, government regulations, service to the residents, clinicians, families and inherent risks associated with the geriatric population, management must not only be task oriented, but people-centered. Management must develop clear and effective strategic plans, but with a humanistic approach of consensus so that all the team members that serve the clientele are happy and effective. It is truly an environment where management must foster employee relations which will decrease risk, and improve patient satisfaction which should in turn also reduce marketing needs as each point of contact that the staff has with a family member is also an ambient sales opportunity.

In order to meet the patient needs in such a high demand environment where a majority of the time the patient/customer is in contact with a lower educated, less clinical staff such as a certified nurse assistant making a low wage, that staff must have a voice to understand that they make a huge impact on the organization. When they feel valuable, the organization will run much more smoothly. My first job and customer training out of high school was working the front desk of a four star hotel. We were the lowest paid on the totem pole, but management and human resources through incentive programs and awards recognized our achievements and solicited our input of ideas at all times.


Castle, N., & Decker, F. (2011), Top Management Leadership Style and Quality of Care in

Nursing Homes. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnr064. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Donoghue C, & Castle NG, (2009), Leadership Styles of Nursing Home Administrators and

Their Association with Staff Turnover, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnp021. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Knickman JR, & Snell EK, (2002), The 2030 problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12236388
Kreofsky, B., & Vrtiska T., & Rego S., & Lewis T., & Chihak A., & Spurrier B., & Larusso N., & Farrugia G. (2011), Using Innovative Idea Management Tools in a Large Health Care Organization: Lessons Learned. Retrieved from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-innovation-documents/wp-cfi-lessons.pdf Nursing Center. Nursingcenter.com. N.p. n.d. Web. 1 Sept 2013. Olson, Dana. (2007). Effective leadership in long term care: the need and the opportunity. Retrieved from http://www.achca.org/content/pdf /ACHCA_Leadership_Need_and_Opportunity_Paper_Dana-Olson.pdf

Effective Communication

Effective communication is the process of transferring information or thoughts to someone or a group of people by way of speaking, writing or body language. According to “Livestron.com” (2014), “Effective communication extends the concept to require that transmitted content is received and understood by someone in the way it was intended. The goals of effective communication include creating a common perception, changing behaviors and acquiring information” (para. 1). It is important that the person receiving the information be able to clearly and concisely understand the information from the sender. The most effective and ineffective techniques for sharing information, techniques that can be applied or modified in a health care work environment and ways in which technology may affect these processes will be discussed in this paper.

Effective Communication Techniques

Effective communication begins with encoding, or being able to clearly and concisely relay the message so that the receiver will be able to decode the message. Another important part of effective communication is making sure the receiver properly understands the message that was being sent. When considering the context of the communication it improves the effectiveness. Context includes age, religion, sexual orientation and intellectual abilities of the receiver. Body language, or non-verbal communication includes eye contact, facial expressions, posture and position of the hands and arms. When body language is consistent with verbal content it improves understanding, and when body language is inconsistent with verbal content it creates confusion about the message. Emotions can interfere with effective communication. For example: messages maybe negatively affected if the sender is angry.

While working in community mental health industry, an individual will be faced with constant changes in the way they communicate with each other, whether it be with the psychiatrist, counselor, patient, drug representative or another health care provider. I found the most used forms of communicating with other people were face-to-face communication, phone, e-mail and faxes. I feel the most effective way of communication is face-to-face because communication signals can provide insight to what is critical in gaining an understanding of other’s perspectives.

Ineffective Ways of Communication

Ineffective communication can be any disruption or failure in the communication process. Language is an obvious communication barrier because if a person does not understand the language the communication fails. Another barrier is when a person has an idea but lacks the confidence to speak up the communication process fails. According to “Chron.com” (2014) “Removing barriers will increase your odds of communicating effectively. Both senders and receivers should pay attention to others in the process, making eye contact, listening intently and avoiding distractions. By being empathetic, you are imagining what it is like to be in the other person’s situation, which helps the communication process” (para. 5).

How These Techniques Can Be Applied or Modified

Communication is the key to succeeding and will allow coworkers in a health care environment to work well together. “A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work together to achieve a shared purpose and hold themselves mutually accountable for its accomplishment. Teamwork is the process of people working together to accomplish these goals” (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, & Kramer, 2007, p. 91). Team members need to start out slowly in order to accomplish good communication skills. All team members should learn how to work with their team and be able to control any conflicts that might occur.

How Technology Affects the Communication Process

Technology has impacted the health care field in a positive and rewarding way. For instance, the electronic medical record allows the user to exchange health care information electronically and can help provide a higher quality and safer care for the patients while creating enhancements for the health care organization. The electronic medical record provides up-to-date, accurate information about patient at the point of care which allows quick access to patient records for a more coordination of care. There are so many things that technology has provided the health care industry: MRI’s, CAT Scans, ultrasounds and laparoscopic surgeries. Technology will always bring change and a positive outlook to the health care industry.

In conclusion, effective communication helps to better understand a person or situation. It enables us to resolve differences and build trust and respect. This paper covered the most effective and ineffective ways for sharing information and ideas, techniques that can be applied or modified in a health care work environment and how technology impacts the communication process.

Chron.com. (2014). Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effective-ineffective-communication-56100.html Lombardi, D.J., Schermerhorn, J.R., & Kramer, B. (2007). Managing Teams: Leading and Developing Work Teams that are Efficient, Focused, and Flexible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Livestrong.com. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/69309-effective-communication/

The importance of effective supply chain management

1.1 Explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organizational objectives of the chosen Organization . ( AC 1.1 : Explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organizational objectives).

1.2 Explain the link between supply chain management and business functions of the chosen Organization .(AC 1.2 : Explain the link between supply chain management and business functions in an organization).

1.3 Discuss the key drivers for achieving an integrated supply chain strategy of the chosen Organization ( AC 1.3 : Discuss the key drivers for achieving an integrated supply chain strategy in an organization).

2.1 Explain the role of logistics in supply chain management of the chosen Organization. (AC 2.1 : Explain the role f logistics in supply chain management in an organization).

2.2 Evaluate procurement practices of the chosen Organization (AC 2.2: Evaluate procurement practices in an organization).

2.3 Discuss the factors that must be considered when improving logistics and procurement practices of the chosen Organization (AC 2.3 : Discuss the factors that must be considered when improving logistics and procurement practices an organization).

1.1 Explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organizational objectives of the chosen Organization . ( AC 1.1 : Explain the importance of effective supply chain management in achieving organizational objectives). Answer AC 1.1 :Hilton Ras al khaimah has planned, implemented and is controlling its supply chain strategies to sustain in high competitive global market. Strategies implemented by the organization include lower product cost, improved store variety and selection, reduce inventory carrying cost,supply lead time,centralized purchasing,decentralized requisitions,lots buying and JIT. This strategies has helped the company to remain a dominant force in a competitive market. 1.2 Explain the link between supply chain management and business functions of the chosen Organization .(AC 1.2 : Explain the link between supply chain management and business functions in an organization).

1.3 Discuss the key drivers for achieving an integrated supply chain strategy of the chosen Organization ( AC 1.3 : Discuss the key drivers for achieving an integrated supply chain strategy in an organization). 2.1 Explain the role of logistics in supply chain management of the chosen Organization. (AC 2.1 : Explain the role f logistics in supply chain management in an organization).

2.2 Evaluate procurement practices of the chosen Organization (AC 2.2: Evaluate procurement practices in an organization).

2.3 Discuss the factors that must be considered when improving logistics and procurement practices of the chosen Organization (AC 2.3 : Discuss the factors that must be considered when improving logistics and procurement practices an organization).

Effective Communication


In healthcare organizations there has to be boundaries that are set in order to ensure that the day to day operations will run smoothly and effectively. There are various positions in the health care organizations and the employees that fill those positions have different designated tasks. The positions can vary from physicians and administrators to other positions like Registered nurses, Licensed practical nurses, medical assistants, secretaries and receptionists. In order for all of these positions to be successfully run, there has to be a chain of command with rules and policies so that things stay in line.

Boundaries are set for a specific reason; job duties have to be separated and doing them in the form of boundaries are one of the healthiest ways of executing them. To have boundaries within the organization, things are kept organized and the focus is steady. If there were no boundaries in healthcare, things would be disorganized and in complete disarray. This paper will discuss the ways that Horizon eye care center shares information within the organization. We will discuss the most effective and ineffective ways of sharing that information. We will examine how the current techniques can be applied or modified in a healthcare work environment and the ways that technology can impact this process.

Effective techniques for sharing information and ideas

Thirty-five years ago, a generic health system schematic consisted of a matrix of vertical clinical and ancillary departments crossed by ad hoc ensembles of workers involved in patients’ care (Neuhauser 1972). A more recent general framework includes three intra-organization levels: patients, care-providing microsystems, and the parent healthcare organization (Berwick 2002; Nelson et al. 2002). The concept of the care delivery team has evolved from the ensemble of workers involved with a given patient’s care to a distinct organizational construct—the microsystem (Cowan 2008).

Within this facility the effective techniques for sharing information have been achieved by letters, emails, telephone calls, conferences, facsimile and intercom. These techniques have always seemed to be the quickest and most efficient way of reaching the entire staff. Letters and memos go out and inform staff members of policy changes, new ways of protocol or company events. Emails are used to give information of company events, quick notices and employee assignments of training or testing. Telephone calls and conferences are held to allow employees to meet with superior staff and conduct open dialogues. Facsimile is used to exchange information quickly between the 4 different offices and intercom gets out emergency information to the entire building immediately.

Ineffective techniques

Some of the ineffective techniques that have been used are the cell phone with text message. It is great to have a phone readily available to employees; however there have been many occasions where the reception was not available. Employees have missed important information via cell phone call or text message and when dealing with a healthcare organization, this is unacceptable. The use of cell phones is convenient; however the uncertainty of availability is not one that was an asset to this organization.

Applying or modifying technique’s in healthcare

The communication techniques that are used to relay information within the organization can be applied or modified in healthcare by simply transferring the channels to the patients. If this organization can implement some of the electronic techniques such as email and conferences with patients, there would be a renewed sense of trust and assurance within the patient physician relationship.

The impact of technology

Technology has a huge impact on the ways that communication is shared in this organization. One of the ways that this organization has utilized technology is by incorporating the EMR system into all of its offices. EMR is electronic medical records this is a benefit because patient information is pulled up and accessed instantly. In addition to using the EMR system, this office has also incorporated the computerized patient check-in system. Patients can use the computerized touch screens to check themselves in, schedule future appointments and look up new services and techniques as well as view office memos and new policies.


“Employees often face communication problems with their boss, subordinates, clients and others. Employees seldom leave these problems at the office; they bring them home to cause even more problems, with their loved ones. Fixing problems at the workplace can make a huge difference in a person’s life. People can heal relationships, get ahead at work, and just plain enjoy more their days at the office”. Taking this information into consideration, healthcare organizations must make sure that the method of communication within has to be efficient and effective, while ensuring that all employees feel comfortable. It is a challenge to balance all of these aspects of communication but healthcare organizations must make sure that they have taken all accounts into consideration. Some things that these organizations should remember when implementing communication methods into their respective facilities are that Effective Workplace Communication Happens When People:

Trust and witness the people they work with (their leaders, peers or reports) acting ethically and honestly

Know their opinions and ideas are meaningful to the success of the organization

Feel safe to express their opinions

Receive information equally and openly

Are highly trained in the requirements of the business and able to interpret the information provided to them

Believe that actions are taken and decisions made with Positive Intent

Feel Responsibility Toward Common Goals

Make use of multiple channels and opportunities to interact and provide information Source: (effective workplace communication 2010)


Cowen, M. E., Halasyamani, L. K., McMurtrie, D., Hoffman, D., Polley, T., & Alexander, J. A. (2008). Organizational structure for addressing the attributes of the ideal healthcare delivery system. Retrieved on May 29, 2011, from University of Phoenix, Week two reading, aXcess HCS 325-Health Care Management course website 2011 Effective workplace communication (2010) Leadership and motivation training Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.leadership-and-motivation-training.com/effective-workplace-communication.html

People Communicating (2010) Tips and tools for more effective communication with people in the workplace Retrieve on May 30, 2011 from http://www.people-communicating.com/

Promotion of Effective Communication – Workbook

Question 1

Look at your company’s policies and procedures on completing records and maintaining effective communication, what is your role?


I browsed and read my organisation’s policy regarding the service user’s rights and those legislations which promotes equality, diversity, and discrimination. a. Each service user has a right to information regarding their care service that does not discriminate on the basis of race or ethnic origin, creed, colour, religion, political affiliation, disability or impairments, marital status, parenthood, sexual gender or sexual orientation. b. Each service user has the right of access to their personal care records and to comment on them accordingly. Service users have the right to appoint an advocate to make their wishes and preferences known if they are unable to do so. c. Each service user has the right to be assured that no personal or confidential information concerning their affairs will be disclosed to a third party without their express permission. d. Each service user has the right to communicate using their preferred methods of communication and language.

When completing records and reports look through your staff hand book or induction pack you were given at work and explain any rules and regulations or policies you need to follow when completing records and reports at work some of which might include:

• Records should be completed as soon as possible after the event

• Details should be accurate

• Details should be relevant

• Details should be legible

• Details should clearly indicate if it is a fact, opinion or hearsay. Opinions are acceptable as long as it is clearly stated as such. • Always record as little as possible but detailed and as much as necessary.

2, 3, 10, 11

Describe ways that you provide support to individuals to communicate their needs. How might your communication alter with different individuals ? What aids might be used to support effective communication ?


To support individuals and key people to communicate their needs you will need to: a. Arrange the individual’s environment to facilitate effective communication and promote understanding. This can be done by ensuring privacy going into a quiet room, if the area is noisy because of the volume of a radio or television it needs to be reduced. Poor lighting in the room needs to be changed and some more that you can think of. b. As a care worker you need to check that the individual have the appropriate support to communicate their views.

This could be making sure the individual who uses glasses and an hearing aid is supported by making sure the glasses is at client’s reach or that hearing aids is switched on and working properly. c. Appropriate styles and methods of communication should be used with respect to the individual. Such as: Active listening – showing be gestures that you are listening, sitting or standing half turned away gives the message that you are not listening. Responding appropriately – nodding your head. Good body language and maintaining eye contact – Leaning forwards can be used effectively when you want to emphasize your interest or support.

The methods that can be used to communicate effectively are:
a. Support equality and diversity

• This can be done by using appropriate language that the service user understands also using the appropriate register of language, for instance not using phrases that could be referred to as jargon. Another method is to use the appropriate way of speaking within a speech community. For instance communicating with young people may mean using their style of language e.g. what’s up with you, hello mate. • Provision of communication aids and use of non-verbal communication if service user has hearing or vision impairments or learning and physical disabilities.

b. Are effective when dealing with, and challenging discrimination

• Working with key people demands that you communicate in a language that they understand and also using simple words. For example the use of clinical words that is not commonly understood would not be necessary if you know they are not familiar with them. • Sometimes we come across people who cannot understand us for one reason or the other instead of ignoring them it would be helpful to source a skilled interpreter but we still need to make effort to communicate with the person by learning some of the ways of communication or a few useful words from their language.

The methods to support individuals to communicate are:
Ensure environment is suitable (lighting, noise background)

Provide interpreter if necessaryAllow sufficient time for individuals to understand the content of communication.

Use relevant aids for communication (e.g. cards, symbols, hearing aids, large print)

Provide advocate to speak for a service user

Ensure written material is in suitable formats or language.

Specific aids that may be used to support effective communication :

Aided communication is communication supported or replaced by materials or equipment. There are simple materials or equipment used everyday such as a pen and paper to write messages, alphabet charts, pictures or symbols or photographs. Communication aids can be categorized into 3 broad groups: Symbolic Aids

This is commonly the use of signs and symbols, it requires individuals to undertake a form of training on the correct forming of signs used and types of symbols: • British Sign Language – used as a communication aid for individual with hearing loss. • Makaton – used as an aid to support speech and not intended to replace it. • Picture Exchange communication systems (PEC) – This aid helps individuals to be independent as they able to exchange a picture for what they want from a compiled album of pictures. • Deaf – Blind manual alphabets – Slightly modified version of the BSL. Finger- spelling alphabet is used.

Technical Aids

• Talking microwaves – usually for individuals with sight loss • Computers – which read out the text on the screen.
• Light writer – this is a portable device into which the individual types in what they would want to say.

Human Aids

• Interpreter – is a person who supports the communication between two people who do not have the same language. This also includes the sign language. • Translator – is a person who changes the written word into an easier format for the individual to read. This could be into Braille or symbols. • Advocate – This is someone who speaks on behalf of an individual when they are not able to do so. 4, 5, 19

In relation to the promotion of effective communication, give examples of what you do to maintain the following laws and guidelines:

a) Data Protection Act
b) Access to Health Records Act
c) The General Social Care Council Code of Conduct
d) Standard 37 National Minimum Standards for Care Homes
e) Caldicott Report


a) To maintain Data Protection Act it is necessary to complete the records as soon as possible after the event and always record as little as possible but detailed and as much as necessary; to make sure that the details are accurate, relevant and legible and that they clearly indicate if it’s a fact, opinion or hearsay. Another important thing is that opinions are acceptable as long as it is clearly stated as such. The information shared by the individuals must be confidential to ensure data protection. In case that the information suggests that the client is under risk, the consent of the individual needs to be obtained before passing the information to an appropriate member of the staff, and even when the consent is not given it becomes important to report.

b) To maintain the Access to Health Records Act I have to make sure that the records are accurate, legibly written, shareable so that the information can be used to provide individuals with the support and care required. The members of a care team are fully informed of new developments and changes in a client’s care plan and the evidence of the actions taken in specific circumstances are available if the need arises. I can access information and records about an individual by: talking to the service user, accessing previous records after permission has been sought from the appropriate person, talking to colleagues who know the individual, to family members or to other professionals

c) To maintain The General Social Care Council Code of Conduct, as a social care worker, I must establish and ensure the confidence of service users and carers. This includes: communicating in an appropriate, open, accurate and straightforward way; respecting confidential information and clearly explaining agency policies about confidentiality to service users and carers. I must be accountable for the quality of my work, I have to maintain clear and accurate records required by procedures established for my work.

Where can you find out about an individuals communication and language needs, information about communication and language skills to improve your practice ?

I can find out about an individuals communication and language needs by asking my manager or the service user, discussing with other care workers who know the individual, talking to family members, to a speech therapist or other professionals for advice, exploring the internet or consulting a library for more information. In order to improve my practice, I can find out about information, communication and language skills by asking my supervisor or manager, or colleagues who have confronted with similar cases. I can also consult the case notes of the individual, or relevant documents provided by the organization that will help me learn how to communicate effectively – for example the induction manuals, search for information via the internet or specialist organizations for the particular condition, attend relevant training courses to communication, supervision and appraisal sessions.

9 What factors may affect communication skills, abilities and behaviour of an individual ? How may they react as a result of these factors?


Factors that can affect communication skills, abilities and behaviour of an individual are:

– Physical Impairments – visual and hearing
– Language barriers – accents, different language
– Cognitive or sensory impairments – learning difficulties, memory loss, – Illness – dementia, stroke
– Environmental problems – poor lighting, noisy environments

If this happens, the individual in question becomes withdrawn from others around them, isolated from others. This may affect his self-esteem and self-confidence negatively. That individual may also become confused, angry and frustrated.

12 If you were trying to have a conversation with an individual how would you arrange the environment and position yourself to communicate effectively?


First of all, I have to make sure that there isn’t any background noise that could make the communication difficult. Then, another important step to achieve effective communication with individuals is arranging the environment to aid communication. Here are some factors that can hinder or disturb good communication: – Poor lighting, because individuals with poor sight are unable to see you – Background noise from the radio, other individuals, TV and so on – Obstacles between me, the care worker, and the individual, for example furniture and household items – Insufficient distance to keep appropriate space within me and the individual to avoid encroaching or invading on their personal space

13, 14 Describe some conflicts that might occur as a result of communication difficulties. How would you deal with these conflicts?


Some of the conflicts that might occur as a result of communication difficulties are: individuals can become frustrated and isolated when the communication between themselves and their workers is encountering problems. These problems or dilemmas are sometimes the result of: – a difference in the language spoken by the service user and the worker – the service user has visual impairments or hearing difficulties – the individual might have a physical illness or disability – either physical disability or learning disability. There are many ways to solve the conflicts that might occur. It depends on the nature of the problem. For example, for: • Language differences: If there are conflicts due to language differences, then an interpreter will be appropriate for any serious discussions or communications. Efforts should be made to learn a few important words to communicate with the individual or teach the individual some words in the workers language if they are willing to facilitate communication. Non verbal communication will be an effective method in solving this kind of conflict. • Hearing difficulties: Individual with hearing difficulties need to be assisted to ensure their hearing aids are working and fitted properly.

It would be necessary that a worker will assist the individual to clean the equipment, change the batteries when appropriate. Workers will also need to give the client the appropriate space and communication pace that would make communication effective. If the need arises words can be written down for clarity. The use of signs and telecommunication services such as type talk service are very useful. • Visual difficulties: Individual with visual difficulties need to be provided with glasses or contact lenses so they can observe non verbal communication. This will prevent misunderstandings during communication with people. • Physical disabilities: Communications with individuals in this category will be according to the type of physical disability or illness.

If the illness has affected the individual’s ability to speak and understand, for instance a stroke then the use of short, simple sentences, gestures, writing and drawing or using flash cards, the use of closed questions which only need “yes” or “no” should be useful. • Some illness do not affect the client’s understanding, so there is no need to speak slowly but will need to be patient to receive a response as the client might have difficulty with their speech e.g. stroke. • Learning disabilities: The method of communication will depend on the level of the disability. I will need to communicate at the pace and space suitable for the client. Physical contacts are of an advantage to be used along with verbal communication. • Cultural differences: People have different cultural backgrounds, therefore it is necessary to find out from the individuals their communication preferences or alternatively check their care plan records or ask people such as their family, friends, colleagues or key people who have worked with them.

15, 16 When communicating difficult, sensitive or complex messages, how might your style of communication alter? What type of environment would be most appropriate for this sort of communication ?


Communicating with individuals who are distressed or upset due to bereavement this could be sensitive, complex or difficult. In this situation, I will ask if the person would want to discuss any concerns with me or maybe another person of their choice. I can use non verbal communication while been a good listener such as making good eye contact with the individual as she talks, which will depict that I’m willing to listen. If the client is displaying a behaviour that dictates that they are able to put others or themselves at risk, then I might need to involve the attention of appropriate members of the care team. For this sort of communication, the environment must be comfortable and appropriate. I would come across times when I need to discuss matters with individuals that are referred to as sensitive issues.

If an individual needs to discuss his personal needs with me, I have to ensure that he feels comfortable and encouraged to communicate these issues. On the other hand, I might want to discuss with the service user about their changing needs such as diet, incontinence, mobility and so on. Communicating bad news, like a bereavement of a spouse or close person to the individual will also require certain communication skills. The things that should take into account are: • Remember individuals have a right to their privacy, therefore the immediate environment should be arranged to ensure privacy. For example a client’s bedroom or apartament should be free from visitors at the time. • Individual’s preferred method of communication should be made available. • Communication should be made at the pace of the individual, giving enough time for both of us to understand the content of the communication. • Observe and respond appropriately to reactions from individuals.

17 Who do you need to gain permission from to access records and why ?


I need to gain permission of my manager or client to access records. Accessing information will help me to improve my practice and also my responsibility. Within the organization there should be relevant documents to access information or if I work with individuals in their own home the care plan should contain useful information.

18 Define the following words:

a) Fact
b) Opinion
c) Judgement

Why is it important that you aware of the difference of these words when reporting and recording information about individuals ?


a) A fact is a true statement that cannot be disputed, knowledge or information based on real occurrences; something demonstrated to exist or known to have existed. b) An opinion is a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty- it is the result of emotion or interpretation of facts, a subjective statement or thought about an issue or topic. An opinion may be supported by an argument, although people may draw opposing opinions from the same set of facts. c) A judgement is a cognitive process of reaching a decision or drawing conclusions.

Judgments are also personal and developed from experience; they differ from person to person. For example, if a client is dying and all the symptoms and signs show the evidence, reports and records should show these facts. On the other hand if the client only refused to talk, people might have different opinions and judgments to explain the reason. Records and reports will need to be verified to deduce the correct and most suitable reason. It is important to aware of the difference of these words when reporting and recording information about individuals because I have the responsabiliy to provide seamless services for individuals, and this thing can be done only if the information is correct, precise.

Developing Yourself as an Effective Human Resources Practitioner


This report will be divided in 2 activities, first, a brief description of the CIPD Professional Map, which will help us have a better understanding of the knowledge, skills and behaviours required to be an effective practitioner. The second activity will specify how an HR practitioner can ensure the services they provide are timely and effective.

Activity 1 – Brief summary of CIPD Human Resources Professional Map

The CPID Professional Map it’s a tool developed to help HR professionals understand what they need to know and do in each level of their careers. The Map is presented to us divided in 4 main sections:

It begins with the Core professional Areas – These 2 areas are the center of the map and relevant for all no matter what level or position you work in HR, and they are: Insights, Strategy and Solutions – This professional area underpins the direction of the profession as an applied business discipline. This area also allows HR Professionals, to develop actionable insights and deliver situational HR solutions. Leading HR – This professional area focuses on HR Professionals that are active and insight-led and are actively leading others who own, shape and driving the organization.

They develop the organization across 3 main areas of leadership: Personal leadership, leading others and leading issues. Then it describes the Specialist Professional Areas – the 8 specialist professional areas identify what you need to Know and to do, in each of the 4 bands. These are Organisational design, Organisational development, Resourcing and talent planning, Learning and development, Performance and reward, Employee engagement, Employee relations and finally Service delivery and Information, one of the areas I’m most interested, here we have to ensure that Hr services and information are delivered effectively, efficiently and timely and data is manage in a professional manner.

To become effective there are 8 behaviours, these behaviours describe how an HR professional should carry out for their successful accomplishment and they are: 1. Curious – interested, willingness to learn and to develop, growing within an organization 2. Decisive thinker – uses information to make defendable decisions 3. Skilled influencer – ability to persuade in order to gain the necessary support 4. Personally credible – builds a reputation of professionalism at all times adding value to the organisation 5. Collaborative – team work, able to work with people of all levels 6. Driven to deliver – determination to get the job done using all resources to deliver the best result 7. Courage to challenge – confident to speak up, challenging others even in unfamiliar circumstances 8. Role model – impartial, straightforward, leads by example.

There are also 4 bands that defines what professionals need to do to progress through the bands in order to develop their careers. Going from band 1 which reflect the people carrying out administrative and support activities up to the requirements needed in people in leading roles who make decisions and are responsible for the development of HR strategy.

My role in HR

Unfortunately for the time being I’m not working in HR but having a background of HR Administrator I would have to chose Service delivery and information as the professional area that best reflects my experience. I have placed myself at Band 1(or even before that), despite my short experience working in HR I developed interest in that particular area and would like to proceed my career in that direction. Considering Band 1 the activities and knowledge specified within this role would be: Activities

Provide the relevant information and advice to managers and employees

Keep accurate records of case history
Delivery service excellence, customer care even through times of change

Be able to handle, escalate and resolve problems and complaints

employees lifecycle and other needs
Know how to use HRIS and produce data reports

Activity 2 – With reference to your own (or other identified) HR role, outline how an HR practitioner should ensure the services they provide are timely and effective

Customer needs and their requirements of HR

Understanding customers needs is essential for an HR professional if we what to deliver an effective service. Some of HR customers can be Managers requiring absence reports, company policies or support with employee relations. Employees who might request information regarding their holidays, salary or the terms of their contracts. Even Job candidates are HR customers, needing assistance with an application for an open vacancy. Not always is easy for HR practitioners to ensure that the services they provide will be timely and effective.

Different customers can have different needs at the same time and if it conflicts with our workload we need to prioritize the tasks that have to be dealt with. Payroll normally is something that comes as a priority for customers. This kind of issues will be prioritized and handled in a timely manner in order to guarantee an efficient service and customer satisfaction. Who requested? When was requested? Are questions that need to be taken into account when you are planning your daily schedule.

Communication methods

When we talk about communication one of the most important things we always want to insure is that the message that is being sent is received and understood. Here are 3 examples of communications methods:

Email – with email we can communicate with everyone in the company. It’s an easy tool to use, quickly and you can reach a lot of people at the same time, and you can always keep evidence of what was discussed. However it has some disadvantages can be sent by mistake to the wrong person (breaching dpa) and the receiver might understand something that was not supposed to be the message sent.

Telephone – It’s the most direct and quick method from where we can get immediate answers. The disadvantage is that if the conversations are not recorded there will be no evidence of the communication.

Intranet – The intranet is increasingly becoming a privileged method of communication. It contains important information available to all staff. Normally is updated on a regular basis with the latest news, relevant information, organizational changes etc. The advantage is that not all employees reed what is posted.

Effective service delivery

To deliver effective service it’s crucial that you build and maintain relationships with all of your customers (managers, employees, finance). Keep your promises, expectations have to be met, if you compromise yourself with something your customers will be expecting that from you. This will build a trusty relationship and will build up their confidence in your service. When handling problems, complaints or difficulties make sure the issue is addressed to the right person or that it is your place to solve it. I believe the best way to approach these situations, is to first of all, identify the problem and the point of view of all parties, be sympathetic and come up with options to solve these problems. If it can’t be solved immediately give them a time frame and keep them updated of further developments.

Customers need to know that something is being done with the complaint they presented. One of the factors in providing effective service that needs to be taken into account is company budget, every outlay has to be considered in your budget since stationary, Hr systems, training etc. If the company is thinking of acquire a new HR system the budget will be taken into consideration. As HR practitioners we need to provide the best on budget option. Where can money be saved? Can we economize time with this new tool? We have to try to find a new system that could allows us to incorporate multiple tools in one, for instance a new HR System that also enables us to have payroll and appraisal system. This could help the company save resources such as time and money, making easier for HR to deliver an Effective service.

To conclude we can say that throughout this report we were able to identify the 8 specialist professional areas in which we can develop our HR career and the necessary behaviours to be successful in it. Reflecting on my own experience or what I believe it’s effective we went through the different methods of communication available to you as an HR practitioner and how to handle your customer’s complaints and difficulties, always guarantying an effective service delivery.

http://www.cipd.co.uk/cipd-hr-profession/profession-map/professional-areas/service-delivery-information.aspx http://www.cipd.co.uk/community/freesummaries/whatismeantbycustomerservice.htm http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/employee-communication.aspx

Effective Strategies

“Some unions feel that the organization does not compensate its members fairly, or that the organizational working conditions are less than desirable. Conversely, some employers feel that unions interfere with management decisions and impede on a positive relationship between managers and employees. There may be some truth to both perceptions” (Ashford University). I will provide a “…detailed explanation of the effective strategies an organization can implement to create and maintain a conducive working relationship with unions, as well as the effective strategies a union can implement to create and maintain a conducive working relationship with management” (Ashford University). I will begin by briefly describing the role of management in an organization. Management is responsible for the smooth running of the company. Keeping employees happy on the job would be one of the duties involved. Keeping up with industry standards and always moving forward with innovation, while heeding all safety regulations and laws. Working with and not against the flow of the operation to be successful while making a profit is where management can soar. Secondly I will briefly discuss the role of a union in an organization.

A basic requirement of unions is that members give up their individual rights (e.g., raises based on performance) to benefit the collective (e.g., cost of living increases to all employees). Is this equitable and fair? Well members of unions negotiate as a group with the employer and this ensures more power than if they were just alone on their own. While it has been documented that “…union employees make 27 percent more than nonunion workers. Ninety-two percent of union workers have job-related health coverage versus 68 percent for nonunion workers. Union workers also have a great advantage over nonunion workers in securing guaranteed pensions” (howstuffworks.com). This is the bright side of union membership, so it seems that giving up rights to obtain these advantages would be sound advice. In my opinion if the union performs the duties the member/employee signed up for, then yes it would be equitable and fair to give up their rights.

On the other hand if the union performed poorly in its duties, I would consider leaving for another position elsewhere. Some of the positives that involve unions would be the capitalist ideas that make this country what it is today. Unions are there for each employee who is represented by them and protected in the work place from unfair tactics. “Capitalism is directed towards the pursuit of profits and unions are directed towards the rights of workers.” The way these opposing viewpoints can be advantageous, yet destructive, to the business community depends on the way they balance the two. “A profits interest is often referred to as a “carried interest”. A profits interest is typically given as a reward for the performance of services…” (myllcagreement.com) “This method serves as an incentive for partners to become more proactive in pursuing bigger and better profits thus contributing towards the companies’ growth” (investopedia.com).

Growth is essential to the success of the business and the union, without losing sight of the interests of the employee (member). Growth indicates a profit is made and a company should hold in high esteem the people who made this so. So as a company grows it should ensure the employees are happy and treated fairly. They should not lose sight of the bottom line which is the business itself: them and the employees. Unions step up to make sure the employee is treated right with fair conditions and proper raises as the company moves forward. The destructive issue could occur if the employee was not rewarded as the profits increased. An unhappy employee will make for an unsuccessful business.

There are some downsides to unions. Let me first say that strikes are a big part of what could possibly be the one downside, if issues do not work for the benefit of the employee represented. Although strikes were intended to get management’s attention, “The incidence of strikes has been almost steadily decreasing, and strikes now consume a minuscule portion of total working time—in the neighborhood of one-twentieth of 1 percent in most recent years” (Sloane, 2010, pg. 4). Many times a settlement takes place which will avert a strike and this is when both sides reach a compromise. If a strike ensues only a percentage of employees’ wages are paid, if they participate in picket duty. But, “For most unionized employees who agree to strike: •They stop getting a paycheck.

•Their family’s healthcare and dental benefits are suspended. •They are not eligible to receive state unemployment benefits. •Their job can be filled with a replacement worker. •Their job can be impacted in the future, if there is a loss of customers during the strike” (cintasfreedomtochoose.com). Depending on the results of the strike, winning or losing could alter the reputation of the union and also of the employer, for better or worse depending on the results. Appropriate circumstances where a strike would be an appropriate bargaining tactic would be when a failure to communicate occurs and further negotiations need to happen. A total breakdown in communication is most always when strikes occur. Sometimes though strikes occur in an inappropriate manner and this is when the employee suffers. It is when this happens or when the public welfare is affected that a strike would be deemed inappropriate.

There are many global major players are union run, I realistically know that we would be in a world of trouble without them, in example: AFL-CIO and the SEIU. To be honest with you I have the impression that unions such as these actually perform better on a political platform. With all the money and power there comes responsibility, and more often than not we hear about the corruption unions flex influencing (lobbying) individuals in the position to pass laws with ‘dark money’. “Dark Money? AFL-CIO accused of campaigning without disclosing” (watchdog.org). This in no way seems to be connected with the absolute values unions initially professed, which was to stand up for the worker and give strength to the small guy. Now as things have progressed, the red tape becomes likened to fly paper, very sticky. Unions favorably represent the needs of the higher ups and I give again the article in our Course Materials about the ‘Bitter Bargain’.

The bigger the union size the less likely the small guy’s needs will be met, since large money/power weld negative actions. But with a small union it becomes an intimate task to please your members and therefore a more positive vibe is felt. “Selected Evidence About Globalization’s Impact on the U.S. Labor Market Effects on Overall Incomes and Wages” (dol.gov) is another issue that affects the bottom line of the globally competitive work environment. Free trade influences the profits or losses/jobs or unemployment of this country. It makes one wonder if this is not why large unions have become much like a small country with a government playing king of the hill. I will present two strategies/actions an organization can implement to create and maintain a conducive, working relationship with unions. Employers set the pay scale for each job and two strategies/actions they implement to keep the peace with union members is to use the comparative norm strategy and the ability-to-pay (cost of living increase).

There are different circumstances where it would be more appropriate for an organization to follow the comparative norm strategy to determine an employees’ wage rate, versus the ability-to-pay or the cost of living strategy. Depending on the industry the employee is in will be the determining factor in whether the employer has the capabilities to meet economic demands. There are classifications in the different industries, and even subgroups within the different industries. Another factor at work that divides the comparative norm would be job titles. Each place of work has a different description for job titles and they vary greatly, so in many situations a certain wage would not be appropriate for employees at different work places with the same title. Wage systems are another way that the comparative norm may not work, since the pay may be ‘by hour’, incentive systems paid individually, and group incentive systems.

Benefits cannot go unnoticed and are a part of the pay system. Depending on where you live in the nation may also have an impact on the wage an employee is given (i.e. cost of living differences). Typically the minimum wage increase I have experience with would be the annual 4% cost of living wage, and this is in the American south west states. Profits made by the company you work for hold major criterion on the ability to pay a cost of living increase. In the engineering world in which I worked as a drafter for over 30 years competition to obtain the best workers and keep them is all based on wages and benefits. If some other company wanted to pull you away from your employer, they would offer more money and/or better benefits. I can recall a time when my wages were increased significantly when another company made me an offer.

Finally, I will present a minimum of two strategies/actions a union can implement to create and maintain a conducive, working relationship with management. Grievances and arbitration are two of the main strategies/actions that keep the peace while a member of a union. “Grievance legal definition: A claim by a union or a unionized employee that a collective bargaining agreement has been breached…. The formal document in which a union claims that the employer has breached the collective bargaining agreement and for which, arbitration is convened” (duhaime.org). The way the use of the grievance and arbitration processes and procedures can enhance the relationship between a union and management is that is can reach a position that both parties can find common ground and satisfaction. Where this same effort can be destructive is when the breakdown in trust and commitment fall into place where once the opposite was true.

Monetary losses occur at this point and sometimes the union fails to properly represent the employee and resentment occurs. When “…confusion and uncertainty in the area of employer–employee relations” (Sloane, 2010, pg. 217) occurs, both parties lose. In conclusion, we all know that unions have their place in our society and can be run using effective strategies that have proven to work in the past and changing those strategies as new ideas surface in the workplace, effectively. There is a place for unions and people who would benefit from them. In assessing the changing complexion of the U.S. labor force two things come to mind: baby boomers and immigrants. Why, because these types of workers may find unionization attractive. New retirees and new citizens might be looking for jobs where unions have a foothold: like grocers.

Do not forget the fiasco with the strikers in California who fought for 5 months and got something unwanted. “United Food and Commercial Workers’ Union… The ratified contract contains no raises for the 70,000 supermarket workers it covers, but it does preserve most health benefits for current employees. However, new workers will receive lower wages and fewer benefits. Many workers said they voted for the contract reluctantly. The lengthy labor dispute took an emotional and financial toll” (Bitter Bargain). This will be copied, presumably, by fellow unions, and it leads to a running comment that unions no longer provide for the common worker as its mission statement once led its members to believe. Leaving citizens with less money in their pocket when benefits are not included on payday will erode the backbone of unions.

It used to be 35% of American workers belonged to a union in 1959, now a fraction of that is true. Additionally predictions have commented that some baby boomers will exit the workforce leading to a “lower (the) overall labor force participation rate, leading to a slowdown in the growth of the labor force” (Toossi). This comes from the other side of the podium in the in the debate of how labor force will be affected. The complexion of America has changed and without changing for the better, I fear unions will run their course, or transform into a totally new idea, without all the corruption that comes with power and money. Unions are here to stay and change is on the way if using effective strategies are on the agenda.

Retrieved from article by Mitra Toossi: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/11/art3full.pdf`

Bitter Bargain: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june04/strike_3-1.html#

Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/herman/reports/futurework/conference/trends/trendsVI.htm

Sloane, A., Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations. (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Pearson Learning Solutions. VitalBook file.

Retrieved from: http://watchdog.org/131467/money-afl-cio-union/

Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/profits-interest.asp

Retrieved from: http://www.myllcagreement.com/relevant-articles/what_is_the_difference_between_profits_interest_and_capital_interest.html

Retrieved from: http://money.howstuffworks.com/labor-union2.htm

Retrieved from: http://www.cintasfreedomtochoose.com/strikes.asp

Retrieved from: http://www.duhaime.org/LegalDictionary/G/Grievance.aspx

Developing yourself as an effective hr practitioner – notes

4DEP- notes

1) Discuss timeline for HR and how it has evolved to the way it is today. 2) Generalist – Employee resourcing, reward and relation more recently L&D has come in (can break this down further into categories/ specialisms. 3) Self-assessment/ own reflections on analysis, ie appraisal. (look up Myers and Briggs) – Honey and Munford self-assessment – reflect on this and see what they suggest I work on for improvement – discuss my own career aspirations and goals and where I am now in my organisation.

How to set the assignment out;
Learning outcome one – assessment 1 criteria 1.1
LO1 AC 1.1

Discuss the two core professional areas (map)
Global aspect
Influence from external – eg. Government
How has HR and L&D responded to changes?
Discuss bands – 1 – 4 (where am I in these bands? How will I get to band 4? How is it useful for my development?)

Activity 1.
Describe map as a whole/ what its for, summarise core (as below) pick one form outer core (relevant to my role, discuss band 1or2) and discuss the activities/ knowledge.

The core describes the foundation, the ability to have an insight, to lead people, to look for ways to find solutions. Next layer – The professional areas are the activities and knowledge. Outer layer – The behaviours are the approach needed to have in order to do the role.

Band 1&2 – pick one to talk about – discuss where I am and why? (from the professional areas pick one from the activities point of view and one from the knowledge) Discuss how the Honey and Mumford test works and how they
feel I can improve and go up a band.

Activity 2. 2.1

For this one a table is appropriate see below as example;
Needs (only one needed in assignment)
Line manager
Front line adviser
External recruitment candidate
Point of call
Responding to queries
Start dates
Feedback (important)
Interview dates

How would I prioritise conflicting needs?
How will I deliver service on time why is this Important? Delivering service on budget, dealing with difficult customers, handling and resolving complaints.

Identify different methods of communication and explain the advantages and disadvantages or each. Again a table is fine

Face to Face
Work intranet
Advantages –
Lots of detail


Describe how to build and maintain effective service delivery

Activity 3. CPD

Complete map on CIPD website once I have membership.
Read associate criteria.
Discuss how I need to improve to meet the criteria.
Self assessment

Produce and complete CPD (plan)
Example – I want to become an associate member of the CIPD – to do this is will complete this course.

3.3 evaluate options to meet identified development needs

Importance or CPD paragraph – (not in word count)
Challenging myself, development, career plan

The importance of CPD is ………………………………………………………

Reflect on preferment against the plan

4. To be handed in at the end of the course (completed plan)

Developing Yourself as an Effective Human Resources

The Human Resources Profession Map was created by the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD) together with Human Resources (HR) practitioners. The aim was to highlight and explain what HR personnel need to know, do and how to deliver the highest standards of knowledge, skills and behaviour required for growth and success within an organisation. The HR Map is a very important tool to help personnel identify areas that need to be developed within their career. The HR Professional Map is created for any type of organisation (small or large) and is based around areas of professional competencies to help those just starting their careers as well as seasoned professionals.

The Map is structured around ten professional areas, eight behaviours and four bands of professional competence. It holds two professional core areas, which are ‘insights, strategy and solutions’ and ‘leading HR’. These areas are essential for any worker who needs to develop skills to the best possible level. Firstly, s/he needs to understand the company’s values and have a thorough knowledge of what the company does. The basics need to be covered before the employee can proceed within the other training and development parts of the profession map.

After learning about insights, strategies and solutions, the HR practitioners should be aware of any arising problems that could effect their work place. The knowledge that comes from the gained behavioural skills should be good enough for HR practitioners to be able to come up with solutions and adapt it to new situations, helping an employee gain confidence and become a better leader.

Another eight professional areas that professionals need to know are; service delivery and information; organisation design; organisation development; resourcing and talent planning; learning and talent development; performance and reward; employee engagement and employee relations. The eight behaviours show what kind of attributes HR practitioners should implement, which are; being curious; a decisive thinker; skilled influencer; personally credible; collaborative; driven to deliver; having the courage to challenge and being a role model.

All of those areas and behaviours are covered by four bands of competence. Band one would be for beginners who start their career and have a basic understanding of the HR role and band four would be for senior professionals who have the most experience within a company.

The key area for me to focus on within my company would be employee engagement at band one of professional competency. For the last six years I have been working at the cinema where I have learnt everything about the company’s values and goals, through starting as a staff-member to becoming a duty-manager. Employee engagement is a very important level of commitment to any company; an engaged employee should always have pride in what s/he does and work hard to achieve success. In order to have motivated and positive staff who deliver outstanding results, I need to know how to communicate, listen, train/coach my team members, setting aspirational targets through meetings, appraisals and one-to-one sessions. I am sent for various training sessions which provides me with the ability to provide the best support and training for my personnel. After observing and listening to my staff I have noticed that people learn in various ways and I need to adopt different methods in training sessions to get the best out of them and to make them feel valued and motivated. ACTIVITY 2

Understanding Customer Needs.
It happens very often in my professional role that certain customers come to me asking for some data, advice or requiring assistance. Not so long ago I had three customers simultaneously come to me with individual problems. They were: Staff Member Emma, who wanted to find out how many hours of holiday she earned so far and when would be the best time to book her holidays. Operational Assistant Ben, who wanted me to add the new starters which would be starting from the beginning of next week to the system and send a ‘new starter form’ to the Head Office HR Manager. General Manager Paul, who asked me to check our monthly payroll which just got sent through and needed to be replied to by the end of the working day. It is essential that I always try to prioritise my tasks according to the customer needs and the impact it would have on the company. At the beginning I told Emma that I was unable to focus on her query at that specific moment, but would make sure that tomorrow I would have more time to talk through her holiday requests. My priority was checking the monthly payroll.

The task was set by my General Manager and I had only till the end of the day to check it. I need to have enough time to thoroughly check the payroll as if there are any mistakes I need to create a report with all the faults found and send it to the HR manager to investigate. Adding new staff to the system was my second priority. The staff’s data did not go live until the week after and therefore was lacking any real pressure in terms of time, and the system we use is simple and straight-forward. Nevertheless, it took priority over Emma in case there were mistakes that would later delay this important and timely process. As stated, Emma was my last priority because her query was not as pressing as the previous two. However, I still made her feel important and valued by informing her that I would have everything ready for the meeting the next day.

Effective Communication
Effective communication is important in every work place. It is essential for employees to build the appropriate level of trust and understanding, to help create strong working relationships and therefore solve any arising problems with more ease. The three most common ways to communicate in my company are: Face to face. The most efficient and common within my role, it is used when I want to delegate jobs to staff members, within team meetings etc. This type of communication cannot be ignored and is particularly successful in motivating staff to do their jobs effectively. Although sometimes face-to-face can be difficult and cause problems; when dealing with a difficult situation it is sometimes hard to stay calm or always see eye-to-eye. Emotions can become visible which may cloud communication and further exasperate an event. E-mails. These are used on a regular basis.
Most contact with external customers is through e-mail and so we need to make sure they are always answered swiftly. They are easy, effectively free and a very fast form of communication. For my internal customers I use an e-mail service for sending out rotas and other staff requests, therefore it is important to check it daily.

Unfortunately, sometimes e-mails may be misread and people could feel offended by its content due to miscommunication. Also, some messages may be misplaced and sent to a customer’s ‘spam’ folder and therefore treated as unsent and ignored, causing negative experiences. Feedback Forms. A very popular method that is used for one-to-one meetings, probation reviews and appraisals. These forms provide to customers a clear and concise outline of their positive/negative behaviour, and acknowledge, with their line manager, what kind of changes need to be made, creating a clear plan that could help with their development. Feedback can also help staff feel appreciated and increase their self-esteem. A disadvantage of feedback forms may be the subjective nature of feedback (as anyone within the management team can choose to provide a form without first going through any procedures or checks) leaving open the possibility of personal opinions clashing with a customer’s work ethic.

Effective Service Delivery
To be able to meet all customer needs the company should have an effective service delivery. Good working relationships and team work should be key to creating a good service delivery for our customers. Everyday I have to deliver satisfactory service on time. Whether it is with our external customers by replying to their e-mails or phone calls on a daily basis or for my internal customers when writing rotas and meeting deadlines set by Management or Head Office. It is essential for a HR practitioner to be able to deliver a service within a timely manner because that will help build trust with customers. Delivering a service on budget is essential in my work place as I have to deal with it on a daily basis. I am mostly responsible for payroll and, within my company, payroll is the biggest controlling cost. Every week we have to schedule staff according to expected business levels. On top of this, everyday we have to control our forecast and act accordingly to set hours, which may include sending staff home when it is quiet or calling more people in when it is busy. Dealing with difficult customers and handling complaints is not easy, especially external ones.

Whenever I have to deal with one I am always focused, listen to the person’s complaint, apologise for the problem and try to explain why certain situation have happened. I’m always trying to put myself in their position and empathise with them. Sometimes just explaining things may resolve the problem because a customer may not understand something, be confused or simply be agitated and in need of assistance. I asses the situation and decide how best to resolve it (whether with a mere apology or free guest passes etc). If the customer is still not happy with the outcome and would like the complaint to go further, I pass the situation onto head office to be dealt with more formally. When handling and resolving complains it is important to stay calm, communicate and be aware how serious the complaint is. Sometimes is okay to to resolve it in an informal one-to-one meeting but if it’s something serious like Gross Misconduct, then the complaint must be dealt with formally which could result in dismissal.

Looking at the Associate Membership criteria I would need to develop ‘practical and technical HR knowledge’ and ‘collating, analysing and interpreting data’. These two areas stand out the most from the associated membership criteria because I know I could develop these skills better throughout my personal development plan and become a more skilled HR practitioner. Learning more about practical and technical HR knowledge will expand my awareness and make me a more rounded, proficient professional. And learning how to properly collate, analyse and interpret data is something I have yet to really learn and so will give me a crucial grounding for further development. In order to be able to grow within developing practical and technical HR knowledge I would have to gain a lot of experience by shadowing my HR manager and fellow colleagues. In my organisation it is very important to know as much as possible about the human resources department because we do not have many people on site with HR skills.

After learning about HR development I could focus on one or two key areas, such as disciplinary procedures or maternity leave, which would add key areas of knowledge to my current HR capabilities. I believe that developing yourself practically and technically is essential for an individual who wants to become a good HR practitioner within his/her company as this is a core grounding to any career in HR. Collating, analysing and interpreting data is connected to developing practical and technical knowledge within my HR area. By getting support from my line managers I can be trained in creating weekly analyses of all payroll reports such as sickness submissions, lateness tracker and breaks. That skill would teach me how to work on our workforce payroll and I would get to know the rules and disciplinary procedures. With that in mind, I would be able to implement visible data and make staff responsible for their absences.

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is a “combination of approaches, ideas and techniques that will help you manage your own learning and growth”, focusing “firmly on results – the benefits that professional development can bring you in the real world” (CIPD website). It can be defined as a life-long learning project that describes the actions of an individual professional who is continuously planning, managing, reviewing and developing his/her skills within their professional or private life. The main aspect of CPD is the Personal Development Plan (PDP) which is structured to help and support individuals to be able to plan and organise their objectives or values in their personal or career development. It identifies what skills and knowledge you need to develop to progress further.

I believe that CPD is important to me and my organisation because it gives me and my employer a chance to grow and progress within my career. It sets clear objectives and provides an opportunity to widen any knowledge and skills which are important to succeed within the organisation. By planning my PDP I am able to understand my strengths and weaknesses and learn how to improve them day by day. It keeps me interested therefore I feel motivated and positive. The company can also benefit from having the structure of CPD in place as it helps the company move forward by having motivated and happy personnel, as well as better working relationships due to managers spending more time with staff through one-to-one meetings and appraisals.

The two options that I chose from my personal development plan are having practical and technical HR knowledge and completion of my CIPD course. Personally, advantages of having practical and technical HR knowledge would be the ability to implement my new skills on site and be able to use more of my own initiative on day to day basis. By shadowing my HR manager and having support from my head office team I would be able to learn about all procedures very quickly. In having those skills I would know how to run the HR department and by doing so I would be very well prepared for HR audits. The only disadvantage for this area would be time organisation, in making sure I can travel to London (and therefore needing cover) and that my HR manager has time to coach me, although this would only be for a set amount of time.

The reason why I chose to study an online CIPD course is because I wanted to get my qualification while I was still working a full-time job. It provides great flexibility and no daily travel saves a lot of time and money. I find studying online is less stressful than face-to-face college as it allows me to work within my on surroundings and at a pace I am comfortable with. All lessons are available via a website and the tutors are always quick in responding to e-mails. A disadvantage to studying online is the lack of visible pressure from tutors to push me to work between my regular weekly shifts at work, although this at least helps improve my self-motivational skills.

Explain why effective communicating in developing positive relationships is important

Explain why effective communicating in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults is important

Effective communication is important with children because it helps them to feel valued. It shows them that their interests and opinions are listened to. When we listen and communicate with children, this gives them more self-confidence and it also helps to increase their self-esteem, both of these being so important for their future. The child we are communicating with needs to feel at ease and be given the opportunity to communicate back with comfort and confidence.

Children need to have role models, they need to understand that these people eg.teachers , classroom assistants or school principles must be listened too, respected and obeyed. Communicating clearly with children (either giving orders or simply praising them) helps to establish this, and in return, hopefully you will built trust and respect. This is vital if a child needs to confide in us regarding aspects of their life which may be troubling them. Eg bullying, family life or maybe having negative feeling.

As children slowly learn how to respect you, it should help to develop how they communicate with others. It allows them to develop and reach their maximum potential as they learn how to exchange information.

Relationship problems can develop when there is a lack of communication, or don’t have the skills to communicate effectively. These skills include: good listening skills using the word “I” eg I would like you to tell me ………. using the child’s name – this makes things more personal speaking in an even tone using short sentences giving short and clear instructions open body language

We can communicate in different ways:
-The way we speak – tone of voice, clarity etc
-Gestures – pointing, hand movements etc
-Body language – arms folded etc
-Facial expressions – angry, smiling etx

Effective communication is important for the smooth running of any situation.

Effective Counseling

his research paper discusses the qualities that are necessary for an effective counseling and as such any counselor considered effective must posses them. The paper has a separate discussion of both personal and professional qualities required for any good counselor. The personal qualities form a larger part of the discussion because the professional qualities depend wholly on the individual characteristics since professional qualities alone can’t qualify a counselor but effective personal qualities alone can make a good counselor. The main objectives of this paper is to set pace for subsequent studies on the area of effective counseling but more importantly, the paper is aimed at giving insight to practicing counselors and individuals who have the ambition of taking guidance and counseling as a career. Through learning the qualities necessary for effective counseling, individuals can exercise them and build their career to reputable and professional counselors.

Personal and Professional Qualities Necessary for an Effective Counselor

Counseling is process whose main objective is to help other individuals make better choices of their lives and make them better decision makers of present alternatives (Gladding, 2008). The counselor qualities involve those attributes that will help in forming working counseling relationships as well as building proper intervention programs that will help clients change their thinking, perceptions, attitudes and feelings. The guidance and
counseling profession has called for the possession of both personal and professional characteristics that are necessary for admission into the guidance and counseling activities as well as evaluate the performance of the individuals under the counseling program.

Whiston (2009) notes that effective counselors always strive to know the condition(s) of their clients and how they can be solved. A good counselor should therefore have a positive and unconditional view of the recovery of the client. Once the understanding has been reached then a progressive counseling relationship is established. This personal quality of the counselors form the basis through which individuals under the counseling programme can freely express their experiences, thoughts and acceptance of their emotions. This quality has some professional elements in that the counselor must demonstrate openness in this relationship as well as creating a comfortable, safe and confidential environment for the client which is a sign that the counselor is dedicated to support, encourage and help.

An effective counselor should not be over judgmental in trying to win the trust of the client in the counseling relationship (Gladding, 2008). This quality provides the client the environment necessary to disclose all the information that is needed in the counseling program. By being less judgmental, the counselor will give room for a client to express their personalities and improve on the friendly atmosphere and attitude so that the counseling process can grow. Additionally, body language is very important quality that helps individuals to express their feeling towards other people. Using the right posture, maintaining a timed eye contact as well as giving the client personal space is crucial to conveying the warmth that the counselor has to the counseling process and to the client (Whiston, 2009). The way the counselor speaks must also conform to his/her body language so that the client can have reassurance of the actuality of the counselor

Extending appropriate respect and value of a client is very crucial for an effective counseling program. An effective counselor will express a positive acceptance of the client so that disclosure of information is total
as well as improve free interaction. This respect will enable a counselor explore chances for change and provide accepted and genuine attention and caring. More importantly, effective counselors should respect themselves first before expecting the same to be extended by others. This can be done through building strong realistic and self worth virtues as well as receiving and giving support to others. They shouldn’t isolate themselves or have any sense of self destructiveness. Furthermore, effective counselor must first know who they are and what they are capable of doing concerning guidance and counseling before they get to know their clients. They should have clear goals of what they want o achieve in their line of career by a clear sense of values and priorities that are very important in attending individuals who actually need counseling such as drug addicts and family violence victims.

Effective counselors must recognize the limits of their power especially influential and convincing powers because they may compromise the effectiveness of a counseling program thus they should be able to tame their power (Whiston, 2009). However, effective counselors do not use their power for their own gain but to help and support the clients in the best reform procedures. On the other hand, Gladding (2008) confirm that effective counselors must always be in touch with themselves especially when dealing with clients who present the same experiences as those of the counselor. In such cases the counselor will give his/her side of experiences then compare with those of the client then come up with a conclusively recovery program. Effective counselors are always responsive to change in methods they use to address counseling and guidance issues of their clients. Other notable personal qualities of an effective counselor may include toleration of ambiguities from the client, considering things from other peoples perspectives especially the client, being active in all processes involved in a counseling program as well as being present oriented and not dwelling so much on the past to solve current problems.

Education in psychology or related field is considered an important professional quality that counselor must posses. However, a degree or certificate in this field doesn’t make an individual an effective counselor
but the integration of this knowledge into real life experiences that are causes of many social problems that require attention of a counselor. Good educated counselors will always strive to learn more about themselves and others. Experience is another professional quality of an effective counselor which can be two fold. First the experience attained from the guidance and counseling career is very important in making an effective counselor. On the other hand, life experiences present an individual with chances to grow to a more complete person which is also a necessary quality for effective counseling. Practice is part of experience and is a more practical quality that effective counselor must possess. Adequate training in the field of counseling through organized forums, conferences and workshops are necessary to perform an effective counseling. Counselors should always seek jobs that will provide useful helping skills that are crucial in counseling programmes.

Counseling is a long procedure similar to problem solving and decision making process. As such effective counselors must be conversant with all the steps that are involved in solving a problem. Identification of a case that needs attention is the first analytical skill that counselors must possess. This skill will help them in identifying who needs counseling guidance. Problem identification skills will help the counselors understand the nature of the difficulties that the client faces. Then, an effective counselor will go ahead to diagnosis the problem to determine what could be the cause then prognosis skills can be used to determine various alternatives for the identifies problems. Healing or repairing the psychological problems faced by clients is done here then evaluation skills will be used to follow up the performance of the counseling program.

From this paper, for an individual to be considered an effective counselor, he/she must posses a great combination of both personal and professional qualities. All these activities revolve around developing the correct attitude towards the clients to make the counseling process successful. This will lead to a good relationship with the clients as well as building a concrete rapport builds thus a firm foundation to the counseling process because it demonstrates legitimacy in the counseling process.


Gladding, S. (2008). Counselling: A comprehensive Profession. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall

Whiston, S. (2009). Prinples and Applications of Assessment in Counseling. Belmont: Cengage Learning