Arabizi Effects on the Arabic language

I. Introduction:

Whenever you walk at the campus of the American University of Sharjah, you will undoubtedly find the young Arab women put on stylish Western dresses as nicely as the Arab boys wear stylish Western clothes. And even college students with extra conservative attire seem extra Western than Eastern. No matter how younger Arab folks put on or appear to be nowadays, they even tend to be completely different within the language they use in typing and communicating. There is a widespread linguistic phenomenon that tremendously encroaches their lives and finally leads them to put in writing in an uncommon language.

This language is well-known these days among Arabs particularly the youth as “Arabizi”. Arabizi, a slang term derived from the words arabi or Arabic and englizi or English, is used to describe the melding between Arabic and English (Yaghan, 2008). It is a standard contemporary trend for typing that has largely spread amongst younger Arabs who use Arabic numerals and Latin characters to communicate, i.e. “5alas”. Given the linguistic, cultural and social significance that Arabizi has in contemporary society, certainly it is extremely interesting and in addition essential to deeply investigate this phenomenon so as to determine its dimensions, causes and potential consequences.

Questions, controversies and issues have been heavily raised over this issue. Questions like “Why do younger folks use Arabizi?”, “To what extent will it have an result on our language which is a critical element of our Arabic identity?” and so forth have been asked by many specialists and students and even strange individuals. Some customers might imagine it’s helpful and simple to communicate, but in addition others are concerned about how Arabizi can dramatically affect our Arabic language.

Linguistic students particularly are concerned in regards to the severe outcomes of the continuous use of Arabizi in our every day actions that will lead at the finish to the extinction of our language. Therefore, this paper will investigate the effects of Arabizi on the Arabic language as a major part of identification focusing on students from the American University of Sharjah.

II. Literature Review:

Technology and Language

Arabizi could additionally be thought-about as a new phenomenon in contemporary society; nevertheless, its origin goes back to the mid-1990s with the introduction of know-how (Warschauer, 2002). Technology that was alleged to convert the world into a world village eradicating all borders among individuals, in reality labored reversely in categorizing individuals as nicely as international locations into haves and have nots (Warschauer, 2002). That is that if a product is made within the United Kingdom or the United States, it’s up to the consumer whether to adapt to English or determine not to use the product at all. Dr. David Wilmsen, a professor of Arabic at the American University of Beirut that has written comprehensively on linguistics, considers cellphone because the critical Western product that created Arabizi within the Arab world (Salhani, 2013). According to Dr. Wilmsen, when mobile phones had been firstly introduced to the Arab world, they had been very costly and keyboards got here with Latin characters. Elites who might afford it, communicated through messages simply in English.

However as a result of growing demand, cellphones became inexpensive and owned by virtually everyone. Those individuals won’t know English but they wanted to make use of the simplicity of the English keyboard on their mobile phones and the result was Arabizi (Salhani, 2013). Although cell phones and other technological means are supplied nowadays with Arabic keyboards, Arabs still don’t use it and prefer to write in Latin characters. Bruna Kesserwani, the Middle East Regional Director of the World Youth Alliance, on a personal side finds it easier to write in Arabizi in spite of utilizing both Arabic and English in workplace and every day life. However, Kesserwani strongly believes that Arabizi might need severe cultural and linguistic consequences (Salhani, 2013). Education System and Language The impression of Arab’s over-reliance on English-based know-how has affected many different crucial aspects of Arab society. As Warschauer explained throughout his guide, university-level courses that are taught in English are expanding nowadays to further include different linguistic programs similar to Arabic.

Consequently, dad and mom are pressured to register their youngsters in English-based faculties so they can afford a good job sooner or later and maintain a high status in society (2002). However, this want for upward social mobility has led to “cultural-linguistic dualism” (Findlow, 2006). Therefore, Arab youth can converse, interact and even live with a linguistic combination of Arabic and English. However, this phenomenon can lead us to recognize these dramatic ideas “language death”, “language loss”, “language decay” and even “linguistic genocide”, which convey the growing concerns about the future of the Arabic language (Findlow, 2006). Education has a critical position to play within the discourse of how the Arabic language is quickly disappearing from new generations’ lives and closely displaced by English.

Schools these days within the Middle East adopt English as the major language of teaching and as a consequence they’re educating Arabic to Arab students as a foreign language: usually one hour a day (Dhabi, 2004). According to Dr. Saiyad Ahmad, assistant professor of Eastern Studies at the American University of Sharjah, “most Arab youth don’t know their language”. He highlighted the crucial responsibility of the training system in maintaining the Arabic culture and heritage. According to him, “nowadays, if someone doesn’t know English, they’re seen as uneducated … individuals have forgotten different methods and means of thinking”. “We have successfully lost our authenticity … our concepts aren’t our own, however are imported like other products,” he added (El Darawy, 2005).

Personal Justifications for Using Arabizi

To assess the function of Arabizi in up to date society, there may be an inherent have to deeply reply the query “why young people nowadays use Arabizi?” In a study carried out by Dr. Mohammad Yaghan, a gaggle of high school students have been asked about their causes and justifications for using Arabizi of their every day lives. One of the reasons was that teenagers these days find Arabizi a trend in which they wish to belong to and by that way they’ll blend simply with comparable group members. Other students believed that classical Arabic letters should be used for academic functions but not for slang. Also, college students defined how Arabizi is beneficial in expressing points that cannot be expressed otherwise in classical Arabic letters. Economics is another major purpose of utilizing Arabizi, since the variety of characters allowed in a message written in English is much larger than that in Arabic. Last however not least, participants expressed their desire of Arabizi over pure Arabic or English as it’s a flexible system, not taught and free of errors (Yaghan, 2008).

In addition, many Arabs feel that Arabic could be very sophisticated and therefore they needed to combine their mom tongue with English to create Arabizi which is somehow easier in communication (Salhani, 2013). In an interview carried out with faculty students on the American University in Cairo asking about their logic for using Arabizi as a means of communication with their pals, students emphasized two main points. Firstly, they explained how Arabic restricts them from discussing everyday subjects and however how melding Arabic and English allow them to speak freely about their daily issues. Secondly, they illustrated how snug they really feel after they use Arabizi to talk about taboos and different points that can’t be expressed in Arabic corresponding to sex (Yaghan, 2008).

Not solely young Arab people have justifications and causes for using Arabizi, but in addition elder people do have their own defense for using it. Those young individuals who use Arabizi will quickly graduate and get jobs, but they may even transfer with them their own means of typing and communicating. Ali Nasser, a 24 12 months old worker, sees no problems in utilizing Arabizi. He considers Arabizi as a sound technique of communication in emailing different co-workers and speaking inside the group. Furthermore, he believes that Arabic is troublesome for typing and expressing the self and other on a regular basis subjects. Personally, he doesn’t see any indication that Arabizi weakens his Arabic, however somewhat people are over romanticized about this matter (Ghanem, 2011).

The Internet and Arabizi

The web and on-line usage of language reveal how sophisticated the problem is. A examine on younger internet customers in Egypt was carried out by Mark Warschauer, a professor on the University of California, Ph.D. in Education program and founding director of UCI’s Digital Learning Lab, to discover out which language they use on the internet. The study discovered that Arabic was rarely used on the internet, but somewhat a combination of Arabic and English was commonly used by the participants. This “Romanized Arabic” as Warschauer known as it, was heavily utilized in casual emails and on-line chatting. According to Warschauer, this phenomenon gave its users a new universe during which they can freely talk about different non secular and political topics, due to the absence of an specific authoritarian censorship in a context the place informality was the premise (Attwa, 2012).

In one other research performed in Egypt, Singapore and Hawai’i, online language use was analyzed to look at webs of interrelationships. The study concluded that in a world where English is the dominant language, there is a main contradiction between international networks and local identities (Warschauer, 2002). This major online presence in younger Arab people’s lives can have major consequences on their perception system and language which is a critical element of their identity. A research on know-how and youth at the University of Melbourne confirmed that communication applied sciences strongly empower younger folks to create and preserve a sense of identification, energy and unity (Carroll, Howard, Vetere, Peck & Murphy, 2001). Since this created id is the finish result of complex digital interactions, then the required language for communication is what forms the user’s id (Markham, 2008). Therefore, when Arab youth choose to construct their Arabic language with Latin letters, they create their very own linguistic identification in the greatest way they need to symbolize themselves to the whole world (Markham, 2008).

In a study intended to analyze the impression of the web within the Arab world, Arabs’ perceptions and opinions in regards to the affect of the internet on their belief system, language and id have been deeply investigated. It confirmed that nearly all of well-educated Arabs are involved that their inherited social norms are harmed by the web and other new applied sciences. They also indicated their annoyance about Arabizi as a risk to their language as nicely as their identification (Loch, Straub, & Kamel, 2003). However, all people in addition to nations kowtow to modern expertise in all its varieties which shapes their beliefs, behaviors and actions (Brette, 2003).

Not solely know-how customers have opinions and thoughts about this matter, but additionally people who discover themselves in position to have an result on how the Arabic language can be utilized on the internet have their very own factors of view. According to Fayeq Oweis, supervisor of the Arabic localisation staff at Google, “Arabic is a thriving language and can be adapted to fashionable technology” (Al Tamimi, 2012, para.1). Oweis believes that there are principally three risks that threaten the Arabic language within the Arab world. The first is utilizing overseas terminologies despite the existence of Arabic synonyms. The second is writing Arabic however using international characters, which is heavily and commonly used on the internet. The third is together with totally different dialects within the sentence.

In Oweis’s opinion, the best way to avoid these three threats is to use right and proper Arabic not only in on a regular basis use or formal communication, but additionally in the know-how subject (Al Tamimi, 2012). In order to put this answer into practice, Google has launched “Google Ta3reeb” in 2009 (Al Tamimi, 2012). This program came out because of the growing use of Arabizi on the internet, so it mechanically translates Arabizi into classical Arabic. Therefore, Google is significantly contributing to the survival of the Arabic language by preserving its existence on the web.

Arabizi and Identity

An extremely important query imposes itself on the scene, whether or not Arabizi negatively impacts our language and identity or it simply finds a widespread ground to unite Arabs in all places. According to a study carried out in order to investigate what Arabs take into consideration the impact of Arabizi on their Arab id, customers affirmed that Arabizi does not negatively have an effect on their id as Arabs, however quite it helps them discovering a common floor in which they will easily belong to (Abdel-Ghaffar, N., et al, 2011). However, Abdel-Ghaffar discovered that Arabizi doesn’t facilitate the communication process among Arabs however somewhat it makes it vaguer, inconsistent and misunderstood in plenty of cases (Abdel-Ghaffar, N., et al, 2011).This is because Arabizi users use Arabic numerals mixed with the closest English counterpart to express what they need to talk. For instance, the ط may be represented with “6” or “t”, which creates inconsistency in communication (Attwa, 2012). Therefore, Abdel-Ghaffar suggested that using Arabic letters is the most effective, consistent and overall the clearest means for communication in Arabic (Abdel-Ghaffar, N., et al, 2011).

Many Arabs think about Arabizi as a significant threat or perhaps a war in opposition to the Arabic language and they are concerned that it will additional weaken the language or even replace it within the close to future. Some Arabs even believe that if young Arab folks continued to use Arabizi transferring it to the following generations, the Arab world may be imagined with out Arabic language in few a long time. According to Miral Dibawy, a college graduate and addicted user of Arabizi, Arabizi has weakened her Arabic language and he or she even needs to put in writing firstly in Arabizi after which translate it whether in Arabic or English (Ghanem, 2011). On the opposite hand, Dina Jamal, a college student, doesn’t use Arabizi although all friends do because she strongly considers it as a major menace to the Arabic language (Ghanem, 2011). Also, Taiba Al-Amoudi, an Arabic trainer, argued that Arabizi was severely affecting her students’ linguistic abilities (Ghanem, 2011).

In order to determine the extent to which Arabizi can really have an effect on our language and identity, we ought to always undoubtedly contemplate Edward Said case which is to some extent just like what the Arab youth experiences these days. Said represented the problem of getting unsettled identification since he was raised in a bicultural household, uncertain about which language or which identification he ought to more belong to (Said, 1999). This description of Said’s conflicting childhood in reality displays today’s younger Arab people, since they’re enrolled in English-based faculties however they communicate at home principally in Arabic. Thus, they wish to combine these two different languages collectively to characterize themselves in a means that satisfies their wants (Kramsch, 2000).

III. Research Question:

Based on secondary data and one other main analysis, survey, the focus of this paper is to deeply examine the results of utilizing Arabizi on the Arabic language. The major analysis was performed at the American university of Sharjah, so as to reveal and decide the scale of this matter. Thus, the following research questions needed to be investigated:

RQ1: What are the students’ motives to use Arabizi?

RQ2: How do college students perceive Arabizi and its results on the Arabic language? RQ3: How does students’ proficiency in Arabic relate to the utilization of Arabizi? RQ4: How does students’ high school system relate to the usage of Arabizi? Therefore, the impartial variables are highschool background, proficiency in Arabic, age, gender and nationality. And the dependent variable is the use of Arabizi.

IV. Methodology:

1. Participants

This research was restricted to investigate participants from completely different ages, genders, schools and nationalities at the American University of Sharjah. The sampling technique that was used to decide out participants in this research project was a simple random pattern. The number of members was one hundred fifty AUS students (N= 150). The ages of members in this examine range from 17 to 26 years old and the average ranged from 20-22 years (Appendix 1). The gender ratio is 1:1, so seventy five males and seventy five females participated on this study. Participants had been chosen from the following out there schools at the American University of Sharjah: College of Arts and Sciences (CAS), College of Architecture, Arts and Design (CAAD), College of Engineering (CEN) and SBM (School of Business and Management). The last psychographic high quality that was studied on this project is nationality. Nationalities have been divided into the following 4 classes: 1) GCC Countries, 2) Al Sham Countries, 3) North Africa and 4) Other. The objective of this categorization is to realize simplicity. Participants from Al Sham nations made up 50% of the participants (Appendix 2).

2. Procedure:

This primary analysis project was carried out through distributing printed surveys among AUS students throughout one week (from June 30th to July 7th 2013). Our main objective for this project was to randomly gather unbiased, rational and representative information. The data was collected from the Chemistry Building, Nab, Library, Student Center, Guys’ dorms and women’s dorms. It took round 10 minutes for participants to finish the survey. After the information was collected, we used the beneficial ‘IBM SSPS Statistics Software’ to analyze the collected data. This software was very helpful for the analytical and the reporting process that is mainly because of the a quantity of integrated modules that we could simply use to get precise and precise stories. We had been able to get accurate representation as nicely as attain reliable outcomes for our survey findings. In addition, due to the number of the supplied options in this software program, we had been in a place to get a full representative picture of the results via descriptive statistics and lots of other statistical representations.

3. Measure:

For the measurement course of, we used the Likert scale as an effective, consultant and accurate method. This scale provides respondents with the following 5 degrees of settlement: Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. It quantifies the responses and allows for mathematical analysis. Also, it allows members to reply with a versatile diploma of agreement as an alternative of forcing them to take a decided place. The collected data from this scale was simply and precisely used to create charts that symbolize how opinions are distributed across the population. Moreover, it permits for comparisons between and among the founded results. The Likert scale was used with the following questions: “Do you feel that Arabizi helps you specific your self extra clearly?”, “In my interactions with others, I typically do you mix English and Arabic?”, “Some folks think that speaking in Arabizi, makes its customers appear smarter?” and “I imagine the use of Arabizi will negatively affect my proficiency in Arabic?”.

V. Results:
Descriptive Statistics

Std. Deviation
HighSchool of participant
Arabic proficiency of participant
Arabizi makes participant smarter
Arabizi negatively affects Arabic
Age of participant
Paticipants College Year
Participants uses Arabizi with individuals who don’t communicate English or Arabic 150
Collage of participant
Gender of participants
Participant mixes English and Arabic
Use of Arabizi makes clearer
Participants use Arabizi
MotherTongue of participant
Nationality of participant
Valid N (listwise)

Figure 1.1: Descriptive Statistics of a hundred and fifty surveys

Figure 1.2: Participants really feel Arabizi express them clearer

Figure 1.3: Participants Mix of English and Arabic

Figure 1.4: Arabic proficiency of participants

Figure 1.5: Relation between High faculty and use of Arabizi of participants

Figure 1.6: Arabizi negatively affects Arabic

VI. Discussion:

The outcomes of the survey of one hundred fifty members were not surprising as they relate to the discoveries of previous researches and findings referred in the literature evaluation. To begin with, the desk above contains the descriptive statistics of the a hundred and fifty members (Figure 1.1). For occasion, the imply respond concerning the question of “Does Arabizi makes you are feeling smarter?, is 3.4133. Since the variable 3 is impartial and four is disagree, then the higher half was kind of inside that run. The same procedure is valid to every query. Regarding the analysis question expressed in part III, the question states; “Do you feel Arabizi helps you specific your self extra clearly?” is replied by way of the pie define in Figure 1.2. More than 36.7% of the members demonstrated that they use Arabizi in their day by day communication because it helps in speaking their statements. The minimum picked reply, which just included 4.7% of the individuals, was on the grounds that the person they’re conversing with can’t comprehend Basic English. This share indicates that youngsters and youth are adapting more to using Arabizi of their day by day interactions greater than ever before.

The discoveries of this pie graph are parallel to what Ghanem (2011) found in her interviews with school scholars. Indeed, Bruna Kesserwani said the identical factor (Salhani, 2013). Figure 1.three and figure 1.5 illustrates the participant’s response to mixing English and Arabic of their daily interactions according to their schooling. The outcomes which are delineated within the determine indicated that virtually all of members come from English-based academic system. Then again, to evade misconceptions, the degree of each high school foundation was figured. For the individuals who went to an Arabic-based highschool, the proportion of members discovering Arabizi express their ideas more clearly it is under 20% which approximately (=0.15). For the people who went to an English-based high school the diploma is above 80% which (=0.85). The dispersion of each degrees is exceptionally far from one another with nearly 0.7 contrasts, which is high.

The third query, “How do individuals characterize their proficiency in Arabic?” is diagramed in Figure 1.four. It signifies that the capability of a participant in Arabic dialect is establish with the apply of using Arabizi. The people who appraised themselves as phenomenal in Arabic had the most astounding degree of individuals who likewise mentioned that they don’t use Arabizi; so they manage every dialect as its personal specific. Moreover, participates who evaluated themselves with Average or above average within the language proficiency had a particularly skinny rate of people who don’t use Arabizi; the bigger half whose Arabic proficiency is beneath average makes use of it. This comes to simply accept that one’s capability in Arabic does affect his/her use of Arabizi. This comes as an inseparable unit with data addressed in determine in 1.5 with respect to the excessive school educational system of participants.

One could go to an English-based highschool, however be extremely distinctive at Arabic from his/her associates or any exterior components, which makes him/her barely Arabizi and contemplate it as a lifestyle habit. The fourth query addressed in determine 1.6 whether or not individuals believed Arabizi will negatively affect their proficiency in Arabic. It showed that fifty members and above are neutral about it, they don’t imagine that the usage of Arabizi will negatively affect their proficiency degree of the Arabic language. In distinction, 35 individuals imagine that Arabizi can kind a threat to the Arabic language utilization amongst youth and teenagers. Furthermore, round 9 individuals don’t imagine that Arabizi is inflicting any risk to the language. These findings are constant with the Warschauer’s thoughts, as he believes that this phenomenon will result in the demise and loss of the Arabic language.

The final two questions have been addressed when members were requested about their opinions “If Arabizi threatens the existence of Arabic language?”. Therefore, many of the participant’s responses had been balanced between supporting the assertion and rejecting the assertion. For occasion a feminine participant clarifies her opinion saying, “No, it doesn’t as a result of Arabic nonetheless exists as a spoken language, it’s just the form that is changing”. Another Female contradicts with that opinion saying, “I strongly disagree, as a end result of it’s a common language amongst all Arabs”. Females’ responses differed from males’ ones, for instance; a male participant who wrote unordinary response “ no, it will help us study new phrases from both languages” while other male expressed a suggestion “ merely, enrich and enlarge the areas of Arabic language usage, also encourage people to make use of it”. The differentiations of female and male opinions ranged between 17 to 22 years demonstrates to what extreme the language is necessary to the participant and to what extent it pertains to his/her identity as an Arab.

On the contrary, the survey shows massive enough rations of unexpected responses that mirror the notice of participants to the existence of Arabic language. The second question was “why do you use Arabizi?” Generally, most respondents mentioned that they use it as a end result of it’s fashionable and far easier to make use of. A male participant said “it helps me use each the expressions from Arabic and English to specific myself extra vividly” another male explains why he makes use of Arabizi saying “due to the dearth of apply of utilizing Arabic letters”. On the other hand, females had other explanation why they use Arabizi “it makes texting sooner, sure regional accents cannot be typed in formal Arabic language”. Our interpretation of Arabic language from the analysis of those two questions revealed the opinions of individuals including women and men and where they see the Arabic language position in their lives. The responses of respondents and our interpretation matches Dr. Mohammad Yaghan group study when he asked students about their causes of using Arabizi. One of the reasons that teenagers use it is that they discover it a trend to which they would like to belong.

VII. Conclusion:

This analysis has multiple helpful and worthy implications. It added to the reasons of utilizing Arabizi. Also, it revealed participants’ own beliefs and thoughts about the consequences of using this fashion of typing. Furthermore, it confirmed the correlation between the school system and the use of Arabizi. This research project was carefully accomplished to achieve its targets. However, there have been some inevitable shortcomings and limitations. One of these limitations was the time. Since we had limited time in the course of the short summer season course, we performed our major research all through solely two weeks. If we had extra time, we could ask and survey extra number of individuals to enhance the generalizability of the results.

Secondly, the designed survey for this project was somehow lengthy which led some individuals to skip or ignore open questions. Thirdly, that data we entered in IBM SPSS Statistics Software have been done manually. Thus, it is subject to human error. Another limitation is the place. We distributed surveys to solely AUS students, so the answers can’t be generalized to any other places. The recommended future analysis of this project is to deeply examine the influence of parents or the old technology on the use of Arabizi by the youth. Recently, this topic is doubtless certainly one of the top controversial issues that need to be significantly investigated to determine its dimensions.

VIII. References:

Abdel-Ghaffar, N., et al. (2011), Arabizi or romanization: the dilemma of writing Arabic
texts. Jil Jadid Conference. University of Texas, Austen.
Attwa, M. (2012). Arabizi: A writing selection value learning? An exploratory examine of the views of international learners of Arabic on Arabizi. American University in Cairo. Arabic Language Institute eleven. Retrived from Al Tamimi, J. (2012, March 7) An Arabic speaker with a deep passion for his mother tongue, Gulf News. Retrieved from Brette, O. (2003). Thorstein Veblen’s principle of institutional change: Beyond technological

determinism. European Journal History of Economic Thought, 10(3), 455-477. Carroll, J., Howard, S., Vetere, F., Peck, J., & Murphy, J. (2001). Identity, power and fragmentation in cyberspace: Technology appropriation by younger individuals. Interaction Design Group, Department of Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, 1-10. Dahbi, M. (2004). English and Arabic after 9/11. The Modern Language Journal, 88(4), 628-

El Darawy, N. (2005, July 16) Death of a language, Gulf News. Retrieved from

Findlow, S. (2006). Higher education and linguistic dualism within the Arab Gulf. British Journal
of Sociology of Education 27(1), 19-36.
Ghanem, R. (2011), Arabizi is destroying the Arabic language, Arab News. Retreievd from
Kramsch, C. (2000). Language and culture (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (pp.8-14). Loch, K, Straub, D. & Kamel, S. (2003). Diffusing the Internet within the Arab world: The function of
social norms and technological culturaltion. IEEE Transactions on Engineering
5(1), 45-63.
Markham, A. N. (2008). The methods, politics, and ethics of representation in online
ethnography. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and interpreting
qualitative supplies (3rd ed., pp. 247-283).
Said, E. (1999). Out of place: A memoir. New York, NY: Knopf. (Ch. 1) Warschauer, M. (2002). The Internet and linguistic pluralism. In I. Snyder (Ed.), Silicon literacies: Communication, innovation and training within the electronic age London: Routledge. (pp. 62-74). Yaghan, A. M. (2008). “Arabizi”: A contemporary fashion of Arabic slang. Design

Issues 24(2), 39-52. Retrieved from

IX. Appendix:

YOUR ID_______________ Your Name ( optional) ________________
“Arabizi” is a slang term (slang: vernacular, well-liked casual speech) describing a system of writing Arabic using English characters. (Example: ya3ni)

1. What type of excessive school did you go to?

Private School
Public School
2. What is your mom tongue?

3. Do you use Arabizi dialy ?

Most of the times
four. Do you are feeling that Arabizi helps you express yourself extra clearly?

Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree
5. How do you characterize your proficiency in Arabic?:

Above Average
Below Average
6. In my interactions with others, I usually do you mix English and Arabic?

Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
7. Are you used to Arabizi to an extent that you use it even with people who do not essentially speak Arabic or English?

O Yes
O No

8. Some individuals assume that speaking in Arabizi, makes its customers seem smarter?

Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
9.I imagine using Arabizi will negatively affect my proficiency in Arabic?

Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree
10. Some folks suppose that Arabizi threatens the existence of the Arabic language, what’s your opinion? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

11. Can you tell why do you use Arabizi?


12. Gender:

thirteen. Age:
14. College:

Analysis of the Effects of Program 1033 on African Americans


For decades, the subject of policing African Americans (AA) has been a delicate and polarizing subject on the forefront of political rivalry. Studies show that AAs are 2.5 occasions more likely to die by the hands of the police than Caucasians (Edwards) and 4 instances extra more probably to receive drive (Goff 25), although they account for merely 13.4% of national crime. The 2020 democratic debates showed that this issue is as pervasive as ever: the candidates relationships with AAs have largely been outlined by their reputations in policing this demographic group.

From the criticism received by Micheal Bloomberg stemming from the prevalence of “stop and frisk” throughout his tenure to Pete Buttigieg’s “Douglass Plan,” the candidates methods of policing AAs is central to their attraction to voters.

Since 2017, President Trump has lifted the limits placed on the 1033 Program in an effort to additional militarize the PF. Militarization is the government supplying local PFs with army grade tools such as automatic shotguns, rifles, personal carriers, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams (Leiblich 109).

Given the disproportionately large amount of pressure in direction of AAs from police compared to different minority groups and the truth that the neighborhood does not make up a big percentage of nationwide crime, it’s of paramount importance to evaluate whether additional militarizing the PF by way of the 1033 Program is justifiable.

Warrior Mindset

Many lecturers agree that the raise on the 1033 Program by Trump has catalyzed a elementary change in the policing strategy. Jeremiah Mosteller, a felony justice reformer on the revered Charles Koch Institute, affirms that the latest militarization propagates “counterproductive thought patterns” (f).

These counterproductive thought patterns are generally known as the “warrior mindset,” which “emphasizes officer safety and prioritizes crime combating as a legislation enforcement officer’s major mission” (McLean 4). Consequently, this warrior mindset propagated by 1033 Program has instilled a extra aggressive method to policing.

The assertive nature of the warrior mindset disproportionately targets AAs as a end result of it trains cops to be hypersensitive to menace, which cops are most likely to associate to AAs. David A. Harris, the foremost academic in the realm of racial profiling, believes the warrior mindset targets AAs by encouraging officers to act on impulse. In his rationale, Dr. Harris cites a 2004 research within the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology which elucidates that seeing AAs impels a tunnel-vision effect on cops, which promotes officers to be extra conscious of their weapons and on the lookout for crime (Eberhardt 885). Similarly, a 2017 examine by the American Psychological Association states that the explanation black men usually tend to be killed by the police is as a end result of they seemed extra “threatening” (Wilson 59). The essence of Harris’ argument is that although the warrior mindset could also be beneficial for the officer’s survival, it is not in the best interests of AA’s contemplating they’re extra prone to be presumed as threatening. As a outcome, this encourages officers to act on impulse in circumstances that might have otherwise not prompted action.

Conversely, proponents of the warrior ethos plead that 1033 Program is a needed step in promoting officer safety. In his e-book Warrior Mindset: Mental Toughness Skills for a Nation’s Peacekeepers, Dave Grossman argues that the warrior mindset is necessary to fight the growing crime price and police death (Featherstone). The former lieutenant believes violence should be nurtured within the PF with the aspiration to make use of it in a righteous battle. Similarly, Nick Selby, NYPD’s Director of Cyber Intelligence and Investigations, believes warrior training promotes use of applicable drive by helping officers control their worry and responds to lethal threats with precision (Featherstone). Selby, like Grossman, writes in his e-book that the first objective of the warrior ethos is to equip POs with the physical and psychological instruments essential to fight the realities POs should face. Accordingly, these people firmly imagine that the Program 1033 enhances officer safety in a way that other measures merely can’t evaluate.

While these advocates of the warrior mindset provide priceless perception on the justifications of the 1033 Program, the logic they employ is contradicted by current developments and main consultants. The number of POs killed on the job in 2017 reached a high of 171. In the face of emphasis on the 1033 Program , the warrior mindset has been shown to cause extra harm to the officer. In truth, criminal justice professor Kyle McLean discovered that officers who valued the warrior ethos were more doubtless to make use of drive and increase the probabilities of them getting damage (15). Furthermore, Grossman’s claim of officers utilizing violence to fight righteously can be challenged by the idea of the warrior mindset really cultivating worry. In a Harvard Law Review, former police officer Seth Stoughton insists that “officers don’t be taught to be vigilant, attentive, cautious, alert, and observant as a result of it’s enjoyable. They do so because they’re afraid. Fear is ubiquitous within the law force” (227). Sloughten’s passionate plea is a testament to the irony implicit within the warrior mindset: instead of fostering assured officers, militarization engenders a sense of impending terror. This fright leads officers to fear AA’s extra readily, resulting in an increased use of lethal force in course of AA’s.

Community-Oriented Policing

Not only has the recent 1033 Program lead to a warrior mindset and elevated concern in POs, these statutes have simultaneously reversed earlier developments and advancements in community-oriented policing. The elementary ideas guiding community-oriented policing are that regulation enforcement officers construct sustainable partnerships with these they shield, in turn increasing the perceived legitimacy of the police by way of constructive contact between officers and the general public (Diaz 1). According to a 2016 survey (n= 2,188) by the CATO Institute, 58% of AAs consider police using navy equipment is “excessive”. Furthermore, AA’s are 56% extra likely to believe police tactics are too harsh (Ekins). These opinions are main inhibitors of efficient community policing, since they explicitly undermine the primary value that’s fundamental to efficacious policing: belief. Without an underlying sense of belief between the police and their constituencies, the standard of legislation enforcement is perennially sub-par.

The effects of the 1033 Program has had a palpable effect locally, specifically in regards to the dynamics between POs and AAs. Neill Franklin, the manager director of the Law Enforcement Action Partnership, firmly believes the increased militarization has weakened public trust within the police (). In truth, Major Franklin argues that “After spending 34 years as a POs, I’m convinced that the 1033 Program has been one of many single greatest contributors to the common public losing belief in regulation enforcement.” Given the pre-existing delicate relationship between AAs and POs, the diminished sense of trust because of the 1033 Program in AA-dense cities like Baltimore, Maryland and Fergueson, Missouri has the potential to be catastrophic.

A purpose for this could be that POs in AA-predominant cities have a statistically vital lower in perceived authority and legitimacy. According to Susan Howell, a political science professor on the University of New Orleans, due to the weak relationship between AAs and POs, AAs imagine that police fail to supply their communities with “protection from felony elements” and subsequently the authority of the police as an agent of protection is illegitimate (). Because AA’s doesn’t think a PO has the power to inform them what to do, increased resistance is the outcome. If there may be elevated resistance from the AA’s, which cops are already delicate to, POs are extra probably to make use of deadly pressure. This, in turn, has a cyclical effect that leads to continued mistrust, violence, and demise in AAs by the palms of the PF.

In addition to the decreased sense of trust that 1033 Program provokes, elevated militarization additionally systematically eliminates future opportunities for the PF to garner a more positive relationship with AAs. Jonathon Mummolo, a Princeton University professor who makes a speciality of how police tactics impression public perceptions of institutions, believes that “curtailing militarized policing could also be in the curiosity of each police and citizens” (9181). In Mummolo’s research, he ascertained that SWAT groups were more deployed in communities of colour. In fact, his analysis showed that a 10% improve within the number of black residents in a neighborhood in Maryland resulted in a disproportionately large 10.53% improve in the amount of SWAT teams deployed per one hundred,000 residents (9183). As proven, the 1033 Program immediately interferes with community-oriented policing due to the elevated fee at which SWAT groups are deployed in communities of colour. The use of SWAT teams does not enable for POs to reinforce their status, as heavily mobilized artillery arsenals are used as a substitute of the relatively compassionate native police drive. Inherently, this augments the “us versus them” mentality in AAs that’s the impetus for all the pitfalls of the 1033 Program.


The widespread development of militarization of the police force, enacted and endorsed by the present presidential administration via Program 1033, appears to be a catalyst for adverse encounters with AA neighborhood members. As an entire, analysis means that the warrior mindset implicit in 1033 Program has a clear negative impact on the efficacy of legislation enforcement officers, significantly in this demographic group. For the sake of the sanctity of our social institutions and the security of AAs, an alternate strategy based mostly on cultivating belief between cops and their substituents must be rapidly found by police in AA dense regions.

Analysis the Effects of Domestic and Global Free Trade

Analyse the effects of domestic and international free trade and protection policies on the Australian economy

Free commerce is the unrestricted buy and sale of products and companies between countries with out the imposition of protection corresponding to tariffs and quotas. This enables economies to give attention to their core competitive advantage(s), thereby maximizing economic output and fostering earnings development for his or her citizens. Australian exports rose from $66.6 billion in 1990-91 to $300.four billion in 2012-13, with a median progress in export volumes of four.

6 per cent each year since 1990-91. This is reflective of Australia’s proactive actions to section out safety for the explanation that Nineteen Seventies. The main results of home and international free trade and safety insurance policies on the Australian economic system are structural change, competitiveness and effectivity, unemployment, living requirements and economic growth.

A transfer to commerce liberalisation since the Seventies in Australia has drastically changed the construction of the financial system. Structural change entails adjustments in the patterns of manufacturing that replicate adjustments in know-how, shopper demand, global competitiveness and different elements.

Protection polices have an effect on the pure change in the structure of an economic system, usually resulting in a decline in globally competitive industries. In 2011-12 Australia’s web tariff help was $1.1 billion, a very small percentage of GDP (less than 0.1%). Tariff ranges in Australia have fallen from an enormous 36% in 1968-9 to 1.8% in 2011, thus illustrating why Australia is probably certainly one of the most open economies in the world. However, this has caused both positive and unfavorable results; the optimistic being that Australian industries have turn out to be extra competitive and environment friendly as they are compelled to focus on their comparative advantage; the unfavorable is that heavily protected industries have suffered decline and job losses.

Australia’s rural and manufacturing industries have suffered sustained unfavorable progress over the past decade due to a discount in home protection policies. On the opposite, the minerals and metals trade has grown significantly over this era. The removing of protectionism can jeopardise employment, especially in import competing industries and low-skilled labour industries. For example, Toyota and Holden will close their manufacturing operations partly due to tariffs on imported automobiles being lowered from a earlier 50% to 5% in 2010, ending Australia’s automotive manufacturing sector by 2017. However, eradicating protectionism should result in new employment alternatives and up-skilling of the workforce into new and rising progress sectors such as Biotech and Green Engineering industries and so on.

Australia’s composition of exports was relatively equal in 1989-90 with 33% being minerals and metals, rural 23%, companies 20% and manufacturing 13%. As of 2012-13, minerals and metals dominated Australia’s composition of exports at 57%, while rural exports dropped to 12%, with a common decline in others. This not only shows the large impact of the mining growth on the Australia’s composition of exports, but additionally how a move to free commerce has influenced the construction of the financial system, especially agriculture and manufacturing. Globalisation has been both a profit and a hindrance as regional commerce blocs and different agreements work on a ‘most favoured nation’ principle, making export-competing industries undergo all around the world in small economies, and limiting the development of global free trade.

Because Australia has a excessive stage of agricultural commerce (12% of complete exports), and is a comparatively small economy, they endure disadvantages on account of protectionist insurance policies of other nations and buying and selling blocs. One of probably the most infamous buying and selling blocs in relation to agriculture is the European Union. The EU for a number of a long time has subsidised agricultural production via the Common Agricultural Policy. Additionally, farmers obtain significant subsidies in different areas of the world, such as the US, Japan, Korea and Switzerland. In 2012, the Australian Bureau of Agricultural Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) estimated that the removal of China and Korea’s wine tariffs would increase the export revenue of the Australian wine industry by $47 million.

Unfortunately, there was poor progress in lowering agricultural protection lately. In truth, if international trade liberalisation was achieved by the WTO’s Doha Round, it could have boosted Australia’s agricultural exports by US$9 billion by 2020; thus displaying how extremely protectionist economies and trade blocs adversely have an result on the Australian financial system.

Since Australia’s first free trade settlement (FTA) with New Zealand in 1983, Bilateral and Multilateral FTA’s have been a fantastic benefit and focus in securing financial prosperity for Australia. Australia’s two-way trade in goods and companies was A$616 bn in 2012. Australia has seven FTAs currently in pressure with New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, US, Chile, ASEAN (with New Zealand) and Malaysia. Together, these nations account for 28% of Australia’s total trade, which shows the great good factor about bilateral FTAs to the Australian economic system. Additionally, there are four bilateral FTA negotiations currently in place, two of that are substantial buying and selling partners; China, being Australia’s largest export market (A$78.7 bn) and Japan, being Australia’s second largest export market (A$49.eight bn).

The Japanese Free Trade Agreement has been negotiated, and will be a fantastic benefit to the Australian economy, especially the agricultural sector, for example tariffs on beef and dairy exports will be reduced from 38% to 23.5% over 20 years. Australia’s primary multilateral agreement is the AANZFTA which got here into effect in 2010, and covers 20% of Australia’s commerce in goods and providers and successfully creates a free trade area of over 600 million people. This settlement is forecast to spice up the Australian economy by US$19 bn during the decade following its implementation in 2010. These examples of Australia’s FTAs show the positive results of worldwide free trade on the Australian economy. As Australia continually lowers protection levels and trade barriers, there shall be each optimistic and adverse results, resulting in a long term lower in the current account deficit. When protection is lowered, there shall be a short term enhance within the CAD, as tariffs and quotas might be waived resulting in larger export volumes. However, since much less protection results in a more competitive economy, the CAD will decrease in the long term as exports will usually enhance.

The government’s reluctance to lower trade barriers up until the 1970-80s is arguably the reason for Australia’s lower competiveness and better CAD, being a deficit of $23 bn in 2012, and $10 bn in the fourth quarter of 2013. Australia’s development in exports reached 6% in 2012, double the average price over the last 10 years. However, this has not contributed to any lower within the CAD, as export prices declined by 10.2%, and Australia’s terms of trade decreased by 10.7% primarily because of the slowing of the mining boom. As protection ranges cut back, hopefully the competitiveness of the Australian financial system picks up throughout this period of structural change, leading to a long term decrease within the CAD. The effects of domestic and international free commerce, though largely adverse within the short time period, will increase Australia’s competitiveness and profit the Australian economic system in the long term. Unfortunately, many regional and unilateral safety polices still stay in place, disadvantaging the economy in many ways, and limiting the advancement of world free commerce.

Allelopathic Effects in Biology


Considering the useful properties of crops, not only to us, however the setting as nicely, you will want to understand the nature of Allelopathy and the method it impacts plant ecology. According to the Topics in Biology Laboratory Manuel, allelopathy refers to “the useful or harmful effects of one plant on another plant, by the discharge of chemicals from plant components in both pure and agricultural techniques.” By secretion of biochemical materials, allelopathy entails a plant’s ability to inhibit germination or progress of the encompassing germination.

In our exercise, we examined for the presence of allelopathic chemical compounds in plant shoots and the effect of the allelopathic chemicals (our I. V. ) on the germination and development (our D. V. ) on radish seeds. The query proposed became, “Does Rose seed extract have an effect on the germination and development of radish seeds? ” Keeping the allelopathic results in mind, our working hypothesis became, “If radish seeds get exposed to the rose leaf extract, then their p.c profitable germination and the typical length will be less than the % successful germination and the average length of the radish seeds which don’t get exposed to the Rose leaf extract.


Materials: For week 1 and week 2 the following supplies had been used: 10 grams of recent leaves (rose), sandwich-type plastic bag, a scale, a blender, 100 mL of distilled water, folded cheesecloth, a funnel, one stock bottle, 3 items of filter paper, two Petri dishes, and forty radish seeds.


According to the Topics in Biology Laboratory Manuel, the experiment was conducted as follows:

First we would have liked to gather recent leaves from one plant species, and fill up a plastic sandwich bag, which we were to convey with us to the lab.

Next in groups we had been to weigh 10 grams of leaves from the one plant species and place the measured sample in a blender. Next we added the 100 mL of distilled water to the blender. Holding the lid of the blender, we blended the mixture fully. Then we positioned some folded cheesecloth right into a funnel and sat it right into a inventory bottle. Finally we poured the blended combination by way of the funnel/cheesecloth to filter the answer. To take a look at the Allelopathic results, we then wanted to place 3 pieces of filter paper in every of the bottoms of the two Petri dishes.

In one Petri dish (labeled with the leaf extract) we added 10 mL of the filtered solution, so that it soaked the filter paper layers. In the second Petri dish (labeled control), we added 10 mL of distilled water in order that the water soaked the filter paper layers as well. Next in each of the Petri dished we added 20 radish seeds on high of the 3 items of filter paper, evenly spaced. Then we placed another piece of filter paper on prime of the seeds in each dishes. Finally, we positioned the lids on prime of both Petri dishes to prevent excessive evaporation and stored them at room temperature, giving them per week to germinate, then be evaluated.


For our results, after careful observations and measurements, the chances of profitable germination had been as follows: For the Experimental group, that is the group treated with extract, had a 70% success fee in which 14 of the 20 radish seeds had sprouts. However, the Control group, which had been treated with distilled water, had an 85% of successful germination during which 17 of the 20 seeds had sprouted. When evaluating the seedlings size, the experimental group recorded 3. zero mm being the shortest, and 13. zero mm being the longest, making four. mm the common size of the seedlings, all which is indicated on the following two pages by bar graph representations on common seed size and share rates of each groups. When trying at the management group, however, the shortest size measured was 12. zero mm and the longest was sixty two. 0 mm, making their average 42. 0 mm. When observing each of the radish seed’s conditions, it was obvious that the management group produced more healthy, more vibrant seedlings with an prolonged root system and hair. However the experimental group contained more so dry, yellowish seeds with little to no root hair.


When observing the outcomes of the Allelopathy experiment, it’s evident that the outcomes reflect and indeed help my hypothesis which said that, “If radish seeds get exposed to the rose leaf extract, then their p.c profitable germination and the average size will be less than the % profitable germination and the typical length of the radish seeds which don’t get uncovered to the Rose leaf extract. ” So once more when evaluating the typical size of seedlings between the management group and the experimental group, there actually is no comparison; the experimental group had a mere 4. mm size verses that of the control group which had a outstanding forty two. 0 mm size. Although famous both had a excessive percentage rate of germination, it really comes all the method down to Allelopathy and the competitive “chemical warfare,” current in our experimental group. As for leaving room for error, a selection of problems might have taken place, similar to if small quantities of water wanted to be added to re-saturate the filter paper, or if fungus appeared due to the high temperatures, etc. Over all I imagine the experiment did a good job of explaining and demonstrating the Allelopathic effects on plant financial system.

Aging Population Effects on Health Care

Health care is a quick evolving field with advancements of expertise and remedy choices rising daily. The delivery of care has grown and infrequently shifts direction through the years to accommodate altering inhabitants demographics and wishes of sufferers. Many components play a component within the function of well being care and medical therapy, a sort of components being inhabitants demographic changes. When the demographics of a population change it can trigger opposed effects on the encompassing area in some ways, corresponding to access to care, forms of remedy needed to care for the population and the necessity for health care staff.

In a particular inhabitants the place the demographic is growing older the dynamic and need for care begins to affect the well being care system in a wide range of ways. All well being care entities involved play a role in guaranteeing the challenges and the wants of the inhabitants change are met. As the inhabitants demographic ages the influence on the supply of care shall be considerably altered, such as the organization of care and how it’s delivered, remedy options, long-term care, and health care coverage will all be affected in numerous methods.

According to the Administration on Aging of the Department of Health and Human Services, roughly 13% of the people living in the United States are aged as of 2011, which average to about 40 million individuals. The Department of Health and Human Services estimates that by the yr 2030 this number will increase to seventy two million making up for 20% of the population in the United States (Campbell, 2013).

Another factor that affects the growing older inhabitants demographic is the rapid price of retiring Baby-Boomers, with virtually 10,000 coming into retirement every single day over the following 16 years this quantity will continue to grow (Campbell, 2013). The rising quantity of people getting older in the United States as well as all over the world means the primary focus of health care will shift from acute care to the treatment of serious continual diseases and assisted dwelling skilled and non-skilled medical care will be in excessive demand.

The getting older population additionally ends in the expansion and demand for a rise in well being care services impacting the well being care market in a means that increases value for all well being care entities, such as the person patient, the federal authorities, particular person states, hospitals, physicians, and so on. Other impacts of the health care system would be the enhance need for health care workers with particular ability sets together with the need for added well being care settings to take care of the elderly population. When inhabitants demographics change similar to aging, many well being care related challenges start to rise and should be addressed and overcome rapidly to ensure the standard of care is not impacted. Some of those challenges in an aging population are the necessity for in-home medical care and assisted living, similar to hospice care, expert nursing amenities and different long-term medical care settings.

The problem these deliver to the well being care system in addition to the growing older population are the high financial price of in-home help and elevated difficulties recruiting the correct skilled employees (Potter, 2010). Another problem this specific population change is faced with is the elevated price of well being care protection. Most retirees and aged population turn to the federal authorities health plan generally identified as Medicare for his or her individual health care protection, with the vast majority of the Baby-Boomer inhabitants turning sixty five years old at a rapid tempo, more and more Americans are qualifying for Medicare protection. In recent years the cost of Medicare has raised, primarily impart to the increased price of prescription medications and the consumption of the aged population (Potter, 2010). With lowering long-term care options and rising well being care cost the elderly population is confronted with many challenges throughout the well being care system.

Ultimately the current state of the well being care system within the United States should handle the concern of the aging population and adapt to the needs of the elderly. In the present period of superior expertise, increasingly elderly individuals are related to the internet and have all kinds of receiving well being care info. As the well being care market strikes right into a more diverse and know-how pushed state it is essential to market these wellness packages in addition to adjustments in well being care protection that may ultimately impact the aging inhabitants. Another approach to address the challenges of the growing older population is ensuring that individual patients obtain the hottest data regarding his or her health care coverage and prognosis information. Individual sufferers, communities and society as an entire can deliver collectively the concentrate on the getting older inhabitants health care needs by selling wellness applications and providing the support to well being care services wanted to face the aging population’s challenges.

Adverse Physiological and Psychological Effects

Literature review and case study. Environmental Research

The chapter on ‘Environmental Research’ from this study skills information discusses about Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on youngsters and adolescents. It also examines eleven totally different views offered by Lissak in response to Adverse effects of screen time on children and adolescents.

One of these factors of view are Screen time penalties for Children. It was evaluated that kids rest, by and large, one hour less each night when contrasted and offspring of the mid twentieth century.

Rest may be very important for neurodevelopment of newborn children and infants. Collecting proof demonstrates that inadequate relaxation, both in size and quality may discount youth’s physical and psychological wellness and psychosocial working. Moreover, chance taking conduct and college execution are in all probability going to be adversely influenced by deficient relaxation.

The author discusses the association between digital media and sleep period and high quality. Novel discoveries propose a reverse relationship between relaxation span and ensuing display screen time.

A longitudinal investigation of 4-8-year-olds discovered that brief rest time can advance a following-day exhaustion, along these traces prompting more screen seeing inactive conduct. The author discusses, Digital media and the thought-about impact on sleep via displacing other activities. Physical activity is beneficial for sleep and display screen time can come on the expense of sleep time, shortening sleep duration. An huge variety of computerized devices in larger financial status households might be relegated for adding to expanded display screen presentation and shorter rest time.

The creator examines that the season of utilization of computerized media at night and night time introduction to splendid mild and blue mild transmitted with out anyone else’s input glowing gadgets could smother melatonin generation.

Sleep time entry to media gadgets is said with bargained relaxation segments of various age ranges. Pre-teenagers and youths are accounted for to come across rest issues especially if they utilize advanced media after 9:00?p.m. Furthermore, expanded informing post-sleep time might be going to diminish relaxation term of secondary college understudies and to cause them daytime lethargy and more unfortunate scholarly accomplishments.

The data provided by the writer of this reading is concise and talks about the opposed physiological and psychological effects of display time on youngsters due to the extended use of the digital applied sciences. It highlights, Pre-adolescents and young people are represented to experience relaxation issues significantly after they use propelled media on evening in addition to evenings. Colossal variety of digital contraptions in higher cash related standing households could probably be consigned for adding to extended display introduction and shorter relaxation time. Rest time entry to media contraptions pertains to dealt relaxation parts of assorted age ranges. The author explains that the interval of use of modernized media through the evening and evening time prologue to unbelievable mild and blue gentle transmitted with out some other individual’s info shining contraptions might cover melatonin age. Author has supported this studying with other skilled theories. Productivity Commission (2016).

Digital Disruption: What do governments must do?

This analysis paper “Workers and Society” discusses Digital Disruptions and what government needs to do. The paper suggest that the Automation will substitute some jobs, however there are limits. Automation of errands has been occurring for a considerable length of time. Routine undertakings are more and more helpless to Automation as the concept of the errand may be successfully arranged. These assignments are commonly regular for low and centre gifted employments or workouts. Present day cases of robotization incorporate digital avenue toll accumulation, robotic welders and programming tasks, for instance, MYOB, which have supplanted manual accounting assignments.

While automation can affect employments over the complete expertise vary, the proof proposes that it has much less often influenced occupations that embody non-routine assignments, for instance, administrative work and the requirement for individual and social skills affect jobs throughout the complete talent spectrum, the proof means that it has much less typically affected occupations that contain non-routine tasks, similar to managerial work and the need for private and social skills. The analysis additionally discusses relating to the loss of low- and middle-skilled jobs within the areas of manufacturing and clerical work has been intensified by the offshoring tasks. However, in Australia, trends in job losses have shifted backwards and forwards over the past forty years, with some observable influence from expertise on middle-skilled jobs however no persistent ‘hollowing out’. Automation just isn’t solely the principal method by which advance applied sciences can immediate to modifications in the aptitude mix. The introduction of word processing software, initially via mainframes and dumb terminals, then after by way of the widespread diffusion of private computer systems. The routine task of typing did not disappear, but responsibility shifted to expert staff. Automation is also not the only means by which routine duties could be displaced by technology. Improvements in computerized improvements, for instance, sensors and automation learnings, are required to reinforce the limit of the undertakings that can be automated. However, there remain works that have demonstrated exhausting to automized, including those require recognition, or progressive and social information because work could be automized doesn’t indicate that it is going to be.

Another discovering of the analysis is that the emerging gig financial system may help improve productivity by more precisely matching and scaling resources to the needs of the business. In the gig financial system specialists are utilized for specific tasks or for an impermanent increment in work course of lessening the conventional pressure of generation. The ‘gig’ economic system is in its outset, making its future influence on the idea of business not sure. In any case, if the gig economic system grows quickly and its spread is broad, there shall be risks that should be overseen. While governments need to address genuine considerations, hindering these improvements is not an appropriate response. In the extra drawn out term, contingent upon the scale of progress, governments may have to consider changes to work setting legal guidelines and the bottom pay permitted by legislation privileges.

The info provided by the analysis allows the reader to grasp the effects of automation in the economy and what governments would need to do to ensure negative effects are minimised. While automation can affect employments over the full expertise range, the proof proposes that it has less regularly influenced occupations that embody non-routine assignments, for example, administrative work and the requirement for individual and social abilities affect jobs across the full talent spectrum, the evidence suggests that it has much less usually affected occupations that contain non-routine duties, similar to managerial work and the necessity for private and social skills. The primary concerns highlighted are wage entitlements and work place laws that must be up to date frequently to keep up with the rising gig economic system.

Administer medication to individuals, and monitor the effects

Outcome 1 Understand legislation, policy and procedures related to the administration of medication

1. In the workplace there’s a generic Medication Management Policy and Procedures for Adult Services (Issue 10, 2012) document. This is kept to hand in a locked cabinet, readily available to learn. It requires that every one Healthcare Staff are given mandatory coaching and refreshers are supplied. Legislation which surrounds the administration of treatment contains The Medicines Act 1968, The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, The Data Protection Act 1998, The Care Standards Act 2000 and The Health and Social Care Act 2001

Outcome 2 Know about widespread types of medicine and their use

1. describe frequent kinds of medication including their effects and potential side effects

Below are outlined 3 kinds of common drugs.

Analgesics: i.e. Codeine, used for pain reduction, unwanted effects can be light-headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and sedation. Codeine also can trigger allergic reactions, signs of which embody constipation, belly pain, rash and itching.

See more: Manifest Destiny essay

Antibiotics: i.e. Amoxicillin, a penicillin based mostly antibiotic which fights micro organism in your physique. It can only be taken if you are not allergic to Penicillin and don’t have asthma, liver or kidney disease, or a history of diarrhoea caused by antibiotics. It is used to deal with many several types of infections, corresponding to ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, and salmonella nonetheless it can trigger unwanted side effects including sores inside your mouth, fever, swollen glands, joint ache, muscle weak point, severe blistering, peeling, and purple skin rash, yellowed skin, yellowing of the eyes, dark colored urine, confusion or weak point, straightforward bruising, and vaginal itching.

Anti-hypertensive: i.e. Lisonopril used for decreasing blood strain, it is also effective within the therapy of congestive coronary heart failure, and to improve survival after a coronary heart attack. Not to be used by people with liver or kidney illness, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis. Side results can embody feeling faint, restricted urination, abdomen swelling, and flu like signs, heart palpitations, chest pains, skin rash, depressed mood, vomiting and diarrhoea.

2.2 Identify medicine which calls for the measurement of specific physiological measurements.


Drugs like insulin (blood needs to be taken from a pinprick so that glucose can be measured before the insulin could be given); warfarin to thin the blood – once more blood ranges have to be checked frequently; digoxin to slow and regular the center (pulse ought to be checked previous to administration and recommendation taken if the coronary heart beat dips under 60 beats per minute)

Absenteeism, Causes and Effects

Meaning Absenteeism is the term usually used to refer to unscheduled worker absences from the workplace. Many causes of absenteeism are legitimate, for instance private illness or household issues, but absenteeism can also often be traced to different components similar to a poor work surroundings or staff who aren’t dedicated to their jobs. If such absences turn into excessive, they’ll have a critically opposed influence on a business’s operations and, in the end, its profitability. The Labour Department in India defined the absenteeism fee as the whole man-shifts lost because of absences as a share of the entire number of man-shifts scheduled.

So for calculation of the speed of the absenteeism we require the number of persons scheduled to work and the quantity actually current.

Causes of the absenteeism

The rate of the absenteeism in Indian industries is very high and cannot be dismissed. A Statistical research of absenteeism of Indian Labour observed that, the essential explanation for absenteeism in India is that industrial employee is still part-time peasant.

Thus the workers go to seek out jobs at cities after the harvesting their crops. It means that when the transplanting season. These employees contemplate to the modern industrialism is insecure. Thus, cause to excessive fee of the absenteeism in the industrial sector. According to the Labour Investigation Committee (1946), there have been many reasons that brought on the absenteeism of the industrial staff. The Commission pointed out many factors which triggered the absenteeism in Indian industries. These components are:

Sickness and low vitality: The committee identified that illness is most necessary responsible for absenteeism in virtually of the in Industrial sector.

Epidemics like cholera, small-pox and malaria always escape in extreme from in most industrial areas. The low vitality of the Indian employees makes them easy prey to such epidemics and bad housing and unsanitary circumstances of living worsen the trouble. However, the Commission has been seen that the speed of absenteeism among the many feminine workers is larger than their male counterparts.

Means of Transport: The Commission additionally acknowledged that the transport amenities also play crucial to contribute the absenteeism of the employee in the industries. It has been identified that, the rate of absenteeism is higher in those factories where transport facilities aren’t simply out there as in comparability with those the place such amenities are simply available or provided by the manufacturing unit itself


 Hours of labor: The long hours of labor also have an effect on the workers’ effectivity and consequently their sickness price and absenteeism rate are increased.

Nightshift: It has additionally been pointed out that there’s a higher share of absenteeism through the nightshifts than within the dayshifts, owing to the higher discomforts of labor through the night-time.

Rural exodus: The committee additionally pointed out that probably probably the most predominant explanation for absenteeism is the frequent urge of rural exodus. It has been noticed that the employees go back to their villages on the time of harvesting and sowing the crops. It increases the rate of absenteeism in factories.

Accident: Industrial accident relies upon upon the nature of work to be performed by the worker and his capacity for doing that work. In case of hazardous nature of job, the accidents occur more regularly which lead to larger price of absenteeism.

Social and religious Function: it has been noticed that employees become absent form their duty on occasions of social and spiritual features. Since the workers like to join their families on such occasions, they return to their villages for like to affix brief intervals.

Drinking and amusement: the Labour Investigation committee pointed out that consuming and amusements are also answerable for absenteeism. Since drinking and amusements within the late hours of night make it tough for the employees to achieve in time on their duties. They prefer to turn into absent rather than late since they know that badli staff might be substituted for them, if they are late.

After Pay-Day: the Labour Investigation committee additionally famous the extent of absenteeism is relatively excessive instantly after the pay-day because they get their wages, they really feel like having a great time or return to their villages to make purchases for the household and to satisfy them, so the absenteeism is excessive after they received paid.

Nature of work: the absenteeism rate is also affected by the character of work. According to Prof. William pointed out that absenteeism prevails as a result of employees aren’t accustomed to the factory life and factory self-discipline. In different phrases, absenteeism prevails because the character of labor in factories is completely different from that for which the employee is accustomed. So after they come to work within the factory, they feel strange, this new scenario make them uncomfortable, so lead to high rate of absenteeism of the industrial employees.

Other causes : The above factor that are triggered the absenteeism in the Industrial which are identified briefly by the Labour Commission. However, there may be tow different elements which triggered the absenteeism in industrial sector.

These factors are: a) personal Factors and b) workplace components.

Personal issue: The personal issue additionally divided into different sub-factors, these are:

Personal Attitude: there are totally different perspective of staff. The Employees with strong office ethics will respect their work and recognize the contribution they make to their companies. Such workers will not have interaction themselves in taking unscheduled off. On the other hand, workers with very low or no work ethics are indiscipline and have lot of integrity and behavioural issues. Since, they feel no obligation towards the corporate, absenteeism comes easily to them.

Age: The younger employees are often restless. They want to spend time with their associates and have enjoyable, somewhat than being tied down with work responsibility. This lack of ownership often leads them to take unauthorized day without work. With age, individuals achieve experience and maturity, which makes them targeted and responsible. Their method is rather professional they usually choose to stay to their chairs to get the work accomplished. If ever they are found absent, then it might be because of sickness.

Seniority: Employees, who’ve been with the corporate for a protracted time are well-adjusted with the working culture and the job, subsequently, they discover no cause to be absent with out permission. On the opposite hand, new hires are more prone to taking advert hoc breaks to unwind themselves. iv. Gender: Women generally do a balancing act by shuffling their time between residence and work. Family, being their foremost priority, they don’t assume twice before taking a step in the direction of absenteeism.

Workplace Factors

  • Stress: The pressure at work generally takes a toll on the employees. This leads to elevated ranges of stress. The employees then resort to excuses that may assist them keep away from work.
  • Work Routine: Doing the identical job over a time period can get monotonous. The workers find the job features boring. They somewhat choose time off to do one thing attention-grabbing than come to work.
  • Job Satisfaction: If employees do not discover their job difficult, dissatisfaction creeps in. That results in extra absenteeism in the office.

Effect of absenteeism: The effects of the absenteeism of the employees in the factories adversely effect to the employers, the price of production of the manufacturing facility is elevated due to the absent of the workers, by employed further momentary staffs so as to substitute the absentee. The effects of absenteeism in the office are immediately proportionate to decreased productiveness. The company, eventually, is trying to cover up the direct and indirect cost concerned to hire temporary staff, and pay employees for overtime.

So the worth of the production of the corporate is elevated as the result they improve the value of the commodity, so the consumers have to pay high worth for the commodities.. However, the employees themselves additionally impact of the absenteeism as a result of their income is decreased according to the precept of “no work no pay”, as the end result their commonplace of reside decreased. Thus, absenteeism adversely impacts the employers and the workers, and shoppers and ultimately , it can be opposed have an result on to the growth of the economy within the nation. so all these give rises to many industrial labour and social problems.

Method to remedy the absenteeism As regard to the measure to be adopted to remove the absenteeism, the Bombay Textile Labour Enquiry committee stated that “the correct situations of labor in the factory, adequate wages, safety from accident and illness, and amenities for obtaining leave for rest and recuperation represent the best means of reducing absenteeism. The Labour investigation committee, agreed with the above view, stated that “the extreme fatigue and sweated conditions of labor are certain to create a defence mechanism’ within the worker and if adding outcomes are to be obtained, the most effective coverage could be to enhance circumstances of work and life for the workers and make them really feel contented and joyful.

Therefore, the Committee suggested that the most effective way of coping with absenteeism is to supply vacation with pay or even without pay and permit employees to attend their non-public affairs sometimes and thus regularise absenteeism as an alternative of merely taking disciplinary actions for it . Provision of suitable housing facilities in industrial towns must also go a long way in improving attendance. Besides, the above provisions a way of duty in the path of business ought to be created among the employees via correct training and coaching. The workers’ participation in the administration of trade, introduction of an incentive wage scheme and linking wages and bonus with manufacturing may show very useful in checking the rate of absenteeism.

Effects Of Fluoride In Water


Fluoride is excessively obtainable in floor water is quite common in India. To understanding the adverse effects of fluoride in water many adsorbents using time to time but due to many unwanted effects of defluoridation we need a perfect technique for this. In this analysis work we now have been utilized a comparative research of two different cheap adsorbent .The using adsorbents are Fly ash and marble powder. Here used fly ash, generated from Chula. And pieces of marble collected from construction space and crushed for use within the laboratory.

In this analysis work Ash, Marble powder is blended with fluoridated water. After the evaluation we discovered both of the adsorbents removes fluoride from drinking water but the results were discovered from fly ash is best than from marble powder.

KEYWORDS: Adsorption, Defluoridation, Fluoride, Fly Ash, Marble Powder PH.

Various Health Impacts of Fluoride:

Fluoride is a positively charged ion like calcium (Ca++). It is important for our bones and tooth but having highest quantity of calcium in the physique attracts the maximum quantity of fluoride.

It is deposited in type of Calcium Fluorapatite crystals in the physique. Excess of fluoride above 1.5 mg/L may trigger to serious manifestations, which are described under:-

  1. Dental fluorosis: Problems related teeths.
  2. Skeletal fluorosis: Problem associated bones of hands, legs and joints.
  3. Non – skeletal fluorosis: Excessive fluoride can cause several different problems and dysfunction like neurological, muscular, allergic, gastro-intestinal and urinary issues.

Common defluoridation strategies of drinking water:

Removal of excess fluoride from drinking water known as defluoridation.

The process of defluoridation can use by following methods:-

  1. The treatment of fluoride water at the supply and
  2. The therapy of fluoridated water at the family degree.

Developed international locations are utilizing supply treatment method (i). Defluoridation is a technical treatment methodology beneath the supervision of expert individuals right here cost is a limiting factor. But in the less developed international locations the same method is in all probability not feasible, particularly in rural areas, where settlements are scattered. Treatment on the level of use (ii) has a number of advantages over therapy at group degree. Treatment could only be potential at a decentralized level, for instance on the neighborhood, village or family stage. Costs are lower, as defluoridation may be restricted to the demand for cooking and ingesting – often less than 25% of the entire water demand. Chemical treatment of the complete water demand would lead to production of huge volumes of sludge, which requires a secure disposal.

It has been discovered that the defluoridation methods of consuming water usually are not adequate when preliminary focus of fluoride within the water is very excessive and the pH of the untreated water is alkaline. Moreover, totally different degrees of hardness of water require completely different concentrations of alum.

Various limitations are found when we use of level of use therapy method like reliability of the remedy units has to be assured, and that each one customers ought to be motivated to use solely the handled water for ingesting and cooking on the situation is untreated water can also be out there in the house

National Environment Engineering Research Institute in Nagpur, India (NEERI) has evolved a cheap and easy technique of defluoridation, which is known as the Nalgonda approach. UNICEF has labored closely with the Government and other partners in defluoridation programmes in India, where excessive fluoride has been known for many years to exist in groundwater. In the Nineteen Eighties, UNICEF supported the Government’s Technology Mission in the effort to establish and tackle the fluoride drawback: the Government subsequently launched a massive programme, still underneath way, to provide fluoride-safe water in all the areas affected. The Nalgonda method has been repeatedly confirmed to be a cheap and effective family defluoridation method. (Lela Iyenger, March 2005, UNICEF, New Delhi) In this system, fluoride is precipitated using 500 mg/L of alum and 30 mg/L of lime.

For removing of fluoride from ingesting water three mechanisms may be apply:

  • Addition of chemicals or Chemical additive methods
  • Addition of strong media or Contact precipitation
  • Adsorption/ion change methods by assist of bought surfaces

Addition of chemical compounds or Chemical additive methods

These methods involve the addition of soluble chemical substances to the water. Fluoride is removed either by precipitation, co-precipitation, or adsorption onto the fashioned precipitate. Chemicals embody lime used alone or with magnesium or aluminum salts along with coagulant aids. Treatment with lime and magnesium makes the water unsuitable for drinking due to the excessive pH after therapy. The use of alum and a small amount of lime has been extensively studied for defluoridation of consuming water.

The technique popularly often recognized as the Nalgonda approach (RENDWM, 1993), is one of example named after the town in India where it was first used at water works level. It entails including lime (5% of alum), bleaching powder (optional) and alum (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O) in sequence to the water, adopted by coagulation, sedimentation and filtration (L.Iyenger,2005). A much bigger dose of alum is required for fluoride removing (150 mg/mg F-), in contrast with the doses used in routine water therapy. As hydrolysis of alum to aluminum hydroxide releases H+ ions, lime is added to take care of the impartial pH in the treated water. Excess lime is used to hasten sludge settling. The dose of alum and lime to be added in uncooked water with different fluoride concentrations and alkalinity ranges (G.Karthikeyan and A. Shunmuga Sundarraj, 1999).

The response occurs via the next equations:

2 Al2 (SO4)3.18H2O + NaF + 9Na2CO3 ? [5Al (OH) three Al (OH) 2F] + 9Na2SO4+NaHCO3 + 8 CO2 + 45 H2O

3 Al2 (SO4)3.18H2O + NaF +17NaHCO3 ? [5Al (OH) three Al (OH) 2F] + 9Na2SO4+ 17 CO2 + 18 H2O

The Nalgonda method has been successfully used at both individual and community levels in India and different creating nations like China and Tanzania. Domestic defluoridation units are designed for the treatment of forty liters of water. Whereas the fill-and-draw defluoridation plant can be used for small communities. Alum therapy is seldom used for defluoridation of ingesting water in developed international locations.

Contact Precipitation

Contact precipitation is a way during which fluoride is faraway from water through the addition of calcium and phosphate compounds. The presence of a saturated bone charcoal medium acts as a catalyst for the precipitation of fluoride both as CaF2, and/or fluorapatite. Tests at neighborhood level in Tanzania have shown promising results of excessive effectivity. Reliability, good water high quality and low price are reported advantages of this technique (Chilton, et al., 1999).

Adsorption/ion-exchange method

In the adsorption technique, raw water is handed by way of a bed containing defluoridating materials. The material retains fluoride either by bodily, chemical or ion exchange mechanisms. The adsorbent gets saturated after a interval of operation and requires regeneration.

A big selection of materials has been tried for fluoride uptake. Bauxite, magnetite, kaolinite, serpentine, varied forms of clays and pink mud are some of the naturally occurring supplies studied. The basic mechanism of fluoride uptake by these materials is the exchange of metallic lattice hydroxyl or different anionic teams with fluoride.

Fluoride uptake capability could be increased by certain pre-treatments like acid washing, calcinations, and so on. None of the mentioned materials generally exhibits excessive fluoride uptake capacities.

Processed supplies like activated alumina, activated carbon, bone char, defluoron-2(sulphonated coal) used for defluoridation of drinking water .And synthetic supplies like ion exchange resins even have been extensively evaluated for defluoridation. Among these materials, bone char, activated alumina and calcined clays have been efficiently used within the field; (Cummins, 1985, Susannae Rajchagool and Chaiyan Rajchagool, 1997, and Priyanta and Padamasiri, 1996).

Materials and Methods and Experimental Design

Area of work: Sitapura Industrial area, Tehsil Sanganer, District Jaipur (Rajasthan).

Sitapura Industrial Area is situated Km from Jaipur Air port alongside NH-12. This space is called EPIP (Export Promotion Industrial Park). Jaipur city is 18 km from EPIP. The area is round 365.00 acres. The water high quality is potable on this space. Water availability by tube wells. The Depth of tube wells are approximate 30m. Average discharge of water is 2,000 gallons per hour. The prominent industries of on this space are chemical and car industries. Thousands of residential flats can be found in and around space. ITI, Polytechnics, Engineering Institutes, Medical Institutes and Hospitals, Management, IT and Architectural colleges, Fashion Designing Institutes .buying complex and so forth. are located on this space.

Map of Sitapura Industrial area

Aim of labor: Due to proved health hazards, sophisticated procedure and expenditure, many well-liked defluoridation course of like – Nalgonda, Activated alumina etc. methods are within the phase out process subsequently the purpose of the current analysis work is to find out a best defluoridation methodology which is easy to make use of by illiterate villagers, requires minimal expenditure, involvement of much less technical private and efficient methods for fluoride removing from consuming water in order that these strategies may be apply simply in all places.

Importance of defluoridation: Due to numerous well being impacts of fluoride on human beings the remedy of fluoride is critical.

Methods Details of methods

  1. Method A Removal of fluoride by Fly Ash
  2. Method B Removal of fluoride by Marble powder

Defluoridation methods utilized in research work:

In view of the demerits of some defluoridation strategies, within the present analysis work we’ve tried to make use of some cheap, efficient and simply out there good adsorbent of fluoride for the purpose of defluoridation. These easy strategies can be applied simply underneath all circumstances.

Method A: Defluoridation by Fly Ash (based on adsorption process): -The fly ash is an effective adsorbent of fluoride .In this methodology we have used fly ash, generate from Chula. The one hundred gm ash was blended with 1 liter water having fluoride. Stir 5 to 10 minutes then keep it for settle a minimum of for 2 hr. After 2 hour this solution was filtered (G-3 crucible)

Method B: Defluoridation by Marble Powder (based on chemical therapy process): – In chemical treatment processes, lime treatment is one of them. In this technique, we collected marble stone and crushed into marble powder. Then it was used for removal of fluoride rather than lime.100 gm of marble powder was mixed with1 liter water having fluoride. Stir 5 to 10 minutes then hold it for settle at least for two hr. After 2 hour this answer was filtered (G-3 crucible)

Determination of Fluorides:

Important fluorides bearing mineral are fluoride apatite, amphiboles and micas. The focus in floor water is proscribed as a outcome of low solubility of most fluorides, but in some areas the concentration reaches above 5ppm.

For the dedication of fluoride we use ions electrode method.

A potential is established by the presence of fluoride ions throughout the crystal which is measured by an ion meter. The ions selective electrode is a fluoride delicate electrode of the strong state sort which consisting of a lanthanum fluoride crystal. It may be use in types of a cell in the mixture with a reference electrode, known as calomel electrode. The crystal contacts the sample solution at the one face and an inner reference answer on the other.

As per the WHO (World Health Organization), permissible limit of Fluoride in consuming water must be 1.5 mg/l.

Results and Conclusion:

To handle the fluoridation drawback in and round Sitapura Industrial Area, Jaipur 10 sample collection websites have been undertaken for the current examine. The research was carried out in three phases based on seasons and water utilization. Two strategies had been employed on the samples for defluoridation in each phase. Different physical and chemical parameters along with Nitrate, Fluoride and Heavy metals have been analyzed.

Physical and chemical analysis like PH, Hardness, Chloride, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), and Alkalinity has been accomplished within the laboratory of JaganNath University, Chaksu whereas some parameters like Fluoride, Nitrate and Heavy metals were analyzed by Team Test Lab Sitapura, Jaipur.

In phase I, all samples had been collected after rainy season. During the evaluation of parameters we found that pattern No.6 which is collected from JNIT College has most fluoride focus (2.84mg/l) and minimal fluoride concentration found in sample No.3 which is collected from Ratan Textile (1.18mg/l). We also discovered the fluoride focus exceeds from the permissible limit in maximum samples collected from the examine areas.

When pattern No. 6 was defluoridized with fly ash, the focus of fluoride dropped from 2.84 to zero.88 mg/l. When we take away the fluoride by using fly ash methodology the concentration of fluoride goes down below the permissible limit. On utilizing marble powder the amount of fluoride decreased to 2.35 mg/l.

In II and III section, once more we found nearly same end result for all of the samples as in phase I.

We can see the variations of fluoride focus in all samples of all phases earlier than and after defluoridation strategies ( determine 2).

The variations in share (%) of Fluoride content by completely different defluoridation strategies in all samples are given in the Table 4. It has been noticed from the proportion (%) variations, that fly ash can remove fluoride from consuming water more successfully than marble.

The aim of our study was to find out the most effective suitable defluoridation methods which might be employed simply and effectively.

When samples were defluoridized with fly ash the focus of fluoride dropped drastically in all samples. But due to the chemical nature of fly ash other physico-chemical parameters showed a rise. All other parameters like TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Nitrate, and Chloride had been managed with out hindering the flexibility of fly ash to defluoridize the water. No further traces of heavy metals had been detected in the samples after remedy with handled fly ash.

Marble was found to be not a lot effectively in removing of fluoride comparative to fly ash.


I feel so joyful in relation to acknowledgements after the task is accomplished. I am very grateful to all of those that immediately or not directly helped me in this endeavor. I need to share my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Deepak Gupta, Chairman, Jagannath University for offering favorable surroundings for research work and Sincere due to Vice Chancellor of Jagannath University for ethical help. I express my gratitude and due to good advice, support of my supervisor, Dr. Shikha Modi. She has been supported for analysis work. My Sincere thanks are to members of Team Test Laboratory for giving the outcomes of analysis timely.

The Negative Effects of Winning the Lottery

In life, people have a tendency to ruin a good thing while it’s going. People become overwhelmed with the joy and fulfillment and begin to react irresponsible. For instance, a great thing such as winning can result into something horrible. Winning the lottery not only can bring happiness into someone’s life, but as well cause their life to be a complete nightmare. When a person goes from being considerably poor to having millions of dollars, it impacts their lives to a great extent by causing them to become unreasonable with their winnings, quit their jobs, or just lose touch with reality. Truth is winning unthinkable amounts of money causes unimaginable stress on lives of people not accustomed to it resulting in a positive event turning into negative repercussions such as family issues, depression, or even the lost of someone’s life.

When money is a factor of any situation, it can become the root of all evil and lead to the destruction of many. People will go to great measures to become rich regardless of anyone affected along the way. This is why many people turn a good thing like having a lot of money turn into a horrible thing like being worst off than before their wealth. After winning the lottery for example, the ruinous trait of greed is commonly seen in the character of a lottery winner. They become selfish and excessive with the desire of having and buying more with their winnings than they have or necessary.

Once the winner is publically established, strangers know who the winner is and begin to hassle them for their money. Not only is the greed of strangers a winner’s worry, even their own family and friends feel that they deserve some of their money. As a result, money causes the impulsive desire of the need to greed and the spending of more than people are worth resulting in their bankruptcy. In society, popularity is highly favored of many because of the recognition causes them to become foolish making absurd decisions. As related to winning the lottery; everyone wants to be in the presents of a winner to share the same fame and wealth. This effects the character of the winner because it causes them to feel more dominate and overpowering than others.

A lottery winner will begin to feel the need to flaunt their wealth because of their popularity. In result, a lottery winner will start buying flashy things for display and buying others overly expensive gifts to show how wealthy they are. Not considering the cost of their flashy and expensive objects, can cause a lottery winner to lose all their winnings in a matter of time. Therefore, the popularity given to a lottery winner isn’t beneficial because the fame and wealth results into dishonor and debt.

After faced with new responsibilities, a person is subject to become overwhelmed and at times insecure. When being a lottery winner, privacy becomes nonexistent because they are now considered to be a local celebrity. Being obligated to uphold the duties of a celebrity places a large burden on the life of a lottery winner. A lottery winner will begin to over analysis events taking place and question the intentions of people around them. They begin to constantly ask themselves, “Are people around for the best interest of them or their winnings.” Much insecurity faced by a lottery can result in the lost of their true character. The lottery winner begins to abandoned their previous hobbies, job, and interests left to be known as the person who won the lottery. Their need to feel empowered is now effected resulting in their drive to regain their empowerment by any means necessary. Thus, people having to change their lives because of a single event can cause great difficulty producing their unsatisfying outcome.

Having to maintain great things can lead to a person disassociating themselves with their prior life in hope to maintain the good: however, too much separation can result in unstable decision making. A lottery winner will get very distant from their previous life out of the want of a new start causing them to move away without much planning resulting in many problems. Since a lottery winner has all the money they could imagine, they will move anywhere of their choice. Majority of lottery winners will move out of state away from their old family, friends, and past life causing them to become isolated.

This places a great strain on the previous relationships held with friends and family. Without much reasoning, a lottery winner will buy an over-priced, large house of their dreams believing it will result in a good thing. However, lottery winners highly ever consider the taxes, bills, and responsibilities associated with purchasing their dream house. With the little influence of their family or friends because of the distance between them, lottery winners have no one to consult in making life changing decisions. With lack of budgeting, financial plans, and overly amounts of spending can lead to bankruptcy.

Effects of gadgets addiction among teenagers

Hotels and resorts are places for relaxation or recreation; thus they attract visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishments operated by a single company. It is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short term basis. If before, hotels and resorts only provide basic accommodation— consists only of cottages or a room with a bed— nowadays, it has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms and air conditioning or climate control, function hall for events, spa and an in house restaurant.

The cost and quality of hotel and resort are usually indicative of the range and types of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourism worldwide during the last decades of the 20th century, standards especially those of smaller establishments have improve considerably. Today, many systems have used an automation process like using online computer system, due to its efficiency and accuracy.

Champ Aqua Farm and Resort is located at 168 Dulong Barrio, Matungao, Bulakan, Bulacan and it offers a resort and reservation of facilities and amenities for the customers. The resort uses manual business transactions with its customers. They are using a manual process in booking, reservations and logging names of customers. The resort has two swimming pools, two function halls, three houses for accommodation (Farm House, Brick House and Summer House), twelve cottages, three floating cottages, one playground, a half-basketball court, one restaurant and two fish ponds. The resort also offers activities such as Fishing, Canoeing, Basketball, and Retreat. They also sell fish like Tilapia, Hito, and Japanese Koi.

The purpose of this study is to develop an Online Inquiry and Reservation System for Champ Aqua Farm and Resort. It substitutes the manual system with computerized system.

Project Objectives

General Objectives
The researchers aim to develop an Online Inquiry and Resort Reservation System for Champ Aqua Farm and Resort.

Specific Objectives
1. To be able to design a homepage for Champ Aqua Farm and Resort.
2. To be able to design a log in form and registration form for the guests.
3. To be able to design a reservation form for guests.
4. To be able to design gallery for details about the resort or the property.
5. To determine the design FAQ’s and About Us section for questions, suggestions and other inquiry.

The Effects of The Pageant World

Since the release of TLC’s TV show “Toddlers and Tiaras” the debate over banning child beauty pageants has grown tremendously. Researchers and numerous writers are looking into if beauty pageants are based solely on looks and exactly how letting children participate can affect the children. While some say that children are being sexually exploited, others are arguing that children are gaining self-esteem and confidence. They are also looking into how the parents play a role in the process of it. Even though they are completely opposite view points, all sides are agreeing that the children are indeed being affected somehow by this organized competition and the parents are a big part of this.

Researchers claim beauty pageants advertise an emphasis on looks. In a recent article in the Junior Scholastic, a researcher named Martina Cartwright tells JS, “Many of these kids grow up with a never-ending drive for physical perfection” (Anastasia). Her research on child pageants was published in a medical journal and in it JS relays that she found that, “this can lead to eating disorders and poor self-esteem” (Anastasia). Billy Reed, a Kentucky-based newspaper columnist, wrote a viewpoint essay on why child beauty pageants should be eliminated. In it he states, “The children who participate in beauty pageants are often hurt by the experience, suffering damage to their self-esteem and later developing eating disorders, like anorexia, due to skewed values about their bodies” (Reed). In many of the high glitz pageants, children are seen wearing heavy make-up, spray tans, fake eyelashes, hair extensions, and fake teeth to close up the gaps from losing baby teeth, with mature clothing.

Melissa Henson, a byline to the CNN Wire, writes an article about the sexual exploitation of toddlers in beauty pageants and explains, “But whether you think child beauty pageants are just a chance for little girls to play dress-up, or a training ground for superficial, self-centered princesses in the making, everyone should agree that sexualizing a 3-year-old little girl is wrong” (Henson). She writes about how a three year old is dressed as Julia Roberts character in the movie “Pretty Woman”, when Roberts was playing the part of a prostitute, for a routine in a beauty pageant she was competing in. In another article by Michelle Healy published in USA today, Cartwright tells them that, “girls who are sexualized early will tend to gather their self-worth as an adult based on their appearance” (Healy). While most would believe this would make a negative impact on children, there are some that believe that it’s not sexual exploitation of children, but this is more of a self-esteem booster.

Though striving for beauty is said to make a negative impact on the children, there are some that say it could dramatically improve the quality of the child’s self-image. Thus, seeming as if it is giving them more confidence and is believed to be a benefit to the child as an adult. According to the article in Junior Scholastic, Tami Soudbakhsh, the director of the Little Miss and Mr. Pageants in Las Vegas and a pageant supporter, says, “The self-confidence it gives kids is amazing” and, “when they do interviews [as adults] for jobs and colleges, they really have an advantage” (Anastasia). In article from USA Today, an interview with a pageant mother explains that when her daughter started the pageants she was, “so shy she wouldn’t order food for herself at a restaurant,” but now that she has been in pageants, “she has developed self-confidence, self-esteem, come out of her shell, and made great new friendships” (Healy).

From the Junior Scholastic article they say, “Even at glitzier competitions, appearance is just one component” and Soudbakhsh tells them “It’s also about elegance, poise, uniqueness, having fun, eye contact, and remembering to smile” (Anastasia). Even though the people are saying that all pageants do is sexually exploit the children, some pageant parents believe that the children are gaining a positive self-awareness and that is their main reasoning for allowing their children to participate. A common topic among articles and research is how these parents play a role. Most articles focused on the belief that parents were responsible for the sexual exploitation of their children. In the viewpoint essay written by Reed, he writes briefly about the story of the six year old child beauty pageant veteran, JonBenet Ramsey, who was murdered. When speaking of Ramsey’s mother, he says, “Some parents are so warped, so starved for attention or some kind of self-validation, that they will shamelessly exploit their children’s physical beauty without regard for the possible consequences” (Reed). He also says that, “JonBenet was a doll—a living, breathing Barbie—with which her parents were playing” (Reed).

Reed makes a direct hit to Ramsey’s mother when he says, “herself a former beauty queen, was reliving her unfulfilled fantasies through her daughter” (Reed). Henson also touches on the topic about parents in her article by saying, “parents across the country should renew their commitment to teach their children that they are valued for who they are, not for how sexy they look” (Henson). These articles state one common fact among them, that the parents are negatively influencing their children by putting them into beauty pageants and that they are teaching them to think that the only thing that matters is how they look. Contrary to these beliefs though, there are some researchers who believe that parents are not fully to blame for the negative effects that occur. James R. Kincaid, and Aerol Arnold Professor of English at the University of Southern California, wrote a viewpoint essay based on the culture’s obsession with the sexual exploitation of children. In it he does not put the blame on the parents but says, “Beauty-pageant parents are often unfairly charged with being the problem when, in fact, all parents subject their children to behaviors similar to the activities of child beauty pageants” (Kincaid).

In other articles they talk about parents putting their children in pageants because of the positive rewards that may come from it. In the article in Junior Scholastic, they mention that, “the competitions also encourage children to help out in their communities” and, “the competitions also have financial rewards … that money is now in her college fund” (Anastasia). He is pointing out that society focuses on the parents of beauty pageant contestants for the exploitation of children, when in reality, he is saying that parents exploit their children in many different ways. But no matter who is to blame, it seems to be a reoccurring thought among many researchers that the parents are an important factor on how the children are being affected by participating in beauty pageants. Beauty pageants have been around since 1880, but just recently since the boom of TLC’s “Toddlers and Tiaras”, the media has made several attempts to find out the positive and negatives of this newly advertised competitive sport.

According to the article in Junior Scholastic, “an estimated 3 million children, mostly girls, ages six months to 16 years, are entered into pageants” (Anastasia). Most researchers are explaining the negative exploitation of children and how their parents are to blame, but if looked further into the issue, there are positive results being found. Either way, it is found across the board that parents play a major role in experiences their children take from competing in beauty pageants, both negative and positive.

Works Cited
Anastasia, Laura. “Toss the Tiara? Should the U.S. ban child beauty pageants?” Junior Scholastic/Current Events 25 Nov. 2013: 15+. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Healy, Michelle. “Could child pageants be banned in the USA?” USA Today 4 Oct. 2013: 04A. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Henson, Melissa. “‘Toddlers and Tiaras’ and sexualizing 3-year-olds.” CNN Wire 12 Sept. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Kincaid, James R. “Child Beauty Pageants Reflect the Culture’s Sexualization of Children.” Beauty Pageants. Ed. Noël Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. At Issue. Rpt. from “Little Miss Sunshine: America’s Obsession with JonBenet Ramsey.” Slate. 2006. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Reed, Billy. “Child Beauty Pageants Should Be Eliminated.” Beauty Pageants. Ed. Noël Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. At Issue. Rpt. from “Time to End Child Beauty Pageants.” Billy Reed Says. 2006. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Symptoms and Effects on People

The Opening

Just how many of us has had a moment of sheer terror where we survived, but was forever changed down deep in the core of whom we are? Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians say that this is what has happened when a person experiences just such a moment in their life. That the person may never show a scar for what has happened, but that their identity (the core soul of them), who they are suffers from that moment forward. This effect upon a person is called, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PYSD!”(PTSD Website, 2014) Symptoms and what causes it

What causes one to re-suffer these moments of terror can be almost anything; “from the fact that if you have had an experienced severe trauma or a life-threatening event, you may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress, commonly known as post traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, shell shock, or combat stress. Maybe you felt like your life or the lives of others were in danger, or that you had no control over what was happening. You may have witnessed people being injured or dying, or you may have been physically harmed yourself.” (PTSD Website, 2014) Things that can trigger the onset of an experience flashback can come from loud noises, depression, to even moments of extreme stress.

Once triggered, “Some of the most common symptoms of PTSD include recurring memories or nightmares of the event(s), sleeplessness, loss of interest, or feeling numb, anger, and irritability, but there are many ways PTSD can impact your everyday life. Sometimes these symptoms don’t surface for months or even years after the event or returning from deployment. They may also come and go. If these problems won’t go away or are getting worse—or you feel like they are disrupting your daily life—you may have PTSD.” (PTSD Website, 2014) Many veterans returning to civilian life after years of military service often take years or decades to even begin to start showing the ill effects of posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.

“Post traumatic stress disorder treatment can help a person regain normalcy in their life after a trauma or traumatic event. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a person experiences a traumatic event. Everyone copes differently so a traumatic event such as violence, war or a natural disaster can cause PTSD in one person and not another. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms may also vary from one person to the next depending on the impact of the trauma. Post traumatic stress disorder treatment is effective for people at all stages of the continuum, from mild to severe. Some people have higher risk factors than others for developing PTSD. These risk factors do not impact the value and effectiveness of treatment.

At the Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center, we work with our clients to identify their unique post traumatic stress disorder symptoms and create an individualized treatment plan to give them the best opportunity for long-term recovery and a return to normal living.”(Brafman, 2014) But I may have put the cart before the horse in this instance, because the person who is suffering from PTSD must either be told by a loved one or recognize that something is not quite right and then begins the long road to recovery and back to health.

A different View of Causes

Scientists who work for the National Institute of Mental Health took a different approach, they focused on the gene that play(s) a role in creating fear memories. “Understanding how fear memories are created may help to refine and /or find new interventions for reducing the symptoms of PTSD. For example, PTSD researchers have pinpointed genes that make: Stathmin, a protein needed to form fear memories. In one study, mice that did not make stathmin were less likely than normal mice to “freeze,” a natural, protective response to danger, after being exposed to a fearful experience.

They also showed less innate fear by exploring open spaces more willingly than normal mice. GRP (gastrin-releasing peptide), a signaling chemical in the brain released during emotional events. In mice, GRP seems to help control the fear response, and lack of GRP may lead to the creation of greater and more lasting memories of fear. Researchers have also found a version of the 5-HTTLPR gene, which controls levels of serotonin — a brain chemical related to mood-that appears to fuel the fear response. Like other mental disorders, it is likely that many genes with small effects are at work in PTSD.”(NIMH Website, 2014)

Beginnings of How to treat PTSD

Since many people suffering from PTSD function normally for many years, the discovery and diagnosis of the actual disease is difficult. For a diagnosis of Post-traumatic stress disorder, the following list of conditions have been mentioned in sources as possible alternative diagnoses to consider during the diagnostic process for Post-traumatic stress disorder: ”Adjustment disorder, Brief psychotic disorder, Clinical depression, Acute stress disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Malingering, and Epilepsy to name a few of the most used misdiagnosis of the disorder.” (Right Diagnosis Website, 2014) Other possible causes of Post-traumatic stress disorder may include, but are not limited to the following medical conditions: “Terrifying ordeal – violent attacks, war, assault, rape, torture, kidnapping, etc., Child abuse, Serious accidents; Natural disasters – e.g. earthquake, flood, hurricanes, etc., Manmade disaster – e.g. plane crash, bombing, etc.” (Right Diagnosis Website, 2014) As stated before, isolating the possible type of cause will allow Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians to act in a focused attempt at curing the disorder and the start of a normal life once again.

How they Do Treatment of PTST

By Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians trying to understanding just what factors can and/or does cause PTSD. The Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians are able to create individual treatment plan(s) and/or a process to assist each person whom is experiencing the disorder. Will the Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians be able to assist the patient in their reintegration back into society as a contributing member once again!

PTSD Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

Sylvia Brafman Mental health Center Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

National Institute of Mental Health Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

Right Diagnosis Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

The bad effects of technology

What are the bad effects of Technology? Technology emerged as an effective way of making things and work easier and faster.It emerged at peak of time when people were in the urge to make things much more comfortable.From generations to generations,human tried as much as possible to come out with certain way of making life easier.It started with the simple use if hunting a gathering when humans where using stones and sticks for hunting. Time after time, new ways of doing things kept on portruding.from then, it came to a time of using bows and arrows.from then, catapults and matchets.

Till this present generation that people use guns and other technological instruments. Notably, as the basic meaning of technology strikes, to make things easier and faster, this era of technological advancement that have been meant to be the best of time when people will enjoy the best of technology without haste has come to be the time when man is really suffering by the challenges of technology. Irespective of the great contributions that technology offer us, it also has made way to so many setback in our daily life activities. Moreover,technology has made possible setbacks afflicting us;political,social,economical ,psychological etc. Political

It terms of politics, technology appears a great cancer as it makes it possible fo other countries to counter attack the other and gain some pol influence on them.considering the issue of cyber surveillance ,some other highly developed countries tend to override other under developed countries’s critical information s witho the knowing.Other countries also attacks on other countries with misiles lik the nuclear weapons, jetfighters ,cannons, submarines, the war in Iraq,Afganistan etc. Social,

It terms of sici problem that technology has brought up in this era is the problems is security.Most people lack their proper safeguarding of the personal informations as some socia networking companies tes to sell out our data to a third party company for their own marketing demonstrations without our consent.Anythng could happen if this information gets in the wrng hands. Economical

This is one of the greatest platform where technology really affect our economy certain countries technology affects the economy very great as business managers or investors use technology in an unethical way there by attacking the critical informations of several countries or companies.Hackers get the chances of embarking phishing on several websites of ecommerce transactions. Psychological

Our mentality is changing rapidly without us knowing.our smart phones are taking the great spots of our books.We tend to spend longer durations with our phones rather than our books which could rather be more productive.WE somimes spend longer dutations on the pc’s which is not healthy. We even spend lesser durations with our friends and family but longer times with technoogy which inturn disrupts our relationships with others.W even sometimes cannot complete a full meal without tapping our also causes laziness among people.

The effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory system

The objective of this report is to critically explain the physiological effects of exercise on the human respiratory system and cardiovascular system. To begin with, I will explain the two systems, their specific functions and how they inter-relate. I will then go on to analyse the effects of exercise on the two systems by looking at the way in which the body deals with an increased workload, and any health issues that may affect this.

Cardiovascular system

This system is responsible for pumping blood and oxygen around the body. It is a network made up of blood vessels that transport carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. The heart is an organ so needs a constant supply of oxygen. This is supplied by a separate network of blood vessels called the coronary system, made up of coronary veins and arteries. The heart is the size of a clenched fist, located slightly to the left of the chest. It is divided into left and right sides, has four chambers and works as a pump. Veins deliver deoxygenated blood from the body to the right side of the heart; this is known as Pulmonary Circulation. The heart then pumps this back to the lungs to absorb oxygen. Oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart which pumps it to the rest of the body through the arteries; this is known as Systemic Circulation. (Munford, K, 2012, cited in Bupa).

(diagram cited in Oxford174, 2014)

Respiratory System

This system is responsible for ensuring the body has a constant supply of oxygen, whilst removing carbon dioxide. It is made up of six organs and there are three major parts of the system; the airway, the lungs and the muscles of respiration. The respiratory system supplies the oxygen needed for the cardiac work load and its main function is gaseous exchange (Taylor, T cited in Inner Body).

(diagram cited in Buzzle, 2014)

Breathing volumes

(diagram cited in Buzzle, 2014)

Control of breathing by the medulla

Unlike the cardiovascular system which has myogenic cardiac muscle in the heart, the respiratory system is controlled by nerve signals from the brain. START: Impulses from the respiratory centre cause contraction of intercostal and diaphragm muscles which cause inspiration to start

Lungs inflate and air moves in:
Inflation of lungs stimulate stretch receptors in walls of bronchioles which fire off nerve impulses to the respiratory centre

At the end of expiration, the inhibition of the respiratory centre is removed. Stretch receptors are no longer stimulated so no more nerve impulses are fired off

Impulses from the stretch receptors begin to inhibit the respiratory centre

Inhibition of the respiratory centre prevents impulses causing inspiration; no impulses cause the muscle to relax so expiration occurs passively Lungs deflate and air moves out:


As the lungs become more inflated, more impulses are sent to the respiratory centre and it is completely inhibited

Gas Exchange

Gas exchange happens in the alveoli and is the process of supplying the blood with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide; a waste product of cell respiration. Without gas exchange, oxygen would not get into the blood and there would be a build-up of carbon dioxide in the body. If these two things happened the body would not be able to function to stay alive. Gas exchange can happen because the concentration gradient across the alveoli wall is maintained by blood flow on one side and air flow on the other (IHW, 2006, Biology Mad).

(diagram cited in IB Biology)

Tissues found in the two systems

Tissue Type
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Connective Tissue

– Blood is a loose connective tissue transporting substances around the body – Outer layer of blood vessels are made up of loose connective tissue meaning they are soft and pliable enabling diffusion -Different cell arrangements are suspended in an extra cellular matrix forming the characteristics of tissue. The matrix is what makes the tissue strong and protects the cellts. It is made up of protein and carbohydrates

– The trachea and bronchi are both supported by C shaped rings of cartilidge to keep them open. The ring is not complete which means they can still move.

– The epiglottis is made out of cartilidge

– Connective tissue is found wherever there is epithelial tissue as it makes up the base membrane of epithelial tissue Epithelial Tissue

– Inner layer of blood vessels are made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue enabling blood to flow without friction and allowing diffusion

-Endocardial (inner) layer of heart is lined with simple endothelial tissue allowing blood to flow without friction; preventing damage to cells – The walls of the alveoli are made up of simple squamous epithelial tissue to allow quick diffusion – Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium line the upper respiratory tract to trap and move pollutants upwards with goblet cells producing mucus to trap debris. Ciliated cells sweep the mucus up out of the airways. Without this type of special lining tissue the lungs would get polluted with dirt from the air that is breathed in (Alberts, B et al, 2002)

Muscle Tissue

– The heart is made up of involuntary cardiac muscle meaning it contracts under control of the nervous system only – Myocardium (middle) layer of heart wall is cardiac muscle made up of myogenic cells enabling the heart to contract without nerve signals. This means the heart can carry on beating even if a person is classed as ‘brain dead’ – Muscle tissues are made up of specialised cells using energy to contract and create a pulling force (MVB, 2012)

– Smooth muscle is found in the bronchioles to control air flow into different portions of the lung. Due to the absence of supporting cartilidge and the size of the bronchioles, they are exposed to the possibility of collapsing and becoming blocked – (cited in Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry) – Skeletal muscle and fibrous tissue is found in the diaphragm enabling it to contract and relax

Nervous Tissue

– Sino-Atrian node is made up of nervous tissue enabling it to send electrical currents to make the heart contract Nerve sensors in the muscles of the respiratory system receive impulses from the brain to control breathing. The brain detects oxygen/CO2 levels in the body so without this type of tissue, the respiratory system would not know when it needed to speed up or slow down (cited in National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2014)

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is a process in which the energy in glucose is turned into Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). This is the energy cells need for the body to function. The cardiovascular and respiratory system both work together to aid this process by suppling the oxygen and glucose, and by removing carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

Cellular respiration occurs in one of two ways; aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration occurs when there is a sufficent amount of oxygen in the cells. Glucose is broken down by oxygen; turning it into energy. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste products of this process. Glucose molecules carry a lot of energy as there are so many bonds and the energy that is released is stored as ATP. The equation for aerobic respiration is:

Anaerobic respiration occurs when aerobic respiration is unable to produce the amount of ATP energy needed because of lack of oxygen; usually during strenuous exercise. Anaerobic respiration happens without oxygen which means the glucose is only partially broken down making it inefficient. It also produces lactic acid which builds up and the muscles cramp, causing the person to stop exercising. Oxygen is needed to break the lactic acid down and this is referred to as oxygen debt. After anaerobic respiration a person will breathe heavily for a period of time to make up the oxygen and to return to aerobic respiration. The equation for anaerobic respiration is:

(diagram cited in IPUI Department of Biology, 2014)

Without cellular respiration, the body would not receive the energy needed in order to function when at rest and when under pressure (cited in Biology Mad).

The effects of exercise on the two systems

When a person exercises, the body’s demand for oxygen and energy increase. This means that both systems will be under stress and have to work harder in order to meet the need. The muscles in the heart and diaphragm will have to work quicker meaning they have less resting time. However as regular exercise would strengthen these muscles, this would result in larger breathing volumes, which in turn would allow more oxygen to be diffused into the blood flow. The heart muscles and walls would also get bigger and stronger meaning it can push more blood out per beat, so blood pressure would be lowered, even when at rest. It also improves the elasticity of the blood vessels meaning oxygen and glucose can be delivered at a faster rate to the muscles making the heart more efficient (Quinene, P cited in Live Strong, 2014). However, these muscles might not be strong enough to cope with the increased stress and should be built up over time. Exercise tolerance tests can determine an individual’s safe level of exercise.

As the body demands more oxygen, the heart rate and pulmonary ventilation increase to supply the muscles with oxygen. Exercise temporarily increases the capillary density at the muscle site which makes gas exchange quicker and more efficient (Saltlin and Gollnick, 1983 cited in Gatorade Sports Science Institute). However anaerobic respiration leads to oxygen debt and a built up of lactic acid, resulting in muscle cramp. It also limits the amount of energy the body receives, as the amount of ATP produced during anaerobic respiration is much lower than during aerobic respiration.

There are certain respiratory conditions that may limit an individual’s ability to exercise, even if the cardiovascular system would benefit from more vigorous exercise. Conditions such as Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) limit the amount of oxygen intake. Both of these conditions narrow the airways meaning the body cannot get the oxygen it needs. This in turn would cause the heart to pump harder to try and supply its need which would eventually fatigue the muscles (Kenny, T, 2014 cited in Patient).

A positive effect of exercise is that it can increase the ‘good’ cholesterol in the blood which helps to lower the ‘bad’ cholesterol. Over time, high cholesterol can cause blocked arteries which means that parts of the heart would be oxygen deprived. By lowering cholesterol you reduce the risk of blood clots and heart attacks as the blood can flow freely without obstruction (cited in WebMD, 2014).

One of the causes of Diabetes type 2 is obesity. It damages the blood vessels by narrowing and blocking them; which can cause strokes due to oxygen starvation in the brain. Exercise aids weight loss which in turn will reduce the risk of Diabetes type 2 (cited in NHS, 2012).

In conclusion it can be said that exercise is beneficial for both the cardiovascular and respiratory system as it helps to strengthen the heart and increases respiratory capacity. Even when underlying conditions are present, a safe level of exercise is recommended as it can help conditions from worsening. However, as the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together supplying the body with oxygen and energy and by removing carbon dioxide, if one system is unable to function properly under the stress of exercise, the other system will also suffer.

Effects on students having relationship while studying

“A true relationship is someone who accepts your past, supports your present, loves you and encourages your future.” This research discuss about the effects on students having a relationship or affair to opposite sex while studying. This research will figure out many effects that may lead to a positive or negative outcome that is useful to the students themselves. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, relationship is a romantic or sexual relationship between two people.

A lot of students nowadays get involved to many kind of relationship. Somehow students are getting careless on making decisions on this topic. Due to immaturity and lack of guidance this may result to some negative and positive outcomes. Negative outcomes may be in a form in which students will get unfocused to their studies or even worst may lead to teenage pregnancy. On the brighter side, positive outcome may be in a form of serving as a inspiration and boost students determination to focus on their students to get high marks in school. It may also teach students on how to be responsible, patient and be mature on decisions they make.

Thesis Statement: I believe that the effects on students having a relationship or commitment will lead to negative outcomes. 1.1OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research paper aims to:
1.Determine the effects on students having a relationship or affair on opposite sex while studying.
2. Know how far the patience of the students on their relationship is.
3. Determine how guided the students are when it comes to this issue.
4. Know the key on how to manage between studies and relationship.


Having a commitment or relationship while studying may result on students to get unfocused to their studies. 1.3RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.Why did you decide to get involved in a commitment or relationship? 2Is having a love quarrel before taking examination affect your score? 3Does having a relationship can affect your studies?

4Does your parent know that you’re in a relationship? If so, what is their way on guiding you? 5If you we to choose between boyfriend/girlfriend and studies, what will you choose? Why? 5.1SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There are 3 groups of people that would benefit this research. First are the students who are in a relationship, especially those who are studying at the University of San Augustine, Iloilo, because this research will help them to determine what are the effects of having a relationship to their studies. Second are the teachers, because they will know that this issue takes a big part or serves as a big factor that student get low marks at school. And for them also to be aware and to be open minded to this issue. And last, to all the parents because this research also reveals the part of the students. By this research, parents will know the thoughts of their children getting involved to this matter and to guide their children in a good and pleasing way.

We all know for a fact that teenager get involved more often to relationship than adults. It is also a reality that students get involved to negative result due to their carelessness on this issue. Tackling about this issue may contribute a lot for the students who are in a relationship in order for them to realize many things. It also each or reveal many unfold thoughts of the students. The reason why they get in a relationship and how would this effect not only their personal life but also their studies. And how their parents and the people around tem guide or influence them regarding this issue.

This topic is needed in 2 important places. 1st at the school, here the students get a lot of influence. It is where carelessness on student’s decision takes place. This research will unfold the rate of influence in every student. This research will also tell you the effects on the people around you when you decide on your relationship to someone. This will show how a love quarrel will will affect your relationship to your classmate or friends. 2nd is at home, where it all started. This research is needed to hear the voice of the students on every problem they face at home. This will answer many why’s of the topic. Like, why students get involved to this issue? Or why does student find a feeling of love and belonging to other people?

The Causes and Effects of Pre-Marital Sex

Premarital Sex

III-A PRE-MARITAL SEX: DEAL OR NO DEAL? I. INTRODUCTION: “Curiosity kills the cat”, a simple phrase that entails a lot of meaning. We can take it in literal, (which is somewhat weird) or take it the deeper side that can probably strike us out of it. 21st century, history in the making…


Pre-marital sex is sexual activity practiced by persons who are unmarried. Historically considered taboo by many cultures and considered a sin by numerous religions, it has become more commonly accepted in the last few decades. Until the 1950s, the term “pre-marital…

Research Paper

Premarital sex From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Premarital sex is sexual activity practiced by persons who are unmarried. Historically it has been considered taboo in some cultures and religions.Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 Historical Background 3 Cultural…

Moral Theology – Premarital Sex

PAPER Theology 104 Moral Theology – Pre-marital Sex I. INTRODUCTION Once, a long time ago when the majority of men were still misogynists and women didn’t have the right to vote, sex was a serious discussion and a deed purely done…

Effects of News Media

Throughout the years the use of the media has become such a huge part of life across the world. The media has taken over and had such a drastic effect on the American culture as a whole. Americans today look to the use of technology to learn information about any and everything. The old way of life is no more the digital age is rapidly evolving and growing, it is becoming such a huge part of the lives of all Americans and the information and news media plays a huge role in this evolution.

When it comes to the role of information media, it is very useful for most Americans. Most Americans only watch television for entertainment purposes, therefor using the internet as a platform to release and provided information to the people is a positive thing. The use of information media definitely has a social responsibility because, just like any other form of media there are some boundaries that should not be crossed. I believe that the information media should be used for just that to inform the people and provide them with accurate reports and articles regarding the news.

When individuals decide to create false news or report inaccurate stories it then becomes a debate of whether or not these individuals and or reporters have a responsibility to the people to be authentic in their work. It then becomes a matter of whether these information media platforms are socially responsible for what the public is being provided. The information media is used to connect the public to the world by displaying and reporting the happenings of the world, this should be done unbiasedly and all the information provided should be accurate and credible. So in a since the information media has a few social responsibilities. The information and news media also can be very influential to the American culture.

In the American culture people tend to look for clarity and verification from outside sources, this is where information and news media can be very influential to the opinion of people. When political parties are concerned we look to the news for information about these parties to give people clarity as to who may be the best candidate for the position. The news and information media plays such a huge role in the way that people form opinion of political parties.

The role of the new is to inform the public about politics and provide background information about each party. What it is not meant to be used for is to be bias and put out information that could hurt the candidates. Although this is what should not be done it generally is done very often, political parties use information and news media to release information that could impact and influence the opinions of the people. The modern era of news and information media has transformed so many aspect of life.

Electronic media and their convergence has transformed journalism and news consumption in such a drastic way. Due to the constant evolution of technology electronic media has become the way of doing everything. This has transformed the way of journalism and news consumption, because over the years consumers have gradually gravitated towards the internet for their information. The information provided on the internet is in much more detail then is it were to be written in a newspaper or broadcasted on a news channel. The way the internet is set up there is such a platform for reporters and journalist to include so many different elements into their writings or news reports that they would not be able to do if it weren’t for the internet.

The way that the American culture is in this current time every aspect of life is somehow connected to the internet and the consumption of news and reports are no different. The way people consume the news on the internet is a completely different experience then it is watching the news. Some news channels even offer more in depth details about a story that way aired on television on their website. They also use the website to provide the citizens with news that did not make the airing of the broadcast as well. When journalist and news reporters take advantage of the media they reach a broader audience because this is the age of the internet. The way we consume and take in news is constantly and rapidly changing with the growth of technology.

2010. Media Culture: Mass Communication of the Digital Age

Effects of unemployment

The stabilization of human personalities; every individual child or adult needs emotional security and a source of release from stresses and strains of every day life. This provided by emotional support of partners and the chance for parents to indulge with their children. This helps to prevent stress from overwhelming the individual and threatening the stability of family and society. Parents provides economic support to its members particularly when they are young, paying for expensive personal items as well as child care.

This financial support at times can be extended beyond infant hood with extra cost such as private education or higher education. Other functions of individuals in employment, tend to provide economic and emotional support when a member of the family is ill, disabled or in poverty. Financially stable families offer economic, cultural and social support that allows status and the prospects of social mobility for its members. But all this can be changed by a single life event in a person’s life as well as their families and it can be significantly devastating.

A persons health and well being is significantly influenced by the life events and the effects of the social environment that they live in. these events can effect our health and wellbeing when a change of circumstances occurs. The aim of this essay is to explore how this life of events can change a person’s health and wellbeing for example: psychologically, physically, and socially and their behaviour. Events like losing a job has a great impact on a person’s life and their family members, it can also affect a person’s health and well being.

A financially stable person losing their source of income can be devastating and can cause emotional distress and depression. (NHS research 2009) states that the most common cause of stress in today’s society is relationship breakdown, loss of a job, money issues and moving house. Stress can result fro, continuous causes, changeable, unpredictable or predictable causes e.g. life events or occupational demands (psychology through diagrams). Homes and rahe (1967) states that stress can be caused by greater susceptibility to physical mental health disorders (psychology through diagrams p. 194) stress can lead to a person’s behaviour change.

A person might start smoking to try and relieve stress. (Dr Parrot American medical journal) states that smokers mistakenly believe that cigarette smoking can help relieve stress. (Live bates) director of ASH explains further that cigarette smokers experience the relief from their addiction but of stress. Cigarette dependency can gradually disappear when one makes a choice to quit. Smoking is addictive and is harmful to a person’s health internally and also externally.

Smoking causes high blood pressure, raised heart beats , shortness of breath, chronic coughing , impotence and infertility, long term smokers have a higher risk of developing respiratory track infection and lung cancer which means smoking can cause death. Recent studies show that thousands of people all over the world die each year from medical complications which are caused by smoking (smoking advice information). In the United States smoking remains the greatest preventable cause of death (journal of environmental and public health 2012 may 4th).

Smoking is another expensive addiction which can add more strain on a non income household. Smoking is an addiction and addictions need feeding, that means that the little money that coming into the house hold could be spent on feeding the addiction , leaving no money for food, rent and basic things which sustain a house hold. This leads to changing diet to cheaper food stuffs which are most likely to be unhealthy. Low income leads to an unhealthy diet which mostly is high in sugar and fat. Leading this new life style can cause a person to become obese and can also affect their health and well being. (Drewnowski, 2010) healthy food is more expensive than unhealthy food.

Unhealthy food is easily accessible in low income households there fore it is seen as the easiest option even thought they are full of sugar, unrefined grams of fat Diet which is full of sugar and fat is not good for human bodies because it leads to health problems. Children who suffer from blood pressure and high type 2 diabetes, Are at high to a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Also children are likely to become obese when they grow up. (2009 paediatric nutrition s. system) (Minister for public health) stresses that, it is a heart-breaking fact family from low income survive from bad food and they are at high risk from obesity. Most of the families on low income are people who are on benefits.

DR Gerry Spence comments that most families on benefits suffer from obesity and they most likely rely on eating out of the chippy and on convenience stores. Also once a person loses his or her job the effect s can be devastating if they cannot be able to keep up with their mortgage, their home is at risk of being repossessed which could lead to homelessness, homelessness starts in reduction of availability of affordable housing and economic stresses in society. This leads to families having to move to different areas which they can afford.

Moving houses and changing school can b devastating to both children and parents. Children’s education can be highly affected by this change of school environment according to Stuart hall and Janet pawney; homelessness could have a very bad effect on a child’s education and health. In most cases when people are evicted or lose their housing due to other causes, most of them are housed by their local councils, if they are lucky they can be offered a council house. Most of the council houses according to parents and professionals are not present at all.

Most of them are in very poor states of repair and also might be damp and mouldy which can affect a person’s health and well being for example dampened accommodation can cause respiratory conditions to worsen. Also in this situation children are more exposed to tobacco smoke lack of study space and also lack of sleep at night as a result of a rowdy neighbourhood. This change of location affects adults as well as children. Children can become lonely because they have left their families or have not been able to make friends.

They feel isolated and this can lead to social isolation which is another cause of poor health. According to (R.C.N) people who are from socially included neighbourhood experience poor health outcome this include self reported health morbidity and life expectancy. Also children from socially excluded neighbourhoods are more likely to get involved in crime. They may get involved with other children in the neighbourhood or school who are involved in unhealthy activities for example drugs, alcohol and smoking.

These activities are usually caused by children joining gangs who participate in these events. The peer pressures caused by the gangs are what lead to these unhealthy activities. Office of (D.P.M 2004 September 9th) states that in most cases social exclusion is concentrated in the poorest communities and neighbourhoods. When a person is socially excluded they find it hard to creatively take part in most of the society’s activities for example taking part in local elections, leisure centres which are available in the community.

This can have a long term effect on them when they grow up; they might find it very hard to achieve good grades which can lead to unemployment in the future. (DPM 2004) states that education can be used to predict future outcomes in the areas of employability, health, criminal activity and earnings. This can also be used to achieve a reduction in social exclusion. In this we have discovered that social exclusion is the gap between those who are forced to the fringe and those who are active members of the society. We have seen how socially exclusion can affect our health and wellbeing.

Also our behaviour, we have seen that social exclusion can have a great impact on children’s education which can determine their future employability, health, criminal activities and earnings. This essay explores how we live can affect our health and wellbeing. It van have an impact on a persons mental health, behaviour and physical health problems. This essay shows how a one event can have a big impact on the whole family involved. It can affect the present and their tomorrow (future). The evidence shows that once a change of events in ones life and how the person deals with it negatively, it can be devastating. This is because our bodies react differently to stress.

Abnormal psychology by Richard gross& rob mcllvoen
AS & a level psychology through diagram by Grahame hill
The guardian July 9th 2013

The Negative Effects of Bullying On the Teenage Psyche: Teen Violence and Suicide

The Negative Effects of Bullying On the Teenage Psyche: Teen Violence and Suicide

The negative effects of intense bullying in the adolescent years, such as apathy, the feeling of hopelessness, sudden drop in grades, use of drugs or alcohol or early promiscuous sexual activity, and withdrawal from friends or piers, have largely consequential impacts on the teenage psyche, such as the rapid increase of violence and suicide amongst teens. However, while many believe that the answer to stopping such tragedies lies within helping and stopping the victims before such tragedies are able to occur, the psychological impacts of severe bullying are often the immediate cause of violence and suicide and therefore must first be stopped before they become detrimental to the victims.

Guns in school… Drugs… Gang shootouts… Theft… Date rape… Murder… Suicide… In recent years, teen violence has become an epidemic within the United States. Each year, more than 200,000 teens are arrested for violent crimes, and another 500,000 for theft or arson. Many teenagers now feel the need to carry concealed guns or other weapons for protection against other piers in school, on the streets, and even in their own homes. Many often resort to deadly weapons, such as guns, knives, and even small explosives, to resolve pier-to-pier conflicts that in the past would’ve been solved through harmful words and/or fist fights. Bullying, often dismissed as a unavoidable part of reaching maturity, has grown from occasional taunting and kicking in the schoolyards to the third largest cause of adolescent violence and suicide.

Some of the worst forms of teen violence are those in which teenagers attempt to cause self-harm by contemplating, attempting, or committing suicide. One of the leading causes of death amongst teenagers is suicide. The Centers for Disease control report that it is the third leading cause of death, behind accidents and homicide, of people aged 15 to 24. Even more disturbing is the fact that suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for children between the ages of 10 and 14. There are several different factors that often lead a teenager to take his or her life, but the most common is depression. Feelings of hopelessness and anxiety, along with feelings of being trapped in a life that one can’t handle, are very real contributors to teen suicide. In some cases, teenagers believe that suicide is the only way to solve their problems. The pressures of life seem too much to cope with, and some teenager look at suicide as a welcome escape. Minors choose death because suffering becomes intolerable as per their perception. Peer pressure, social and academic pressure, turmoil in the family can lead to emotional breakdown, feeling of loneliness, rejection, failure to handle loss, and poor performance.

They feel that there is little hope for change, improvement, or possibility of a better future with the life that they experience. Feelings of anger and guilt: stress and feelings of rejection, loneliness, feeling unwanted, can affect teenagers mentally. This may result in aggressive behavior or extreme mood swings. Often the guilt of doing something wrong, or hurting someone may force the teen to end his/her life. Although kids who are bullied are at risk of suicide, bullying alone is not the cause. Many issues contribute to suicide risk, including depression, problems at home, and trauma history. Additionally, specific groups have an increased risk of suicide, including American Indian and Alaskan Native, Asian American, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. This risk can be increased further when these kids are not supported by parents, peers, and schools. Bullying can make an unsupportive situation worse.

Kids who are bullied can experience negative physical, school, and mental health issues. Kids who are bullied are more likely to experience: Depression and anxiety, increased feelings of sadness and loneliness, changes in sleep and eating patterns, and loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy, health complaints, decreased academic achievement—GPA and standardized test scores—and school participation. They are more likely to miss, skip, or drop out of school. Many adolescents with depression may also have anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and/or eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, and compulsive overeating). Depression can be a response to many situations and stresses. In teenagers, depressed mood is common because of the normal process of maturing and the stress that occurs with it, the influence of sex hormones, independence conflicts with parents, it may also be a reaction to a disturbing event, such as: the death of a friend or relative, a breakup with a boyfriend or girlfriend, and/or failure at school.

Experts say bullying is a serious and widespread problem that can lead to school shootings and suicide. At the same time, they say, it is dangerously underrated, as schools and adults are not taking the problem seriously enough. “For the child who’s been targeted by a bully, their life is a living hell,” said Glenn Stutzky, a school violence specialist at Michigan State University. “Bullying is probably the most frequently occurring form of violence in American schools today and it’s really the engine that’s driving the majority of violence. It’s a huge problem.” Though in the past it was believed that only a very small number of bullied children might retaliate through extremely violent measures, in recent years the dramatic increase in teen violence, and even in severe bullying, has led to the contrary.

In 12 of 15 school shooting cases in the 1990s, the shooters had a history of being bullied. Such cases include the 1999 Columbine High School shooting, by Eric Harris,18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, on April 20, 1999. School shooters tend to act impulsively and attack the targets of their rage: students and faculty. But Harris and Klebold planned for a year and dreamed much bigger. The school served as means to a grander end, to terrorize the entire nation by attacking a symbol of American life.

Their slaughter was aimed at students and teachers, but it was not motivated by resentment of them in particular. Students and teachers were just convenient quarry, what Timothy McVeigh described as “collateral damage.” As members of the Trench coat Mafia, so dubbed for their habit of wearing black trench coats, the two boys had long been bullied by classmates.They disliked it and bided their time until they could wreak their revenge. They spent their frustrated energy on their plan. Dylan and Eric were obsessed with violent video games, says journalist Joe Conason, with a fascistic subculture, and with paramilitary techniques.

They had collected an arsenal of semiautomatic guns and homemade bombs and had plotted a crime they hoped the nation would never forget. If everything went according to plan, they would cause a lot of death and damage at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, and then they might just fly off together in a hijacked place to some remote island; or they kill themselves.

A psychological disorder, mental illness, or depression can trigger suicidal thoughts in teenagers. As per data, 95 percent of people had an ongoing mental illness or disorder, when they committed suicide. Michigan State University psychiatrist Dr. Frank Ochberg, as well as Supervisory Special Agent Dwayne Fuselier say that if you want to understand “the killers,” quit asking what drove them. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were radically different individuals, with vastly different motives and opposite mental conditions. Klebold is easier to comprehend, a more familiar type. He was hotheaded, but depressive and suicidal; he blamed himself for his problems.

Harris is the challenge; he was sweet-faced and well-spoken. Adults, and even some other kids, described him as “nice.” But Harris was cold, calculating, and homicidal. “Klebold was hurting inside while Harris wanted to hurt people,” Fuselier says. Harris was not merely a troubled kid, the psychiatrists say, he was a psychopath. In popular usage, almost any crazy killer is a “psychopath.” But in psychiatry, it’s a very specific mental condition that rarely involves killing, or even psychosis. “Psychopaths are not disoriented or out of touch with reality, nor do they experience the delusions, hallucinations, or intense subjective distress that characterize most other mental disorders,” writes Dr. Robert Hare, in Without Conscience, the seminal book on the condition.

“Unlike psychotic individuals, psychopaths are rational and aware of what they are doing and why. Their behavior is the result of choice, freely exercised.” None of his victims mean anything to the psychopath; he recognizes other people only as means to obtain what he desires. Not only does he feel no guilt for destroying their lives, he doesn’t grasp what they feel.

A truly hard-core psychopath is often unable to comprehend emotions like love, hate, or fear, because he has never experienced them directly. Diagnosing Harris as a psychopath represents neither a legal defense, nor a moral excuse. But it illuminates a great deal about the thought process that drove him to mass murder. The diagnosis transformed their understanding of the partnership. Despite earlier reports about Harris and Klebold being equal partners, the psychiatrists now believe firmly that Harris was the mastermind and driving force. The partnership did enable Harris to stray from typical psychopathic behavior in one way. He restrained himself. Usually psychopathic killers crave the stimulation of violence. That is why they are often serial killers—murdering regularly to feed their addiction. But Harris managed to stay (mostly) out of trouble for the year that he and Klebold planned the attack. Ochberg theorizes that the two killers complemented each other.

Cool, calculating Harris calmed down Klebold when he got hot-tempered. At the same time, Klebold’s fits of rage served as the stimulation Harris needed. Harris’ pattern of grandiosity, glibness, contempt, lack of empathy, and superiority read like the bullet points on Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist and convinced Fuselier and the other leading psychiatrists close to the case that Harris was a psychopath. While children who get bullied are often less assertive and more easily upset than their peers who aren’t victimized the fact that the findings showed a “dose-response” relationship between bullying and psychotic symptoms – meaning the greater the severity of bullying, the stronger the link – suggests that bullying actually helped cause children’s psychotic symptoms, rather than vice-versa. Both kids and adults “commonly” have psychosis-like symptoms or experiences, without full-blown mental illness. Young children who have these symptoms are more likely to develop schizophrenia and similar types of mental illness as young adults, while trauma in childhood also has been tied to adult psychosis risk.

To investigate whether there might be a direct link between trauma from bullying and psychosis symptoms, the researchers looked at 6,437 12-year-olds participating in a long-term study of children and their parents. All of the children had been completing annual psychological and physical health assessments since they were seven years old. In the current report, the researchers determined whether the 12-year-olds had any of 12 different psychotic symptoms, such as visual or auditory hallucinations, delusions of being spied on, or beliefs that they could broadcast their thoughts to others. Children had also been surveyed about peer victimization at 8 and 10 years of age.

Nearly 14 percent of the children had definite or suspected psychotic symptoms, although these included symptoms that occurred when the children were going to sleep or waking up, feverish, or under the influence of substances; 11.5 percent had intermediate symptoms, meaning they had at least one suspected or definite symptom that wasn’t related to sleep, fever or drugs; and 5.6 percent had at least one definite symptom of psychosis. Overall, 46 percent of the children reported having experienced victimization – including either direct bullying or “relational” victimization such as being excluded – at age 8 or 10, while 54 percent weren’t victimized at either age. Kids who reported being bullied at either age were roughly twice as likely as the other children to have psychotic symptoms, regardless of any other mental health problems, family situation, or IQ.

Many people, old and young, rich and poor, have a positive attitude on the subject of the rapidly increasing epidemic of teen violence and suicide. ‘We will not be overcome by these terrible social problems,’ they say, ‘we will find a way to stop the violence and cruelty inflicted on today’s youth, and we will beat the epidemic.’ For bullying, teen violence, and teen suicide there are many solutions that have been provided; in fact, as teen violence and bullying-related suicides have gradually become more and more severe, many government agencies, private organizations, and personally-affected individuals have accelerated their efforts at preventing and/or reducing it. Such actions include the reduction of poverty, stopping the spread and accessibility of guns, bombs, and other lethal weapons, providing emotional and financial support for families, increasing the severity of punishment for violent/ hate crimes committed by teens, and more citizens becoming involved on a personal level. While many of these solutions deal with some of the key factors of the growing rates of teen violence and suicides, all of them fail to call any attention to one of the largest contributors to the growing epidemic: bullying and the psychological effects it has on the teenage psyche.

The solution to the problems doesn’t just lie with the occasional school attendance-mandatory anti-bullying seminar and tighter gun restrictions; the solution to solving the root of the problem is in recognizing and acknowledging the warning signs and symptoms of bullying, depression, severe anger, and psychological issues in adolescents. One day in April 1999, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris sent an e-mail to the local police declaring that they were going to do something at the school. They blamed parents and teachers in their community for turning their children into intolerant sheep and then announced their own suicide. It was a disturbing forewarning that not only went unacknowledged, but was casually dismissed by the police as a childish prank between two moody, anxious, mad-at-the-world teenagers. In many cases with teen suicide, the victims often express many warning signs prior to the incident that are far too frequently discarded by parents, and at times even professionals, as a dramatic overreaction resulting from stress or the craving of attention. The blame for such tragedies cannot be placed on one specific individual, but that does not excuse the fact that each individual most often played an equally-detrimental role in such tragedies.

To put it bluntly, there’s blame to share for all involved. Though unfortunately there will always be bullying, depression, violence, mental disorders, and suicide, there’s no need or reason for them to become epidemics. Though studies have shown that they are often very effective means of solution, teenagers don’t need yearly psycho-analysis‘, strictly-scheduled therapeutic sessions, or heavy medications to keep them from turning suicidal or wanting to massacre the entire football team and/or cheerleading squad. What they need are people who are willing/able to recognize, listen, and not deny their conditions, wether their psychological or external. In 2010, a study was conducted by with over 200,000 teenagers and pre-adolescents that showed that actions as simple as calling a suicide hotline or talking to a parent or counselor about their problems allowed teens to overcome their suicidal and self-harmful thoughts and/or actions.

In many cases, violent crimes and actions committed by teenagers, and sometimes forewarning signs and messages, are cries for help, wether they’re conscious decisions or not. So in order to put an end to, or at least decrease, the problems created by severe bullying amongst teens, the blissful ignorance must first be diminished and people must be made to see that denial of the issue will only cause more harm to not only the victims, but all involved as well.

Environmental pollution: its effects on life and its remedies

The term pollution refers to the act of contaminating ones environment by introducing certain hazardous contaminants that disturb the ecosystem and directly or indirectly affect the living organisms of that ecosystem. Pollution in general is the activity of disturbing the natural system and balance of an environment. The increase in the pollution over the years by man has caused severe damage to the earth’s ecosystem. It is responsible for global warming which is leading to the end if all the lives on earth. Over the years there is an extreme increase in the rate of human diseases, and death rate of various animals and plants on earth, and that is all because of the pollution caused by man himself. AIR POLLUTION:

According to the dictionary, air pollution is the contamination of air by smoke and harmful gases, mainly oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Some examples of air pollution include:
Exhaust fumes from vehicles
The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gas
Harmful off-gasing from things such as paint, plastic production and so on Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Air pollution is linked to asthma, allergies and other respiratory illnesses. You can more about how the environment affects human health here. LAND POLLUTION

Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth’s surface caused by a misuse of resources and improper disposal of waste. Some examples of land pollution include:
Litter found on the side of the road
Illegal dumping in natural habitats
Oil spills that happen inland
The use of pesticides and other farming chemicals
Damage and debris caused from unsustainable mining and logging practices Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Land pollution is responsible for damage done to natural habitat of animals, deforestation and damage done to natural resources, and the general ugly-ing up of our communities. Light Pollution

Light pollution is the brightening of the night sky inhibiting the visibility of stars and planets by the use of improper lighting of communities. Some examples of what causes light pollution:
Street lamps that shine light in all directions, instead of with a hood to point light downward toward the street. Unnecessary lights, especially around the home
Light pollution uses more energy (by shining more light up instead of down), may affect human health and our sleep cycles and most importantly, corrupts our kids telescopes and their curiosity. Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is any loud sounds that are either harmful or annoying to humans and animals. Some examples of noise pollution:
Airplanes, helicopters and motor vehicles
Construction or demolition noise
Human activities such as sporting events or concerts
Noise pollution is disruptive to humans’ stress levels, may be harmful to unborn babies, and drives animals away, causing nervousness and decreasing their ability to hear prey or predators. Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity. Warmer lake water from nearby manufacturing (using cool water to cool the plant and then pump it back into the lake) Included in thermal pollution should also be the increase in temperatures in areas with lots of concrete or vehicles, generally in cities These kinds of environmental pollution can cause aquatic life to suffer or die due to the increased temperature, can cause discomfort to communities dealing with higher temperatures and can even affect plant-life in and around the area. Visual Pollution

Visual pollution is what you would call anything unattractive or visualiing damaging to the nearby landscape. This tends to be a highly subjective topic, as we all find different things attractive and unattractive. Some examples of visual pollution:

Skyscrapers might block the view of a mountain
Graffiti or carving on trees, rocks or other natural landscapes Billboards, litter, abandoned homes and junkyards could also be considered among three kins of environmental pollution Mostly visual kinds of environmental pollution are annoying, although some may say they are also depressing (such as when they can’t see a view through a billboard). Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of any body of water (lakes, groundwater, oceans, etc). Some examples of water pollution:
Raw sewage running into lake or streams
Industrial waste spills contaminating groundwater
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Illegal dumping of substances, or items in bodies of water
Biological contamination, such as bacteria growth
These kinds of environmental pollution are linked to health issues in humans, animals and plant-life. You can read more about how the environment is affecting our health here.

Effects of modern gadgets to high school students

PREFACE PART ONE What is a Person? Chapter 1 Missing Persons Chapter 2 An Apocalypse of Self-Abdication Chapter 3 The Noosphere Is Just Another Name for Everyone‟s Inner Troll PART TWO What Will Money Be? Chapter 4 Digital Peasant Chic Chapter 5 The City Is Built to Music Chapter 6 The Lords of the Clouds Renounce Free Will in Order to Become Infinitely Lucky Chapter 7 The Prospects for Humanistic Cloud Economics Chapter 8 Three Possible Future Directions PART THREE The Unbearable Thinness of Flatness Chapter 9 Retropolis Chapter 10 Digital Creativity Eludes Flat Places Chapter 11 All Hail the Membrane PART FOUR Making The Best of Bits Chapter 12 I Am a Contrarian Loop Chapter 13 One Story of How Semantics Might Have Evolved PART FIVE Future Humors Chapter 14 Home at Last (My Love Affair with Bachelardian Neoteny) Acknowledgments

Preface IT‟S EARLY in the twenty-first century, and that means that these words will mostly be read by nonpersons—automatons or numb mobs composed of people who are no longer acting as individuals. The words will be minced into atomized search-engine keywords within industrial cloud computing facilities located in remote, often secret locations around the world. They will be copied millions of times by algorithms designed to send an advertisement to some person somewhere who happens to resonate with some fragment of what I say. They will be scanned, rehashed, and misrepresented by crowds of quick and sloppy readers into wikis and automatically aggregated wireless text message streams. Reactions will repeatedly degenerate into mindless chains of anonymous insults and inarticulate controversies. Algorithms will find

Effects of Communication

The organization that I chose is DeVry Inc. Specifically, I chose DeVry’s online student finance department because I am currently employed in this department. I started here as a Student Finance Consultant in July of 2012 and this is my first full time job after college. In my role, we assist student’s enrolling in courses and help plan how to fund their education. This job can be very satisfying yet frustrating at the same time. I feel that it is a great learning environment and overall, employee satisfaction is high. I feel that my position plays an important role in a student’s life as well as a critical part of the business. DeVry University is an accredited institution that offers a variety of programs to students across the world to pursue an associate’s, bachelors and even master’s degree. DeVry has over 90 locations across the United States and Canada to service students in several areas.

In addition, for students who may not live near a campus, DeVry offers an online classroom that gives students another flexible option. In this examination the focus will primarily be with the online division. The online division offers a non-traditional way for students to pursue a degree. It allows working adults, busy parents and a variety of others to attend class on their own time. Threaded discussions allow students to interact with one another, comparable to a classroom setting, but students can participate when they are available. I no longer feel as though my role is important, in fact, advisors in this department often refer to themselves as “mignons” or “at the bottom of the feeding pole.” The work that I do now feels unnecessary and irrelevant. The morale throughout the entire department is low. Instead of trying to be satisfied with our positions, we are trying to find ways to be less dissatisfied.

Themost unfortunate part is that I have only been here for 9 months, 1 month which was spent training. The work that we do now is all about meeting numbers, hitting goals, and extra paperwork. It is no longer about taking responsibility for student’s accounts and trying to find the best solution. Instead it is about answering as many phone calls as possible and making sure you hit all points on your “script” while on a call. As I stated before, the department as a whole feels as though we are on the bottom. Part of the reason is that we do not feel that we receive the respect that we deserve. We are given minimal notice of changes that are effective immediately. These changes affect the goals we have to meet and the processes we have to follow. In addition, most changes that are made do not provide enough information that we feel comfortable to advise to students. Problem Statement:

The organizational problem that I would like to research is communication within our department. I would like to resolve the lack of communication that I often see within my role. We work with online students, therefore, we do not meet with anyone in person; communication is all through phone and e-mail. We communicate with students to help answer questions, provide support and make sure their finance account is organized and accurate. I often see that not being able to speak with students face to face can make communication efforts difficult. Especially when communicating through e-mail because not being able to see the person or hear the tone of their voice can allow for misinterpretations with students and especially within departments.

Student Finance works closely with admissions and academics and I believe there is a lot of room for improvement with our communication skills. Our primary goal is to help the students and I have found recently, that goal is becoming less important. There is also a lack of communication to students. Often times students call in regarding an email they received, however, advisors have not been made aware than a standardized e-mail had been generated. For example, there were 8000 e-mails that were sent out to students that needed to submit documents. Although it was necessary for students to send in these documents, many of them had questions.

There was not adequate phone coverage to be able to assist all students who had received an e-mail. Students become frustrated that they have to sit on hold for thirty minutes while waiting for an advisor and once connected to the advisor they may not receive as detailed information as they would prefer. In addition, advisors become frustrated with management that they were not informed of the messages that were relayed to students. “Things happen in organizations because people working individually and in groups make them happen; people make the difference” (Schermerhorn). This can be both positive and negative. The lack of communication happens because people neglect to put in the work to make a difference and improve communication.

In addition, the lack of motivation from disgruntled employees causes lack of work as well. However, if these problems were resolved and increase satisfaction among employees it could create ambition for employees to make difference in how they perform their duties as well. I feel that there are improvements that can be made that can rectify the situation the Student Finance department is currently in. I feel that one of the most important changes needs to be in communication. The way that we communicate within the department as well as how other departments communicate between one another needs to improve. Although there are aspects of the job that are less than appealing, I think the main obstacle that needs to be tackled is the way we communicate. For the course project I will be concentrating on the communication process that is instilled in this department and how it affects achieving goals as well as employee satisfaction.

Literature Review:
The lack of communication that is throughout the DeVry Student Finance Department is an issue that can be resolved, and should be resolved. “Mistakes are common in business and can lead to negative repercussions for organizations” (Bolkan, San, John A. Daly 2009). The lack of communication is not intentional, but does have a negative effect. If not corrected, some of the negative effects may have a continuous cycle rather than being resolved. Repercussions that may result from mistakes made within an organization are a high employee turnover rate, and dissatisfied students. Lately, employees have begun leaving DeVry as early as two weeks of employment. Some employees that have been there longer relocate into a different position within DeVry, and others that leave sooner leave the
company altogether. This has a negative effect since it takes time to train employees, and by the time the department finishes training one new-hire group, previous advisors have already left the position. Instead of having full teams of ten advisors, each team has on average seven.

In addition, the lack of communication becomes a problem for students when they become dissatisfied. Students may choose to not enroll with DeVry again and quit school completely, or transfer to a competing school. Also, students who are not happy with the school they are attending may tend to have negative review comments. As a corporation that is looking to expand, DeVry should want only positive feedback from students. “Communication is absolutely critical for achieving success, but is it something that is often lacking” (Williamson 2010). In order for DeVry to successfully expand, there has to be effective communication to the student in order for students to be satisfied. In addition, if DeVry expands, there will be a need more for employees, if there is a high turnover rate it would be difficult to provide the quality service that DeVry stands behind. Analysis:

The lack of communication is an error on numerous ends. One of the main reasons the problem has not been solved is that management may not be aware of the severity of the problem. Blame cannot be placed on management if management is not aware that a problem exists. Due to circumstances that had been a cause of lack of communication, management should be aware that there is a problem but may not be aware of where the problem lies. For example, there is a high turnover rate due to employee dissatisfaction. This is prominent in the department. However, what is vaguer is why employees are dissatisfied. One of the main reasons is the lack of communication. Not only does management not effectively communicate changes and information, but also does not welcome communication coming from advisors. Input is not welcome when discussing possible changes.

Without listening to input from advisors, management is unaware of the problem. They may be under the impression advisors are dissatisfied with the changes that are being made, rather than how the changes were communicated to them. Advisors feel that when they are able to comment on decisions, their voices are not heard. Their input may be received but their opinion was not listened to. Currently, there are processes in place that are supposed to address concerns of employees. However, it is ineffective since concerns are heard but not listened to. In addition, this provides more frustration to advisors. They are voicing their concerns but concerns are not being addressed or even acknowledged. This essentially becomes a “dead-end.” Not having a forum that an advisor can express concerns and be accounted for increases dissatisfaction among employees. As discussed in class, dissatisfaction can be related to employee motivation. It is assumed that employees who have a more dissatisfaction are less motivated (Schermerhorn).

The lack of satisfaction not only affects one’s professional life, but can also affect one’s personal life as well. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs requires that one is satisfied on numerous levels before able to reach the peak of self-actualization. First, one must meet physical needs, in order to meet these needs, money is required. A job can provide a paycheck which would help fulfill meeting physical needs of food and shelter. However, if you are only working at a job to meet the lowest level, you will never reach full satisfaction. In addition, if the job makes you unhappy it can affect your emotional state and well-being. A job may not fulfill emotional value, but a job that affects it negatively can prevent one from moving up on Maslow’s scale. Previously, the focus was on lack of communication between management and advisors; however, there is also a lack of communication between advisors.

Academic advisors and finance advisors do not often communicate effectively. Consideration is not taken that different departments may have different guidelines and policies. This issue can be frustrating for advisors, but has more of an effect on students. Since students utilize both departments to guide them through their education they feel let down if they receive conflicting information. This can cause conflict between departments. Conflict can be advantageous when advisors are able to learn from one another and gain insight on the other’s position. However, conflict can also cause tension and confusion. If not dealt with properly, conflict can affect both advisors and students. Solutions:

The first part of solving this problem is to make the proper audience aware that there is a problem. “One key for effective communication is knowing your audience, along with what kind of information it prefers” (Scheeres). The lack of communication between management and advisors needs to be brought to the attention of management. While doing so, it is important that it is addressed in a way that management does not see as complaining. Instead it is important to portray opinions in thoughts in a professional manner and also be able to include how improving communication can be beneficial to the organization as a whole.

These ideas have to be well thought out and fully developed. “Effective communication doesn’t have to take extra time but it does demand greater awareness” (Gunn and Gullickson, 2008). Initially it makes take time to express concerns, but one’s awareness has been brought to the attention of the audience, it does not require additional work on their part. For example, communications can still be sent via e-mail, however, when they send the e-mail should be taken into more consideration. Another way to address the communication issue is to allow employees an outlet where they can express concerns and have them be addressed. This could even be anonymous. Advisors could write concerns and place them somewhere where management could have access to them. These issues do not have to be addressed daily, but possibly in a newsletter issued monthly.

This solution may require additional time but could also increase employee satisfaction if they feel their concerns are being addressed. Again, an increase in satisfaction can also increase employee motivation. Recently, a survey was distributed to DeVry Student Finance Department to rate their overall satisfaction and engagement. After receiving results from this survey it was brought to management’s attention that there were underlying issues that needed to be addresses. This was an effective way to listen to the concerns of numerous advisors. It would be useful to send various surveys addressing different concerns. It would also be useful to have employees retake the exact survey six months later to determine if improvements have been made. If improvements are not made management may then want to reconfigure their communication process. Reflections:

As an advisor in continuing student finance it has affected development professionally, personally and academically. Professionally, it has decreased my motivation to go above and behind what is expected of me. For a short period of time, it resulted in me meeting my weekly goals and not desiring to go beyond what is asked. In addition, it also caused me to look into other job opportunities that do not challenge me. Fortunately, I continued through the struggles and am now looking at ways to improve my position. Instead of looking at the negative aspects of the position I try to focus on what I like about the job. I enjoy the team that I work with and enjoy being able to work with students. When I am able to provide assistance that the student is asking for it can be a rewarding experience. Unfortunately I do not feel that I am able to reach my full potential in this position, but am trying to excel in the position to better myself and eventually use the skills I learn to apply them in another position that may challenge me further.

Previously, I felt intense dissatisfaction with my job. Since it was something I had to deal with on a daily basis it affected my personal life as well. At first I felt dissatisfaction in both professional and personal aspects of life. For eight hours a day I have to be somewhere that I did not enjoy. This carried outside of the workplace and caused dissatisfaction outside of work as well.

Eventually I was able to reevaluate the different aspects in my life and make adjustments. When I was dissatisfied at work, I learned to over-compensate satisfaction in my personal life. I knew that while I work I would not be happy and therefore was determined when I was not at work I would fulfill my time with activities that would help increase my satisfaction. This included spending more time with friends and family that I was previously neglecting since I was bringing my dissatisfaction from work home with me.

For me, my academic development was also affected. This was in large due to the fact that I am attending school that is related to work. It was hard to leave work and DeVry and want to come home to do work for Keller. Once I left work I wanted to leave anything involving DeVry behind. This gave me a negative view on school and caused me to avoid putting forth the effort I should have been. Eventually I started to take a different outlook on school. I knew it was a way that I could better myself and it was something that I could do in my own time. I enjoy school and learning and needed to be reminded that it was for me and not for work. In addition, I was also able to recognize that by learning more I can learn to deal with difficult work situations in a way that does not affect my (dis) satisfaction. By improving my skills and knowledge it may also qualify me for different positions that I may not have been eligible for previously.

Evaluating the lack of communication within the department I work in has allowed me to evaluate how I communicate with others also. In addition, it has displayed how professional and personal life can coincide with one another. In addition, it has also inspired me to make changes not only in how I communicate, but how others communicate with me as well. By bringing awareness to others, it may increase the effectiveness of how we communicate with one another. By increasing effective communication employees are able to grow individually and the organization has the support to grow as a whole.

Communication is a Two-Way Street. Asian Social Science; Mar2010, Vol. 6 Issue 3 Devry University. Retrieved from

He said, She Said. Strategic Finance, 89(7), 11-12. Gunn, R., and Gullickson, B. 2008. FAFSA: Student Aid on the Web.

Interdepartmental links priceless for sterilization success. Healthcare Purchasing news, 34(1),36. Williamson, J. 2010.

Learning the Language. By: Scheeres, Junell

Listening: A Concept Analysis. By: Shipley, Sheila D.

Organizational Responses to Consumer Complaints: An Examination of Effective Remediation Tactics. By: Bolkan, San, John A. Daly, Feb 2009, Vol. 37, No. 1

Organizational Behavior, Tenth Edition. By: Hunt, Osborn and Schermerhorn.

When Work and Love Mix: Perceptions of Peers in Workplace Romances. By:
Chory, Rebecca M., Sean M. Horan, Nov/Dec 2009, Vol. 60, No. 5

Effects of Media Globalisation

Summary of the Effects of Media Globalization by Mary Hickman The world, in many ways, has been benefited from media globalization. However, the lurking dark side of media globalization that threatens us, as audiences of the media, has to be acknowledged and cogitated. Undoubtedly, media globalization has transformed our lives in many ways. Friedman (2005) asserted that the seamless information sharing have brought nations closer in the facets of businesses, personal communications and medical industries. Unfortunately, media globalization has brought about many drawbacks to the world.

Firstly, it is a question of the motivation behind media corporations. According to Chomsky (1996), profits are the primary motivation behind every multi-national media corporations. Overwhelming media businesses have swallowed the essence of journalism. As a result, media corporations have the ability to manipulate the media, creating their ideal audience of a certain kind. Due to the small pool of competing media corporations, the existing powerful media corporations have been dominating the media content.

Through various underhand methods, the media corporations have effectively influenced and gained favor by the government. Friedman acknowledges that American media corporation, as leaders in the media globalization arena, are leading the media world into a dangerous position; posing a great challenge to media liberation. In addition, Siochru (2004) postulated that intervening American media has damaged cultures amongst countries. While the voices of the audiences are suppressed, proliferation of unhealthy media content such as cognitive content of greed has been appalling. Due to the minimum participation of media content from the audiences, we are vulnerable to any form of ideologies that are intentionally displayed by the media monopoly.

Facebook and Harmful Effects: Internet Addiction

Unlike reading books and long magazine articles which requires the ability of critical thinking, social networks such as Facebook are the new addiction among people. With its limitless quantities of photos and status updates, which are bright-colored candies for the mind, it’s been difficult to recognize how toxic and harmful Facebook and other social networks can be. In the last five years, researchers from the United States, Europe, South America, China, and other locations have conducted studies related to internet addiction, social media use, and Facebook. From the review of literature detailed in these studies, many researchers have suggested that a new form of internet addiction related to Facebook use has emerged globally. Determining how much use of Facebook is normal and what type of behavior represents addictive or abusive activity is not a simple issue, as work patterns, artistic creativity, photography, text messaging, and family activities can all be involved.

The negative consequences of addictive social media use may not be immediately apparent to casual users. With debate ongoing as to whether to include social media addiction as a mental illness in the forthcoming version of the DSM used in clinical psychiatry, a review of current research in psychology and sociology is required to learn the characteristics, symptoms, and treatments for this growing problem. By reviewing individual case studies and surveys of cultural groups, more information about the modern diagnosis of Facebook addiction globally can be found.

People are not rational enough to be exposed to Facebook, which can lead to a change of behaviors. When these changes become negative to the life experience or health of the individual, professionals in mental health care have begun questioning whether social media addiction is a problem that must be addressed in large numbers. Psychological research into internet addiction begins with case studies of individuals that are then reviewed in large groups to combine quantitative and qualitative methods in statistical results. For example, the study by Karaiskos et al. (2010) looked at the example of a 24 year old woman who used Facebook for 5 hours per day, with over 400 friends. The woman had lost her job because of excessive Facebook use, posting status updates and other details to her profile. (Karaiskos et al., 2010)

The woman had used the internet for many years without developing addiction to other sites before using Facebook. The Karaiskos study concluded that “Facebook addiction can be considered as an ‘urge-driven disorder’ with a strong compulsive component… another subcategory of the internet spectrum addiction disorders.” (Karaiskos et al., 2010) Recent research by Kuss & Griffiths (2013) found “internet addiction appears as mental health concern for UK university students” and that “3.2% of the students were classified as being addicted to the Internet.” (Kuss & Griffiths, 2013) These researchers concluded that there was significant evidence that supported “the inclusion of ‘Internet addiction’ in the DSM-V.” (Kuss & Griffiths, 2013) Thus, a wide range of research in psychology and sociology is developing that identifies Facebook addiction as a serious mental health problem.

Facebook consumption is a competitive disadvantage, where the less time spent on Facebook, the bigger the advantage people might have. The case study of the woman given by the Karaiskos study showed how people could use their job because of too much Facebook use. However, the impact of overuse of Facebook and the loss of personal productivity in the workplace can also be found in enterprise studies. For example, companies whose employees are addicted to Facebook may check frequently their profiles or friends’ information as to be viewed as wasting time and reducing office or workplace efficiency. The Sherman study (2014) showed the influence of workplace factors related to “personality type, values, boredom and procrastination” in employees. (Sherman, 2014) Recent studies by Kuss and Griffiths (2013) suggest that as much of 21.5% of the differential shown in addictive use to Facebook varies according to personality type. (Kuss & Griffiths, 2013)

Sherman identifies neurotic individuals, women, and people prone to procrastination activities as most influenced by or susceptible to symptoms of Facebook addiction. (Sherman, 2014) Kuss & Griffiths (2011) found another characteristic that was indicative of increased susceptibility to Facebook addiction in ecommerce and online shopping frequency. (Kuss & Griffith, 2011) From these and other studies, it is increasingly evident that the mental health issues related to Facebook addiction have an impact on worker productivity across both white-collar and blue-collar sectors. Continued research is required to determine the degree of impact in different industry from social media addiction.

People who develop internet dependence may isolate and refrain from real-world activities, which can increase their risk of negative outcomes. While it may seem paradoxical that social media can lead to individual isolation, there are major issues with new technology use that have not been studied in long-term social impact or effect on individual mental health. Social media and Facebook usage are both relatively new phenomena, as are the rise of the internet and mobile phones globally. With these new technologies come new risks for people who are not critically prepared to monitor and condition their own behavior. Where isolation may also lead to addiction in other areas as an escape from personal problems, social media is then just one of many forms of abusive activity that can develop through negative mental health patterns.

In this way, Facebook addiction may derive characteristics and causes in individual psychology on pathways similar to those that are found in other types of neurosis. (Kuss & Griffiths, 2013) Job loss, neglect of loved ones, friends, and family, or other problems can develop from people who become overly immersed in Facebook, while this can also lead to financial concerns, academic performance issues, or loss of contact with social groups in the “real world.” The problem with Facebook and social media addiction is further linked to narcissistic behavior in isolated individuals and environments that are mediated by new technologies.

Facebook status updates are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence. The daily repetition of notifications about things that people can’t act upon makes them passive. The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) looked at a set of 18 variables that related to Facebook addiction, including “the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse).” (Andreassen et al., 2012) The group found a high relation of correspondence between neurosis in individual mental health and social media addiction. To a lesser degree, extroversion was also seen as a personality trait that can contribute to Facebook addiction, whereas conscientiousness would be a trait that would preserve people from falling into the problem. (Andreassen et al., 2012)

From studies such as this, it becomes evident that increasing conscientiousness or critical thinking abilities in people could help them mentally balance activities and avoid internet, social media, or Facebook addiction. Sleep and regulated bed times were also seen as significant variables in these studies. (Andreassen et al., 2012) Social conditioning can have a large impact as it varies with personality traits in individuals to both encourage and discourage the development of Facebook and social media addiction. The primary antidote to what is unconscious, need-driven neurotic expression in Facebook addiction can be found in critical thinking.

The more time people spend on Facebook, the more they exercise their ability to skimming and multitasking while ignoring the ability used for reading deeply and thinking with profound focus. This leads to a reduced ability to concentrate that may impact work performance, academic testing, memory, or other issues. The Kuss and Griffiths (2011) study found narcissism and neuroticism as related root causes of Facebook addiction. “Extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism.” (Kuss & Griffiths, 2011)

Whether or not critical thinking is capable of addressing deeper root neurotic tendencies is currently under debate by these researchers, leading for many to argue for the inclusion of social media addiction into the DSM-V to reflect clinic and counseling environments. Critical thinking can be seen as a wider solution which does not address the neurotic elements at a root level of treatment, needing for the inclusion of social media addiction as a new mental illness category.

Facebook can severely affect memory, disrupt concentration, and weaken comprehension. Developments in neuroscience and psychology can be applied to diagnose instances of social media addiction and to study the neurochemical or behavioral changes induced by the neurosis. In studying the individual effects of Facebook addiction in MRI scans or neurochemistry, scientists can shed new light on the physiological issues associated with this problem. However, the phenomena is still new and related to technological innovations which require further studies worldwide in individual psychology and collective sociological issues involved.

The “decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems” are seen at this stage as the most apparent symptoms of Facebook addiction as a mental illness concern. (Kuss & Griffiths, 2011) These conclusions may change as more research in neurophysiology, pharmacology, and neurochemistry are applied to social media addiction.

Debate as to whether to include Facebook addiction as a mental illness in the forthcoming version of the DSM-V used in clinical psychiatry are strong, as the problem of internet addiction is well established. The problem of social media addiction has roots in narcissistic and neurotic behavior, and can lead to decline in performance in the workplace or school. Personal relationships can also be neglected when people become morbidly obsessed or addicted to their Facebook status and profile settings.

The social media websites have an addiction percentage that may be as high as 3.5% of the population, which can represent serious mental health and economic consequences for millions of people. In addition to this, those who need help and treatment for this disease must have official psychiatric recognition in order for insurance coverage to pay for treatment, counseling, and prescriptions. Therefore, current research developing the characteristics, signs, and symptoms of Facebook addiction should be closely monitored in order that appropriate treatment responses may be applied.

Works Cited
ANDREASSEN, C.S., TORSHEIM, T., BRUNBORG, G.S., & PALLESEN, S. “DEVELOPMENT OF A FACEBOOK ADDICTION SCALE.” Psychological Reports, Volume 110, 2012, pp. 501-517. Aug. 03, 2014 . Karaiskos, D., Tzavellas, E., Balta, G., & Paparrigopoulos, T. “Social network addiction : a new clinical disorder?” European Psychiatry, Volume 25, Supplement 1, 2010, Pages 855. Aug. 03, 2014 . Kuss, D.J. & Griffiths, M.D. “Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature.” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public
Health, 2011, pp. 3528-3552. PDF. Kuss, D.J., Griffiths, M.D., & Binder, J.F. “Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors.” Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 29, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 959–966. Aug. 03, 2014 . Sherman, Erica. “Facebook Addiction: Factors Influencing an Individual’s Addiction.” Honors Thesis Program in the College of Management, Paper 5, 2011. Aug. 03, 2014 .

A Research Study On The Basic Positive And Negative Effects Of Gaming

The purpose of this study emphasizes on both, the positive and the negative impacts of playing video games on the teenagers. Over the last 30 years video games have made an impact on the way teenagers spend their leisure time. This research hypothesizes that social interaction, psychological, in particular aggressive behavior, health and academic performance is greatly affected by the extensive use of video gaming. The research proposal is further supported by the literature review of various articles including an article by Brandon T, which states that video games influence the beliefs and self esteem of children. In another article by Steven J Krish, it was proven that a positive relationship prevails between video gaming and self aggression, among the age groups of 11-17. In order to prove our hypothesis, both the primary and secondary research was conducted.

The primary research was followed by questionnaires that were distributed among the targeted group and also an interview was conducted with a gaming technical. Our secondary research consisted of various articles. The information narrowed down brought very sensitive issues into the limelight. It was observed that almost 72 % of the teenagers suffered from acute aggression, bad grades and health issues, thus proving our hypothesis correct. However only strategic games were given a positive response as they sharpen the minds of the players but on the whole the negative effects overshadow the positive side of playing video games.

Video Games and Teenagers: A Research Study On The Basic Positive And Negative Effects Of Gaming

A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. It has been one of the most preferred leisure activities by the teenagers . The history of video games goes as far back as 1940s, when in 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a US patent request for an invention they described as cathode ray tube amusement device.

This patent which the United States Patent office issued on December 14, 1948, details a machine in which a person uses knobs and buttons to manipulate a cathode ray tube beam to simulate firing at “air-borne” targets. Video gaming would not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 80s, when arcade video games, gaming consoles and home computer games were introduced to general public. Since then video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in the developed world. There are currently considered to be eight generations of video game consoles.

The most common consoles used by the teenagers nowadays include Xbox, game boy, play station and Nintendo Game Cube. There are numerous genres of video games that have been available to the consumers for the past 30 years. One of the oldest genres of video game is the classic shooter. Shooters are games that require the player to blow away enemies or objects in order to survive and continue game play. Another of the first video game genres, especially from the computer platforms, was the adventure game. Another preferred genre is the strategy or the tactic games. These games attempt to capture a sense of realism for the game player to experience. However, these titles are often turn-based as opposed to real-time and they give the player a greater sense of specific control over a situation. Video games are a unique form of entertainment which encourages players to become a part of the game’s script. Our research will focus on the following issues:

What appeals teenagers to play video games?
What do teenagers experience while playing video games? How does playing video games effect teenagers positively? How does playing video games effect teenagers negatively? Should parents show concern regarding their children playing video games?

Douglas A. Paul J. Lynch et al (2004) Gentile, in their article “ The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behavior and school performance” have discussed the effects of video games on teenagers. Their research stated that in 2000 the revenue generated by the gaming industry was $20 billion. Teenagers contributed the most in the consumption of the gaming consoles.

Also 54 independent tests on relation between video game violence and aggression were conducted ; five consistent results of playing games with violent content were retrieved through this research i.e. playing violent games increases aggressive behaviors, aggressive cognitions, aggressive emotions , physiological arousal and decreases pro-social behavior. In the article “ Perceived influence of negative and positive video game” , Shu .F .Lin (September 2010) stated the perceived effects between self and others in terms of both negative and positive video game. According to the researcher, the games were promoted through the mode of entertainment media in an array of content like sports, fighting, stimulation and role-playing etc. The positive impacts include increased socializing , controlling and cognitive skills, while negative effects were depression , anxiety and psychological disorders among teenagers.

Steven J. Kirsh (1992) in his article “The effect of violent video games” found a positive association between video game play and self and teacher reported aggression in the age group of 11-17 years.

In their study Anderson and Dill (2008) demonstrated a relationship between violent video games and lab aggression in
college students .It has been found that children and adolescents play video games on average between 1.2 to 7.5 hours per week. It has also been suggested that psychological and biological factors are also correlates of aggression. Moreover the Anderson and Bushman’s (2002) General Aggression Model (GAM) has been successfully developed to further stress upon the effects . GAM can be used to explain the birth of aggression in the adolescents and the difference in vulnerability to the influence of violent games for every individual.

In the article “The impact of video games on children” , Rick Missimer has put forth positive aspects of playing video games. He proposed that most of the video games are creative and fun intended. It is a medium that serves to get rid of stress by diverting their attention towards fun and entertainment. It reinforces the confidence level of children when they start mastering the games. It provokes innovative thinking and strategic thinking skills. Some games also aid children in their educational curriculum and help them get more familiar to technology.

Kimberly Young ( 2004), Peter Laurie (1981) [1967], Jennifer Seter Wagner (2008) researchers conducted a research and discussed about the concepts of digital games and its application in forms and shapes. Being keen towards their research they illustrated about the history, symptoms, addiction, side effects ( physical, social ) benefits, and prevention against digital game playing. They further discussed about the addictive theories and how it impacts young brains. The study showed that addiction could be of many kinds and gaming is a negatively charged one, the symptoms of addiction are that youngsters feel depressed, restlessness and lack of self control between themselves, which is further supported by the side effects that they become victims of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, weight gain and migraines, social problems which occur are Withdrawal, Lose touch with reality and misuse of money in form of extra hours of playing.

The benefits were that the teenagers enhanced superior ‘ visuospatial’ abilities, ‘Wiihabilitation’ and ‘Exergaming’. They concluded their research with prevention against video gaming that were unimaginable like few treatment centers specializing in against game addiction and training for enhancement of social skills. Another researcher (Roni Caryn Rabin, 2011 ), a reporter of New York Times has discussed in her article Video games and the Depressed teenagers , one of the major concerns regarding video game playing i.e. depression in teenagers. He has talked about the study which was conducted on a large group of teenagers.

The results were published in the Journal of Pediatrics. The study found that children who spent most of the time playing video games were very impulsive and were hesitant while socializing. Their school grades were also affected and most importantly they had worse relationship with their parents. This study was supported with another research conducted on Chinese teenagers.

The results of this research were published in the Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine. It indicated that teenagers who used internet excessively ended up being depressed. Most of them used internet for playing video games. But Dr. Gentile , an associate professor of psychology at Iowa State University negated this study . The reasoning he provided was that teenagers who were socially isolated and impulsive are more likely to indulge themselves in activities such as video games. Once they become gamers , their school grades are likely to be affected and their relationship with their parents deteriorated. Dr. Gentile said that when teenagers start playing excessively , they are more likely to become depressed and isolated.

One other author (Donna St. George, 2008) a reporter at Washington Post discussed about the behaviors of kids after playing mature games. The writer gave the reference of three researches held in USA and Japan. The results were almost same in both the countries, and this showed that video gaming and violence in teenagers was not the problem of USA only. Though, people used to believe that aggression due to violent video games was only the problem of an American teenager but now it was thought of as a general phenomenon that occurred across cultures. In USA, the researches focused on large groups of teenagers 364 and it was concluded that there was an increasing likelihood that a child would indulge into a fight or get physically aggressive after sometime of playing a game with violent content, as compared to other children. As compared to USA, the researchers were more curious in Japan. So, they conducted their research on more than 12 hundred people, and they focused on children as well as on adolescents.

The results were quite same as were in USA. The researcher also talked to the parents of teenage gamers. Some parents did not allow their children to play mature games but despite that their children played and were found to be aggressive. On the other hand some parents were not uncomfortable with their children playing mature rated games but they didn’t find their children aggressive or hostile. The researcher suggests that it is important for parents to pay attention to the nature of games their children play and keep a check on the behavior of their kids after playing such games.

A reporter at a magazine (Rebecca Scarlett, 2010) discusses very important beliefs of people, that games only portray a picture of violence and physical disorders. However just like two sides of every story it’s true that a large number of games do depict violence and useless themes, but a large number of games are now focusing on more constructive niche like physics games or math games or puzzles that provoke strategic thinking. Interestingly enough these niches are becoming rapidly popular among teens.

These games help the kids and teenagers learn the complex and rather boring equations and formulas in a fun way which also develops logic skills as well as visual-spatial manipulation skills. Recently many parents have wished that they could get their children off the games to spend more time reading. Successfully the gaming industry has provided children with such Role-playing games. These games involve long quests with plots that are as Intricate as any novel, and these plots are revealed mostly through dialogue.

Such that it becomes impossible to play the game successfully without a good deal of reading The author further explains that studies have shown even better results that kids who play more video games have better hand-eye coordination and they react on time. The speed of most video games demands quick decision-making in response to what appears on the screen, and many kids become so lightning fast while playing them. Even though video games have been demonized, there are many games out there that, when played in moderation, can actually have beneficial effects. (Mark.D.Griffiths,1998), another researcher discussed that video game playing is a leisure activity for most of the adolescents.

He said that the literature provided by Loftus and Loftus (1983) and Griffiths (1991,1993) clearly indicated that teenagers took videogames as a source of entertainment. Furthermore, he also stated that boys play more videogames on average as compared to girls. He has also put forth the common argument regarding videogames i.e. it is potentially addictive. He has discussed the study regarding the computer games addiction by Shotton (1989), where he stated that most of the adolescents were addicted by computer games for than five years. He also pointed out a positive aspect that these people were intelligent and motivated, but they were often misunderstood.

Our research methodology was designed to get the most accurate answers. Research Design
Our primary research included survey method. Questionnaires were given to the respondents. Participants
We have targeted teenagers (13-19 years) and their parents. Our sample size was 25. Our secondary research included articles from the web. Measures
Questionnaires were designed such that they were divided into two sections; the first section has demographic questions and the second section is based upon the statements regarding our variables. Procedure

Participants were of two kind, both teenagers and their parents. They were asked to answer the questions in the two different types of questionnaires. One was designed to collect the responses of the teenagers and the second one was designed to collect responses from the parents. Later on these responses were further analyzed to conduct our research. Like other related forms of media, video games have been a subject of controversy and our study focuses on the impact (positive and negative) of video games on teenagers.

One of the major goals of our research was to know the factors that motivates teenagers to play games. According to our research, the greatest chunk i.e. 72% of respondents said that either they played videogames to avoid boredom or took it as a mode of entertainment. Few individuals also said that videogames help them to stay active. Whereas, a small percentage of the sample either played games to release frustration or as a hobby. The data is quantified visually through the following pie chart:

Another important question is that despite having numerous substitutes available to videogames like physical sports etc, why do teenagers choose videogames as a source of leisure activity. Most of the teenagers said that it took their mind off their problems and the feeling of mastering the game is addictive. Furthermore, in this era of competition teenagers are in a constant pressure from their peers, so they have two options; either they face it or they don’t

. They choose not to face it and just to take their mind off such problems; they take video games as a source of distraction. When the teenagers were asked about the hours they spend on gaming and for how long have they been playing, most of them play for approximately 3 hours on a stretch and have been playing for more than 2 years. Most of the parents too gave the same answer that their children play for so many hours (3 hours) without taking any break. Even our interviewee Mr. Waseem Yousaf said that children become too addicted after they start coming to gaming zone. The numbers of hours they play keep on increasing gradually and they start visiting on frequent basis. When asked about the genres of games that were preferred, most of the respondents replied in favour of action, strategy and sports. Even our interviewee said that the most popular games in gaming zone are action, sports and strategy.

Another important aspect of video gaming is the effect of the violence depicted in video games. 72% played violent video games and 64% of our respondents (teenagers) feel that such games greatly influence their mood. More importantly 72% teenagers find themselves quite aggressive.

Now let’s have a look at the health issues associated with video game play. Most of the parents said that their children have become negligent of their heath due to video games; they become so engrossed in it that they do not take care of their health and their children face health problems. Most of the teenagers also said that they have health issues because of playing video games. 24% of the respondents experienced backache, headache and eye strain, 36% had headache or backache out of which 24% had headache once in a month. 16% did not have any heath issues. The ones who did not have any health issues had an active life style and played physical sports regularly. The following pie chart depicts the above mentioned statistics graphically.

When asked about the influence of videogames on schooling and grades, it was found that the parents and teenagers negated each other’s answers. Most of the children said that their grades were not affected by video game play but the parents said the opposite. It was also found through our study that many children became very defensive when they were asked about their gaming habits. It was deducted that 72% of teenagers lie about their gaming habits/hours to their parents. This shows that the teenagers are very supportive of video games unlike parents; they want to play as much as they want but parents have a genuine concern regarding it. They do not want their children to become addicts of games and neglect important things like studies.

Our research shows that teenagers have equal preferences for outdoor sports as well as videogames; but still according to our research teenagers are more inclined towards video games as compared to the outdoor sports. However, with the introduction of Consoles like Nintendo Wii and Xbox Kinect® the level of physical activity has increased. This is because these add-ons ensure that there is handsome amount of physical movement while playing games. Our interviewee said that places like gaming zones have a very healthy environment and teenagers prefer coming here and use gaming consoles that require physical exercise as well. Another thing worth discussing is the money teenagers spend on video gaming. Our interviewee said that on average a teenager spends an amount of Rs.500 for 3-4 hours which includes gaming rent as well as money spent on snacks.

This has been a matter of concern for parents because teenagers have started demanding an increase in their pocket money more often now. Most of the parents have been unsuccessful in reducing the amount of time that their children spend on video games and many parents said that their children start to play significantly more than what they have been playing if they are asked to reduce the number of hours they play. This shows that children retaliate if they are asked to change their gaming habits. Hence, we can say that parents should not impose restrictions on the amount of time they spend in front of video games, instead they should try to logically convince them.

Lastly, we would shed some light on the positive effects of video gaming. As discussed earlier most of the teenagers prefer playing strategic video games. About 52% respondents (teenagers ) said that due to such games they feel they can make decisions efficiently. Similarly, 64% believe that these games have sharpened their minds. Even our interviewee says that players who usually prefer playing strategic games are seen to be sharper and they grasp and master games quickly as compared to other players. Teamwork, working in collaboration, and cooperation is also another important positive outcome of videogames.

Most teenagers play games which involve one or multiple players. When we asked our interviewee about the attitude of gamers, he said that players show team spirit and they play in collaboration. He also discussed that gaming zone and such venues provide a very healthy environment for teenagers; mostly teenagers from good family backgrounds come here. and it also provides an easy way of socializing with others.

Conclusion & Recommendations

The information narrowed down brought very sensitive issues into the limelight . It was observed that almost 72 % of the teenagers suffered from acute aggression , bad grades n health issues, thus proving our hypothesis correct. However only strategic games were given a positive response as they sharpen the minds of the players but on the whole the negative effects overshadow the positive side of playing video games. Parents should monitor video game play the same way you need to monitor television and other media. Be a loving, attentive parent who disciplines their child well. An aggressive child is more a product of dysfunctional parenting than anything else, including violent games and TV. According to Los Angeles-based psychotherapist Robert Butterworth, PhD, dysfunctional parenting, children with little guilt, and accessibility to firearms with little parental supervision can create violent children.

“Most children who commit violent crime show an early combination of personality and family factors that include having trouble getting along with playmates in preschool,” Butterworth says. “By second or third grade they’re doing poorly in school, and have few friends. By the age of 10 they’re picking fights and getting labeled by their peers as social outcasts.” What’s more “they typically come from families where parents are poor at disciplining because they are indifferent, neglectful, too coercive or they use harsh physical punishment with little love.”

Although playing video games can be a learning experience, give your kid a variety of entertaining things to learn from, so your kid will not be addicted to just one thing. Be sure to make him read books, play sports, interact with other kids, and watch good TV. Everything should be taken in moderation. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children not spend more than one to two hours per day in front of all electronic screens, including TV, DVDs, videos, video games (handheld, console, or computer), and computers (for non-academic use).

This means seven to fourteen hours per week total. Limit the amount of time they could play and also used the video game ratings to limit the content of the games have children who do better in school and also get into fewer fights. Monitor the effect of video games on your child. Observe their behavior. If it appears that they’re becoming more aggressive with his siblings or friends during the period that they’re playing violent games, stop them from playing the games. If they become interested in history after playing historical games, then the game is beneficial to them.

Perceived influence of negative and positive video game by Shu Fang Lin Journal of Media and Communication Studies Vol. 2(10), pp. 208-214, December 2010 ISSN 2141 – 2545 ©2010 Academic Journals

The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behavior and school performance by Douglas A. Paul J. Lynch et al (2004) Gentile Journal of Adolescence 27 (2004) 5–22

The effect of violent video games on adolescents by Steven J. Krish Aggression and Violent Behavior 8 (2003) 377 – 389
The impact of video games on children by Rick Missimer from the website Video Games: Effect on childhood Development by Brandon T. McDaniel 146 E. 800 N.
Provo, Utah 84606
92_2.htm Can Video Games Actually Have Positive Effects?

By Rebecca Scarlett,

Effects of violent games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001).

Impact of entertainment violence on children.
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, & American Medical Association (2000). URL

Hostility, Type A behavior , and stress hormones at rest and after playing violent video games in teenagers. Lynch, P. J. (1999).
Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 113.

The physiological and psychological effects of video games. Paschke, M. B., Green, E., & Gentile, D. A. (2001). Poster Presented at the 36th Annual Minnesota Undergraduate Psychology Conference, St. Paul, MN, April 2001.

What Do Teens See in Video Games?”

By Barbara Geller, MD
Published in Journal Watch Psychiatry March 25, 2004
Haninger K and Thompson KM. Content and ratings of teen-rated video games. JAMA 2004 Feb 18; 291:856-65. “Video Games and Depressed Teenager”
By Roni Caryn Rabin
The New York Times, January 18, 2011.

Interview Questions
1. What types of games do you have in your game zone ?

2. Which age group mostly and regularly come to play games ?

3. What is your view about kid’s attitude towards games ?

4. Do teenagers become addicted to games , if they start coming regularly ?

5. Do teenagers spend a lot of money on games ?

6. What is the attitude of parents towards gaming?

7. Which class (elite, middle, or poor) mostly come to play games in gaming zone ?

8. What is the affect of gaming zone’s environment on kids (especially on teenagers) ?

9. Do you consider that places such as gaming zone is a good source for socializing?

10. What is your opinion regarding teenagers indulgence in video games these days? Interview
What types of games do you have in your game zone ?

We have many types of games in our gaming zone but the most preferred are strategy, action and sports.

Which age group mostly and regularly come to play games ?

We have a lot of customers who visit us on frequent basis. People as young as 8 years and as old as 40 years come and play games here. But it is the teenagers who mostly visit the gaming zone regularly.

What is your view about kid’s attitude towards games ?

Different kids have different attitudes towards games. (Pause) Mostly children who play action games become more aggressive while playing and become impatient and hostile on losing. But children who prefer playing strategic games are quite quick in grasping the techniques of playing other games.

Do teenagers become addicted to games , if they start coming regularly ?

Yes, teenagers become quite addicted if they start coming on regular basis. The number of hours they stay in gaming zone keeps on increasing gradually. And most of the teenagers come straight from their schools and stay with their friends for too long playing games.

Do teenagers spend a lot of money on games ?

Yes, they do. On average, a teenager spend Rs.400 for 3-4 hours in gaming zone. We usually charge Rs.90 per hour for a game but kids prefer snacks along with the games so they end up spending a considerable amount of money on this activity.

What is the attitude of parents towards gaming?

Usually parents accompany young kids who are aged between 8 to 13. They seem to enjoy games along with their kids but they do not visit us on frequent basis. Parents of adults and teenagers do not visit gaming zone. They are maybe negligent of the gaming habits of their children because these teenagers spend a lot of money as well as time in our gaming zone and are never accompanied by their parents.

Which class (elite, middle, or poor) mostly come to play games in gaming zone ?

Mostly it is the elite and middle class who visit gaming zone.

What is the affect of gaming zone’s environment on kids (especially on teenagers) ?

The environment of gaming zone is very good. Teenagers from good family backgrounds come here and enjoy playing games. I think it creates a good impact on teenagers.

Do you consider that places such as gaming zone is a good source for socializing?

Yes, of course it is. It provides a healthy environment where people from different age groups come and spend quality time together playing video games. Most games involve multiple players and in such games the teenagers are seen to play as one team. They show team spirit as well as play in collaboration.

What is your opinion regarding teenagers indulgence in video games these days?

I believe that video games is a good source of entertainment. I know most of the teenagers prefer it over other leisure activities but at the same time I would say anything done excessively is not good. Teenagers need to have a balance in their lives regarding fun and studies. As far as they are able to maintain that balance I would support video game play.

This is a research study on video games by BBA/BSc.I students of Lahore School Of Economics. Do not feel obligated to answer all questions if you are uncomfortable to do so. Thank you for your participation. Demographic information

1. Name ( optional ) _____________________
2. Gender:
3. Age:
4. Occupation:
Please choose the desired option
Q5. How many child/children do you have?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) More than 3

Q6. Your child is aged between:
a) 8 – 10
b) 11 – 15
c) 16 – 20

Q7. Are you a single parent?
a) Yes
b) No

Q8. What is your occupational status?
a) paid employment fulltime
b) paid employment part-time
c) supported employment
d) self employed

Q9. Does your child show signs of video game addiction? a) Yes
b) No

Q10. On an average weekend, your child plays video games for: a) 0 – 1 hour.
b) 2 hours.
c) 3 hours.
d) 4 hours.
e) 5 or more hours.

Q11. How many times have you unsuccessfully tried to reduce the amount of time that your child spends on video games? a) Never
b) One time
c) Two times
d) Three times
e) Four or more times

Q12. If you fail to set a limit to video game time, your child would play: a) About the same amount as he / she does now
b) Somewhat more than he / she does now
c) Significantly more than he / she does now
d) Far more than he / she does now
Q11. Does your child have access to video game in his / her room? a) Yes

Q12. Does your child have interests outside the world of video games? a) Never or rarely
b) Occasionally
c) Often
d) Always

Q13. Does your child seems to have few friends outside the gaming world? a) Not at all
b) Maybe
c) Most certainly

Q14. Does your child lies about the time he/she spends on video games? a) Yes
b) No

Q15. Does your child prefer playing video games over going out with friends? a) Never
b) Occasionally
c) Frequently
d) Always

Q16. Have your child’s grades been suffering from excessive video gaming? a) Not at all
b) Somewhat true
c) Definitely true

Q17. Is your child permitted to play video games before the completion of homework? a) Never
b) Occasionally
c) Frequently
d) Always

Q18. Is your child an active member in the formal school activities or clubs? a) No, none at all
b) Yes, one activity or club
c) Yes, two activities or clubs
d) Yes, three or more activities or clubs

Q19. Does your child neglects his/ her health because of excessive video gaming? a) Never
b) Occasionally
c) Often
d) Always

Q20. Is your child employed as a part time worker?
a) No, he / she is too young to work , or I prefer that he / she does not work b) No, he she is too involved in other activities (not including video games) c) No, I would like him / her to work but he / she refuses to do so d) Yes, but he / she has difficulty holding onto jobs e) Yes, and he / she successfully holds onto jobs

Q21. Does your child becomes irritable or anxious if he/ she cannot access his/her favorite video game? a) Never
b) Rarely
c) Often
d) Always

Q22.Does your child becomes angry or defensive if asked about his/her gaming habits? a) Never
b) Occasionally
c) Often
d) Always

Q23. As a parent, do you decide what kind of video games does your child plays? a) Never
b) Occasionally
c) Often
d) Always

Q24. Will your child have difficulty giving up all of his/her video games for a week? a) No, not at all. This would be very easy for my child b) My child wouldn’t like it, but he / she could do it without too many complaints c) My child would have great difficulty giving up video games for one week d) It would be entirely impossible for my child to give up video games for one week

Q25. Does your child plays video games at the first available opportunity? a) Never
b) Rarely
c) Sometimes
d) Always

Q26. Does your child gets headaches, red eyes, sore fingers or wrist pains from playing video games? a) Never or very rarely
b) Sometimes
c) Often
Thank you for your co-operation!

This is a research study on video games by BBA/BSc.I students of Lahore School Of Economics. Do not feel obligated to answer all questions if you are uncomfortable to do so. Thank you for your participation. Demographic information

5. Name ( optional ) _____________________
6. Gender:
7. Age:
8. Education Level:
9. Institution:
Please choose the desired option
10. How often do you play video games?
Once a week
Twice or thrice a week
Once a month

11. What gaming technology do you have in your house? PS-2/3
X- box

12. How long have you been playing video games?
6 months
2 years
more than 2 years

13. How did you started playing video games; who or what motivated you? Self interest
Advertisements ( magazines, TV)

14. What is the longest you have ever played without taking any break? 3 hours
4 hours
5 hours
More than 5 hours

15. What genres of game do you play?

16. How many players participate with you?
Multiple players e.g. online gaming
Myself only

17. Do you play violent video games ( usually rated 18 + )? Yes

18. Do you think that the result of the game has a direct effect on your mood after playing? Yes

19. Would you consider yourself an aggressive person? If yes then rate yourself on a scale of 1-5? 1

20. What would be your major reason to play video game? Keep yourself active at home
To avoid boredom
Entertain or spend time with your friends

21. What is it you like best about video game?
The feeling that I am in the control of the situation It takes my mind off my problems
The feeling of mastering the game
22. Do video games improve your ability to make decisions quickly? Yes

23. Do you feel video games have sharpened your mind? Yes
24. Do you have any health problems after playing video games? Yes; backache, headache, eye strain etc
Sometimes I get a headache or backache
I get headache once in a month
No, I don’t have any health issues

25. Have you had problems at school that are related to gaming? Yes; I am tired all the time and never get my homework done I had turned in late assignments because I was playing games instead of doing homework No; I have never let games interfere with my schoolwork

26. Do you play any sports?
Only video sports
I split my time between sports and video games
I play only one sport
I play more than one sport

27. Are your parents comfortable with your gaming?

28. Have you ever tried to quit playing video games? Yes; but I always start playing again
No; I play as much as I want and it isn’t a problem for me No; I don’t play enough for it to be a problem

Thank you for your cooperation!

Graphical Data

Effects of electronic gadgets to students studying habits


Almost all of the students especially high school students are seen of using different kinds of electronic gadgets everyday. Like cellphone, iPad, psp, etc. With that case, students who are addicted in using electronic gadgets affects their studies. As what I have observed, using of electronic gadgets gives bad effects to almost all of the students. The purpose of doing this study is to *Explain the disadvantages of using electronic gadgets among us students *Determine the positive and negative effects of Electronic gadget to students *Show the consequences of excessive use of Electronic gadgets to students *Give the students an advice on how to control their use of electronic gadget. To accomplish this study, I researched for some information that can help me to prove the content of my study. And to be able to solve this problem, I researched for some solutions that can help me to solve this kind of situation, which may also help me to show the goal of my study to my co-students who are addicted in using electronic gadgets. In that way, I can help to prevent the addiction of every student from electronic gadgets.

Effects of electronic gadgets 3

“Modern technologies like television and computers provide identifiable educational advantages, such as greater access to information and more compelling presentations of that information. Over-use of technology, though, especially such gadgets as cell phones, iPods and video games.

Global Warming : causes, effects and remedies

Global warming is the greatest challenge facing our planet. It is, in fact, the increase in the temperature of the earth’s neon- surface air. It is one of the most current and widely discussed factors. It has far-reaching impact on biodiversity and climatic conditions of the planet. Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming is directly impacting on rising sea levels, the melting of ice caps and significant worldwide climate changes. In short, global warming represents a fundamental threat to all living things on earth. Global average temperature rose significantly during the past century.

The prevailing scientific view is that most of the temperature increases since mid-20th century has been caused by increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations produced by human activity. Most scientists agree that planet’s temperature has risen 0.5 degree Celsius since 1900 and will continue to increase at an increasing rate. As a result, the world is getting warmer. The year 1990 was the hottest year in the last century.

Together with 1991, the years of 1983, 1987, 1988 and 1989 have been measured to be the warmest six years in the last hundred years. The year 1991 was the second warmest year of the past century. The consequences of the rise in temperature is being felt all over the globe the findings of scientific research done in this field reveal that the temperature of the earth is likely to rise from 1.4°C to 5.8°C within a period of 100 years. Unfortunately, the imbalance which we have created between our life and earth is already showing the signs disasters in the form of flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will pose a question mark on the existence of this planet. Carbon dioxide (C02) which is an important constituent of environment is causing a warming effect on the earth’s surface.

It increases the evaporation of water into the atmosphere. Since water vapour itself is a greenhouse gas, this causes still more warming. The warming causes more water vapour to be evaporated. The C02 level is expected to rise in future due to ongoing burning of fossil fuels and landuse change. The rate of rise will depend largely on uncertain economic, sociological, technological and natural developments. Other gases such as methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone are also responsible for global warming. Increases in all these gases are due to explosive population growth, increased industrial expansion, technological advancement, deforestation and growing urbanisation, etc. Trees play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.

They are the largest land-based mechanism for removing carbon dioxide from the air. Deforestation is checking these positive processes. It is the second principle cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation is responsible for 25 per cent of all carbon emissions entering the atmosphere, by the burning and cutting of 34 million acres of trees each year. Everyday over 5500 acres of rainforest are destroyed. As a consequence of massive loss of forests, global CO, levels rise approximately 0.4 per cent each year, the levels not experienced on this planet for millions of years. As we know the forests are the great absorbers of CO,,. There is a close relation between global warming and population growth. Today the large population on earth is using the technologies which are destructive for the earth.

Approximately, 80 per cent of atmospheric C02 increases are due to man’s use of fossil fuels either in the form of coal, gas or oil. A large portion of carbon emission is attributed to the burning of gasoline in internal-combustion engine of vehicles. Vehicles with poor gas mileage contribute the most to global warming. Besides, the sulphur group gas is the most harmful for this. Its contribution is 30 per cent in global warming. This gas is also emitted from the burning of fossil fuels. Increase in global temperatures will cause rise in sea level. It will lead to melting of glaciers, changes in rainfall patterns, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather. As per the latest survey report the rate of melting of glaciers has seen sharp increase in recent times. Even those glaciers are affected from global warming which have been considered permanent. The shrinking of glaciers is going to pose a major problem of drinking water. The sea levels as a result of melting of glaciers have risen from 0.35 mm to 0.4 mm.

Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per cent after 1970. The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern. A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. Besides, many island countries will ultimately “lose their existence and will be washed away from the surface of the earth. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse. Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and they could suffer damage from hurricanes and tropical storms. Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by over 50 per cent. In addition, as the sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks. Wetlands are lost as the level rises. Rise in atmospheric temperature will lead to the outbreak of air¬borne and water-borne diseases. It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat.

The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity. Global warming is a great threat to the flora and fauna of the earth. A large number of species of them may become extinct. The expanse of desert would increase. Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on agricultural produce. It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact. In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is well known, India is mainly an agricultural country and agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e.g. largely depending on rainfall.

Though it is to affect the whole country, the worst likely impact would be on central and northern India which is high-yielding parts of the country. These are the regions which produce the largest agricultural yield. The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on biodiversity as well. The growing concerns over global temperatures have led to the nations, states, corporations and individuals to draw out a plan of action to avert the situation.

As a result the world’s primary international agreement on combating global warming was reached in Kyoto in 1997 which came to be known as Kyoto Protocol. However, ten years have passed; the situation does not appear to be very changed. It seems that the member countries are not very serious about its devastating effects. In addition, forestation can be of great help in this regard.

Planting more trees and reducing timber cuts worldwide will help restore the imbalance. Secondly, we must follow on environmental policy of ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’, i.e. promoting the reuse of anything. Thirdly, the use of fuel-efficient vehicles should be promoted as these vehicles have lower emissions of harmful gases. Fourthly, every individual should be aware of the importance of the protecting environment. Besides, eco- friendly technologies must be promoted, and must be substituted with the technologies which cause great emission of global warming gases. Public awareness campaign can be of great help in this regard because unless each and every individual is aware only governments’ effect cannot bring desired difference.

The Effects of Industrialization on U.S. Economy and Society

The rise of industrialization during the 1900s brought many changes to the American economy and society. Urbanization (mainly due to immigration), new technologies, the rise of big business through industrial trusts, and the rise of laissez-faire capitalism are among the most significant of these changes. The rise of industrialization brought many significant changes to the American Economy and society during the 1900s. Some of these changes included urbanization, the rise of big businesses, and the rise of laissez faire capitalism. Industrialization had both a positive and negative effect on the U.S. economy and society.

It allowed the United States to surpass many of its leading competitors including Germany and Great Britain but it also led to sharper Economic and class divisions among the rich, middle class, and the poor. Immigrants came to the United States during the industrial era for the main purposes of finding jobs. This led to a shift from rural areas to the urbanization of cities. Slums were also built as housing for immigrant families. Cities provided a supply of labor for factories and a principle market for factory made goods. Millions of young Americans from rural areas decided to seek new economic opportunities in the cities therefore they left their farms for industrial and commercial jobs.

Cities underwent changes in size and internal structure. Skyscrapers were built with a steel skeleton to allow buildings to be constructed taller and taller. The rise of big businesses like the Standard Oil Trust was a benefit of industrialization. Rockefeller applied the Latest Technology and efficient practices to his company. He extorted rebates from railroad companies and temporarily cut prices for Standard Oil kerosene to force rival companies to sell out. Standard Oil made a fortune because Rockefeller was able to control the supply and prices of oil products by using horizontal integration. This was where all the former competitors were brought under a single corporate umbrella.

Rockefeller created the first of many trusts and was able to keep prices low for consumers by eliminating waste in the production of kerosene. Laissez faire capitalism is the idea of government regulation of business . This was when the law of supply and demand was from the owner to the consumer and not by the government. The theory of laissez faire was invoked in legislative halls and lobbies to ward off any threat of government regulation. American industrialists appealed to the laissez faire theory in order to justify their methods of doing business even though they accepted the protection of high tariffs and federal subsidies. Monopolistic trusts that arose in the 1880s undercut the competition needed for natural regulation.

The laissez faire theory was run by the concept that if government kept their hands off than businesses would be motivated by their own self interest to offer improved goods and services at lower prices. Industrialization was the primary reason that the U.S. economy and society flourished during the1900s. The invention of new technologies and the growth of industries were the primary things that contributed to the rise of industrial America. Although industrialization had both positive and negative effects, its impact was beneficial to American society. In the late 19th century, industrial warfare occurred where workers went on strike and various Unions, were formed to protect workers rights. This allowed for the types of labor unions that we have today. Industrialization impacted the American society and economy greatly. Without it, there would not be as advanced technologies and architectures that there is present today.

Different types of bullying and the potential effects on children

Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people. Bullying is a very serious issue and has a major effect on and lots of children and young people. Many children feel depressed, I’m happy and sometimes suicidal and have no self esteem. there are different types of bullying these are;-

physical bullying, this includes pushing, kicking, hitting, pinching and other forms of violence or threats.

Verbal bullying, this includes name calling, insults, sarcasm, spreading rumours and persistent teasing.

Emotional bullying, this includes not speaking to and excluding someone, tormenting, ridicule and humiliation.

Cyber bullying, this includes the use of information and Communications technology particularly mobile phones and the internet deliberately to upset someone else.

Bullying can be carried out by one person against another or by groups of others ganging up on a person, bullying can have many consequences. The potential affects bullying can cause are, Running away.

Poor academic achievement.
Low self esteem.
Threatened of attempted suicide.