Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Environmental Sciences Essay

Drip Irrigation is todays want as a result of H2O is natures present to the world and it is non limitless and free forever. Worlds H2O resources are fastly disappearing. The one and merely one solution to this job is automated Drip Irrigation system. In the sector of agribusiness, utilization of proper methodology of irrigation is of import and it’s good identified that irrigation by trickle is actually economical and efficient. In the standard trickle irrigation system, the husbandman has to maintain ticker on irrigation timetable, which is different for different harvests.

In Automatic microcontroller based trickle irrigation system irrigation will take topographic level merely when there might be intense demand of H2O. Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and OFF. These valves may be simple automated by utilizing accountants and solenoids. The intent of this paper is to produce extra set up in agribusiness area by utilizing radio detector internet along with additive scheduling. Paper describes an software of a radio detector net for low-cost radio managed and monitored irrigation solution.

The developed irrigation methodology removes the demand for craft for deluging irrigation every bit good as trickle irrigation. usage of additive scheduling help us to manage available H2O to the harvests if and merely if there is huge demand of H2O to the harvest in order to acquire maximal net revenue with minimal value. Besides additive Programming helps us to make correct direction of obtainable H2O.

Keywords – Irrigation- Surface, Drip, Wireless Sensor Network, Real Time Monitoring, Automation.


Agricultural irrigation is extremely of import in harvest production everyplace in the universe. In India, the place the economic system is chiefly base on agribusiness and the climatic conditions are isotropous and are non in a position to do full utilization of agricultural assets. The chief ground is the deficiency of rains and scarify of land reservoir H2O. so efficient H2O direction plays an of import perform in the irrigated agricultural cropping methods. The demand for new H2O salvaging methods in irrigation is rising shortly proper now. In order to deliver forth “ more harvest per bead ” , agriculturists in ( semi ) waterless components presently discover irrigation method [ 1 ] . In the trendy trickle irrigation techniques, the most important benefit is that H2O is equipped near the basis zone of the workss drip by trickle as a result of which a big measure of H2O is saved, at the present epoch, the husbandmans have been using irrigation method in India by way of the manual management by which the husbandmans irrigate the land on the common intervals. This process generally consumes extra H2O or sometimes the H2O reaches tardily because of which the harvests get dried. This job can be completely rectified if husbandmans use machine-controlled clever radio trickle irrigation system by utilizing additive Programming [ 2 ] .


To salvage H2O, vitality and grownup male energy within the agribusiness sector

Handle the system manually each bit good as automatically

Detect H2O degree

To plan, which might be environment friendly and try discount of the former.


Irrigation is an unreal utility of H2O to the dust. An irrigation system is a system that delivers H2O to an nation where H2O is required but non usually present in the wanted sums. By and huge, it’s used for agribusiness and landscape gardening intents. The effectivity of the irrigation is determined by a determine of different elements, including the kind of irrigation system and the circumstances at its clip of utilization. Additionally, irrigation apart from has different utilizations in harvest manufacturing, which embrace protecting workss towards hoar, stamp downing weed turning in addition Fieldss and assisting in forestalling dust consideration. In contrast, agribusiness that depends merely on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry and farming. [ 2 ]

Types of Irrigation: Surface Irrigation: – Surface irrigation is defined because the group of software techniques where H2O is applied and distributed over the filth surface by gravitation. It is by far the commonest signifier of irrigation all through the universe. Surface irrigation is incessantly referred to as inundation irrigation.

Drip Irrigation: – Drip irrigation, apart from generally recognized as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method which saves H2O and fertiliser by leting H2O to drip easy to the roots of workss, either onto the filth surface or straight onto the root zone, by way of an internet of valves, pipes, tube, and emitter. It is completed with the help of slender tubings which delivers H2O straight to the base of the works


In Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it’s non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on particular person dirt circumstances like dirt wet, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip like if we utilizing soil wet detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so every time dirt moist diploma is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to change its place from OFF to ON, and if soil moist degree is go to the right pre-setted diploma at that clip system is purchase OFF mechanically. This drip irrigation was performed by photo voltaic powered pumps. One of them ( pump-1 ) carries H2O from Dam Lake to H2O armored combat car, one other one ( pump-2 ) is used for accomplishing the needed force per unit area for irrigation.

Figure: Overview of the Existing Automated Drip Irrigation System

Relay Soil Moistr

Drip Temperature Valve Unit Sensor Unit

Farm Limit


In Current / Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it is non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on individual dust situations like dirt moist, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip


It is slightly just like the bing automated drip irrigation system, however together with that my purpose is to do my proposed system to be more clever that ‘s why I am touring to utilize additive scheduling in my proposed system. In Current/ Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it’s non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on particular person filth situations like filth moist, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one standing at a clip like if we using soil moist detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so each time filth moist diploma is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to alter its place from OFF to ON, and if soil moist degree is go to the correct pre-setted degree at that clip system is acquire OFF mechanically. Here it is non traveling to look into handiness of H2O and demand of H2O. But my system is traveling to look into that and on that footing it’s get operated. For that intent I ‘m utilizing additive programming attack to be able to make correct utilization of obtainable H2O all of the available harvests in the subject the place our system is get implemented to accumulate maximal net earnings and besides with assistance from additive scheduling we simple place available H2O and wanted H2O for the harvests.








Remote Monitor Control


Personal laptop / Server

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

The function is to plan a micro-controlled and Personal laptop driven automated drip irrigation system. This system must be ready to command the valve timings of trickles mechanically based mostly on pre-programmed timings. The clip intervals for all the valves can be fed into Personal pc for an full hebdomad or month. Regional linguistic communication primarily based GUI should be developed so that novice customers should have the power to feed in the timings or plan the hardware. An ADC connected to microcontroller should garner the humidness values for filth at assorted points. These values must be visualized in package using 3D secret plans to assist the consumer in make up one’s minding valve timings.

A Personal pc interface is provided for straightforward scheduling of the hardware ( No conventional keypad-LCD interface for square informations entry ) .The 3D graphs generated from detector values situated across the complete subject helps us to visualise, construe and take decisive actions for the peculiar state of affairs.

Figure: – Radio Sensor Network for Drip Irrigation System

Detectors ( Light, Temperature, PH_Value, Humidity ) : Detector Sense the different bodily parametric portions like seen radiation, ph_value of dirt, temperature and humidness and converts these sense informations into electrical alerts ( both electromotive drive or current )

Signal Array: It is aggregation of assorted detectors fundamentally it took enter from detector and Federal that information as an enter for the sign conditioning.

Signal Conditioning: It is actually indispensable. By and large the signal obtained from detectors are weak hence we uses signal conditioning to be able to maintain sign in to its authentic province. That means it actually works as like amplifier.

ADC ( Analog to Digital Converter ) : It Converts linear signal into digital sign and Federal that digital signal to the micro accountant as an enter.

Micro-Controller: It is bosom of the entire system, means it controls the all activities of the system. It has reminiscence during which control plans are saved.

Sensor Unit: The SU acquires informations given by the ADC, and the data sent to BSU. Value of ADC enter which comes from the detector is stored in a 10-bit registry. Different sort of detectors can be added easy for future developments.

Base Station Unit: The BSU is a maestro device that’s programmed to learn and to measure detectors informations, to command valves and to cross on with different models.

Personal pc ( Personal Computer / Server ) : Basically for Data Acquisition every bit good as logging intent we are touring to utilize personal. The graphical visual picture shows 3D Graphs generated from detector values situated throughout the sector.

Darlington Drivers: It is management unit which controls relays, fan, hotter and H2O pump harmonizing to the filth circumstances and provides needed situations to the dust means humidness, ph_value, seen radiation, temperature.

Valve Unit: Valve unit has the same connexion with radio school and the same belongingss with SU. It has an end product for commanding the valve. This valve was operated digital finish products on the microcontroller by transistor.


A radio detector internet ( WSN ) consists of spatially distributed independent detectors to supervise bodily or environmental circumstances, similar to temperature, sound, quiver, drive per unit area, gesture or pollution and handy in glove undergo their informations by way of the online to a chief location. The extra modern webs are bi-directional, in addition to enabling management of detector exercise. The development of radio detector webs was motivated by army purposes such as battlefield surveillance ; right now such webs are utilized in many industrial and client applications, similar to industrial procedure monitoring and control, machine wellness monitoring, and so forth. Wireless detector webs ( WSN ) have late been proposed for an enormous scope of purposes in place and industrial mechanization. It consists of many bantam nodes, which have a number of detectors and a wireless interface that is decided by the IEEE 802.15.four criterion that helps massive figure of embedded units in one internet. WSN can be used for a lot of functions similar to setting monitoring, medical applications, robotic techniques and place and industrial mechanization.


Linear scheduling ( LP or additive optimisation ) is a mathematical methodology for locating a way to accomplish one of the best end result ( such as maximal net income or lowest value ) in a given mathematical theoretical account for some listing of calls for represented as additive relationships. Linear scheduling is a particular occasion of mathematical scheduling ( mathematical optimisation ) .

To measure control parametric portions like how much complete H2O we’ve and what measures of various harvests have to be used to provide optimal throughput ( manufacturing )

E.g. tips on how to cut up drip H2O timings to find a way to achieve best possible throughput.

Problem: – one thousand litres of H2O

Net revenue: – 4 Rs/Liter for Crop 1

5 Rs/Liter for Crop 2

Let ‘x ‘ = litres for harvest 1

‘y ‘ = litres for harvest 2

Then PROFIT ( P ) = four x + 5 Y ( to maximise )

ten + y & lt ; = a thousand — — — — — — — — — — — ( 1 )

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 1 = 2 Watts

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 2 = 3 Watts

Max power available = 2400 Watts

2x + 3y & lt ; = 2400 — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

Solution: –

Constraints x & gt ; =0, y & gt ; =0

x+y & lt ; =1000 — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 1 ) 2x+3y & lt ; =2400 — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

For Equation ( 1 ) put x=0 we get y=1000 and set y=0 we get x=1000 and for equation ( 2 ) put x=0 we get y=800 and put y=0 we get x=1200

Now remedy these 2 equations we get the purpose where we get maximal internet income

2x + 3y = 2400 — — — — — — — ( 2 )

-2x- 2y = -2000 — — — — — — — ( 1 ) multiplies by -2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – Y = 400

So put y=400 in equation ( 1 ) we get x=600

So now we’ve 4 points in graph

i.e. ( zero,0 ) , ( a thousand,zero ) , ( 0,800 ) , ( 600,400 )

Now we’ve to cipher net income for that intent we’ve to set these Valuess in equation ( P = 4x + 5y )

For ( 0, 0 ) we get profit P = 0,

For ( 1000,zero ) we get revenue P = 4000

For ( 0,800 ) we get revenue P = 4000

For ( 600,400 ) we get profit P = 2400 + 2000 = 4400 = maximal internet income


600 litres of H2O for harvest 1


400 litres of H2O for harvest 2


To map the physical parametric amount readings for nations in farm the place taking handbook readings is non attainable. E.g. If we’ve a reading at 1 level and so straight at 2nd level 25 metres off. Then we shall extrapolate the values for factors at every metre between the 2 measured points

Interpolation: -Interpolation is a method of constructing new informations points throughout the scope of a definite set of identified info points.

Extrapolation: – The time period extrapolation is used if we wish to happen knowledge points exterior the scope of recognized data points.


System could be acknowledged as set S that consists of S = { N, Pr, Po, C, LP, X } ;

Where N = figure of harvests Pr = { pr1, pr2aˆ¦n } ; Set of internet incomes generated per litre for harvest 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) Po = { po1, po2aˆ¦n } ; Set of values of power required to direct 1 Liter of H2O to reap 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) C = { c1, c2aˆ¦ } ; Set of restraints the system must observe. ( Predefined ) LP = Liner Programming map that takes input Pr, Po and C and generates unknowns X= { x1, x2, aˆ¦xn } ; the place x1, x2, aˆ¦xn are optimum values of H2O that should be supplied to each harvest 1,2, ..n

Ten = LP ( Pr, Po, C ) ;


Are comparatively easy to plan and put in

This makes addition in productiveness and reduces H2O ingestion

This is safest.

No work drive is required

Reduce dirt eroding and alimentary leaching.

Here we’re using additive scheduling. it has apart from some advantages which are as follows: –

LP is nice for optimisation jobs affecting maximising internet incomes and minimising costs.

The additive scheduling approach helps to do the absolute best utilization of available productive resources ( corresponding to clip, labour, machines and so forth. )

In a manufacturing process, bottle cervixs may happen. For e.g. in a mill some machines could additionally be in great demand whereas others may lie tick over for some clip. A important advantage of additive scheduling is foregrounding of such bottle cervixs.

Relatively speedy.

Guaranteed to happen optimum solution

Provides natural sensitiveness analysis ( shadow financial values )


As compared to Conventional Irrigation system equipments are costlier.

Require frequent take care of efficient operation

Have restricted life after installing as a result of impairment of the fictile constituents in a hot, waterless clime when uncovered to ultraviolet visible radiation.

Linear scheduling is applicable merely to jobs where the restraints and nonsubjective map are additive. In existent life state of affairss, when restraints or nonsubjective maps are non additive, this technique can non be used.

Factors such as uncertainness, weather conditions etc. are non considered.

Reducing the universe to a set of additive equations is normally actually hard


The Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation System Using Linear Programming provides to be a existent clip feedback control system which proctors and controls all of the actions of trickle irrigation system expeditiously every bit good as it helps us for to make the efficient H2O path in order to purchase more web income with less value. Using this method, one can salvage manpower, every bit good as H2O to better productiveness and at last the net revenue.

In future when you modify it decently so this technique can in addition to present agricultural chemicals like Ca, Na, ammonium, Zn to the field together with Fertilizers with adding new detectors and valves.

Besides it’s potential to registered husbandman to obtain trickle management timings from agricultural universities website and management ain trickle irrigation system harmonizing to university

An Unbalanced Ecosystem On The Yarra River Environmental Sciences Essay

In history worlds are ever delivering cognition, larning more about how things work and why events happen. Through historical past worlds have ever consumed natural sources to engineer new devices for assorted totally different intents with the exclusive thought of doing a enterprise being performed easier, and leting the user to go extra efficient at ending the endeavor. Despite this ‘goal ‘ worlds all through historical past have carried out issues which destroy their ain setting and the surroundings of species in the nation and at occasions risked unbalancing ecosystems.

Through completely different points in historical past actions have been taken with out cognizing the consequences they might convey.

The Yarra River was discovered by NSW Surveyor General, Charles Grimes in 1803 and it ‘flows 246 Km from Mount Gregory in the Eastern Highlands of the Australian State of Victoria to Hobson ‘s Bay in Port Phillip Bay ‘ ( Ltd, 2007 ) . After the colony of Port Phillip Bay in early 1830s the park was divided and sold off to the populace, nevertheless, massive countries of land that ran along the Bankss of the river had been non sold and was retained for ‘the potential constitutions of establishments ‘ ( Victoria, 2010 ) .

With the developments of Victoria and more specifically Melbourne, came jobs for the line of life of the metropolis, the Yarra River. Melbourne was depicted during that early interval of clip as a metropolis with a cleanliness job even coming to be often identified as ‘Smelbourne ‘ ( Melbourne, 2008 ) .

A H2O beginning is very of import for towns and metropoliss and industrial mills. By altering the ‘natural ‘ signifier of the Yarra River the ecosystem of countries which would hold been depending on the River would maintain suffered.

Ecosystems are methods ‘that include all living beings in an nation each bit good as its bodily surroundings working together as a unit ‘ ( Online, 2008 ) . What needs to be understood is the complexnesss of an ecosystem and the method it functions in a uninterrupted cringle with feedback systems. By changing the province of portion of the equation it no longer remains in a province of dynamic equilibrium and the system turns into imbalanced. As antecedently said this occurs chiefly because of the restricted cognition and the hapless consciousness of the complexnesss of ecosystems. Whilst ecosystems are somewhat altering, nucleus of import values will stay kind of changeless. However, when a dramatic alteration happens all of a sudden such as the restructuring of the Yarra River to accommodate urbanization, this causes of import options of the ecosystem to go imbalanced doing jobs within the nation. Redevelopment has non merely been as a outcome of urbanization however apart from as a outcome of land clearance needed for agricultural grounds. This lead to the eroding and the alteration of coloring material of the Yarra River ( WikiNorthia, 2010 ) . By taking and uncluttering land for agricultural or leisure intents worlds have encouraged eroding. Banks of rivers are normally coated by exuberant flora corresponding to grass and bushes and shrub bush to help hold the standard of the Earth. Vegetation prevents the full force exerted by rain beads to be wholly transferred to the land by stoping and subsequently forestalling eroding ( District, 2010 ) . The disintegrating flora creates another barrier which absorbs the moist when raining and prevents the dirt from being washed off. By uncluttering infinite for agribusiness and for growth grounds these sort of ‘natural ‘ defense mechanisms towards eroding are removed, subsequently it’s overriding that any renovation is decently and thoroughly planned ( District, 2010 ) . The dirt which has undergone centuries of pure intervention via ‘complex interactions among the many bacteriums, Fungis, worms and insects that help within the dislocation of natural affair ‘ ( District, 2010 ) could be washed off via eroding. This affects ecosystems by degrading the quality of the H2O as Waterss turn out to be cloudy and lightweight can non perforate as expeditiously which impedes the growing of aquatic workss. The artistic exercise of the higher Yarra Reservoir in 1957 lowered the river ‘s move by about 50 % and besides prevented implosion remedy ( Wikipedia, 2009 ) . The creative exercise of the reservoir prevents the downstream motion of deposit because it detaches itself from the flow due to the deficiency of velocity. It means since no implosion therapy occurs and sediment sedimentations are restricted the dirt is being disadvantaged of wealthy meals necessary for model new workss to turn ( District, 2010 ) . Erosion hurt frequently amendss native species and permits invasive species to increase in alimentary hapless dirts ( District, 2010 ) .

Early industry that was established along the Yarra River was dumping trade waste into the Yarra River and this greatly impacted on the wellness of the river and the aquatic life therein. The Yarra River is comprised of three constituents, the higher, in-between and decrease ranges. The higher ranges of the Yarra begins on the inclines of the Great Dividing Range ( Water, 2010c ) . ‘Its major feeders move via forested, cragged nations, which have been reserved for H2O provide intents for more than a hundred old ages ‘ ( Water, 2010c ) . However, in course of the decrease ranges of the Yarra River the H2O high quality has been to an excellent extent degraded. This is due to the urbanization of Melbourne, antecedently described, industrial discharge and the restructuring of the land. The Yarra River is in addition to succesful to common debuts of human biological waste. This is a large concern as human fecal matters may be a medium during which illness and different unwellnesss could additionally be transferred between worlds ( Fyfe, 2006 ) . This means the Yarra River at completely different subdivisions is non fitted to human diversion as it may be damaging to wellness. This together with the old dumping of waste by industries has brought on harm to the marine ecology in the country. The lower subdivision of the Yarra River is abundant with legion several types of ‘significant vegetations ‘ and fauna species ( Water, 2010a ) . On the opposite manus the decrease ranges of the Yarra is apart from essentially the most contaminated subdivision of the River. Most of the fish are contaminated with differing types and categories of heavy metals and chemical substances, together with arsenic ( Wikipedia, 2009 ) and phosphoric ( Water, 2010b ) . It is a job to such an extent that there have been cases where it has been advised to avoid ingestion of fish caught inside certain subdivisions of the river ( Water, 2010b ) . By presenting contaminations into the river and act uponing both the wellness of the fish and the H2O it signifies that pollutants and meals throughout the River changed. ‘Pathogens are microscopic beings and include viruses, bacteriums, Fungis and parasites ‘ ( Water, 2010b ) . Australian waterways are usually low in foods nonetheless with the impacts of poisons and discharge from cloacas over clip the meals degrees have modified. It implies that more foods exist inside the waterway taking to the production of more works life and bluish green algal blooms ( Water, 2010b ) . This can go a significant job as there’s enough O to back up the beings populating inside the river, nevertheless at darkish this non the instance, and a deficit of O turns into unsafe for fish and different beings, and at last leads to workss deceasing in massive measures. This so poses further jobs for O levels due to the decomposition of the workss ( Water, 2010b ) .The Bluish green algal blooms are apart from really unsafe to the ecosystem of the country. Algae forms of course round rivers and lakes, and there are numerous several varieties of algae that exist, and some are non peculiarly unsafe even when existent in big measures. However, there are different forms of algae which might do serious wellness jobs and even be deadly. Such an algae is cayanbacteria, besides known as bluish green algae ( Water, 2010b ) . This type of algae ‘affects H2O provides and can do necessary and dearly-won H2O high quality jobs ‘ ( Water, 2010b ) . The toxins that this sort of algae releases can apart from be really unsafe for the wellness of wildlife and inventory and may in addition to impression human wellness. By commanding the sums of this sort of algae and doing certain the ecosystem is in a province of homeostasis, endurance is ensured.

In 1855 there have been marks of attempting to scrub up the Yarra River with the debut of the Yarra Pollution Act, nonetheless this was non efficaciously enforced and merely created the job of forcing the toxic trade wastes being dumped due west towards the Maribyrnong River ( Melbourne, 2008 ) . There have been developments such because the constitution of the ‘Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works ‘ ( MMBW ) and the Werribee sewerage farm which have significantly aided the lower of the pollution levels of the Yarra River ( Melbourne, 2008 ) . Despite these betterments the wellness of the Yarra River continues to be non because it one time was, nonetheless it must apart from be remembered that despite the issues the river faces, it is considered one of the cleaning agent interior metropolis rivers in the universe.

In order for a metropolis, or half to go successful and thrive it is of import that there’s continuous rising. Nevertheless it’s paramount to retrieve that these ends should be achieved by guaranting that the influence of adult male on the surroundings will non jeopardize human life or cause untold harm to the setting. Ecosystems are really advanced systems and informed and educated determinations must ever be taken to ensure that farther within the hereafter determinations made at present were non the wrong 1s. By taking consideration of the environment today we assure all of us have a hereafter tomorrow.

An Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental Sciences Essay

All over the universe, speedy industrial growth of metropolitan metropoliss have ever resulted in a growing in inhabitants and apart from within the basic addition of the size of municipal solid waste generated. The direction of municipal stable waste, if non dealt with decently, will take to assorted jobs now and in the hereafter. Developed states within the universe have, to an enormous extent succeeded in managing their waste utilizing assorted rules and strategies. From suited aggregation methods to technologically superior disposal methods, they’ve made sure that municipal solid waste has been efficaciously controlled in their metropoliss.

Unfortunately, the same can non be stated about different creating states of the universe. Developing states corresponding to Nigeria are still combating with municipal strong waste path. As a direct consequence of the oil roar, Port Harcourt metropolis, the capital of Rivers State, Nigeria ( which is the instance survey of this research work ) has experienced a significant rural- urban migration. The population has about tripled over the old ages.

This has, in bend, led to a monolithic addition in the sheer quantity of stable waste generated throughout the metropolis..

Approximately 168,201 metric tons of strong waste are produced in the metropolis of Port Harcourt every twelvemonth and waste disposal has non been efficaciously dealt with. Residents resort to indiscriminate discarding of their waste at every given chance The commonest companies of waste disposal in the metropolis by the populace are mainly by dumping the garbage by the route, firing the rubbish within the unfastened air of their compounds, littering it brazenly on street corners and apart from dumping them in rivers and watercourses and drainage techniques.

These strategies of waste disposal contribute tremendously to the debasement of the surroundings in so some ways. However, actually small is done to recycle and recycle the solid waste generated. Research exhibits that a immense per centum of the general public do non recycle and recycle their wastes which indicates that the awareness diploma of the populace about reuse and recycling of waste in Port Harcourt metropolis is actually low and presents a batch of likelihood for betterment.

This survey therefore investigates the grounds why correct waste disposal methods are neglected by occupants of Port Harcourt. It in addition to seeks to detect why the tactic of Reuse and Recycle of waste is non acquiring the consciousness and Government support it greatly deserves. Recommendations were made about schemes that may let the authorities and stakeholders involved to progress on fashionable strategies of waste Reuse and Recycling as a nucleus side of municipal stable waste course in the metropolis. Through the usage of informations collated via questionnaires, it was gathered that a bulk of respondents agree that reuse and recycling of waste can positively impression the environment, create gross and besides employment possibilities. It reconnoitres the nexus between reuse and recycling of strong waste as a method to make gross and to lastly accomplish sustainable growth in the hereafter.

Chapter ONE



Harmonizing to Shah ( 2000 ) , strong waste is outlined as any stuff that is unwanted or thrown off. The general neighborhood positions waste as one thing worthless that should be destroyed or thrown off. As such, proper disposal of waste has constituted immense disposal jobs. Peoples normally dump their family solid waste on the route aspect, unapproved garbage dumps and unlawful landfills. This has brought about untold environmental air pollution each bit good as major reverses in social growth ( Mbata 2010 ) . Waste normally is a menace to the setting, because of its adverse environmental impacts that end result from littering, dumping of wastes illicitly, and nursery fuel emanations ( Hosetti 2006 ) . Waste contaminates ground H2O and may do critical wellness jeopardies if non dealt with and managed decently.

In growing states like Nigeria and so Africa in general, industrial growth has enhanced the jobs of speedy urbanisation. In Nigeria today, solid waste path is probably one of the principal jobs faced by the province and local authorities governments in Nigeria. Solid waste course in Nigeria is fundamentally pigeon-holed by uneffective aggregation and disposal strategies ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) . As such, Ogu ( 2000 ) observed that solid waste course continues to remain a formidable problem to most underdeveloped states.

The patterned advance of civilisation in developing states corresponding to Nigeria has tremendously enhanced waste coevals ; doing it even more complex to manage ( Jayarama, 2011 ) . Owing to the turning population of Nigeria, the volume of waste produced is apart from rising in metropolitan metropoliss like Port Harcourt, particularly as it is an oil convey forthing country and the geographic expedition of oil has led to an addition in movement of individuals from rural to urban international locations ( Odiba, 2009 ) . This fast enlargement of cardinal metropoliss in Nigeria, like Port Harcourt, has led to the decrepitude of the setting largely by home waste ( Onyinlola, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to UNEP ( 2009 ) population rising and industrialisation has resulted in speedy addition in the sorts and quantity of strong waste generated on this. Research reveals that resettlement of the folks from rural to city international locations does non merely enhance the gross of the state, however in addition to increases the whole volume of municipal strong waste generated in such countries. ( Adedokun, 2009 ) .

Municipal solid waste disposal strategies are an aspect that raises severe concern in a 3rd universe state similar to Nigeria. The common strategies of stable waste disposal in some states notably Nigeria is by landfill, unfastened dumping on the streets, and by firing the waste in backyards or in an unfastened infinite. Unfortunately, roughly sixty five % of household wastes are dumped directly into rivers or watercourses in Nigeria ( Rakshit 2009 ) . The utilization of rubbish dumps and landfills as waste disposal techniques is one more frequent company of waste disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This leads to really unfavorable environmental impacts such because the emanation of methane fuel which contributes basically to planetary heating and besides reduces the sum of land available for growth ( Olowomeye 2010 ) . Dumping of waste in landfills besides leads to anchor H2O taint of the full environing countries. Okosun ( 2011 ) in addition to noticed that uncontrolled dumping of wastes by waysides consequences in assorted wellness jeopardies and reduces the aesthetic high quality of the setting. Through research exhibits that the roles related to waste disposal can be traced again to the fourteenth century when the littering of nutrient waste and different strong wastes in the city led to the eruption of diseases that caused the decease of half of the Europeans at the clip ( Bortoleto 2011 ) .

Over the old ages, analysis has regularly shown that the chief ground for solid waste jobs in city countries of developing states is because of high population rising charges and the prevailing poorness ( Affun 2009 ) . The financial and societal growing of a state or metropolis ever penalties in elevated manufacturing and fabrication actions. This, in bend, leads to actions which are synonymous with human being similar to production, fabrication, waste coevals and disposal. As a direct consequence of the procedures of fabrication and disposal of consumables, there is a essential addition of the rate of air pollution. This depletes priceless natural assets and besides releases toxic vitality which pollutes the setting, doing sustainable improvement impossible to perform.

Sustainability as a word has ever been used in our mundane slang. Harmonizing to Hideroni ( 2006 ) it’s outlined able of pure environmental safety, population rising and economic unfold between developed and creating states. Sustainable improvement entails an environmentally comprehensive, value effectual and socially suited course of solid waste ( Roberts, 2003 ) . Sustainable growth is a theory that has to be integrated into the mundane lives of the general public if we want to accomplish a better high quality of life for our unborn youngsters ( Dernbach, 2002 ) . In the recordings of the International Council for Local Initiatives ( ICLI ) , sustainable development is such that provides environmental, societal and financial comfortss to all residents of the society with out interrupting the capableness of the natural constructed societal systems upon which the bringing of these providers rely upon. The chief function of sustainable growth is to renew the severely broken environment and guarantee that coevalss unborn do non confront the inauspicious results of our disregard on the setting. Therefore, strong waste direction with sustainable development in head encourages states to deliver forth less waste, re-use most consumables, recycle and search their extreme best to retrieve and recycle all the waste produced, thereby guaranting that the hereafter coevals are non affected by the impacts of the current coevals ( Mbata 2010 ) . Sustainable growth is a assemble that must be taken into attending for effectual waste course. With respects to this, states all round the universe including Nigeria, are endeavoring to accomplishing sustainability ( Hasheela, 2009 ) . Therefore, all essential stairss and safeguards ought to be taken to accomplish this end


Having a inhabitants of over 165million people and an one-year growing fee of 5.6 % , Nigeria is taken into account the most important state in Africa. Growth price of city countries in Nigeria has increased from 25 % in 1975 to forty six % in 1995 ( George,2010 ) Estimates by the World Bank point out that by the twelvemonth 2005, more than sixty five % of Nigerians would hold migrated to urban countries corresponding to Lagos, Port Harcourt, Delta, Calabar and Abuja ( Alkali, 2005 ) . The cause for this resettlement is basically because of oil geographic expedition activities of oil firms in these nations. As a consequence of this, the wastes generated from these countries have been on the addition and its disposal and effectual direction is a immense problem to the authorities and municipalities concerned. It can be observed that the most important job related to stable waste direction comes roughly because of the huge tonss of rubbish dumped illicitly by the route sides and market topographic points ( Odiba 2003 ) . As horrid because it sounds, it’s still frequent practise in Nigeria to dump waste illicitly with out considered the influence of such patterns on our environment. Waste path jobs in Nigerian metropoliss harmonizing to ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) are typically related to deficiency of concern and engagement from the general populace. He farther said that a lot of the waste insurance policies are made without seting the populace, who’re the chief waste mills, into thought.

The mode, in which waste is controlled in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ( the survey nation ) is a large menace to the surroundings and might do wellness jeopardies ( Hasheela2009 ) . A overplus of wellness jeopardies similar to malaria fever, typhoid febrility, diarrhea, cholera and even skin illnesses have been shown to be the consequences of hapless waste course in any surroundings ( Guobadia 2011 ) . It is gratuitous to state that uneffective waste course is a big hazard to the end of sustainable improvement and if no positive progresss are made within the nation of pull offing waste, there shall be ruinous, long term environmental impacts on the people now and coevalss unborn.



The chief function of this enterprise is to research and detect the assorted ways how the Reuse and Recycling of Municipal Solid Wastes can take to sustainable development and gross coevals.

To arrange, via comprehensive analysis and statistical evaluation that waste Reuse and recycling essentially the most suited methodology of Municipal Solid Waste Management in a underdeveloped state corresponding to Nigeria and can lastly take to Sustainable development.


To measure the various already bing techniques/methods of Municipal Solid waste aggregation and disposal in Port Harcourt metropolis and Nigeria as a whole.

To find, based mostly on an Environmental Risk Assessment, the most important waste associated hazard presently in the occasion analyze nation ( Port Harcourt )

To measure the present degree of consciousness proven by the populace and the present makes an attempt of the authorities in making more consciousness and supplying environmental instruction to members of the populace on efficient, environmental friendly methods of waste disposal such as Reuse and recycling.

To analysis the obstacles that prevents the reusing and recycling of the main constituents of Municipal solid waste corresponding to paper waste, fictile waste.

To cover with Solid waste reuse and recycling as of import sides of nationwide financial system and environmental as a agency of sustainable development and gross coevals.

Research Questions

This survey is concerned with carrying out sustainable growth and attainable gross coevals through Reuse and Recycling as a method of Municipal Solid Waste Management. It will search to reply the followers:

Why is at that place a demand to recycle and recycle municipal stable waste?

In what ways can Recycle and recycling of municipal stable waste result in the accomplishment of sustainable development?

Can Revenue coevals be assured by way of the uninterrupted usage of reuse and recycling as the nucleus technique of municipal stable waste direction?

1.5 Significance of survey

Sustainable improvement is the ultimate end of each society and should be pursued with all diligence. This research highlights the importance of municipal stable waste ( corresponding to paper glass and plastics ) as utile assets through reuse and recycling towards Sustainable development and gross coevals for Port Harcourt metropolis and Nigeria as a state.

1.6 Scope and restriction of survey

This undertaking work was limited to merely the procedures of reuse and recycling of municipal solid waste as a agency to sustainable growth in Port Harcourt metropolis. Merely reclaimable waste corresponding to plastics, paper and glass have been used as a instance survey because they are the main waste stuffs found in municipal stable waste in Port Harcourt. However, all different procedures of municipal waste direction similar to composing, aggregation, transit and disposal were apart from seemed to during the class of this analysis.

1.7 Structure of Study

Chapter 1 provides an debut to the analysis, covers the background of the survey, discusses its functions and aims, and in addition to proposes relevant analysis inquiries.

Chapter 2 inside informations the literature reappraisal of municipal waste path, positions reuse and recycling as a agency for sustainable development and gross coevals, and in addition to the up to date state of affairs of waste direction in Nigeria

Chapter 3 exhibits the methodological evaluation employed for accomplishing the set functions and goals of the survey.

Chapter 4 discusses the consequences and draws choices from the data generated.

Chapter 5 ultimately discusses the drumhead findings, reveals the research worker ‘s choices and his advised suggestions for one of the best method frontward.

vitamin D recommendations for the most effective method frontward.

Chapter TWO

Literature Review

2.1 Definition of Waste

Waste is a direct effect of human being and exercise. It may be mentioned to be wholly ineluctable. Different definitions of waste abound. It is, however, of import to province that the time period ‘waste ‘ is really subjective. This is as a result of, what one individual might even see as waste could be seen as an object of excessive worth by one other individual. ( Ajomo, 2010 ) . A really rigorous authorized definition of waste to follow with the jurisprudence is hence essential ; as such steadfast definitions of waste have legal, fiscal and societal deductions for the authorities, local governments, concerns, and the general populace ( Williams 2005 ) . In common idiom, waste could be outlined as any merchandise or stuff that is undesirable. Wright ( 1990 ) describes waste as something that has misplaced its public-service company worth in the sight of the unique proprietor and everybody else normally. However, the European Council framework Directive ( waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC 1975 ) presents a legal definition of waste. It defines waste as

“ aˆ¦aˆ¦any stuff where the holder has an objective to fling the stuff as now not portion of the conventional commercial rhythm of the concatenation of public-service corporation ”

This is the universally recognized definition of waste. Different states may maintain considerably completely different divergences of this definition based mostly on their Torahs, civilization and prevailing times, fortunes and patterns. Harmonizing to the Federal Environmental Protection Agency ( FEPA ) , beneath the protections of Provision Decree 42 of 1988, waste is said to be “ substances or objects which are disposed of, or are intended to be disposed of, or are required to be disposed of by the commissariats of the jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Nigeria ( Omobolaji, 2010 )

2.2 Categorization of waste

There are various kinds of wastes that could be found throughout us. Different states define/classify waste harmonizing to the province during which the waste is shaped i.e. solid, gas or liquid or the style the waste is generated. Based on this, waste could be classified Industrial waste, household wastes, medical waste, constructing waste, business wastes, radioactive wastes, and so forth. However, generally footings, all most of these wastes can be classed into two chief sorts, viz. Controlled and Uncontrolled wastes:

Controlled Waste

Controlled wastes, harmonizing to the commissariats of the Control of Pollution Act! 974 ( COPA ) are mentioned to be chiefly Household waste commercial/ industrial wastes. It is a UK term covering waste subject to a accountability of attention beneath the Environmental Protection Act of 1990.

Industrial Wastes: these are wastes that are generated as a direct consequence of business patterns. They include waste thermoplastics, waste wooden movie editings and fixingss and so forth. However, they do non embrace fictile medical waste, waste metal movie editings and waste paper ( Environmental Law Library 2010 ) .

Commercial Wastes: They are the numerous waste stuffs gotten from trade and concern edifices and activities.

Family Wastes: Are those waste merchandises generated from actions inside a residential home. Examples of this kind of wastes are backyard waste, paper and composition board, glass, nutrient leftovers, wooden etc.

Non-Controlled waste

Non controlled wastes are categorised as those waste merchandises which may be non underneath the direct management and authorized energy of the suitable local authorization. These sorts of wastes embrace wastes which are as a direct consequence of excavation and quarrying actions, and agricultural wastes and in addition to, radioactive wastes ( Wright, 2003 )

Agricultural Wastes: These wastes are mainly the categories that arise from agricultural activities similar to farm animal litter. They besides embody waste pesticides asbestos roofing stuff and besides waste oil coming from equipment, chemical compounds with risky belongingss and so forth.

Radioactive Wastes: these discuss with blow that comprise radioactive stuffs. They normally originate from atomic power workss, or industries that emit radioactive substances or compounds during the class of their operations ( Barnstein,2009 )

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Figure 2.2.1 Categorizations of Wastes ( Source: EAUC, 2009 )

2.three Municipal Solid Waste Management

Municipal stable waste ( MSWs ) refers to all the stable waste generated inside a given municipality. They are chiefly natural and inorganic in nature and are produced in residential locations, office composite, stores, infirmaries and so forth. Although everybody in the society has the responsibility to get rid of garbage in a pleasant mode, municipal stable waste is generally the obligation of the native authorities governments ( Okogbue, 2001 ) . Municipal solid waste is these wastes collected by metropol5ises independent of the chief beginning of waste ( Bernstein, 2009 ) . Such wastes embrace household wastes ; waste produced by concern edifices and little neighborhood outlets. They do non, however, embrace waste from industrial patterns or agricultural strong waste ( Filemon, 2008 )

In the words of Robert Klein ( 2002 ) municipal solid waste refers back to the gathering, transportation, intervention, recycling, and disposal of stable waste in urban international locations. The end of municipal stable waste course are targeted at advancing the standard of the city environment, convey forth employment and income, and protecting environmental wellness ( Ogwueleka, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Kit Strangen ( 2002 ) , municipal strong waste might include some, if non the entire undermentioned factors:

Street garbage/litter or sweepings.

Household waste ( normally generated from recycling and composting waste deposited by home occupants at waste disposal websites ) .

Hazardous waste ( in little measures gotten from households )

Garden/green waste and

Bulky strong waste besides generated from families.

Municipal Solid Waste path could be mentioned to embrace all the activities that has to make with managing all the waste generated within a municipality, from the purpose of beginning, to the concluding level of disposal. In the words of McGraw ( 1993 ) , “ municipal strong waste course is the subject attender with the management of the coevals, storage, aggregation, transportation, processing and management of disposal of stable waste in a mode that is in agreement with the most effective guidelines of public wellness, economic sciences, expertise, preservation, aesthetics and different environmental considerations and that’s besides antiphonal to public attitudes ” Bloomberg ( 1989 ) described solid waste direction as “ the subject that trades with the management of coevals, storage, aggregation, transportation, processing, and disposal of stable wastes in a mode that is in understanding with the best guidelines of public wellness, economic sciences, saving, aesthetics and other environmental concerns and that is in addition to antiphonal to public outlooks and mentalities ” . The United Nations ( 1997 ) defines strong waste direction as the total procedure of management and supervising of stable wastes from its point of coevals to its finish level of disposal.

2.4 Principles of Waste Management

Solid waste direction has been mentioned to mention to all activities associating to the control, mixture, resettlement, intervention and dealing with of strong waste in understanding with the most effective values of public life and different environmental issues ( Shan, 2000 ) . Therefore, operative rules of waste direction includes of waste bar, decrease, recycling, intervention and disposal within the environment ( Shan, 2000 ) . Failure to efficaciously pull off waste in the surroundings results in fast debasement and it poses long run jobs to everyone.

Research has proven that, so as to successfully pull off waste and understate the detrimental results it has on the environment, some schemes must be adopted and applied:

Waste Recovery ( waste recycling, re-use and intervention )

Prevention of waste coevals

Environmentally friendly Waste disposal.

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Figure 2.4: Waste Management Hierarchy ( Source: Liennmann, 2009 )

These schemes are aimed toward cut downing the overall sum of waste produced by promoting proper path of waste. It apart from aims at retrieving each bit a lot value as potential from all of the waste generated. As proven on determine 2.four, waste bar should ideally be the primary attack to blow path before other choices are thought-about ( Klein, 2000 ) . Effective execution of this waste direction hierarchy will take to a decrease within the volume of the concluding waste disposed ( Hasheela 2009 ) . Magali and Bodart ( 2010 ) instructed that for sustainable growth to be achieved, waste direction activities must be devoted towards waste lower, which is on the high of the hierarchy, using the really feasibly finest environmental picks. Therefore the chief purpose of the waste path hierarchy is the decrease of waste at beginning. Waste recovery and reuse should be the secondary purpose as they contain other procedures similar to recycling, composting, and recovery of vitality.

However, latest surveies have proven that the waste path hierarchy scheme is non essentially the most effectual. This is as a outcome of it’s non based on any scientific could non specifically take one of the best system for a metropolis or state to follow. For illustration, the waste direction scheme can non compare composting and incineration ; or recycling and landfilling in footings of their environmental impacts and value ( Letcher, 2004 ) . This goes to demo that the waste hierarchy ought to be followed flexibly as a usher as an alternative than stiffly so as to accomplish a steady environmental, economic and societal resolution ( Raven, 2011 )

Aside from the above mentioned restraint, implementing this scheme in a underdeveloped state similar to Nigeria will be onerous. This is due to the prevailing norms of unlawful garbage disposal all throughout the state. It will therefore entail equal environmental awareness/education for the populace. More so, rigorous environmental Torahs and ordinances ought to be carried out by all concerned.

2.4.1 Prevention of Waste

Waste bar stays the best signifier of waste direction as a outcome of it’s the most effectual manner of cut downing the sum of waste that’s generated. It is apart from essentially the most environmental friendly means has it has perfectly no consequence on the environment. It reduces air pollution, saves electricity and saves way more vitality than all other companies of waste bar ( Vallero, 2004 ) .

Finkbeiner ( 2003 ) acknowledged that the figure one priority in waste direction ought to be waste bar as it’s the greatest manner to halt the accretion of waste and a decrease of lack of sources. This process ought to be began firstly of manufacturing.

The primary assault of waste bar and decrease is for the makers to redesign and box their merchandises with the lowest toxicity and least volume of stuff. Industrialist and families can besides reduce down their waste by selective buying and recycle of some merchandises and stuffs ( Angell, 1995 ) . It may be stated that waste decrease relies upon mainly on the shoppers and the picks they make. As such manufacturing and fabrication corporations ought to observe cleaner tendencies within the production process. They should apart from seek to encouragement the buyer ‘s decide to back up less uneconomical merchandises and providers ( CEC 2001 ) . This can be achieved via the usage of clean engineering. Their capability to take sustainable merchandises that have the least unfavorable consequence on the setting is the necessary thing to sustainable waste direction ( Spoolman, 2008 ) .

2.4.2 Recovery of Waste/Energy

Recovery is a waste path method whereby the biological, bodily or chemical kernel of a waste merchandise is altered so as to cut down the consequence of such waste on the environment ( Cheremisinoff, 2003 ) Energy can be recovered through assorted agencies ; illustration chemical, thermic, bodily and biological procedures. Some waste path schemes for restoration of power include:

Composting: This is an environmental pleasant manner of diminishing the volume of waste produced and apart from deliver forthing fertiliser ( Bertoldi, 2006 ) . Because of the low negative impression it has on the setting, the European Union has rated this technique of waste disposal actually excessive ( DEFRA, 2006 ) . It is a microbic based aerophilic method that trades with the additions of resource efficiency and creates utile merchandises from waste stuff that could hold in any other case been discarded ( USEPA 2011 ) . The process of composting is peculiarly favoured for utilization in the tropical and sizzling clime states. This is because of the high price of biodegradation in these parts as a consequence of the clime. Harmonizing to Tyler and Scott ( 1999 ) about 70 % of the waste watercourses in growing states are compostable. The basic process of composting is such that the natural ratios of municipal stable wastes is isolated from the inorganic parts and so laid naked to composting, this can be accomplished in a mechanised method using machines and instruments to manage the wastes and modulate the composting circumstances. Composting can besides be semi mechanized in which instance the composting procedure is allowed to happen in fact and less equipment is used. Composting besides removes the organic affair within the waste watercourse thereby bettering the recycling and incineration procedures. Nevertheless, a figure of nursery gases similar to methane, C dioxide and so forth. are launched into the ambiance throughout this procedure, among other things, hence it is apparent that composting has its unfavorable environmental impacts.


Incineration is another methodology of reduce downing municipal solid waste. It basically entails the burning of waste stuffs with the utilization of an incinerator under temperatures of over one thousand Degree Celsius ( Environmental Protection Department, 2005 ) . During the incineration process, strong waste is sorted out on the footing of their combustibleness. Thereafter, the combustible stuffs among the waste are thrown into the incinerator and burnt. Incineration of waste is a extraordinarily effectual methodology of cut downing waste as surveies have shown that it reduces the sum of waste dumped in landfills by up to eighty % volume and weight ( Roberts, 1978 ) . However, this technique is type of capital intensifier and in addition to requires high care price and proficient expertness. This is why it is merely popular among developed states and states corresponding to Nigeria do non readily pattern it ( World Bank, 2002 ) .

Anaerobic soaking up:

Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process that takes topographic level when there is an build-up of wet natural affair, in the deficiency of dissolved O. Through the motion of anaerobiotic micro-organisms, natural affair is transformed to H2O, methane and new cells. These are so collected and used as gaseous gasoline while the filth settlings are used as dust conditioner. Anaerobic absorbing apart from aids procedures of landfilling by extinguishing gluey organic waste stuffs that are responsible for gaseous and liquid radiations. It is often carried out in shut armored combat vehicles that enable for the aggregation of massive elements of biogas produced ( Keller, 2007 )

Surveies indicate that this process of waste course reduces the complete quantity and weight of waste generated by over 25 % ( Jason, 2009 ) . It is cardinal to make renewable power from biodegradable waste, as a substitute than lending to local weather alteration by way of the release of methane fuel that occurs during landfilling and incineration ( Marek, 2007 ) Harmonizing to EA ( 2001 ) , methane fuel is 20mtimes more potent than CO2 as a nursery fuel. The residue gathered from anaerobiotic soaking up is out there in each liquid and stable signifier. This residue is known as digestate and is used to condition the filth and in addition to as a fertiliser. This byproduct is used widely on farms in states like Germany, Sweden, and Austria. ( Hardtle,2007 ) propounds that roughly zero.forty six % of electrical energy needed within the UK may be generated by way of the anaerobiotic digestion of nutrient waste. Unfortunately, using anaerobiotic soaking up in developing states like Nigeria is actually restricted as a outcome of miss of expertness, engineering and the related substructure.

Landfilling: For landfilling, the solid waste is dumped and spread over the land and is left for its transmutation to humus. This is attained by the biodegradation of the waste affair. Landfilling is the concluding measure within the disposal of waste that can non be treated or recycled, along with other residues from waste that can non be collected, separated or handled in another method ( Nemerow,2007 ) There are three forms of landfill carried out in Africa at present, viz. unfastened or shit landfill, semi managed or operated landfill and healthful landfill. Open /dump landfill is the most rough signifier of landfilling and that is the 1 still being practiced in most underdeveloped states including Nigeria. A healthful landfill is a solid waste path methodology that’s aimed and operated in a mode that protects the environment and public wellness. ( Nemerow, 2007 )

There are some components needed for the structure of a healthful landfill site. These elements include:

Planing and casing the waste spread web site, with waste and dust positioned in tight beds.

Measuring the technology, geological and hydrological traits of the site and besides the environmental impact analysis, tipping program and website Restoration program.

The utilization of line drives to suppress the infiltration of leachate into the dirt to let for full or restricted hydrogeological isolation to take topographic point

The disadvantages of the landfilling process are apart from worthy of reference. Leaching of unsafe substances and foods are more doubtless to occur, if landfilling is non practiced with correct environmental safety ( Bilitewski and Hardtle, 2004 ) . Contamination of groundwater can besides occur in nations round landfill websites and it is a hapless waste course assault. Landfilling should at best, be thought of a impermanent solution to the waste job as it tends to go a large environmental pollutant as clip goes by ( Rosenfeld, 2008 ) . This is so because as quickly as the lifetime of the barrier comes to an terminal, landfill leachates leak out and pollute the land H2O all around that country ( Lee, 2004 ) . In order to prevent such happenings, appropriate statute legislation should implemented and even enforced to guarantee that correct landfill and design are carried out ( Mannan and Jones 1997 ) . The European Union has laid down rigorous calls for for landfills so as to debar and minimize down the negative influences on the surroundings, specifically on surface and land H2O, dust, air, and human wellness ( Jasiski, 2010 )

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Figure 2.4.2 Landfill site in Port Harcourt ( starting: Obijiofor, 2009 )

Aside from the above talked about 1s, other waste path rules have been established as possible schemes for work outing Municipal Solid Waste Management points. Rushkin ( 2009 ) provides some of them as:

Making Awareness: This involves the usage of mass media, consciousness runs and every different businesses of sensitising the populace on the effects of foolhardy waste disposal and the environmental benefits of fine waste course.

User Pays Principle: This rule requires that the customers of the sources bear the fiscal value of those who present waste path companies for their endeavor. This discourages uneconomical consumerism.

Polluter Pays Principle: This entails the producers of waste to pay straight for the hurt attributable to their waste. This rule was foremost propounded in 1972 on the behest of the OECD council on Steering Principles refering International Economic Aspects of Environmental Policies. Harmonizing to Trevor ( 2010 ) the rule that is used for assigning costs of pollution arrest and management to guarantee the rational usage of environmental sources is the alleged Polluter-pays-principle

Product Stewardship Principle: It requires the makers or importers of waste to take responsibility of the environmental impacts of their merchandises.

2.5 Waste Composition in Port Harcourt

The challenges of stable waste path in metropoliss of developing states like Nigeria are rather completely different from these in developed western states. Besides, the composing of waste generated is besides dissimilar from state to state depending on the rate of development of that peculiar state, civilization and fee of growth. Depending on the societal category and enterprise of the dwellers of a peculiar country, the kind of waste they produce tremendously varies. Solid waste coevals of 3rd universe states is 0.6 to zero.8kg/person/day, compared to 1.0 to 1.6 kg/person/day in industrialised states ( Zerbock 2003 ) . Ogwueleka ( 2009 ) acknowledge that developing states like Nigeria have dissimilar solid waste course jobs from first universe states. These differences can straightforward be noticed in in nations of density/volume, constellation, and economic model, sum of waste generated, entree to waste for aggregation, consciousness of proper waste disposal methods and attitude of the citizens. ) . A survey by Ajao and Anurigwo ( 2001 ) estimated that 168,201 metric tons of strong waste were produced per twelvemonth in Port Harcourt which is the first country of survey on this. It is, nonetheless, of import to observe that family waste make up for over 60 % of municipal solid waste, in the United Kingdom with kitchen waste being the biggest ( DEFRA 2006 ) . Past analysis and surveies point out that this can be said to be the identical for the metropolis of Port Harcourt. Harmonizing to Mba ( 2004 ) , waste composing in Port Harcourt is basically made up of:

Garbage: This constitutes close to to 70 % of all waste generated in Port Harcourt municipality. Its starting is chiefly the households and concern places of work within the metropolis and it’s chiefly biodegradable. Other waste merchandises generated therein embrace paper, carton/cardboard, plastics, fabric film editings, bottles, ceramics, Sn tins and so forth.

Waste derived from little graduated desk activities such as avenue sweeping, demolition/rubble waste, ashes and so on. It in addition to includes points corresponding to derelict vehicles, carts and bikes littering the streets. However these represent a small per centum of the waste generated. These factors represent a serious waste disposal job within the municipality.

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Figure 2.5 Compositions of Household Wastes within the UK ( Source: DEFRA, 2006 )


2.6 Municipal Solid Waste Management in Port Harcourt

Nigeria as a state is blessed with ample homo and pure assets. However the advancement and improvement of this nice state has been hindered by hapless municipal solid waste direction strategies ( Adedoyin, 2006 ) . Although Port Harcourt ranks as some of the urbanised metropoliss in Nigeria, it is besides one of the dirtiest ( Alabor, 2007 ) . Driving or walking through the metropolis, the terrible image of cluttered waste is glowering. These waste merchandises are merely dumped on main primary roads and roads representing an eyesore. The crying dumping of solid waste in Port Harcourt and its attendant impact on the environment presently is non apt for healthy life ( Eloho,2006 ) .

The job of municipal stable waste in Port Harcourt may be traced again to over a decennary ago when waste course was the unique duty of the local authorities ( Mba, 2004 ) . An accretion of rubbish builds up in a affair of hours and generally obstructs site visitors. The occupants of Port Harcourt were non adequately serviced by the Local Government Authorities in the facet of waste aggregation and disposal. There have been no public waste bins, no designated shit sites and so on. so the public recklessly dumps their household waste on the route. Improper waste disposal strategies corresponding to unfastened combustion, dumping rubbish along the route or in unfastened Fieldss, within the watercourse or rivers and in landfills were the order of the twenty-four hours ( Olowomeye,2001 ) . This led to immense environmental pollution. To this twenty-four hours, a immense garbage job nonetheless exists in Port Harcourt. Municipal stable waste generated in the metropolis is usually dumped randomly. These illicitly dumped wastes constitute a job for human wellness and the debasement of the setting ( William, 2005 ) . Previous surveies show that the chief composing of municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt is chiefly fictile, paper, natural nutrient waste, metal, cloth, aluminum and glass ( Igoni et al, 2007 ) . These waste stuffs form nearly all of the rubbish which would possibly be discarded randomly in the metropolis.

The authorities offers rubbish bins at designated musca volitanss on the route and streets yet folks merely disregard these and dump their wastes randomly, most times where of all time that proves most convenient for them ( Adedokun, 1992 ) . This waste contaminates ground H2O, serves as a genteelness land for rats, flies and other plagues, and finally leads to the spread of ailments. Besides, indiscriminate waste disposal in the metropolis results in the decrease of available land and the sturdy emanation of methane gasoline contribute to planetary heating and exhaustion of the Earth ‘s pure assets ( Williams, 2005 ) .

The obvious grounds behind the actions of the individuals of Port Harcourt embody: High diploma of illiteracy, deficiency of consciousness about proper disposal strategies and reluctance to collaborate on the difficulty of waste disposal ( Nabegu, 2010 ) . The authorities apart from arrange bureaus and ministries responsible for municipal waste path within the province. These bureaus obtain fiscal and proficient assist from the province environmental price range to efficaciously transport out their responsibilities ( Okot-Uma,2000 )

Harmonizing to Obijiofor, 2009 the Government bureaus formally in charge of stable waste course in Port Harcourt are:

The State Ministry of Environment and Water Resources

Local Government councils and wards ( Environmental Department ) .

Rivers State Environmental Authority ( RSESA ) : This bureau is the chief administration in charge of municipal solid waste aggregation, transportation and disposal. They are in addition to responsible for the enrollment and licensing of personal garbage aggregators in the metropolis, maintaining landfill sites and implementing all laid down ordinances refering garbage aggregation, disposal and sanitation all across the metropolis ( Ekosse,2000 )

The Federal Government of Nigeria created the Decree 58 and established the Federal Environmental Protection bureau. Their authorization was to handle the aggregation and disposal of garbage in Nigerian metropoliss, procure the setting for wellness and wellbeing and due to this fact advance sustainable improvement in the state ( Ogu, 2000 ) . The Federal Government apart from initiated the Environmental Sanitation exercising that is carried out one time a month throughout the state. The objective of such an exercising was mainly to instill a way of environmental consciousness into the heads of the public ( Obefe, 1993 ) . All of these steps, nevertheless, have non helped to perform the chief functions for which they have been instituted. This is due to the lack of those established bureaus to dispatch their responsibilities efficaciously. The province bureaus in control of municipal waste direction, most instances, do non maintain enough authorities support and support to be every bit environment friendly as the personal waste course companies within the disposal of waste ( Christain, 2011 ) . This consequence in exorbitant charges charged by the non-public firms for remotion of waste and as such merely excessive earnings earners can afford their services. The the rest of the common public in that nation that undergo disregard from the province environmental bureau now resorts to dumping their garbage within the unfastened, rivers, brooks, empty secret plans of land and even in drains. This causes deluging most occasions and the waste dumped in drains could also be carried off by run-off H2O into bigger organic buildings of H2O like seas or lakes and fouling them, due to this fact, impacting the ecosystem ( Ankidawa, 2007 )

It is of import to watch that ignorance performs a significant portion within the actions of these perpetrators of indiscriminate waste disposal ( Adeh, 2010 ) . A profound deficiency of cognition about waste direction methods can be noticed among the dwellers of some elements of Port Harcourt. They are merely non cognizant of the environmental and wellness dangers of dangerous waste disposal. This is especially among the many middle/low class neighborhood whose residents can non afford the providers of private waste course corporations. They are so left on the clemency of province run Environmental Protection Agency which is severely funded and badly motivated as it does non have the authorities attending it good deserves ( Igwe, 2000 ) . Solid waste generated in these countries are normally burned exterior within the unfastened by the occupants or dumped by the waysides in huge tonss as there is not a formal waste collection/disposal system put in topographic level by the authorities ( Iheanacho, 2009 )

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Figure 2.6.1 Waste dumped randomly on a avenue in Port Harcourt ( Source: Writer ‘s exposure )

The informal/local recycling sector in Port Harcourt metropolis in addition to enjoys really small support from the Government and even the personal sector, but they’ve been capable of accomplish some success in recycling municipal solid waste. The basic disposal methods are via the scavengers. These are mainly males between the ages of 14 to 35 with no formal instruction or preparation and as such do non maintain any opportunity of white collar employment ( Ogbonna, 2002 ) . They rummage by way of the waste pile, decide up reclaimable and reclaimable waste and sell them to makers who recycle the waste into correct items. This is a signifier of employment for most individuals that do non hold any businesses of assist ( Obijiofor et al 2009 ) . The reclaimable stuffs like plastics, glass, steel and materials in this tremendous pile of garbage so pull the attending of these local scavengers. They sort out rubbish at the shit sites and so taken to be reused and or recycled. There are one other group involved within the aggregation and transit of rubbish from these countries. They are the local cart thrusters. They acquire and transport these reclaimable stuffs from the houses and nations generated and promote it to the industries as natural stuff that can be utilized for recycling. The cart thrusters, nonetheless, cost a disposal fee from the homes that generate this waste. They make about $ 25 per twenty-four hours ( Ayobolu, 2005 ) .The waste stuffs collected are typically washed and dried out earlier than they’re sold to say no traders both at disposal websites or at debris shops ( Onibokun, 1999 ) ) . In different larger metropoliss, like Lagos, this is a really moneymaking concern due to the copiousness of garbage mopess all throughout the metropolis. The aggregation and transit of the reclaimable waste is really labour intensifier and it is projected that this histories for sixty five % to 70 % of the complete value waste path in the state ( Oluwande, 2008 ) . The main scavenging and recycling done in Nigeria is casual and they’re derived from assorted waste. The reclaimable content of stable waste all throughout the metropolis is said to be roughly 58 % and it is comprised of natural affair which makes it debatable to incinerate. For illustration, glass is processed and recycled locally to offer cullet which can be used for the manufacturing of other issues such as disks, tumblers etc. whereas entire glass bottles are exhaustively washed and cleaned, the reused for re-storing domestically made drinks, medical specialties etc ( Imman et al,2008 ) .

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Figure 2.6.2 Informal recycling sectors ( Beginning: Wilson et Al. 2010 )

The activities of those scavengers have in addition to, in a way, hindered improvement and gross coevals through the recycling of waste as they find yourself dumping the waste randomly excessively. Irrespective of all that, the identical solid waste job nonetheless persists. This is made more so because even after the scavengers have recovered the reclaimable waste stuffs they need, they find yourself disposing the residuary waste randomly. However if decently managed, the immense sums of waste could be remodeled into commercial, industrial, and household goods thereby bring forthing gross for the authorities and employment for individuals in that sector. ( Ekwezor, 2010 ) .



Previous environmental incidents which have occurred highlighted the demand for the passage, growth and alteration of environmental safety laws/legislation on waste disposal all over the universe ( Odibo, 2009 ) . The leaking of PCBs into rice Fieldss in Osaka, Japan in 1968 ; the methane gasoline detonation in the USA in 1969 and the nitrile dumping episode in Coventry, Warwickshire, UK in 1972 are a few of the incidents that have raised planetary concern on the demand to hold standing Torahs and ordinances steering the problems of waste course amongst all states of the universe ( Mckenzie, 2008 ) . This prompted the UK waste direction bureau to take essential actions to modulate municipal solid waste disposal so as to prevent future occurring ( Williams, 2005 ) . Before these incidents, actually small concern was proven in the direction of establishing ordinances for solid waste disposal strategies such as landfills and as such, it had a annihilating consequence on the setting ( Sarsby, 2000 ) .

However, at a peculiar clip, a gradual flow of directives from the European Union was issued with the purpose of training and organizing waste direction schemes and policies throughout Europe ( DOE, 2005 ) . The declaration of waste regulations/legislation was to efficaciously pull off waste and environmental assets available. Surveies indicated that a batch of states including the UK established ordinances which made it obligatory that non-hazardous waste websites be transformed into healthful landfills so as to halt the flight of leachate from the landfill websites into the environing evidences or H2O natural constructions ( Bagchi, 2004 ) . Furthermore, incidents of waste disposal just like the nitrile dumping in Coventry and the detonation in the US caused so much public name.

In 1972 the United Kingdom joined the EU group and later implemented the Control of Pollution Act of 1974. This was the first legislative act that structured the disposal of waste to land and the discharge of wastewater to sewer and H2O classs ( Hawkins and Shaw, 2010 ) . After being a signer to the EC, the first legislative act modulating the disposal of waste to land and the discharge of wastewaters into waterways and sewerages was adopted by the UK. ( Hawkins and Shaw, 2000 ) . That act is recognized as The Control of Pollution Act 1974 ( COPA 1974 ) . The ultimate goal is to guard and better the value of the setting ( Odibo, 2009 ) The ECAs a direct consequence of the Control of Pollution Act of 1974, the European 75/442 Waste Framework Directive was created. As amended by the 91/156 Directive, it states that ‘Disposal includes the aggregation, classification, passenger automotive, intervention and stowage of waste pending tipping above land or incineration ‘ . To efficaciously implement the 75/442 Directive, the UK established some other statute legislation in subsequent old ages and it led to the debut of the Environmental Protection Act of 1990 ( EPA 1990 ) . This Environmental Protection Act of 1990 contained a scope of subjects for the protection of the setting and Part II of the EPA Act changed and reinforced the waste disposal Framework in COPA 1974. The Waste Framework Directive besides makes it compulsory for all animal trainers of waste ; including those involved in storing, transit, intervention, and disposal to maintain a waste path licence. This license should be issued out by the Environmental Agency totally, unless they’re excluded by the next authorization. The Environmental bureau hence has the responsibility of publishing out licenses, supervising for conformity amongst license holders. The inventive exercise of the Environmental Protection Act of1990 was introduced approximately by the debut of recent statute legislation for the effectual execution of the waste Framework Directive by the UK. This Act included a choice of topics for the safety of the surroundings and portion 2 of the Act supplanted and efficaciously bolstered the waste disposal mannequin in COPA 1974 ( Odibo, 2009 )

In add-on, the United Kingdom adopted statute legislation throughout the European Union that regulates waste path. This peculiar legislative act is the statute regulation on waste intervention operations. To expeditiously implement the ordinances on waste intervention operations, the EC divided its operations into three Directives viz. :

The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive 1996 ( 96/61/EC ) : This policy was developed within the UK so as to advance development by selling environmentally friendly economic activities. The Directing purposes at efficaciously forestalling waste through ‘clean ‘ and improved engineering. It was further developed into the assemble of a ‘waste direction hierarchy ‘ which structures the full procedure of waste path from bar, reuse and recycling to optimization of the concluding disposal technique ( DoE, 1995 )

The Landfill Directive ( 1999/31/EC ) : The Landfill Directive got here into being throughout the European Union on the sixteenth of July, 1999 with the aim of complementing controls on landfill websites all across the EU. Its chief aim is to chop down pollution like methane gas emitted in landfill sites and apart from emphasizes on common criterions for the design, operation and the after consideration of landfill websites. This statute regulation was tailor-made to higher the final criterion of landfilling throughout Europe. The dictates of the Landfill Directive are executed via the Landfill Regulations 2002 for England and Wales ( Bagchi, 2004 ) . It encompasses all the inside informations concerning the designing, kind of waste most suited to a peculiar landfill, operation and post-operative attention of all the landfills in EU member provinces ( Williams, 2002 ) .

The Directive on the Incineration of Waste 2000 ( 2000/76/EC ) : This statute regulation regulates and proctors conformity for correct incineration of procedures of waste all through the European Union. The purposes and aims of waste incineration directive are to restrict or forestall, every bit far as operable, the unfavorable impacts of waste on our surroundings. Contamination of groundwater, dust and even the air by emanations given off during waste incineration, are some of its chief factors of focus. The Directive apart from involves the scene and care of rigorous operational conditions and proficient calls for for incinerating workss throughout the EC to have the ability to to the full shield the setting and the individuals populating in it. ( DEFRA, 2009 )

To guarantee that the Directives are efficiently carried out in the UK, the strategic planning and readying was accomplished by the Environmental bureaus Local authoritiess, native planning authorization and all local industries ( Williams, 2005 ) . The Local and Federal Government, Environmental Agency, Local planning governments and the overall populace have besides been merged into take parting in all these waste path guidelines talked about above ( Odibo 2009 ) . The UK aimed to journey up the waste path hierarchy process. In add-on, the waste direction strategy within the UK involved and encouraged public engagement. An illustration of this was the planning permission for an industrial mixed warmth and power web site in South East London following public agitation and engagement ( ISWA 2000 ) .

To additional implement these Directives and Acts, the undermentioned guidelines have been based mostly on it ( Dubois, Gonzalez and Knadel 2004 ) :

Principle of propinquity: This rule requires that waste be handled each bit close to as possible to its level of coevals, manufacturing or aggregation.

Best Operable Environmental Option: This is a methodical option or appraisal of all available waste intervention or path options so as to place the best 1 that will vouch maximal environmental, financial, and societal advantages ( DOE, 2005 )

Waste Management Hierarchy: This entails the bar, recovery re-use and recycling of pure stuffs from strong waste.

Polluter Pays Principle: This stipulates that defilers are financially responsible for their waste and as such, waste disposal installations have to be paid for by the defilers themselves and non from the revenue enhancement remunerator ‘s financess.

Principle of Self Sufficiency: This requires that every member province of the pact is mainly liable for its ain generated waste and ought to be held accountable for it always.

Principle of Best Available Technology ( BAT ) : This rule requires that waste disposal installations be outfitted with one of the best available engineering designed with the setting in head.

In add-on to those, the Waste Framework besides makes it obligatory for all people who transport, shop, dainty and dispose all waste stuffs to keep a waste path licence that should be issued by the Environmental Agency. All these go to demo that since the Eighties, the European Union have endeavoured to realize sustainable development via encompassing all signifiers of societal, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability ( Kit and Strange 2002 ) .



Nigeria is probably the most populated state on the African continent. It occupies about 14 % of the land mass in Africa, and has a population of over 166 million folks. It is between Latitudes 4`N and 14`n of the Equator ; with Cameroon surrounding on the East, Niger democracy and Benin Republic flanking on the West and North severally ( Federal Ministry of Environment, 2001 ) . Nigeria has a whole length of about 850km of Atlantic Ocean boundary and a whole floor country of about 923,773 square kilometers ( Adeyinka, Bankole and Solomon, 2003 ) . Port Harcourt, which is the capital of Rivers State, is situated in the southern portion of Nigeria. It is a giant port town with an estimated inhabitants of 1,382,592 ( NPC, 2006 ) . Port Harcourt lies along the bonny river, 41miles ( 66km ) upstream from the Gulf of Guinea. It has a average one-year rainfall of 2280mm and an imply one-year lower restrict and maximal temperatures of 24.three grade centigrade and 35.1 grade centigrade severally. The conditions is identical as the rest of the state, tropical and its driest months commence from December to March with dust type that consists mainly of silt clay assorted with sand ( Ayotamuno et al, 2006 ) .

Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers province, is the Centre of Nigeria ‘s oil business and is extremely industrialised. Owing to the discover of oil within the 50 ‘s in the Niger Delta half, the country has continued to bask all some great advantages of urbanisation boulder clay day of the month. It is in addition to the largest base of transnational oil operations in the state. The oil roar led to a fast influx of migrators in hunt of occupation chances, thereby giving rise to over population ( See map of Port Harcourt under ) . However, inhabitants growing via rural to city migration was non limited to Port Harcourt completely as most metropoliss in addition to witnessed an inflow of people from the agricultural countries, hence an addition in the sum of municipal strong waste generated ( Odubela, 1998 ) . The lifting quantity of waste produced over the old ages has led to projections and value determinations by environmental bureaus in a command to have the ability to expeditiously map out schemes to tug off municipal strong waste.

Table 2.eight: Evaluation and estimated quantity of Municipal Solid Waste in some Nigerian Cities


Year 1980

Year 1990

Year 2000 ( Estimate )













Port Harcourt
















Beginning: Nigerian Environment and Study Action Team ( NEST ) ( 1991 ) , cited in Ogu 200

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Figure 2.eight.1 Map of Nigeria demoing the 36 provinces ( beginning: Odubela, 2009 )

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Figure 2.eight.2: Map of Rivers province ( Beginning: Odubela, 2009 )

In 1987, a giant measure of poisonous waste was dumped in slightly town referred to as Koko in Bendel province. This sparked off widespread illness, infections and decease within the nation, distributing panic throughout the state. Consequently, the Nigerian Government propagated the Harmful Waste Decree which provided the authorized mannequin for the operational management of the coevals and disposal of all kinds waste in within Nigeria. After this in 1988, the regulative organic structure, the Federal Environmental protection bureau ( FEPA ) was established. It was bestowed with the responsibility of guarding and creating the Nigerian surroundings ( Echefu and Akpofure, 2010 ) . The legal mannequin for environmental policies in Nigeria originates from the Nigerian Constitution. It stands as the inspiration on which all of the Environmental Protection Acts are based mostly upon. The fundamental regulation of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 in Section 20 provinces that “ the State shall always protect and better the surroundings and safeguard the H2O, air and land, wood and wildlife of Nigeria ” ( International Centre for Nigerian Law 2009 ) . Based on that, the authorized constitution for environmental safety in Nigeria comprises of the followers ( Atsegbua, 2004 ) :

National Policy on Environment, Act forty two of 1988: This act deems 9it a condemnable offense to import or merchandise in poisonous waste in Nigeria. It was promulgated with the purpose of undertaking sustainable development ( Adeh, 1991 )

Harmful Waste Act of 1988.

National Environmental Regulations and Pollution Abatement 1991: this was enacted to cut down and supervise the coevals of business waste in Nigeria.

The National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria ( Regulation S.1.15 ) : This is apart from for the overseeing of solid and risky waste.

Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992: This is to safeguard the setting and do certain that private and public sector firms or individuals do non ship on or empower activities or undertakings with out anterior deliberation of the impression of those actions to the surroundings.

2.8.1 Institutional Framework

The Federal Government, by the commissariats of the fundamental law, created the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1988 ( FEPA Act ) . This Act led to the structure of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency in 1992. This organic construction was given the obligation of commanding the environment and apart from growing policies and processs that may help maintain the environment ( Akpotaire and Folarin, 2011 ) . It operates a cardinal administrative system with central places of work situated on the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and Zonal workplaces located in Lagos, Port Harcourt, Benin-city, Kaduna and Kano. Each zone workplace is charged with flip toing all of the environmental jobs of the provinces within their zones. Harmonizing to subdivision 4 of Decree fifty eight, the Federal Environmental Agency was instituted to move out the followers:

Liaise with the Federal and State ministries, native authorities councils and research bureaus on overlaying with affairs associating to environmental safety.

Prepare and present programs for the event of recent methods and patterns of environmental course.

Advice the Government and sensitise the public new environmental issues and policies every time the demand arises.

The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria ( EGASPIN ) 2002: This was issued by the Department of Petroleum Resources ( DPR ) , harmonizing to ( Aluko and Oyebode, 2006 ) , with the responsibility of transporting out regular wellness and environmental value determinations and reapp

A Valuation Of Bako National Park Sarawak Environmental Sciences Essay

Marketing Malaysia as a finish of excellence and to do the touristry business a significant subscriber to the socio-economic growth of the state

This is Tourism Malaysia ‘s mission statement. It has been 37 old ages that Tourism Malaysia aims to promote the growing of touristry which is ready to in addition to lend to state ‘s economic improvement and high quality of life. The authorities started to take touristry earnestly within the late eightiess. Malaysia has launched ‘Visit Malaysia Year ‘ because the promoting run in 1990, which contributed 54 % addition in worldwide tourer reachings for that twelvemonth.

The determine of visitants supports on rising since so. Chart 1 below shows the tendency of tourer reachings and grosss to the state for the previous 10 old ages.

Chart 1

Beginning: Tourism Malaysia, 2009

There was a fast growing in both tourer reachings and grosss until the determine slowed down in the 2002 an 2003. This was due to worldwide frights of terrorist act, September eleven onslaught on the WTC in New York, adopted by chook grippe illnesses and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ) onslaught.

However the tendency continues to extend despite reverses in the undermentioned old ages till current which amounting to 22 million of tourer reachings and RM 49,561.2 million in grosss for 2008. At the minute, touristry is the state ‘s 3rd largest starting of foreign change net incomes after fabrication and oil.

Malaya, being located inside the tropical part, has many nature-based touristry enticing forces, for illustrations, caves, waterfalls, scorching springs, beaches, coral reefs, mountains, and birds and wildlife sanctuaries. For these grounds, the authorities is basically acute in advancing these nature-based attractive forces.

To preserve these nature-based attractive forces, the authorities has established an online of protected countries for the preservation of organic diverseness.

National Park

Malaysia has ever been recognized to be one of the richest biodiversity within the universe. This is in line with the National Policy on Biological Diversity whose vision is to “ rework Malaysia into a universe Centre of excellence in preservation, research and use of tropical biological diverseness by the twelvemonth 2020 ” ( MoSTE, 1998 ) .

The World Conservation Union ( IUCN ) has defined national park as pure nation of land and/or sea, designated to a ) protect the ecological unity of one or extra ecosystems for present and future coevalss, B ) exclude development or business unfriendly ( dangerous ) to the intents of appellation of the country, and degree Celsius ) present a foundation for spiritual, instruction, leisure and visitant probabilities, all of which should be environmentally and culturally suitable ( IUCN, 1994 ) .

These nationwide Parkss are established for the intent of saving, therefore leting and encouraging entree for instruction, diversion and touristry intents.

The path of touristry in sing the pure international locations is sophisticated in Malaysia. Authority for assorted pure resources is randomly divided under completely different authorities umbrellas and a quantity of other province governments ( Hall, 1994 ) . In Peninsular Malaysia, tellurian protected international locations are mainly managed by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks ( DWNP ) and the Department of Forestry. The Marine protected countries are managed by the Federal Marine Parks Section under the Ministry of Natural sources and the Environment. In Sabah, the tellurian protected countries are managed by Sabah Parks, Sabah Wildlife Department, Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Foundation, whereas all of the Marine protected international locations are managed by Sabah Parks. In the occasion of Sarawak, all tellurian and marine protected countries are managed by the Sarawak Forestry Corporation.

Malaysia has 30 gazetted national Parkss which inclusive of 6 Marine Parkss. There are eight nationwide Parkss situated in Peninsular Malaysia, 7 are in Sabah and 15 are in Sarawak. A sum-up of the nationwide Parkss in Malaysia is in Table 1.

Table 1: List of National Parks in Malaysia



Date established

Size ( hour angle ) /area


Peninsular Malaya

Taman Negara National Park, within 3 province boundaries of

Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu


434,300 hectares

Largest in the state

Canopy walk

Wildlife observation

Endau-Rompin National Park,

Johor-Pahang boundary line

49,000 hectares

Rock formation

Sandstone tableland

Tropical wood

Tanjung Piai Johor National Park, Johor



Coastal Rhizophora mangle

Bird statement and fishing

Penang National Park, Penang


2,562 hectares

Meromictic lake



Coral reefs

Turtle nesting beaches

Payar Marine Park, Kedah


Screens 2 maritime stat mis of 4 islands

Coral reefs

Marine life


Scuba diving

Redang Marine Park, Terengganu


25 square kilometer

Coral reefs

Marine life


Scuba diving

Tioman Marine Park, Pahang

39 kilometer long and 12 kilometers broad

Coral reefs

Marine life


Scuba diving


Mersing Marine Park, Johor

White beaches

Coral reefs

North borneo

Crocker Range National Park

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Montane forest

Pulau Tiga Park

Coral reefs

Beach forest

Kinabalu Park

4,a hundred and one meters above sea degree

Mount mounting

Tunku Abdul Rahman Park

Beach forest

Turtle Island Park

Turtle nesting beach

Tawau Hills Park

27,972 hectare


Bako National Park



The oldest park

Heath forest

Open scrubland


Kubah National Park



The universe of thenar

Montane forest

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Heath forest

Gunung Gading National Park



Home of rafflesia

Montane forest

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Batang Ai national Park



Home of orang utan

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Riparian wood

Regenerated forest

Tanjung Datu National Park



The smallest park

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Beach forest

Niah National Park



The archaeological site of Sarawak

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Limestone forest flora

Heath forest

Lambir Hills National Park



The virgin rain forest of Sarawak

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Heath forest

Gunung Mulu National park



The largest cave chamber in the universe

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Limestone forest flora

Montane forest

Similajau National Park, Bintulu



Where the rapids meet the sea

Assorted dipterocarp forest

Beach forest

Mangrove forest

Talang-Satang National Park


Sarawak ‘s polo-neck islands

Marine polo-neck preservation

Bukit Tiban National Park, Bintulu


Conservation and research presentation

Water-based diversion

Wildlife watching

Jungle trekking

Maludam National Park, Sri Aman


Peat swamp

The last possible ruddy banded langur inhabitants ( monkey )

Rajang Mangroves National Park, Sarikei


The Rhizophora mangle ecosystem

Mangrove forest

Gunung Buda National Park


The newest national park

Limestone forest

Loagan Bunut National Park



The largest natural lake

Peat swamp wood

Assorted dipterocarp forest

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Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment, 2006

In this survey, the vary is limited to the tellurian protected nation i.e. nationwide park nation, which is probably the most recognizable class of protected countries. As diversion is amongst the grounds of the appellation of these national park nations, they’re view because the of import subscriber to the touristry trade.

Sarawak National Parks

Modern Parkss and militias had been established in the late 1800s. With this, Sarawak makes an attempt started with the being of the National Park Ordinance in 1956 and the constitution of a Board of Trustees to administrate this. In 1973, there is a alteration within the disposal of national Parkss, where the Board of Trustees is replaced by the Conservator of Forests. Since so, Sarawak Forestry Corporation has been charged with the duty of implementing the regulation. Sarawak Forestry Corporation managed all 15 tellurian and marine Parkss in Sarawak province which covers the complete nation of 184,922 hour angle.

The aims of the National Parks and Wildlife Division ( NPWD ) are: –

To arrange and pull off the National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and other tantamount militias throughout Sarawak.

To supply leisure and other installations in National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, nature Militias, Forest Parks and different tantamount militias.

To develop an effectual promotion and extension service on nature preservation.

To set about research within the ecology, saving and extension of wildlife and their pure residence ground.

There are 4 subdivisions within the NPWD, viz. Parks and Nature Reserves Branch, Wildlife Branch, Planning & A ; Development subdivision and Interpretation & A ; Conservation Education Branch. The chief duties of Parks and Reserves Branch embrace general path of all Parkss and militias. The Wildlife Branch chief actions are wildlife course and analysis. These include residence ground direction, confined genteelness, species course veterinary, enforcement and licensing. The analysis is chiefly on Primatess, huge and little mammals, birds, reptilians and amphibious autos. The Planning and Development Branch is accountable to tug off the Planning and Investigation Unit and the Design and Implementation Unit. Last, the Interpretation and Conservation Education Branch is responsible for 4 units that are Interpretation Unit, Conservation Education and Extension Unit, Research Unit and Administration Unit.

Bako National Park ( BNP ) was the first to be gazetted as a protected country on 1 May 1957 among all of the 15 national Parkss in Sarawak. It is positioned 37 kilometres to the E of the capital metropolis of Kuching. Covering an country or 2727 hectares of a rugged sand rock, within the map, BNP is at the tip of the Muara Tebas peninsular. It was merely until 1985, the route from Kuching to BNP was accomplished and so as to entree to the park, it requires a short categorical boat journey of about 25 proceedingss ride along the Bako River. BNP is doubtless one of the smallest nationwide Parkss in Sarawak, but recorded as one of many highest fee of visitants to day of the month. BNP is well known for its rain forest, forest wildlife, jungle watercourses, waterfalls, works life, secluded seashores and trekking trails. The jungle trekking trails are good maintained net of sixteen colour-coded strolling trails, from straightforward ambles, full twenty-four hours treks to overnight bivouacing expeditions which permits the visitants to acquire to essentially the most out of its alone environment.

The undermentioned tabular array supplies inside informations of trekking journey in BNP.


Name of trail

Trail length

( kilometer )

One manner clip & A ; Distance from HQ

Colour Code


Tanjung Sapi


30 proceedingss ( 0.8km )



Telok Paku


1 hr ( 1.2 kilometer )



Ulu Assam


1 A? hours ( 1.4km )



Telok Delima


45 proceedingss ( 1km )



Telok Pandan Besar


1 hr ( 1.75km )



Telok Pandan Kecil


1 A? hours ( 2.5km )





1 A? hours ( 2.2km )





3 A? hours return





2 A? hours ( 3.5km )



Tanjung Rhu


2 A? hours ( 4.2km )



Bukit Keruing


3 A? hours ( 5.5km )



Paya Jelutong


3 A? hours ( 5.7km )



Bukit Gondol


4 A? hours ( 7.7km )



Ulu Serait


3 hours ( four.8km )



Telok Sibur


3 A? hours ( 5.3km )



Telok Limau


7 hours ( 10km )



Telok Kruin


7 A? hours ( 10.5km )



Pa ‘ Amit ( Lakei Island )


30 proceedingss ( from Base )


Revised Fess and Accommodation Charges

Effective 1 July 2002

Entrance Fees

Visitor Category

Single Entry ( per particular person )

Multiple Entry

( Non-transferable )

( per particular person )

5-Entry Base on balls

( Movable legitimate for 1 individual )

1-month cogency

3-months cogency






Student/Senior Citizen/Disabled individual





Assorted Group*





Child, 6 old ages and below





Type of accomodation


Rate per dark

No. of units available

Forest Lodge, Type 5

2 suites with 3 particular person beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Shared rest room and lavatory

RM100+ per room


RM150+ per house


Forest Lodge, Type 6

2 suites with 2 individual beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Attached rest room and lavatory

RM50+ per room


RM75+ per house


Forest Hostel

4 suites with four particular person beds each

Non-air conditioned

Fan merely

Shared toilet and lavatory

RM15+ per bed


RM40+ per room


Camp web site ( bivouacing gear is non offered )

Public loos and lavatories

RM5 per individual

18 sites

+ Plus 5 % authorities service revenue enhancement

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Rules and Regulations

The laws and ordinances are at that place to protect the park for the benefits of visitants.

It is an offense to: –

Enter with no license ;

Kill, gaining management, toxicant or upset any animate being ;

Cut, take, destruct or put hearth to any object ; life or inanimate, lifeless or alive,

Introduce any animate being or works onto the park ;

Damage, erect any edifice or different constructions ;



The minimal mulct for the above offenses is RM1,000 and six months imprisonment.


Visitors must acquire a certified license earlier than come ining the national Parks, nature Militias or Wildlife Centre from the nearest engagement workplaces. For skilled movie shapers and people transporting out expeditions, a specific permission from the Sarawak State Secretary must be acquired in progress.

Exclusion of liabilities:

Any individual sing Sarawak ‘s nationwide Parkss, nature militias and wildlife Centres enter at their ain hazard. The license to come in is granted capable to the standing that the Forest Department and/or the State Government and/or Officer shall non be liable for any bodily, psychological or emotional harm sustained, or any lack of life, or belongings or in any way kind within these nations. The State Government of it Officer disclaims any act ( s ) or skip nonetheless brought on or originate inside these nations.


Economic Evaluation of Environment

Policy shapers in developed states have realized that it is of import to take into historical past the financial score in the process of willpower devising. However, in growing state like Malaysia, the ranking of environmental good is thought to be unfamiliar. Though researches sing this problem in Malaysia published are discovered to be rare, the willpower proved that our state besides give values on environmental items.

Economic rating refers to the measuring on footings of money values to non-marketed goods and services. Non-marketed items and providers include those which may non be straight purchased and bought in the unfastened market topographic level.

Goods and companies which have economic worth contribute positively to human well-being. This is set by the penchants of the individuals which show the degree of satisfaction. These penchants can be revealed in the context of willingness to pay ( WTP ) . On the opposite, human well-being will apart from necessitate to digest with the unwanted values which revealed in the context of willingness to merely accept ( WTA ) .

Economic rating technique goals to search out the complete economic value ( TEV ) . TEV identifies the alterations in human well-being that accrue from a alteration in the proviso of the nice. These values may accrue to users and non users. The illustrations for this may be the willingness to pay for the saving of the forest within the nationwide park and the preservation of endangered species like the proboscis monkey, even though the individual might non maintain seen the species whereas in the national park.

TEV is made up of the quantity of utilization and non-use worth. Use values could additionally be direct or indirect. An illustration for this may be a wood in a national park. Visitors to the forest model direct utilization of it and the reality that the forest protecting the water parting of the part is an illustration of an indirect utilization. A non-use worth, apart from generally known as inactive utilization values, is when persons are keen to pay although they make no direct usage of it.

There are two methods in gauging the economic values of non-marketed items and services which are revealed penchants ( RP ) and said penchants ( SP ) . RP and SP may be use to gauge the usage value, nonetheless non-use values can merely be estimated by SP techniques. RP is exercised when the penchant of the persons is revealed by their shopping for wont within the existent market, which is price-based. In distinction, SP measures the demand of goods and services which do non hold market financial value as they are non straight offered. Normally, the research would inquire on how much money would persons are WTP or WTA to bask the advantage of the products and providers, for illustration, the being of the environment.

Property market ( WTP )

Labour market ( WTA )

Contingent ranking

Contingent ( conjoint ) evaluation

Choice experiments

Paired comparings

Market monetary values ( WTP )

Contingent score ( WTP/WTA )

Choice modeling ( WTP/WTA )

Debaring behavior ( WTP )

Random utility/ distinct choose theoretical accounts ( WTP )

Hedonic pricing

Travel cost method ( WTP )

Benefit transportation

Stated Preferences

conjectural markets

does response/production maps

Entire Economic Value

Non-use Value

Use Value

Revealed Preferences

conventional and proxy

Figure 1 Economic ranking techniques

Developed states every bit good because the creating states have accepted that environmental goods can be measured using several strategies. In developed states, the strategies used are beforehand the place they have applied the usage of profit transportation into their researches. However in Malaysia, the commonest is CVM and merely late CM was adopted in researches done byaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Revealed penchants technique

Stated penchant technique

SP method which ask conjectural inquiries, are categorized into contingent rating ( CV ) and multi-attribute ranking ( MAV ) ( Anna Merino-Castello, 2003 ) .

Contingent Valuation ( CV )

CV measures the WTP via direct inquiries similar to “ How much are you willing to pay? ‘ and ‘Are you prepared to pay RMx? ‘ . The former estimates the one penchants using the open-ended method which is penchant based mostly. The latter inquiry estimates the single penchants using the referendum or dichotomous decide evocation. The respondents are merely given the option of replying yes or no, which is choice-based. This implies the premise of random public-service corporation map the place the coefficients worth are obtained by way of the appraisal of binary logit utilizing the maximal probability process.

However, an growing determine of empirical surveies revealed that dichotomous choose penalties appeared to be significantly bigger that open-ended values, perchance due to ‘yeah-saying ‘ ( Hanley et al. , 2001 ) . Both open-ended and dichotomous CV attacks have restrictions in gauging values. These restrictions are:

1. merely one property to be valued by respondent

2. respondents are improbable to offer accurate response for conjectural market

3. May convey on some respondents to behave strategically when public items are involved

Due to these restrictions, researches in rating of non-use worth exchanging to the choice said penchant approach which is MAV. The chief distinction between CV and MAV is that CV analyses one property of the merchandise at a clip while MAV analyses more than one property at the similar time. This includes whether or not the properties are hooked up to one another or a trade-offs between them.

Choice Modelling ( CM )

Similar to CV, MAV could be categorized into preference-based and choice-based methodology. In preference-based, the respondents are required to rate or rank each alternate merchandise in conjectural and existent market.

On the other manus, in choice-based methodology, the respondents have to take one amongst a number of options merchandises which is more realistic because the respondents execute this mundane as a consumer taking a sequence of viing merchandises. In preference-based, the respondents does non necessitate doing any committedness to take a peculiar option, hence this is the ground why choice-based method is extra preferable than preference-based assault.

Preference-based method is by and huge termed as conjoint analysis ( CA ) which contains of contingent analysis and paired evaluating whereas choice-based method globally termed as decide mould ( CM ) which includes of contingent rating and pick experiment.

CA and CM are differentiated by the signifier of the public-service company map. CA use a deterministic public-service company map and CM use the random public-service corporation map. Deterministic public-service company map is assumed to be related to an individual ‘s evaluation via a transmutation map o :

Uij = o [ Vij ( Xij ) ]

This info is estimated using odd least squares ( OLS ) arrested development strategies which means the premise of the cardinality of evaluations graduated table ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) . In distinction, CM usage random public-service corporation map which represents the incorporate behavioural theory of dedication behaviour and is composed of a deterministic constituent Vij and s stochastic Iµij:

Uij = Vij ( Xij ) + Iµij

This random public-service company theory ( RUT ) leads to the distinct pick theoretical accounts which describes the behaviour of respondents ‘ pick chances in response to alterations in properties that step variations throughout different respondents. This data is estimated using the maximal likeliness method. All these 4 strategies in multi-attribute rating differ within the high quality of data they generate, of their grade of complexness and besides of their ability to convey forth WTP estimations that might be proven to be in keeping with the similar old steps of public help ( Bateman et al, 2002 ) .

In contingent evaluation, respondents are presented with a figure of occasions one at a clip and are asked to fee each separately in a numeral graduated desk. The analysis is so reworked into public-service corporation graduated desk. This oblique public-service corporation map is assumed to be associated to respondents ‘ analysis by way of a transmutation map which ends up in a typical analyzed using OLS arrested growth technique. As talked about before, this means strong premises of cardinality of evaluation graduated tables. This is inconsistent with the patron theory. Hence, contingent evaluation does non deliver forth public assistance consistent value estimations.

In mated comparing, respondents are asked to take their preferable alternate out of a set of two picks and to search out their penchant in a numeral graduated desk. The public-service company map is in addition to estimated using OLS.

In a contingent ranking, respondents are required to rank a set of alternate options from most to least preferable. Each possibility has two or more properties, that are offered at totally different degrees throughout options. The respondents are required to rank their choices. One of the choices should be the present executable choose set of the respondent. The floor is, if the position quo is non included, the respondents may be forced to take the choices which they non choose at all. This rank order informations is estimated using maximal probability process.

In choose experiment, respondents are given a sequence of options and are required to bespeak their most preferable choice. The baseline choice, which is the place quo, have to be included in every of the pick set. This experiment provides welfare consistent estimations as a result of,

1. the respondents needs to tradeoff alterations in property levels against the worth of doing these alterations

2. the respondents can take the position quo

3. we can stand for the econometric approach utilized in a way which is precisely parallel to the theory of rational and probabilistic choose.

4. we will deduce estimations of counterbalancing and tantamount extra.

This conditional logit theoretical account can be estimated using the maximal likelihood process.


Environmental Factors in Colombia

Organizations are not isolated of what happens in the environment outside them, they face uncertainty in dealing with events in the external environment and they have to adapt to new changes regarding customers, government, economic conditions and technology.

It is very important for organizations in Colombia to become aware of their environment because assessing it could make them more competitive and allow them to adapt and survive in the market, but the uncertainty Colombia in terms of globalization, technology, knowledge, demand, etc. is making organization to rethink about strategies and new ways to do business and to address all of the factor in the external environment.

The factors causing organization complexity in Colombia are addressed by Daft, they are both internal and external: industry, human resources, raw material, markets, international, government, sociocultural, economic and technological factors.

For example, in Camacol (Cámara Colombiana de Construcción) the lack of legal stability threats development opportunities in large cities and scares away national and international investors. It makes necessary that the rules established for projects are maintained and are not changing every day, that’s why head directors in Camacol proposed to the government new ways to manage the permissions and monitor the decisions taken by majors in areas adjacent to Bogotá. (País, 2014). This is important for the construction sector because its development brings with it the increase of an important set of activities in industries and related services, contributing in this way to increase employment and to the satisfaction of an important set of needs of the population, in this case, the access to housing services.

Nowadays we can not talk about uncertainty avoidance or external environment without talking about globalization, reducing borders and forcing businesses to prepare increasingly for indulging in different markets, ensuring its validity in the market. To achieve this, it is necessary for organizations to adopt new strategies of growth, market penetration, creation of own responsibilities, coordination and adaptation of the products to various markets according to their needs.

Many organizations that have been integrated into international markets have found the need to modify their products or strategies to meet the needs of its customers, because the factors that determine the environment change. For example Juan Valdez, have found the need to deal with government regulations in different countries, and lately with the entrance of a new competitor in Colombia, also they had to change its technology processes to transform coffee to sell it in every store and to make it more efficient and effective, reducing costs; this kind of changes not only help businesses in Colombia but in all countries the organization is in.

Also there are International Organizations in Colombia that have adapted their processes to Colombia’s complex environment and have succeeded CEMEX is the tangible proof that the competitiveness in a globalized world is the result of a set of factors, a clear direction, state-of-the-art technology, human capital, good financial management, investments in infrastructure, etc. , and, between them, the actions taken in the aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility have given the company a significant competitive advantage.

A really important factor for any organization is the human resource and sociocultural. In Colombia the labor movement that happened in 2013 and remained in 2014 called “Paro agrario” not only affected the government laws and relationships but also affected organizations that use raw materials produced in the rural sector. This represented a huge challenge for business managers, because of the workers demands. Not addressing this kind of problems with contingency plans would have caused major loss of profit, suppliers and market. The human resource sector is one of the most important factors in the external environment because it concerns employees, suppliers, customers, and mostly any kind of relationship made by the organization.

On the other hand the sociocultural sector demands organizations to be more greener and environment-friendly that’s why supermarkets such as Éxito, Jumbo, Carrulla and Olímpica offer recyclable plastic bags, because they know those bags are used by customers as garbage disposals that later on go to sanitary landfills. Also, Coca Cola in Colombia and Postobón have develop new bottles and recyclable packaging that use less plastic and take up less space in the trash, they have also launched campaigns to recycle these containers giving benefits to consumers, with picking machines or donations to NGOs.

Main telecommunications operators such as Tigo, Movistar, Claro, Une and ETB have been influenced in a big way by the environmental complexity because they are not only influenced by new demands of customers, they are also influenced and have to be prepared for the unpredicted changes such as: new regulations about communications, contracts and share; competition in services, offers, products; the way business are made with international and national companies in order to have competitive advantages, also by advertising its products nationally; offering new technological services and products in competitive prices. This organizations face tremendous complexity in Colombia, that’s why they keep studying the environment they are in and offering customers new products every time, meaning that in order to them to stay in the market they need to pay more attention to the external environment to run processes internally, this is a good example of a dependence on high uncertainty-complex environment.

Studying external environment is as important as the internal environment because one can change the other, also because there is where the needs are, where the consumers are and what they want to pay to meet their needs. Also in the environment are the obstacles to the company, such as the products of competitors, and the actions to have market share. Also the requirements and restrictions that the company must meet, all of that can influence the processes a company has, because a company is nothing without the interaction with the outside environment, and now is more important to be aware of that thanks to the globalization.


País. (25 de 08 de 2014). “Esa incertidumbre no aguanta”: Camacol. Recuperado el 09 de 2014, de Revista Dinero:

Environmental Risk Perception Paper Psy 460

Environmental Risk Perception Paper

The following paper will base on my chosen articles on our climate. I will provide a summary of each article. I will also compare and contrast the risk perceptions that are presented in each article I will identify any environmental stressors that are related to the environmental risk. It will be concluded with a discussion of my own risk perception of the issue. By the end of the paper you will be familiar with different affects that the environment has on us and risks that we take every day just breathing.

Environmental Risk Factors Climate Change Climate change is it dangerous? This is a question many have been asking for years. As we know global warming has become a major concern for our environment for the past few years and it seems that is getting worse. In America the study of climate change have become very high risk for at least some reasons. We may not know this but these reason being that the United States plays a big role in the world’s population stated by the (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005), it is said that we use the most intake of carbon dioxide, as we know this is considered to be the heat-trapping gas, alone accounting for nearly a certain amount of the globe . Humans breath a certain amount of tons of carbon each year.

(Marland et al., 2003). We have also reason to believe that in Washington D.C. the President and Congress have been fighting against each other with much of the world regarding the reality of all these of all the testing, seriousness, and as to how all of these climate change have come about within these years. During studies public risk has been very high, there is a fear that in the future global climate change on human health may cause serious illnesses even deaths for example skin cancer; this climate change will indeed change the way people live which would mean our drinking water would lessen, this will cause serious disease; possibility of losing human nature and this will cause to world to be affected drastically.

Article Two Climate Change

The second article is about another issue that is causing our climate to change that can be of higher risk that would be the ozone layer. Our ozone layer seems to be dimensioning it’s been said that pollution gases. Scientist have found evidence that increased pollutants in the air this study shows this comes from cars factories and these are some examples. Some of the sicknesses that occur because of this and our ozone layer not being protected could be bronchial asthma as we know this is a syndrome which can cause shortness of breath and make it difficult for one to breath, the air pollutants on health have been the focus of attention on this factor. During the years they have conducted many experimental studies these studies have shown that even the gas from diesel exhaust have been causing the upper respiratory disease and is able to control the immune system response by increasing bad side effects with animals and humans.

There have been studies and during these studies that have been done they have found evidence that air pollutants can work with in the atmosphere or on human airways, this is a very strong effect on the human body. In fact, if the airways start the inflammation some pollutants start to overcome the chest making it hard to breath which would lead to allergen-induced responses. But, air pollution and with the changes in the climate would cause a human to have an effect this would be an allergic response by influencing the percentage rate of the pollen production by allergenic plants. Even though this has been proven many individuals in 2009 still didn’t believe that climate change was the cause of all these illnesses and still did not believe all the facts such as global warming, when carbon dioxide is released in the air which is the combustion of fossil fuels.

Environmental Stressors
The environmental stressor of climate change have two primary components of this would include (1) temperature elevation with concomitant weather instability and extremes and (2) rising sea-level. These changes may result in the increase of heat waves starting and damaging air pollution, soil moisture would become less, higher weather events for example tornados and hurricans, and coastal inundation (IPCC 1992). More people will have health effects this can include heat related strokes; (2) infectious diseases, this means being beaten by an insect; (3) people will become ill because if food shortage; and (4) because of weather disasters there will be no where for people to live so people will live in streets and public places and this will cause sicknesses to rise because of unhealthy conditions. It seems that the ozone layer is depleting and this is causing many health issues to humans. The direct health impacts from ozone depletion, which leads to increased UV radiation, include cancer, asthma many health hazards.

In conclusion I must say my own perception on environmental risk perception to climate change is very dangerous. It makes me think that some day we will not be able to walk out of the house because the sun would have no protection since everything in the air is not healthy it just keeps eating at it. During my own studies and years of watching the news I have even heard that hairspray is killing our ozone layer. Living in New York City I believe that our pollution plays a big part in the air quality especially with warm weather the pollution is so bad you cannot even breath when its 90 degrees outside. What I have learned during this study is that nothing will keep us safe I know people recycle and everyone is trying to go green but will this save the earth for real I don’t think so we will be walking with masks one day just breath clean fresh air.

Anthony A. Leiserowitz Risk Analysis, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2005
Risk Analysis: An International Journal December 1, 2005

Risk Analysis: An Official Publication Of The Society For Risk Analysis Date: October 1, 2010
Travis William Reynolds, Ann Bostrom, Daniel Read, and M. Granger Morgan3 Risk Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2010
U.S. Census Bureau, 2005

Emerging Health Threats Journal 2011. # 2011 Rodney R. Dietert

Environmental pollution: its effects on life and its remedies

The term pollution refers to the act of contaminating ones environment by introducing certain hazardous contaminants that disturb the ecosystem and directly or indirectly affect the living organisms of that ecosystem. Pollution in general is the activity of disturbing the natural system and balance of an environment. The increase in the pollution over the years by man has caused severe damage to the earth’s ecosystem. It is responsible for global warming which is leading to the end if all the lives on earth. Over the years there is an extreme increase in the rate of human diseases, and death rate of various animals and plants on earth, and that is all because of the pollution caused by man himself. AIR POLLUTION:

According to the dictionary, air pollution is the contamination of air by smoke and harmful gases, mainly oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Some examples of air pollution include:
Exhaust fumes from vehicles
The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gas
Harmful off-gasing from things such as paint, plastic production and so on Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Air pollution is linked to asthma, allergies and other respiratory illnesses. You can more about how the environment affects human health here. LAND POLLUTION

Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth’s surface caused by a misuse of resources and improper disposal of waste. Some examples of land pollution include:
Litter found on the side of the road
Illegal dumping in natural habitats
Oil spills that happen inland
The use of pesticides and other farming chemicals
Damage and debris caused from unsustainable mining and logging practices Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Land pollution is responsible for damage done to natural habitat of animals, deforestation and damage done to natural resources, and the general ugly-ing up of our communities. Light Pollution

Light pollution is the brightening of the night sky inhibiting the visibility of stars and planets by the use of improper lighting of communities. Some examples of what causes light pollution:
Street lamps that shine light in all directions, instead of with a hood to point light downward toward the street. Unnecessary lights, especially around the home
Light pollution uses more energy (by shining more light up instead of down), may affect human health and our sleep cycles and most importantly, corrupts our kids telescopes and their curiosity. Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is any loud sounds that are either harmful or annoying to humans and animals. Some examples of noise pollution:
Airplanes, helicopters and motor vehicles
Construction or demolition noise
Human activities such as sporting events or concerts
Noise pollution is disruptive to humans’ stress levels, may be harmful to unborn babies, and drives animals away, causing nervousness and decreasing their ability to hear prey or predators. Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity. Warmer lake water from nearby manufacturing (using cool water to cool the plant and then pump it back into the lake) Included in thermal pollution should also be the increase in temperatures in areas with lots of concrete or vehicles, generally in cities These kinds of environmental pollution can cause aquatic life to suffer or die due to the increased temperature, can cause discomfort to communities dealing with higher temperatures and can even affect plant-life in and around the area. Visual Pollution

Visual pollution is what you would call anything unattractive or visualiing damaging to the nearby landscape. This tends to be a highly subjective topic, as we all find different things attractive and unattractive. Some examples of visual pollution:

Skyscrapers might block the view of a mountain
Graffiti or carving on trees, rocks or other natural landscapes Billboards, litter, abandoned homes and junkyards could also be considered among three kins of environmental pollution Mostly visual kinds of environmental pollution are annoying, although some may say they are also depressing (such as when they can’t see a view through a billboard). Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of any body of water (lakes, groundwater, oceans, etc). Some examples of water pollution:
Raw sewage running into lake or streams
Industrial waste spills contaminating groundwater
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Illegal dumping of substances, or items in bodies of water
Biological contamination, such as bacteria growth
These kinds of environmental pollution are linked to health issues in humans, animals and plant-life. You can read more about how the environment is affecting our health here.


This study attempted to estimate the environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. It is argued that only those countries that have reached a certain income level can absorb new technologies and benefit from technology diffusion, and thus reap the extra advantages that FDI can offer. The mining industry in Nigeria is dominated by oil. Indeed, Nigeria is the largest producer of this commodity in Africa and sixth largest producers in the world. This research study makes use of secondary data. The variables used are the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), output of mining industry and per capital flight (KF). This study covers a period of 31 years that spans between 1980 and 2010.

The regression analysis of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method will be use for analysing the data. The result of the analysis shows that 37.53 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the GDP. GDP will increase by one per cent as index of mining output and capital flight increased by 84.32 and 50.37 per cent respectively. It was also reveal that 8.03 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the mining output. It is however recommended , among other, that policy measures should be instituted to make the domestic economy more attractive for investment in the mining sector of the economy.

1.0 Background of the Study
In the last two decades, foreign direct investment (FDI) flows have grown rapidly all over the world. This is because many developing countries see FDI as an important element in their strategy for economic development (Ayanwale, 2007). Mergers and acquisitions including private- to-private transactions as well as acquisitions through privatization, which increased significantly in developing countries became an increasingly important vehicle for FDI (Kyaw, 2003). This has led to many countries improving their business climate to attract more FDI. In fact, one of the pillars for launching the new partnership for Africa’s development (NEPAD) was to accelerate FDI inflows to the region (Funke and Nsouli, 2003). Exploitation of mineral resources has assumed prime importance in several developing countries including Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources, which have contributed immensely to the national wealth with associated socio-economic benefits. Mineral resources are an important source of wealth for a nation but before they are harnessed, they have to pass through the stages of exploration, mining and processing (Adekoya, 2003; Ajakaiye, 1995). Different types of environmental damage and hazards inevitably accompany the three stages of mineral development. Mining is an important sector for the economy, particularly in many developing countries, and one where environmental concerns have frequently been voiced.

Foreign direct investment is important to the future of development of Africa, as it is a means of increasing the capital available for investment and the economic growth needed to reduce poverty and raise living standards in the continent. In addition, it can contribute to sustainable economic development, as it can result in the transfer of new technologies, skills and production methods, provide access to international markets, enhance efficiency of resource use, reduce waste and pollution, increase product diversity and generate employment (Loots, 1999 and Ngowi, 2001). However, in the absence of regulations governing natural resource extraction, or when they are weak or poorly enforced, increased openness to foreign investment can accelerate unsustainable resource use patterns. The ability of developing countries to attract FDI, maximise the associated benefits and minimise the risks depends on the effectiveness of their policy/institutional frameworks and institutions (Wilhelms, 1998 and Pigato, 2001). FDI is widely recognised as a driving force of globalisation, a major catalyst for achieving development and global integration.

Despite the relatively small share of mining in world investment flows, FDI within this sector represents a substantial part of capital formation and GDP in many developing and emerging economies. FDI within mining sector can therefore have significant impacts, positive, as well as negative. Positive impacts can include increased employment, better health care, improved infrastructure and schooling. On the negative side there may be disruption of traditional cultures, environmental degradation, basic commodity price increases, population displacement, land use conflicts and loss of livelihood (Danielson and Lagos, 2001). This is particularly true for the environment. Preliminary evidence suggests that under appropriate framework conditions, foreign investments in mining frequently have higher environmental performance compared to domestic operations, due to new technologies and practices they bring with them. On the other hand, when these framework conditions, such as effective environmental regulation and transparent public governance, are not in place, there is a risk that serious environmental and social damage can occur.

The mining industry has in recent years turned its attention to the environmental impacts of its activities, and in particular is addressing the issue through the Global Mining Initiative ( and the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project (MMSD) which is addressing the issue of the contribution of the mining sector to sustainable development ( In 1998 the industry started the Industrial Network for Acid Prevention as part of its contribution to dealing with the legacy of abandoned mines (Balkau and Parsons, 1999). It is from this foregoing that the study is set to critically analyze the environmental impact of foreign drect investment in the mining industry in Nigeria. 1.1Statement of the Problem

The mining industry has traditionally been a major recipient of foreign direct investment in sub- Saharan Africa (Nigeria inclusive), and has commonly been an important foreign exchange earner for the region. Over the forty years to the present, Africa’s share by value of world mining output declined from 23% to 10%, as a result of poor policies, political interference and lack of investment (Allaoua and Atkin, 2003). This decline can be attributed to lack of investment in systematic geological mapping, poor technical data on mineral endowment, weak institutions and policies, poor infrastructure, the lack of cheap and reliable energy resources, deteriorating commodity prices, poor investment climates and the scarcity of indigenous technical and professional manpower (Quashie, 2006). The flows of FDI to sub-Saharan Africa have traditionally been to oil and natural resources (Allaoua and Atkin, 2003; Morisset, 2000), although there has been a trend in recent years to invest in services and manufacturing (UNCTAD, 1999). For example, 75% of FDI in Africa in the period 1999-2002 was concentrated in the mining and oil extraction industries (Allaoua and Atkin, 2003).

FDI to sub-Saharan Africa tends to be concentrated in a few countries, and in the period 1999-2002 three countries, Nigeria, Angola and Ghana were the dominant recipients. In fact 41% of the average inflows in the period 2000 to 2003 went to four oil exporting countries in the region, namely Angola, Congo Republic, Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria (Pigato,2000). The need for foreign direct investment (FDI) is born out of the underdeveloped nature of the Nigeria‟s economy which has essentially hindered the pace of her economic development. Generally, Nigerian government policies and strategies towards foreign investments are shaped by two principal objectives: (1) the desire for economic independence and (2) the demand for economic development. According to Shiro (2008), there are four basic requirements for economic development, namely: (i) investment capital, (ii) technical skills, (iii) enterprise (i.e. human capital resources or labour) and (iv) natural resources. These are also forms of foreign direct investments (FDIs) and they are being attracted to the country in different ways as components and structures of FDIs. For instance, Nigeria has abundance of cheap labour which MNCs could utilize while transferring their expertise in different fields to the indigenous workers. It should be well noted that without these components in adequate proportions, economic and social development of the country would be a mirage.

The provisions of the first three necessary components shown above present problems for developing countries like Nigeria. This is due to the fact that there exists a low level of income which prevents mobilization of adequate savings needed to stimulate investment capital at home and or to finance training in modern productive techniques and investment methods. Being so, the foreseeable solution to this problem is through acceleration of growth by attracting external funds (foreign investments) and technical expertise. Foreign direct investment is therefore supposed to serve as a means of augmenting Nigeria‟s domestic resources in order to effectively execute her development programmes and projects and thereby raise the standard of living of her citizens (Uremadu, 2006). Environmental impacts occur during all the phases of a mining project, exploration, disposal of waste rock and overburden, ore processing and plant operation, tailings (processing wastes) management, infrastructure (access and energy) and construction of camps and towns.

A major issue concerning the remedy or compensation for environmental damage resulting from mining and processing activities is that those who bear the costs of the environmental damage are the people who live in the environment and not the producing companies. Currently, much of the debate on FDI and the environment centres around the ‘pollution havens’ hypothesis. This has deflected discussion away from macro-level issues such as: the scale of economic activity relative to regulatory capacity and environmental limits; broad development/environment linkages; and the complex policy and institutional failures linked to competition for FDI both between and inside regional trading areas. As a result of this skewed debate, FDI is often glibly characterised as environmentally beneficial.

1.2Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to make an empirical analysis of environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. Specifically, the following supportive objective are considered relevant to the achievement of the major objective: a) To review and analyse both the positive and negative environmental effects of FDI in the mining industry in Nigeria. b) To assess the negative externalities of mining on the biophysical environment and agricultural resources of the host communities. c) To highlight available options for making foreign direct investment (FDI) and environment objectives mutually supportive in the mining sector. d) To examine the possible precautions and remedies that can be applied in order to mitigate the adverse effect of environmental impact of mining activities.

1.3Research Questions and Research Hypotheses
Research Questions
The following questions will be answered in the course of the study. a) What are the environmental effects of FDI in the mining industry in Nigeria? b) Why has the aactivities of the mining industry brings about negative externalities on the biophysical environment and agricultural resources of the host communities? c) Why has foreign direct investment (FDI) and environmental objectives not mutually supportive in the mining sector? d) To what extent can the adverse effect of environmental impact of mining activities be mitigated? e) How can the environmental performance of FDI in the mining sectors be enhanced for maximum benefits of FDI in the sector? Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested to validate the study H0: There is no significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining sector. H1: There is a significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining sector.

1.4Justification of the Study
Good quality data on impacts of FDI on the environment in the natural resources sector is lacking and coupled with the lack of sectoral FDI data, it is extremely difficult to attribute a particular environmental impact to FDI. At the end of the 1990s, the debate on environmental effect foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining industries was polarised and polemical (Adekoya, 2003). Some commentators were concerned that competition for FDI between countries would lead to a “race to the bottom” in environmental standards (the pollution haven hypothesis). Others thought that FDI would promote the establishment of higher environmental standards through the transfer of technology and management expertise (the pollution halos hypothesis). In this research, the problem will be approached by looking at the environmental regulatory framework concerning the mining industry in Nigeria. An attempt will be made to assess whether environmental regulations are respected and enforced, and whether or not mining companies are in advance of current laws.

In addition to regulatory requirements, the environmental behaviour of the industry is a function of the corporate culture and the company commitment to the environment, as well as leverage by financial institutions (Adekoya, 2003). In this respect FDI could play an important role, as according to Gentry (1999) there is more environmental policy leverage over FDI than other forms of private investment. It is hoped that this study will add to the existing literature and also serve as a reference point to intending researchers willing to delve in this area of study.

1.5Research Methodology and Sources of Data

This research study makes use of secondary data. The variables used are the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), output of mining industry and capital flight (KF). The regession analysis of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method will be use for analysing the data. 1.6Scope and Plan of the Study

This study covers a period of 31 years that spans between 1980 and 2010. Therefore data that were considered are those relating to the Nigerian economy on environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. The study was divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introductory aspects of the study, which includes the statement of problem, objective and significant of the study, scope and limitation of the study and then the methodology. Chapter two talks about the conceptual, theoretical and empirical review of the study.Chapter three deals with the research methodology. Chapter four is concerned about the analysis and interpretation of data. Chapter five includes the Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations. 1.7Definition of Term

Economic Growth: An increase in a country’s total output. It may be measured by the annual rate of increase in a country’s Gross National Product (GNP) or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as adjusted for price changes. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of all goods and services produced domestically by a nation during a year. It differs from Gross National Product (GNP), which is the value of output produced by a country’s Externelities: a factor such as environmental damage that results from the way something is produced but is not taken into account in establishing the market price of the goods or materials concerned Foreign direct investment: an investment made by a foreign person or organization in a particular country, or the total value of this type of investment. Environmental degradation: a decline in the quality of our environment

The enormous growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent decades has generated three main currents of thought which have attempted to explain this phenomenon. First, is the market imperfections hypothesis of Toyne (1990), which postulates that FDI is the direct result of an imperfect global market environment. Second, the internalization theory of Rugman (1985, 1986), where FDI takes place as multinationals replace external markets with more efficient internal ones, and third, the eclectic approach to international production of Dunning (1986, 1988) where FDI emerges because of ownership, internalization, and locational advantages. Developing countries of the world are majorly characterized by subsistence primary production (mainly agriculture) and low level of income per head. Sub-Saharan African (SSA) also faces enormous developmental challenges ranging from high poverty level, high population growth rate, debt crisis, lingering cases of trade protectionism, destructive and hustle environment, capital flight among others. There has been a long debate in the literature on how host country’s environment respond to inward foreign direct investment (hereafter referred to as FDI) through the activities in the minning sector.

A crucial issue in this debate is whether FDI is a means of stimulating minning sector performance of the host countries. The environmental effect of FDI on the minning sector can be explained by using the flying geese model, Vernon’s product life cycle theory and the new growth theory. Although these three models have different explanations of FDI flows, the direct and indirect effects of FDI provide a starting-point that FDI is likely to have a positive influence on the host country’s environment. Firstly, FDI is undertaken for the purpose of cost reducing, and the use of the host country’s factor endowments ( for instance, cheaper labour costs and relatively abundant resources directly decreases theforeign firm’s production costs and increases their export competitiveness). Secondly, the existence of competition between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and local firms provokes the local firms’negative externalities. The available empirical evidence of the role of FDI on the environment of host countries is mixed. 2.1Theoretical Framework

There are several theories attempting to explain why firms engage in transnational production, which is an effect of FDI. However, there is no clear-cut theory of determinant of FDI flows, especially in developing Countries like Nigeria. Equally, the traditional theories of development, which lay important emphasis on international trade and exchange of capital,as well as environmental degradation, have come under severe criticism over the years. Some of the prominent strands are presented as follows. 2.1.1Theories of FDI and Transnational Production

Early explanations of multinational production were based on neoclassical theories of capital movement and trade within the Heckscher-Ohlin framework. However, these theories were founded on the assumption of existence of perfect factor and goods markets and were therefore unable to provide satisfactory explanation of the nature and pattern of FDI. In the absence of market imperfections, these theories presumed that FDI would not make place. Nevertheless, the presence of risks in investing abroad implies that there must be distinct advantages to locating in a particular host Countries. To fill this gap in international trade theory, Vernon (1966) has developed a product-cycle model to describe how a firm trends to become multinational at a certain stage in its growth. He argues that is the early stage of the development of a new product, production will take place in the home Country for whose market the product is intended.

This is because producers require continuous feedback from consumers and need good communications with their numerous suppliers. Because countries are at different stages of economic development, new markets are available to receive new products through the demonstration effect of richer Countries. At this stage, expansion into overseas markets is by means of exports. Later, when the product becomes standardized, other countries may offer comparative cost advantages so that gradually production shifts to these Countries. It is possible to then export back to the Country that originally invented the product. There are many examples of products that have followed this cycle. Presently, Japan and other Asian Countries are major exporters of radio sets and other electronic appliances originally invented in the United States and Europe.

The product cycle hypothesis is useful on several counts. It explains the concentration of innovations in developed Countries, and offers an integrated theory of international trade and FDI. Furthermore, it provides an explanation for the rapid growth in exports of manufactured goods by the newly industrialized Countries. It therefore presents a useful point of departure for the study of the causes of international investment. However, the hypothesis does not resolve the question of why MNCs opt for the use of FDI rather than to license their technology to local firms in the host (recipient) Countries. This issue has been examined with reference to the theory of the firm, notably by Hymer (1976), and Dunning (1977, 1988). Hymer (1976), is a groundbreaking viewpoint on industrial organization as an incentive for FDI, focuses on the advantages that some firms enjoy. Such advantages include access to patented and generally unavailable technology, team-specific management skills, plant economies of scale, special marketing skills, possession of a brand name, and so on.

Before a firm invests abroad, the potential gains from these advantages must outweigh the disadvantages of establishing and operating in a foreign country, such as communication difficulties and ignorance of institutions, customs and tastes. Dunning (1977, 1988), on the other hand, has proposed three conditions necessary for a firm to undertake FDI. His eclectic theory of FDI, often refereed to as the OLI framework, attempts to integrate other explanations of FDI mentioned earlier. OLI stands for ownership advantages, location advantages and internalization advantages, which are conditions that determine whether a firm, industry or Country will be a source or a host of FDI (or perhaps, neither). First, a firm must have an ownership advantage; the owner advantage is anything that gives the firms enough valuable market power to outweigh the disadvantages of doing business abroad. It could be a product or production process that other firms do not have access to, such as a patent, trade secret or blueprint.

The advantages could also be intangible like a trademark or reputation for quality. Second, the foreign market must offer location advantage that makes it more profitable to produce in the foreign Country than to produce at home and then export to the foreign market. Such location-specific advantages offered by a host Country include access to local and regional markets, availability of comparatively cheap factors of production, competitive transportation and communications costs, the opportunity to circumvent import restrictions, and attractive investment incentives (Chery, 2001). Third, the MNC must have an internalization advantage, precisely; internalization involves the question of why an MNC would want to exploit its assets abroad by opening or acquiring a subsidiary versus simply selling or licensing the rights to exploit those assets to a foreign firm. Though this theory has been criticized for only listing the conditions necessary for FDI without explaining its phenomenon, it has widely contributed to international production theory. 2.1.2Theories of Economic Growth and FDI

According to the standard neoclassical theories, economic growth and development is based on the utilization of land, labour and capital in production. Since developing Countries in general, have underutilized land and labour and exhibit low, savings rate, the marginal productivity of capital is likely to be greater in these Countries. Thus, the neo-liberal theories of development assume that interdependence between the developed and the developing Counties can benefit the latter. This is because capital will flow from rich to poor areas where the returns on capital investments will be highest, helping to bring about a transformation of ‘backward’ economies. Furthermore, the standard neo-classical theory predicts that poorer Countries grow faster on average than richer Countries because of diminishing returns on Capital. Poor countries were expected to converge with the rich over time because of their higher capacity for absorbing capital. The reality, however, is that over the years divergence has been the case, the gap between the rich and the poor economies has continued to increase. The volume of capital flow to the poor economies relative the rich has been low. Arghiri’s (1972) “unequal Exchange” brought the whole issue of the validity of comparative advantage once again into sharp focus. He accepts the law on its own but tries to integrate international capital and commodity flour into the law.

His argument attempts to overthrow Ricardo’s most fundamental assumption – international immobility of factors. He sets out to investigate how international capital flows affect Richardo’s law and endeavors to see the current form of the law in a modern world. Arghiri shows that international capital flows negate gains for all form trade. He reasons that since wages are low in LDCs, profit will be high. If profits are re-invested, there will be rapid development and a narrowing of the gap between the rich and the poor. Hence, trade would be mutually gainful. However, with capital flows and foreign investment, this is not the case. Since foreigners face low profits in their home Countries, they are willing to accept much lower rates of profit than local investors are. Hence, they invade local markets, drive down prices and siphon profits back to their Countries. In the advanced Countries, therefore, foreign investment leads to higher profits, higher prices and growth while in the LDCs it creates economic imperialism and stagnation. Hence, Arghiri posits that capital flows from the developed to the underdeveloped capitalist Countries primarily to take advantage of the enormous difference in the cost of labour power. According to this view, unequal exchange is predicated on the basis of the dominant position enjoyed by the advanced industrial countries and the resultant dependence of the poor Countries o the rich. Other critics argue that FDI is often associated with enclave investment, sweatshop employment, income inequality and high external dependency (See Durham.2000). All these argument regarding the potential negative impact of FDI on growth point to the importance of certain enabling conditions to ensure that the negative effects do not outweigh the positive impacts. At present the consensus seems to be that there is a positive association between FDI inflow and economic growth, provided the enabling environment is create.

Given the fact that economic growth is strongly associated with increased productivity, FDI inflow is particularly well suited to affect economic growth positively. The main channel through which FDI affect economic growth have been uncovered by the new growth theorists (for example, Markusen, 1995; Lemi and Asefa, 2001’ Barro and Sala-l Martin, (1995) and Borensztein, et al (1998). In particular, have developed a simple endogenous growth model which demonstrates the importance of FDI in engendering growth through technological diffusion. Typically, technological diffusion via knowledge transfer and adoption of best practice across borders is arguably a key ingredient in rapid economic growth. And this can take different forms, imported capital goods may embody improved technology. Technology licensing may allow Countries to acquire innovations and expatriates may transmit knowledge. Yet, it can be argued that FDI has greatest potential as an effective means of transferring technical skills because it tends to package and integrate elements from all of the above mechanisms. First, FDI can encourage the adoption of new and improved technology in the production process through capital spillovers. Second, FDI may stimulate knowledge transfers, both in terms of manpower training and skill acquisition and by introduction of alternative management practices and better organizational arrangements. 2.1.3Flying Geese (FG) Model

The term flying geese pattern of development was initially coined by Akamatsu in the 1930s and introduced into academia in the early 1960 (Lee, 2007). According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB, 2005) labour costs and openness are the essential factors in the FG model. ADB (1999) points out that FDI has shifted from high labour cost home country to the lower labour cost host country. As the lower labour cost host countries develop they become high labour cost nations for a new set of low labour cost host countries (Lee, 2007).

The implication of the FG model is that MNE subsidiaries increase the host country’s export performance by using the host country’s factor endowments to produce at lower cost. The increased export competitiveness of MNE subsidiaries directly enhances the recipient country’s export supply capacity (ADB, 2005). Furthermore, the transfer of FDI also brings new technology, capital equipments and manufacturing expertise into the host countries which are behind in the availability and quality of factor endowment (Kwan, 1996). Therefore, according to the FG model, spillover effects of FDI are likely to stimulate local firms’ export ability. 2.1.4Product Life Cycle (PLC) Theory

The PLC theory was developed by Vernon (1966) to provide a framework to explain the increasing FDI from US MNEs and its influence on trade flows. There are four stages of production in the PLC theory including innovation, growth, maturity and decline. Vernon observes that, at the first stage of production, US MNEs tend to produce new and innovative products in the US for mainly home consumption without undertaking any FDI, and the rest of the output is exported to serve foreign markets. As products progress to the growth stage and become high in growth and demand, the US MNEs begin to undertake FDI and are inclined to enter into joint venture investment to set up production in other countries. Interestingly, MNEs’ production at the growth phase of the product life cycle seeks local markets; in the meantime, foreign competitors start to enter the market (Basu, 1997).

Consequently, the demand for exports from the US declines; and the US consumers begin to purchase some of the products from these newly industrialised countries (NICs). As the production progresses to maturity phase, the problem emerges from costreduction for the producers. Most FDI, which was initially allocated in advanced countries, is shifted to other lower cost NICs. Apart from the local market consumption, part of the output is exported to serve the US and other foreign markets. Therefore the US and other advanced countries have switched from being exporters to being importers. At the final stage of production, cost-minimising becomes the major task for the MNEs’ production and the allocation of FDI will be the countries having lower and even the lowest production costs. MNEs’ production at the final stage of production serves not only the local market but also the US and the rest of the world. 2.1.5New Growth Theory

New growth theory incorporates two important points. Firstly, it views technological progress as a product of economic activity. Secondly, new growth theory suggests that knowledge and technology are characterised by increasing returns, and these increasing returns drive the growth process (Cortright, 2001). Consequently, growth is endogenous in new growth theory rather than exogenous as in old growth theory. Investment in human capital contributes to increasing returns in the production function (Meier and Rauch, 1995), and the more resources devoted to research and development, the faster the rate of innovations and the higher the rate of growth (De Castro, 1998).

According to Shan et al. (19997), the capital accumulation FDI is expected to generate non-convex growth by encouraging the incorporation of new inputs and foreign technologies in the production function of the FDI recipients’ countries. In addition, the transfer of advanced technology strengthens the host country’s existing stock of knowledge through labour training, skill acquisition, the introduction of alternative management practices and organisational arrangements (De Mello and Sinclair, 1995). As a consequence, FDI increases productivity in the recipient economy, and FDI can be deemed to be a catalyst for domestic investment and technological progress (Shan et al.(1997). 2.2Conceptual Issue

2.2.1Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
The role of foreign private investment in stimulating economic growth has been given prominence in development. The classical economist gave prominence to the extension of markets as a key element that would encourage economic growth and development. With extension of market economies prosperity would emerge as a result of increased specialization and trade. Marx like the classicists shared the same view on the extension of market as a catalyst for economic growth. But Marx analysis was based on historical stages of a society. His historical underpinning was that social, political, cultural and spiritual aspects of life are conditioned by the mode of production. The mode of production was seen as the sum of the material, productive forces of society.

These produce forces include climate and geography as well as existing technology. It was technology that Marxist saw as the main factor changing the material basis of society. The technical nature of production conditions, social relationships and upon this social relationship is built the super structure of political and legal institutions. Hood and Young (1979) observed that a country may invest in another rather than exporting because of certain advantages. Such ownership bestows specific advantages not shared by its competitors such as advantages in technology, marketing/branding skills, superior organizational skills, and ability to differentiate product and management technique. Dunning (1981) put forward his eclectic integrated approach to international trade. He observed that technology is not the main determinants that give a country advantage over another country through internationalizing. Internationalization could occur through transfer, price manipulation, security of supplies and markets and control over use of intermediate goods. Caves (1971) opined that avoidance of oligopolistic uncertainty and erection of barriers to the entry of new rivals are the factors underpinning the investment decision in LDCs.

This observation was further enhanced by the deficiencies of capital, technology and expertise to exploit and enhance the natural resources that abound in the less developed countries. Aremu (1997) submitted that foreign Private Investments accelerate the pace of economic development of the LDCs up to a point where a satisfactory rate of growth can be achieved on a self-sustaining basis. He observe that the main responsibility of foreign private, investment in LDCs is to raise the standard of living of its people so as to enable them move from economic stagnation to self-sustaining economic growth. He therefore concluded his study by recommending that foreign private investment should continue to rise till a certain level of income is reached in the undeveloped countries. The LDCs should also mobilize a level of capital formation sufficient to ensure adequate level of economic growth and development. Mishara and Mody (2001) observed that foreign private investment has been associated with higher growth in some advanced countries. Within the LDCs, however, foreign private investment is associated with high incidence of crises. Agada and Okpe (2002) investigated the determinants of risks on foreign investment in Nigeria from 1980 to 2000), used data from the Central Bank of Nigeria and Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos. The study showed that inflation rate, petroleum profits tax, political and administrative risk inhibits foreign investment in Nigeria. While government expenditure, exchange rate and balance of payment have significant effect on foreign investment in Nigeria. Anfofum (2005) investigated on the macroeconomic determinants of private investment in Nigeria.

He discovered that external debt burden, inflation and exchange rate, political crises, and coup d’etat negatively affect private investment in the manufacturing sector. The negative relationship attests to the major reason why investors do not have confidence in Nigeria’s investment climate and as such potential investors are scared away. Ayashagba and Abachi (2002) carried empirical investigation on the effects of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 1997. The result presented showed that foreign direct investment had significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. They therefore concluded that the presence of foreign direct investment in the LDCs particularly in Nigeria is not totally useful. 2.2.2Environmental effect of mineral exploitation in Nigeria Exploitation of mineral resources has assumed prime importance in several developing countries including Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources, which have contributed immensely to the national wealth with associated socio-economic benefits. Mineral resources are an important source of wealth for a nation but before they are harnessed, they have to pass through the stages of exploration, mining and processing (Adekoya, 2003; Ajakaiye, 1985).

Different types of environmental damage and hazards inevitably accompany the three stages of mineral development. Some of the minerals, notably, cassiterite (tin), columbite, tantalite, wolframite, lead, zinc, gold and coal have been exploited on a commercial scale since early part of the last century and have made significant contributions to the revenue and socio-economic development (Kogbe and Obialo, 1976). Other minerals like monazite, xenotime, zircon, thorite and molybdenite have also been produced in lesser quantities and exported. Relatively more recently, oil and gas (starting from 1957), limestone, marble and rock aggregates have been playing an increasing role in the national socio-economic development and growth because they generate appreciable internal revenue and/or foreign exchange earnings. They have, in fact, overshadowed other economic minerals by generating over 90% of the export earnings, more than 50% of the national revenue. To a large extent, the scale of operations involved in exploration, mining and processing of a mineral determines the intensity and extent of environmental degradation. Thus in general, a greater damage is witnessed in the localities where tribute workers do only manual winning of minerals.

For example, large-scale mining of tin and associated minerals in the Jos Plateau has resulted in a high degree of degradation of arable land, vegetation and landscape, as well as other environmental problems. Other localities affected by large-scale environmental damage are the Niger Delta as a result of oil and gas exploration and exploitation; Sagamu, Okpilla, Ewekoro, Ashaka and Gboko owing to quarrying of limestone and the establishment of Portland cement manufacturing company; and in Enugu as a result of coal mining. On the other hand, the environmental damage caused by small-scale quarrying of laterite, clay, gravel and stone in numerous parts of the country by private entrepreneurs is less but more difficult to control. A special mention must be made of the environmental degradation caused by the illegal mining of gemstone. Because of the uncontrolled manner the illegal miners operate, a lot of damage is done to the environment by haphazard pitting and trenching of the ground in many areas. This results in a kind of artificial bad land topography, which consequently renders the land impossible to cultivate for agricultural purposes. 2.2.3Types of Environmental Damage

“Environment” as used in this research has three components, namely, the sum total of external conditions in which organisms exist; the organisms themselves including the floral and faunal community; and the physical surroundings such as landforms. All these three aspects, which include various entities such as air, water, land, vegetation, animals including human, landscape and geomorphological features, historical heritage etc. Are adversely affected one way or the other during the course of mineral development. a) Air, land and water pollution

Varying degrees of pollution of air, water and land occur in the course of mineral development depending on the stage and scale of activities attained. While only minor pollution occurs during mineral exploration, more intense air and water pollution emanates from the exploitation stages, particularly if carried out on a large scale. In Nigeria, the greatest pollution effect comes from a largescale exploitation of petroleum, limestone and rocks used in the construction works (Unesco-Mab, 1995). In the oil-producing areas of the country oil spillage of differing intensity resulting from burst pipelines, tanks, tankers, drilling operations, etc. is a common phenomenon. It causes water and land pollution with grave conesquences on both aquatic and terrestrial life. For example, fishes living in surface waters are killed as a result of which fishermen in such areas have lost their means of livelihood. Groundwater pollution has made it impossible for the indigenes of the affected Niger Delta areas to obtain potable water. Well water is almost invariably covered with a thin oil film. So far over 80% of the gases associated with the Nigerian oil are flared off.

Thus, many large red flames burning endlessly are a very common sight in the Niger Delta, the oil province of Nigeria. The flaring results, among others, in increasing CO2 and CO discharge into the atmosphere thus causing disequilibrium or imbalance in the air that supports life. A possible enhancement of earth warming through “green-house effect” can also occur. Large volume of dust from the cement factories and mining operations in the Nigerian limestone quarries are discharged daily into the air. Similarly a lot of air-borne particulate matters are generated by the numerous stonecrushing industries in the country. When the air is laden with such dust, it causes health hazards for some people. For example, pollution studies around Sagamu and Ewekoro cement works in Ogun State have shown that several people are suffering from eye pain, and asthmatic attack due to the dust-laden air that prevails within a few kilometers radius of the factories (Aigbedion, 2005). b) Damage of vegetation

Vegetation in form of natural forest or crop plantation is usually the first casualty to suffer total or partial destruction or degradation during the exploration and exploitation of minerals in a locality. The vegetation damage is more extensive at the time of mine development and mining operations and is more expensive when crop plantation is affected. This particular problem is perpetually caused by violent confrontation between the indigenes of the Niger Delta and the oil companies. In the Niger Delta, where oil spillage occurs, the vegetation, especially the surface feeders such as the palm tress, is often degraded.

Recent environmental impact studies of limestone mining and cement industry in Sagamu have revealed a declining kola nut output from the plantations within a few kilometers radius of the cement factory (Aigbedion, 2005; Adekoya, 2003). This phenomenon is most probably associated with dust pollution as plenty of dust is discharged into the air mainly from the cement factory. The particulate matter eventually gets deposited on the kolanut leaves and flowers as well as the soil supporting the plants. The overall effect of this is that the photosynthetic and fruiting ability of the kolanut tree is impaired with a consequent decrease in kolanut production. c) Ecological disturbance

Another adverse effect of mineral extraction and processing activities, which may not be immediately felt, is the disturbance of the ecosystem with possible adverse consequences on the floral and faunal community in general. For example, the deforestation of an area during the mine development may cause the elimination of some plants and the exodus of some animals that feed on such plants or depend on them for cover, from the affected area. Similarly, the noise generated in the course of blasting, quarrying and crushing can also frighten away part of the fauna in a mining locality. Oil spillage produces a devastating ecological disturbance in the oil-producing states as well as in areas where leakage occur due to natural breakage of oil pipeline or illegal bunkering (Aigbedion, 2005).

The plants, animals, soils and water are affected. As mentioned earlier, the vegetation may suffer degradation and eventual death. Some of the animals, especially fish and other aquatic life, as well as small terrestrial animals particularly those that feed on fish or lower plants, may die for lack of food or from contamination with the oil spillage, which normally spread rapidly. The soil gets soaked in oil and water is covered with oil. Consequently the ecosystem suffers not only disequilibria but also pronounced degradation with dire consequences on the food chain (Adepelumi et al., 2006).

d) Degradation of natural landscape
A common negative effect of mining minerals from the earth’s surface is the destruction of its natural landscape, creating open space in the ground and generating heaps of rock wastes that cannot be easily disposed off. These phenomena are amply demonstrated in several parts of Nigeria, where commercial mining or quarrying had occurred in the past or is currently taking place. In the Younger Granite Province, especially the Jos Plateau, tin and columbite mining has resulted in the destruction in places of the scenic landscape which is replaced by unsightly large irregular holes and heaps of debris produced by the opencast method of mining (Brooks, 1974). The alteration of the landscape almost invariably creates a problem of erosion in the mining localities with the result that most of the opencast pits are filled with water. A similar situation exists in all the limestone and marble quarries in differing proportions at Ewekoro, Sagamu, Nkalagu, Gboko, Ashaka, Kalambaina, Okpilla, Jakura, etc. In many localities, particularly near centres of heavy construction works (road and building), large granite and gneiss inselbergs with their delightful scenic view are now being pulled down to produce rock aggregates e.g. at Abuja, Abeokuta, Ibadan, Ilorin, Minna, Kaduna, Kano, Bauchi, etc.

In recent times, the search for gemstones in Oyo, Kwara, Edo and Ondo States by illegal miners have resulted in haphazard pitting and trenching of the Older Granites pegmatites that host the minerals, without regard to the mining regulations. At present, irregular holes and heaps of rock materials characterize the areas that have fallen victims of illegal miners. Notable examples can be found at Ijero, Ekiti State; Igbojaiye, Olode, Falansa and New Target in Shaki area. Oyo State; Iwo, Osun State, and Oro in Kwara State. The natural landscape in these areas is now replaced by a kind of bad land or hummock topography punctuated by irregular holes. e) Geological hazards

Mining operations normally upset the equilibrium in the geological
environment, which may trigger off certain geological hazards such as landslide, subsidence, flooding, erosion and tremors together with their secondary effects. Some cases of subsidence and instability associated with draining of oil and gas from the subsurface reservoir have been reported in the Niger Delta (Aigbedion, 2005; Adekoya, 2003). Similar subsi-dence has occurred in the Iva valley, Enugu area, as a result of coal mining. The subsidence led to diversion of water into the mines, which had to be pumped out at high cost (Kogbe and Obialo, 1976). Minor earth tremors are generated due to blasting of rocks in various quarries. Villages and settlements in the neighborhood of the quarries have experience unpleasant earth movements when the rocks are blasted (Ajakaiye, 1985). Some buildings are damaged by developing cracks due to minor tremors occasioned by the incessant blasting of the rocks. f) Socio-environment problems

Some socio-environmental problems are sometimes created as a result of certain peculiarity of the mineral industry. Since minerals are exhaustible and irrenewable commodities, the life of a mine and, consequently, the mining activities in a place have a limited time. The stoppage of mining activities imposed by depletion of the available reserves often leads to migration of people from the mining areas to other places. This may result in the formation of “ghost towns”, which are abandoned towns and previous bubbling mining communities. For example, Sofon Birnin Gwari was a town that once thrived on gold mining between 1914 and 1938 but was abandoned due to exodus of miners and prospectors to the Plateau tin fields in the early forties. Incidentally, the miners are currently returning to the Gwari area as a result of a new discovery of gold deposits in the place (Adekoya, 2003). g) Radiation hazards

Exposure to natural radiations emitted by some radioactive minerals is a major source of health hazards. The radiation intensity increases when the minerals are concentrated. It has been established that some minerals such as monazite, pyrochlore and xenotime, which are obtained as by products of tin mining in the Jos Plateau, are radioactive. Because of lack of market, most of these minerals, which were in form of concentrate, are abandoned in many previous mining sites on the plateau. Some of these sites had mining communities, which developed into villages where a high level of radiation has been recorded. A few of such villages has been abandoned or nearly deserted because of the death of many people under mysterious circumstances. The mysterious deaths are now attributed to a high level of radiations released by monazite-rich sand used for building the houses the deceased lived in (Aigbedion, 2005). 2.2.4Precautions and remedies for environment damage

In order to minimize the ill effects of mineral mining and processing, certain precautionary measures must be taken by both the government and the mining and processing companies. The government’s role is to provide the legislation required to make it mandatory for the companies to practice all necessary precautions in their operations that will prevent or minimize environmental damage. Such legislation already exists in Nigeria as the Minerals and Mining Decree of 1999. The new Minerals and Mining law has addressed, among others, the environmental conservation issues very seriously. Apart from stating unequivocally the conservation methods, which must be employed in mining and processing operations, the new law has not made sufficient provision of sanctions against those who fail to comply with the environmental protection regulations. There is the need to strengthen the new law with the following suggestions made by Adekoya (1995).

(i) Mining companies should submit environmental restoration plans together with their application for either prospecting or mining lease of an area; (ii) Processing companies must install appropriate equipment, where necessary, for preventing or minimizing pollution; (iii) All large mining and processing companies are to prepare a prognosis of the possible environ-mental impact of their operations, as well as the technique for monitoring the impact for approval of the Mines Department before the companies can commence operation. Since some damage to the environment is inevitable in the course of mineral exploitation, usually, the only option left is to apply some remedy to the damage. The remedy or compensation should depend on the type, extent and magnitude of damage, which can be permanent or redeemable in which case the damage effect fades away as the causative factor is withdraw. The environmental impact of mining and processing activities can extend for many kilometers from the operation site. For example, the dust pollutants could spread up to a distance of more than 5 Km from the source. Before any remedy could be applied to any environmental problem, there is need to assess or measure the magnitude of the problem. This can be done by direct measurements such as calculating the value of economic trees removed and changes in farm produce due to pollution; land, road and property reparation cost; water treatment cost; and the costs of treating diseases directly traceable to the environmental damage.

However, direct measurements of environmental damage are not always possible because the damage may be intangible, subtle or even slow to appear (Brooks, 1974). Under such a situation the cost of providing an alternative environment or renewable resources elsewhere, if possible, can be considered. A major issue concerning the remedy or compensation for environmental damage resulting from mining and processing activities is that those who bear the costs of the environmental damage are the people who live in the environment and not the producing companies. This case is well illustrated in Sagamu where blasting of limestone in the quarry and dust pollution from the cement works are causing incalculable damage to life, crops and buildings. Although the cement producing firm (West African Portland Cement Company) is the cause of the environmental problems, it is the Sagamu citizens who do not share in the company’s profit that bear the reparation or replacement costs resulting from the adverse environmental effects (Adekoya, 2003). The problem requires the intervention of government through appropriate legislation that can compel the mining/processing companies to internalize the reparation or replacement costs, which are so far borne by the people who live in the environment. Safe disposal of unavoidable waste in stable and aesthetically acceptable structure must be enforced through legislation.

2.2.5Current debates on FDI and the Environment
Currently, much of the debate on FDI and the environment centres around the ‘pollution havens’ hypothesis. This basically states that companies will move their operations to less developed countries in order to take advantage of less stringent environmental regulations. In addition, all countries may purposely undervalue their environment in order to attract new investment. Either way this leads to excessive (non-optimal) levels of pollution and environmental degradation. Generally, statistical studies show that this effect cannot be clearly identified at the level of aggregate investment flows. However, this report provides ample empirical evidence that resource and pollution intensive industries do have a locational preference for, and an influence in creating, areas of low environmental standards. This work also argues that the pollution havens debate has produced an excessive focus on site-specific environmental impacts and emissions a few industrial pollutants. This has deflected discussion away from macro-level issues such as: the scale of economic activity relative to regulatory capacity and environmental limits; broad development/environment linkages; and the complex policy and institutional failures linked to competition for FDI both between and inside regional trading areas. As a result of this skewed debate, FDI is often glibly characterised as environmentally beneficial. Encouraging negotiators of economic agreements to argue against the need to introduce specific environmental clauses into international investor protection and liberalisation treaties.

However, the economic growth produced by FDI is often fuelled at the expense of the natural and social environment, and the impact of FDI on host communities and countries is often mixed in environmentally sensitive sectors. This work move beyond the pollution havens discussion, and examine the broad interactions between FDI and the environment in the paradigm of nigeria’s minning industry. This is done by drawing on a range of empirical evidence on the impact of FDI, and examining it inside a comprehensive economic and policy model of sustainability. This analysis motivates proposals for a range of regulatory and market instruments that could help FDI promote the transition to sustainability. It was argues further that the pollution havens debate has produced an excessive focus on site-specific environmental impacts and emissions a few industrial pollutants.

Figure 2.1: Determinant and impact of FDI on economic growth Source: Samuel Adams (2000)
2.2.6Effect of Poor Environmental Policy

The political debate over environmental policy has never been as contentious or rancorous as it is today. In addressing the issue of environmental policy, the questions that come to mind are: Is it true that environmental policies hit the pockets of poorer households harder than those of wealthier ones? And that the poor receive less of the benefit of such policies as they are more likely to live closer to industry or hazardous waste treatment plants and further from parks or the countryside? This is a widespread perception, and in many cases one that is supported by the available evidence (Ajayi, 2009). Concern about the social dimension of environmental policy is nothing new – indeed, the importance of considering simultaneously the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainable development has been stressed since the concept was spelled out in the “Brundtland Report” in 1987. And the need to analyse the social-environmental interface is one of the key priorities of the OECD’s Environmental Strategy for the First Decade of the 21st Century. But before we can understand the links between social and environmental concerns, we need to know whether environmental policies affect households differently according to how well-off they are and other criteria such as age.

Indeed, since perceived differences in effect can be a significant political barrier to introducing environmental policies, assessing these links is often a precondition for implementing environmental policy in developing countries. In addition to considering the distributional impacts of environmental policy, the Nigeria is examining the effect of environmental policy on health and employment, since these are also key areas where environmental and social concerns meet. There are two types of social concern related to environmental policy – those related to how environmental quality is distributed across different members of society, and those related to the distribution of the financial effects of environmental policies. Uneven distribution of environmental quality arises when some people live closer to polluting manufacturing facilities, or are more exposed to noise pollution because they live under an airline flight path, or because they live further from parks or are less well-served by water, waste collection or energy services. In most cases, it is not possible to draw a sharp distinction between the environmental and financial effects of a given policy. For environmental policies which target “local public goods” such as air quality and urban parks, the empirical evidence indicates clearly that a change in environmental quality will have a significant financial impact locally on factors such as housing prices and jobs.

But how can we measure the difference in impacts? There are basically two types of measurement: “physical” units of measurement such as emissions, exposure or risk across households and “preference-based” measures which reflect personal preferences with respect to environmental quality. Several factors can contribute to possible inequities in the distribution of environmental quality including:

• Differences in preferences for environmental quality between different types of households, including different income classes (e.g. demand for urban parks);

• Differences in access to information which would allow low-income households to express their demand for environmental quality (e.g. air pollution concentration levels in residential areas);

• The existence of failures in associated markets which affect low-income households particularly acutely, such as split-incentives for landlords and tenants with respect to energy conservation measures; and,

• The existence of policy failures limiting the access of low-income households to political decision-making, which might arise if wealthier households are more successful in lobbying efforts. But environmental quality is only half the story. There is also the question of who pays, and how much, to achieve this level of environmental quality.

It is widely felt that the distribution of the financial effects of environmental policy can be regressive, with lower-income groups bearing a disproportionately higher share of environmental compliance costs than those that are more well-off. The available evidence suggests that low-income households tend to be relatively more exposed to environmental hazards than wealthier ones. Moreover, there is much less evidence on how access to environmental “goods” such as green space and environment-related public services is shared across society. 2.2.7FDI in the Mining Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview The mining industry has traditionally been a major recipient of FDI in sub-Saharan Africa and it has been an important foreign exchange earner for the region. Over the forty years to 2010, Africa’s share by value of world mining output declined from 23% to 10% because of poor policies, political interference, lack of investment, and environmental degradation. Inadequacies associated with systematic geological mapping, poor technical data on mineral endowment, poor infrastructure, the lack of cheap and reliable energy resources, deteriorating commodity prices, poor investment climates and the scarcity of indigenous technical and professional workers have been compounding factors.

The publication by thirty-five countries of new mining codes at the end of 1995 is a recent development that has resulted in a reduction of tax levels, liberal import tax exemptions for equipment and the easing of immigration laws for expatriates. Absolute levels of FDI to African countries increased from an annual average of US$1.9 billion in 1983-87 to US$3.1 billion in 1988-1992 and to US$6 billion in 1993-1997. In 1997, FDI to these countries totalled US$9.4 billion but this declined to US$8.3 billion in 1998. Three-quarters of FDI in Africa in the period 1995-2007 went to the mining and oil extraction industries. Focusing just on sub-Saharan Africa, in 2000 it received US$1.923 million in FDI, which rose to US$13.949 billion in 2009. FDI flows to sub-Saharan Africa have traditionally been to oil and natural resources although there has been a trend in recent years to invest in services and manufacturing. A few countries in this sub-region account for most of the FDI inflow. In the period 2000-2006 Nigeria, Angola and Ghana were the dominant recipients. In fact, 41% of the average inflows in the period 2005 to 2008 went to four oil-exporting countries in the sub-region: Angola, Congo Republic, Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. According to Loots, 15.3% of FDI in Africa in 1997 was in the primary sector, of which 60% went to mining and natural resource extraction, including fossil fuels.19 In general, there is a lack of data on FDI flows at the sectoral level. In relation to the countries assessed in this paper, sectoral data for FDI stocks for South Africa only was available.

Details of the nigeria’s mining industry, FDI and its environmental impacts are described in the following section, below. A caveat is that reliable data on the environmental impacts of FDI in the natural resources sector is lacking, as is sectoral FDI data. This makes it extremely difficult to attribute a particular environmental impact to FDI. The approach used here considers the environmental regulatory framework of the mining industry in the countries concerned as well as examples of particular projects for which some data are available. A preliminary assessment is made of whether environmental regulations are adhered to and enforced, and whether or not mining companies are in advance of current laws. 2.2.8Environmental Impacts of FDI in Nigeria’s Mining Industry The mining industry in Nigeria is dominated by oil. Indeed, nigeria is the largest producer of this commodity in Africa and six largest producer in the world. Other important mineral commodities include bauxite, manganese iron-ore, coal, lime stone and diamonds. Mining is a major foreign exchange earner for Nigeria, contributing about 20.5% of GDP. FDI in Nigeria increased rapidly from US$15 million in 1990 to US$233 million in 1994. It then decreased to US$177 million in 1999 and rise again to US$599 million in 2009. Supervision of the mining industry is the responsibility of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. The Environmental Impact Assessment Decree of 1994 and Mining Regulations of 1970 regulate the environmental aspects of mining.

The 1986 Minerals and Mining Law provides for environmental protection and pollution prevention. Under the Minerals and Mining Law, the Minister of Mines and Energy is responsible for regulations, inter alia, restricting mining activities near water bodies and preventing water pollution. The 1994 Mining and Minerals Regulation aim to prevent permanent environmental damage by mining and encourage sound stewardship. The regulation comprises three parts: guidelines for exploration, mining, processing and decommissioning; guidelines for the preparation of an EIA for new projects; and guidelines for preparing an environmental action plan (EAP) for existing projects. EIAs and EAPs are made available to the public. The Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology was also established 2003. One of its roles is to administer environmental legislation. In 2004, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), an advisory body, was transformed by statute into the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with powers of enforcement and control. The aims of the fund include environmental education of the public, research and investigations related to the functions of the EPA and human resource development. A Mineral Development Fund has also been established. Ten percent of all royalty payments are returned to mining areas to fund local infrastructure and investment in other non-mining forms of development. A further 10% helps finance regulatory institutions and the geological survey. Enforcement mechanisms in the mining industry include termination of prospecting licenses in cases of non-remediation and of inappropriate environmental practice. The Chief Inspector of Mines can require appropriate measures if a mining company does not comply with environmental requirements and recover the cost from the company.

In extreme cases the mining lease can be terminated. Directors and officers of companies can be held liable for environmental offences committed by their companies. Available data do not permit an assessment of mining company compliance with environmental regulations or the enforcement of the law by the relevant authorities. Economic instruments to promote environmentally sound practices complement regulations and standards. The environmental impacts of large-scale mines include visual effects, vegetation loss, water and atmospheric pollution and effects on local health. Mineral extraction and processing are responsible for 10% of Nigeria’s industrial pollution. In relation to air pollution, the principal sources are SO2, As2O3, NOx and particulate matter emissions. In the case of water pollution, the major problem is the use of mercury by artisanal miners. Stream flow diversion and disposal of wastes in rivers by miners are additional problems. Large-scale mining has also contributed to water pollution. Companies have supplied wells and pumps to local inhabitants to ensure they have an alternative drinking water supply when required.

However, responsibility for the maintenance costs of these wells is currently a contentious issue. Negative social effects associated with mining include land displacement and loss of livelihood for women subsistence farmers, mining-related diseases and deforestation. Land use issues are particularly important as the main gold producing areas co-exist with major logging and agricultural zones. In some cases, mining operations have disrupted local economic activities. Farmers have generally received cash compensation for crop damage and loss of livelihood but not offers of similar land or the means to continue farming. To reduce the rate of oil incidents along the Nigerian Coast particularly as a result of vandalisation, the Federal Government through an act of the National Assembly in 2000 passed into law the Niger Delta Development Commission. (NDDC). The Act among other things, established a Commission to carry out among other things the following tasks:

a. Cause the Niger-Delta area to be surveyed in order to ascertain measures, which are necessary to promote its physical and socio-economic development;

b. Prepare plans and schemes designed to promote the physical development of the Niger- Delta area;

c. Identify factors inhibiting the development of the Niger-Delta and assist the member states in the formation and implementation of policies to ensure sound and efficient management of the resources of the Niger-Delta;

d. Assess and report on any project funded or carried out in the Niger-Delta area by oil and gas producing companies and any other company including non-governmental organisations and ensure that funds released for such projects are properly utilised;

e. Tackle ecological and environmental problems that arise from the exploration of oil in the Niger-Delta area.

f. Liaise with the various oil mineral and gas prospecting and producing companies on all matters of pollution prevention and control. Essentially, items (e) and (f) deal with issues pertaining to oil exploration and production and the NNDC act is a strategic way of dealing with all forms of pollution from these activities in the Niger Delta. 2.3Empirical Review

The notable growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the past 30 years continues to trigger conflicting reactions, in both industrial and emerging countries (Coughlin, 1992 and Contessi and Weinberger, 2009). In short, FDI is an investor‟s acquisition of “long-term influence” in the management of a firm in another country. In the developed world, countries that export capital and countries that import capital both raise concerns about FDI: The former are concerned that capital leaving their countries might be detrimental to domestic investment; the latter‟s politicians and workers fear foreign ownership of domestic firms. Emerging, transaction, and developing countries (and at times local governments) usually welcome FDI, assuming that investment through this multinational activity will bring additional capital, managerial expertise, and technology (Contessi and Weinberger, 2009). In economics, multinational activity is also viewed as a positive contribution to the technological progress of the host economies (Contessi and Weinberger, 2009).

An established literature that dates back to Findley (1978) develops models in which multinational firms own and transfer technology-which may not be available in the host country-that allows them to be more productive and profitable than firms that are not multinational in nature. Because such a transfer is assumed to contribute to the technical progress of the host economies, it is also assumed to contribute ultimately to their growth. Rivera-Batiz and Rivera-Batiz (1991) develop a formal model that allows for increasing returns due to specialization as a result of FDI. Borenszetein, De-Gregorio, and Lee (1998) stress the attraction between FDI and investment in human capital. Helpman, Melitz, and Yeaple (2004) and Yeaple (2008) show that only the most productive firms in a country become multinationals, whereas progressively less productive firms enter progressively more attractive countries. Some other studies highlight reasons why FDI may not accelerate growth: Aitken and Harrison (1999) argue that increased local competition caused by multinationals may crowd out domestic firms; Boyd and Smith (1992) show that FDI distorts resource allocation and slows growth when other distortions are present in the financial sector, prices or trade.

This would imply that FDI does not necessarily contribute to growth, and countries could be harming their economies with provisions that favour FDI. As mentioned earlier, overall FDI has increased in many countries. Contessi and Weinberger (2009) plot an index of the time series of the number of national regulatory changes between 1992 and 2006, in which its data was obtained from various annual surveys on national laws and regulations. These series were regarded as proxies for the amount of interventions aimed at expanding and restricting FDI activities and the graph illustrated clearly the existence of a growing trend over the past 15 years of introduction of policies aimed at promoting FDI. Since 1992 at least 80 percent of regulatory changes have been favourable to FDI, particularly those in the 1990s (see Contessi and Weinberger, 2009). Furthermore, the absolute number of favourable changes has steadily increased since 1992, with some countries introducing more provisions now passing legislation to encourage foreign investment. It then means that countries now welcome FDI injections into their countries.

On firm level productivity spill over, Ayanwale and Bamire (2001) assess the influence of FDI on firm level productivity in Nigeria and report a positive spill over of foreign firms on domestic firm’s productivity. Much of the other empirical work on FDI in Nigeria centred on examination of its nature, determinants and potentials., Odozi (1995) notes that foreign investment in Nigeria was made up of mostly “greenfield” investment, that is, it is mostly utilized for the establishment of new enterprises and some through the existing enterprises. Aremu (1997) categorized the various types of foreign investment in Nigeria into five: wholly foreign owned; joint ventures; special contract arrangements; technology management and marketing arrangements; and subcontract co-production and specialization.

In his study of the determinants of FDI in Nigeria, Anyanwu (1998) identified change in domestic investment, change in domestic output or market size, indigenization policy, and change in openness of the economy as major determinants of FDI. He further noted that the abrogation of the indigenization policy in 1995 encouraged FDI inflow into Nigeria and that effort must be made to raise the nation’s economic growth so as to be able to attract more FDI.

Jerome and Ogunkola (2004) assessed the magnitude, direction and prospects of FDI in Nigeria. They noted that while the FDI regime in Nigeria was generally improving, some serious deficiencies remain. These deficiencies are mainly in the area of the corporate environment (such as corporate law, bankruptcy, labour law, etc.) and institutional uncertainty, as well as the rule of law. The establishment and the activities of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, and the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission are efforts to improve the corporate environment and uphold the rule of law.

Blomstrom et al. (1994) report that FDI exerts a positive effect on economic growth, but that there seems to be a threshold level of income above which FDI has positive effect on economic growth and below which it does not. The explanation was that only those countries that have reached a certain income level can absorb new technologies and benefit from technology diffusion, and thus reap the extra advantages that FDI can offer. Previous works suggest human capital as one of the reasons for the differential response to FDI at different levels of income. This is because it takes a well-educated population to understand and spread the benefits of new innovations to the whole economy.

Borensztein et al. (1998) also found that the interaction of FDI and human capital had important effect on economic growth, and suggest that the differences in the technological absorptive ability may explain the variation in growth effects of FDI across countries. They suggest further that countries may need a minimum threshold stock of human capital in order to experience positive effects of FDI.

Balasubramanyan (1996) report positive interaction between human capital and FDI. They had earlier found significant results supporting the assumption that FDI is more important for economic growth in export-promoting than import-substituting countries. This implies that the impact of FDI varies across countries and that trade policy can affect the role of FDI in economic growth. In summary, UNCTAD (1999) submits that FDI has either a positive or negative impact on output depending on the variables that are entered alongside it in the test equation. These variables include the initial per capita GDP, education attainment, domestic investment ratio, political instability, terms of trade, black market exchange rate premiums, and the state of financial development.

Examining other variables that could explain the interaction between FDI and growth, Olofsdotter (1998) submits that the beneficiary effects of FDI are stronger in those countries with a higher level of institutional capability. He therefore emphasized the importance of bureaucratic efficiency in enabling FDI effects. The neoclassical economists argue that FDI influences economic growth by increasing the amount of capital per person. However, because of diminishing returns to capital, it does not influence long-run economic growth.

Bengos and Sanchez-Robles (2003) assert that even though FDI is positively correlated with economic growth, host countries require minimum human capital, economic stability and liberalized markets in order to benefit from long-term FDI inflows. Interestingly, Bende-Nabende et al. (2002) found that direct long-term impact of FDI on output is significant and positive for comparatively economically less advanced Philippines and Thailand, but negative in the more economically advanced Japan and Taiwan. Hence, the level of economic development may not be the main enabling factor in FDI growth nexus. On the other hand, the endogenous school of thought opines that FDI also influences long-run variables such as research and development (R&D) and human capital (Romer, 1986; Lucas, 1988). FDI could be beneficial in the short term but not in the long term.

Durham (2004), for example, failed to establish a positive relationship between FDI and growth, but instead suggests that the effects of FDI are contingent on the “absorptive capability” of host countries. Obwona (2001) notes in his study of the determinants of FDI and their impact on growth in Uganda that macroeconomic and political stability and policy consistency are important parameters determining the flow of FDI into Uganda and that FDI affects growth positively but insignificantly. Ekpo (1995) reports that political regime, real income per capita, rate of inflation, world interest rate, credit rating and debt service explain the variance of FDI in Nigeria. For non-oil FDI, however, Nigeria’s credit rating is very important in drawing the needed FDI into the country. Furthermore, spillover effects could be observed in the labour markets through learning and its impact on the productivity of domestic investment (Sjoholm, 1999).

Sjoholm suggests that through technology transfer to their affiliates and technological spillovers to unaffiliated firms in host economy, transnational corporations (TNCs) can speed up development of new intermediate product varieties, raise the quality of the product, facilitate international collaboration on R&D, and introduce new forms of human capital. FDI also contributes to economic growth via technology transfer. TNCs can transfer technology either directly (internally) to their foreign owned enterprises (FOE) or indirectly (externally) to domestically owned and controlled firms in the host country (Blomstrom et al., 2000; UNCTAD, 2000).

Spillovers of advanced technology from foreign owned enterprises to domestically owned enterprises can take any of four ways: vertical linkages between affiliates and domestic suppliers and consumers; horizontal linkages between the affiliates and firms in the same industry in the host country (Lim, 2001; Smarzynska, 2002); labour turnover from affiliates to domestic firms; and internationalization of R&D (Hanson, 2001; Blomstrom and Kokko, 1998). The pace of technological change in the economy as a whole will depend on the innovative and social capabilities of the host country, together with the absorptive capacity of other enterprises in the country (Carkovic and Levine, 2002).

Other than the capital augmenting element, some economists see FDI as having a direct impact on trade in goods and services (Markussen and Vernables, 1998). Trade theory expects FDI inflows to result in improved competitiveness of host countries’ exports (Blomstrom and Kokko, 1998). TNCs can have a negative impact on the direct transfer of technology to the FOEs, however, and thereby reduce the spill over from FDI in the host country in several ways. They can provide their affiliate with too few or the wrong kind of technological capabilities, or even limit access to the technology of the parent company. The transfer of technology can be prevented if it is not consistent with the TNC’s profit maximizing objective and if the cost of preventing the transfer is low. Consequently, the production of its affiliates could be restricted to low-level activities and the scope for technical change and technological learning within the affiliate reduced. This would be by limiting downstream producers to low value intermediate products, and in some cases “crowding out” local producers to eliminate competition. They may also limit exports to competitors and confine production to the needs of the TNCs. These may ultimately result in a decline in the overall growth rate of the “host country and worsened balance of payment situation” (Blomstrom and Kokko, 1998). CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Introduction

This chapter shall be committed to the description of the methodology to be adopted for this research work. Therefore, it will contain model specification, estimation techniques, source of data and data requirement and evaluation criteria. In order to analyze the short-run dynamics and long-run environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. This research work shall adopt econometric methodology, which consists of the use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. According to Gujarati (2002), “the aim of econometric is to verify economic theory or assertion on how well the explanatory power of the model estimated behaves with regard to macro economic unit. This justified the reason for adopting econometric tools for this study. 3.1Data Description And Sources Of Data

This research study makes use of secondary data. The variables used are the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), Index of mining industry (IMI) and capital flight (KF). The data are collected from the CBN statistical bulletin, the publication of CBN and the World Development Indicators 2010. It will cover the period of 1980 – 2010.

3.2 Model Specification
The variable required for this study like most other studies are both dependent and independent variable. The OLS technique was then adopted for the specification of the model in the form: GDP = f (FDI, IMI, PCI) …………………….. (1)

log (GDP) = β0 + β1 log( FDI) + β2 log (IMI)+ β3 log (PCI) + U …….. (2) IMI = f (FDI) …………………….. (3)
log (IMI) = β0 + β1 log( FDI) + U …….. (2b)
GDP = Gross Domestic Product
FDI = Foreign Direct Investment
IMI = Index Minning Industry
KF = CapitaI Flight
3.3A Priori Expectation
A priori refers to what the theory (With regard to he different schools of thought) says about each of our variable. Based on this we expect our independent variables to display their respective behaviours based on what theory says in relation to the dependent variables that is being specified in our model. Foreign Direct Investment

∂GDP / ∂FDI > 0
Theory says FDI has a direct relationship with gross domestic product; this will exhibit a positive sign. This implies that an increase in inflation rate would lead to an decrease in the GDP. Index Of Mining Industry

∂GDP / ∂IMI > 0
Theory also says that there is a direct relationship between gross domestic product and IMI and this will exhibit a positive sign. This implies that an increase in IMI will lead to an increase in the gross domestic product. CapitaI Flight

∂GDP / ∂KF >0
Theory says that here is a positive relationship between gross domestic product and KF. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between thee two variables, i.e. increase in gross domestic product will lead to increased KF. Foreign Direct Investment

∂IMI/ ∂FDI> 0
Theory also says that there is a positive relationship between Index Of Mining Industry and foreign direct investment and this will exhibit a positive sign. This implies that an increase FDI will lead to an increase in IMI. 3.4 Test Of Significance And Decision Criteria

There are certain criteria that are important in analyzing our regression results and these criteria are worthy of note. Before the final interpretation in chapter 4, we will briefly highlight these criteria. They are: 3.4.1 Standard Error of Estimate (S.E.E)

According to D.N Gujarati, it is simply the standard deviation of the’’ Y’’ values about the estimated regression line and is often used as summary measures of the “goodness of fit” of the estimated regression line. It can also be used to measure the standard error of the stochastic term (Ut). If the standard errors of the estimates are small relatives to the mean value of the dependent variable, the model is preferred and vice versa if otherwise. 3.4.2 The D.W Statistics

The most celebrated test for determining serial correlation is that developed by statistical Durbin – Watson d statistic (Gujarati). This test is used to test for the presence of correlation in the variables. The simple correlations Matrix of the variables will be used as a guide in determining what combination of the explanatory variables are responsible for multi-collinearity. 3.4.3 Coefficient of Determination

An important property of R2 is a non-decreasing function of the number of explanatory variables or regressors present in the model. The problem associated with R2 and adjusted-R2 will be used in measuring the goodness of
fit of our regression.

3.4.4The F. Statistics
The F- Test, which is a measure of the overall significance of the estimated regression, is also a test of significance of R2. It involves the ratio of 2 independent estimates of variance. The regression is adequate if the F – statistic gives a value higher than the appropriate table F- statistic. But if the calculated F-Statistic is less than the appropriate tables figure found form the F-Table with K-1 and N-K degree of freedom, the regression will be significant. 3.4.5 The Student T- Test

It is used to determine the statistical significance of parameters. A two tailed test would be carried out at the 1%, 5% and 10% levels of significance. 3.5Justification For The Estimation Technique

This research work is based on the (OLS) equation; design to predict the relationship between the explained and explanatory variable. The model is basically in multiple regression forms. Though there is no consensus on which of the available economic model is the most suitable for empirical stations but the parameter estimate obtained by Ordinary Least Square (OLS) have some optimal properties. Secondly, the computational procedure of ordinary least square is fairly simple as compared with other econometric technique and that the data requirements are not excessive. Thirdly, the least square method has been in a wide large of economic relationship with fairly satisfactory result and despite the improvement of computational equipment and of statistical information which facilitated the use of other more elaborate econometric techniques. Also, OLS is an essential component of most other econometric techniques.

Given the literature review and theoretical exposition in the previous chapter of this study, this chapter presents the result of the empirical analysis of environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. As it has been widely acknowledged that research is an investigation taking place, in other to discover new facts, verifying existing knowledge as well as obtained additional information about something with a view of solving its inherent problem or improving its beneficial attributes, research methodology here refers to the methodological process adopted in the scientific investigation to discover facts. It contains the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. 4.1 PRESENTATION OF DATA

Table 4.1 Aggregate of FDI, Mining Sector Output, Per Capita Income and GDP in Nigeria (1980 – 2010) YEAR
GDP #’m
FDI #’m
IMI #’m
KF #’m
Source: CBN Statistical Bulletin (2011)
4.2Restatement of Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining sector. H1: There is a significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining

Table 4.2.1: Result of the Regression Analysis I
Standard Error
Source: Output Of Regression Analysis (See Appendix)
R2 = 0.9397 Adjusted R2 = 0.9328 D-W = 2.001 F-Statistics = 135.2161 The estimated equation is presented below
GDP = 0.3756 + 0.3753( FDI) + 0.8432 (IMI)+ 0.5037 (PCI)
The empirical result obtained from the regression analysis I is presented in Table 4.2.1 above. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9397 shows that the set of explanatory variables explain 93.97% of the variation in the dependent variable (Gross Domestic Product), which also confirmed the high value of the F-statistics and corresponding p-value of Zero probability that the parameters are not equal to zero at all level of significance and that the model as a whole is significant. The adjusted R2 of 0.9397 also indicate that the model has good fit. The sign of all parameters coefficients are positive and validate the theoretical exposition and are statistically significant at 5% level of significant, judging from the respective value of their standard error and t-statistics. Foreign direct investment and capital flight are significant at 5% level of significance.

The Durbin-Watson statistics of the value 2.001 show that there is no serial autocorrelation, that the independent variables are not correlated with each other. The regression result shows that 37.53 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the GDP. GDP will increase by one per cent as index of mining output and capital flight increased by 84.32 and 50.37 per cent respectively. Table 4.2.2: Result of the Regression Analysis II

Standard Error
Source: Output Of Regression Analysis (See Appendix)
R2 = 0.9204 Adjusted R2 =0.9176 D-W =1.2893 F-Statistics = 324.1033
The estimated equation is presented below
IMI = 4.0136 + 0.0803 (FDI)
The empirical result obtained from the regression analysis II is presented in Table 4.2.2 above. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9204 shows that the set of explanatory variables explain 92.04% of the variation in the dependent variable (Index of Mining Output), which also confirmed the high value of the F-statistics and corresponding p-value of Zero probability that the parameters are not equal to zero at all level of significance and that the model as a whole is significant. The sign of the parameter’s coefficient is positive and validate the theoretical exposition and are statistically significant at 5% level of significant, judging from the value of the standard error and t-statistics. Foreign direct investment is significant at 5% level of significance. The regression result shows that 8.03 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the mining output. With these results, it can now be concluded that there is significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining sector.

5.0Summary of Major Findings
This study attempted to estimate the environmental impact of Foreign Direct Investment in the mining sector in Nigeria. It is argued that only those countries that have reached a certain income level can absorb new technologies and benefit from technology diffusion, and thus reap the extra advantages that FDI can offer. The mining industry in Nigeria is dominated by oil. Indeed, Nigeria is the largest producer of this commodity in Africa and six largest producers in the world. Other important mineral commodities include bauxite, manganese iron-ore, coal, lime stone and diamonds.In this regard, it is discovered that some other factors apart from FDI stimulate activities of the mining industry and enhance growth in Nigeria. These factors include: availability of capital, parallel market premium and competitive growth rate of the economy. This research study makes use of secondary data.

The variables used are the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), output of mining industry and per capital flight (KF). This study covers a period of 31 years that spans between 1980 and 2010. The regression analysis of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method will be use for analysing the data. The result of the analysis shows that 37.53 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the GDP. GDP will increase by one per cent as index of mining output and capital flight increased by 84.32 and 50.37 per cent respectively. It was also reveal that 8.03 per cent increase in FDI caused one per cent increase in the mining output.

5.1 Conclusion
Emanating from the empirical findings, this study concludes that there is significant environmental impact of foreign direct investment in Nigeria’s mining sector. Countries lacking capital accumulation and technological progress usually grow much slower than countries with high investment rate and huge research and development (R&D) expenditures. It is known in some cases that FDI exerts a positive effect on economic growth, but that there seems to be a threshold level of income above which FDI has positive effect on economic growth and below which it does not. Given the fact that mineral resources are an important source of wealth for a nation but before they are harnessed and that they have to pass through the stages of exploration, mining and processing different types of environmental damage and hazards inevitably accompany the three stages of mineral development. We can therefore safely conclude, based on the result of the analysis, that there is every reason to hope for the better perfomance of Nigeria’s mining industry in the area of environment maintenance. 5.2 Recommendations

As discussed in the empirical analysis above and on the basis of the conclusion the study proffers the following recommendations. a) Policy measures should be instituted to make the domestic economy more attractive for investment in the mining sector of the economy. b) Since FDI in Nigeria induces the nation’s economic growth through the overall effect on the whole economy may not be significant, the components of FDI positively affect economic growth and therefore FDI needs to be encouraged. c) FDI that are directed ot mining sector needs to be made to contribute positively to the growth of the whole economy and especially to the non-oil sector. The privatization of the downstream sector of the oil industry, which was commenced by the government recently, needs to continue so as to integrate the oil sector into the economy and thereby enhance its potential to contribute to economic growth. d) One way to improve the business environment is by conscious provision of necessary infrastructure, which will lower the costs of doing business in Nigeria.

The privatization of the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) now known as Power Holding Company may be a step in the right direction if there is an improvement in the service provided. This will enable the manufacturing FDI to contribute significantly to economic growth. e) There may be need to further liberalize the power sector by encouraging independent power supply providers. These should be encouraged to complement the efforts of the Power Holding Company, whose inability is apparent in constant power failures and attendant high costs of providing electricity. f) There is need for guided training and integration of the human resources of the country to enable them to contribute positively to economic growth wherever they find themselves employed either with foreign or with indigenous firms and whichever sector they are in. The need for training high quality personnel in the country cannot be overemphasized.

5.3Suggestions for Future Studies
Notwithstanding the less-than-encouraging record for performance requirements in achieving host-government development objectives, governments are not helpless in influencing the balance of costs and benefits from FDI. It could even be argued that because of the greater global flows of FDI and the increased competition to attract MNEs, especially in the mining sector of the economy, host-country government policies matter more than ever. Appropriate policies can both improve the chances of attracting international direct investment and increase the degree of technology transfer stemming from that investment. The single most important step a host government can take is to improve the enabling environment for both domestic and foreign investment. The term “enabling environment” is often construed as a euphemism for laissez-faire economic policies, but while it clearly involves recourse to market mechanisms and the removal of restrictions, it also necessitates more active policies in other areas. An appropriate enabling environment, together with the transparent implementation of policies, provides greater scope for host governments to influence investor behaviour . Specific policies other than performance requirements may also be applied to facilitate spillovers to local enterprises, and to encourage linkages more generally.

There is need for regular assessment Environmental Impact of FDI. This will offers a golden opportunity for the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. However, one of the major constraints for the effective implementation of EIA as a central tool for sustainable industrial development is that the EIA is seen differently from technical feasibility studies. To resolve this problem, the EIA Act must be revised appropriately, the EIA process should be adequately funded, more environmental public enlightenment activities should be conducted, EIA reports preparers should be trained, and re-trained while effective monitoring activities should be frequently carried out by the regulators. Nonetheless, the limitations of this study arise from the fact that we as human agents can never be all round perfect. Hence the present study suffers from a number of limitations ranging from (1). Data is from a secondary source; as such it may have suffered from problem of bias and inaccuracy. (2). Non availability of data and gaps in some periods covered by the study as well as non inclusion of previous years data before 1980 due to these inadequacies. (3). Our inability to present correlation matrix to justify that the model does not have multicollinearity threat which we believe will be taken care of in further studies to significantly improve the work in future.

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Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution is the biggest menace to the human race on this planet today. It means adding impurity to environment. The environment consists of earth, water, air, plants and animals. If we pollute them, then the existence of man and nature will be hampered. It is true that trees are being cut down rapidly. Our earth is becoming warmer. If pollution continues, the day is not far when our earth will be a boiling pan and become a desert. Or it will be covered with sea water causing destruction of mankind. Pure air is always needed for inhaling.

If we take pure air, our health improves. On the other hand impure air causes diseases and impairs our health and causes our death. Smoke pollutes the air. It is the root of air pollution. The smoke which is discharged from industries, automobiles and kitchens is the mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane etc. These are all poisonous gases. These cause lung-cancer, tuberculosis etc. which take a heavy toll of life. The glaring incident is the Bhopal gas leak in December 1984.

Thousands of the residents of Bhopal died due to lungs problem which was caused by methylamine gas from the Union Carbide Plant. The garbage emitting foul smell, the decaying plants and animals also cause air pollution. Hence the doctors advise the patients having lungs trouble to settle in some rural places because the air of villages is pure and free from population. Then comes sound pollution. The harsh sounds of buses, its, mopeds etc. affect our power of hearing and causes fart trouble. It has been reported that there are two villages named Biraspalli and Devadas Palli near Dum Dum airport m Calcutta where a large number of people have lost their power of hearing. This is because of the frequent sounds of planes coming in and going out of Dum Dum Airport. The evils of sound pollution can be imagined from this example.

The water of rivers and seas is being constantly polluted all over the world by various dangerous chemical and biological wastes. Mills and factories discharge very harmful waste waters into many rivers and sea. The water of the Ganges flowing by the side of both Varanashi and Calcutta is extremely polluted and contains all sorts of dangerous bacteria. It is really very strange and laughable that large number of the Indians regard this water as holy. They even drink this water for salvation. There is no doubt that the fish that grow in such waters are poisonous too.

Reckless application of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides pollutes the soil. Vegetables and fruits are quite injurious today, because they contain the poison of insecticides and pesticides. If the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil which produces our crops, vegetables and fruits, all become more and more impure, then our chances of good health and longevity will be very less and less. Environment pollution is a serious menace to our existence. Realising the danger, we must plant trees in large number to absorb impure air. Impure water from industries can be sent back for purification and then it can be used for irrigation purpose. Our government is well aware of the fact and is taking steps to save environment from pollution. We have also I minister to look after the environment.

How environmental threats are influencing federal and state governments

Executive Summary

Environmental threats are influencing federal and state governments including other agencies such as universities to investigate how other social and governance aspects can be incorporated into the sustainability framework. Little critical inquiry exists on this topic and a paradigm shift is attempting to integrate and use Indigenous knowledge to inform contemporary environmental policy decisions and management solutions. Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation’s case study is an example of how complex this topic is.


Paradigm shifts are taking into consideration Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to be incorporated into sustainability frameworks in a context where little critical analysis has taken place. Much of this participatory approach is a new methodology used to work with Indigenous groups highlighting the uniqueness and complexities of incorporating these governance structures within legislative frameworks including the ethical considerations and mistrust towards governments.

Report Reviews

Reviews of 3 authoritative sources pertaining to Indigenous governance and sustainability show that there is a dichotomy between western science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge and that recommendations need to be taken into account for improved management. Case Study and Recommendations: Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation (BWAC) Operating as a small organisation in a remote region, BWAC have the ability to manage their affairs but are under-resourced and does not receive an income to manage the issues and problems that are affecting their objectives to achieve their aims. This section addresses the issues and problems experienced by BWAC and what they would have to change to manage these problems.


The review of governance issues and indicators of knowledge integration across the types supports that Indigenous governance and Indigenous-driven co-governance are important factors towards the integration of IEK and western science for sustainability of social-ecological systems. This report highlights that there are challenges towards achieving sustainability highlighting recommendations to take into consideration as evidenced with BWAC’s experience.


This report reviews three authoritative journals pertaining to Aboriginal environmental, governance and social aspects of sustainability to analyse the roles of values and culture on understanding of attitudes towards behaviours relevant to sustainability and business. First, an overview of the context reviewing the general literature on values, culture and sustainability pertaining will be provided. Next, recommendations to link cultural value systems and sustainability to improve relationships to modern governance, local council, various agencies and researchers for improved co-management systems will be analysed. The case study of Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation (BWAC) as an enterprise will be presented to highlight the complexities of this issue and describe a set of recommendations to change how the enterprise can manage cultural differences in sustainability strategies.

This case study illustrates the dilemmas and difficulties to achieve a consensus of cross-cultural work to local co-manager efforts to translate across knowledge systems and the knowledge-action divide. Environmental threats are influencing federal and state government including other agencies such as universities to investigate how other social and governance aspects can be incorporated into the sustainability framework. Little critical inquiry exists on this topic and a paradigm shift is attempting to integrate and use Indigenous Knowledge (IK) to inform contemporary environmental policy decisions and management solutions. How can the interactions between scientific and Indigenous Knowledge (IK) systems be effectively negotiated for the joint management of social-ecological systems? This is an important question because on Indigenous lands where co-management efforts respond to pressing conservation agendas the contribution of scientific knowledge and IK is required to better understand and manage complex social-ecological systems.

The integration of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK) and western science to promote cultural diversity in the management of social-ecological system sustainability offers opportunities for Indigenous peoples to engage with many decentralised approaches to environmental management. Within this context it is important to understand how organisations plan to sustain the whole system so that everyone can benefit for the generations to come. Factors such as the adaptive co-management context, the intrinsic characteristics of the natural resources, and the governance systems affect the diverse processes of combining IEK and western science. Scholars of planning have debated and empirically tested that protected areas therefore provide a context in which many of the ideas and concepts are different. The sharing the burden of management responsibilities have emerged as a potential new paradigm in natural resource planning with developing cooperative relationships with local stakeholders.


The marginalisation and dispossession of Indigenous peoples in Australia, until recent decades, is also attributed to the establishment of protected areas. Participation of Indigenous people in recent conservation planning and country management has enabled them to develop and refine governance and policy frameworks to recognise protected areas as part of Indigenous land and sea country. The co-management of terrestrial protected areas and the declaration and management of Indigenous protected areas is an arena that Australian is internationally pioneering. Further policy and protocol development has not progressed uniformly across Australia due to; Achievement of practical, meaningful social and environmental benefits through conservation agreements and activities. Implications of native title determinations over protected areas; Recognition of Indigenous peoples’ rights and interests in marine protected area management;

This process has provided scope for recommendations for improvements to enhance the recognition, respect and rights of Traditional Owners as protected area co-managers for better social dimensions and responsibility. Across existing cooperative planning models improved partnerships and communications are needed to enable Indigenous and non- Indigenous collaborators to share ways of enabling country-based planning and management to assist in species and landscape conservation. Hill’s (2006) framework and table highlight the polar approaches to managements based on the Kuku Yalangi case study in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (Appendix A). The conservation management literature in recent years has highlighted that co-management of parks and protected areas is important. Based on the experience of park managers struggling to integrate the protected area with the socioeconomic fabric of the surrounding region has supported the rationale for this approach to protected area management. This rich experience informs calls for co-management however, the theoretical rationale for an explanation of co-management, have been slow in realisation.

Aspects, Issues and Problems

Four issues are identified for the incorporation of Indigenous value systems and how different cultures influence the social dimension, responsibility and modern governance. The process of interrelation has affected not only the articulation of Aboriginal identities, but also implicates the importance of local cosmologies The practice of cultural differences, beliefs and values that reflects to individual behaviours represent their identity and organization The local community are themselves deeply affected by the growing saturation forms of knowledge, practice and values including socio cultural through colonial interference Modern governance and legislation affect traditional beliefs and cultures learned from ancestors

Issue 1: Interrelations and implications of Aboriginal identities

It is recommended that support be provided to Traditional Owners to continue their practices to incorporate their beliefs, values and culture, to sustain the community relationships and the social dimensions of each group of agency and government sector. It is important to assist them to build their capacity to ensure that these practices will be passed onto the next generational to encourage more sustainability in social and environmental aspects in the future. The action needs to be delivered with respect to maintain the social dimension of the communities for improved governance.

Issue 2: Cultural differences, beliefs and values

Again it is recommended that respect be shown to individual or organisations in order to achieve a sustainable environment or relationship. Good governance and leadership can deliver the social equity to achieve each
individual or organisation goals or projects. Their information is thousands of years old and should be given the respect it deserves.

Issue 3: Introduced influences

The effects of colonialism has affected many Indigenous societies creating a wedge and feelings of mistrust and caution with imparting Traditional Knowledge without compensation or recognition. It is recommended that Indigenous people be provided with support for capacity building, governance, Intellectual Property rights and access to their country without exploitation. Issue 4: The influences of modern governance and legislation Indigenous people perceive current legislations, especially the Native Title Act 1993, as very racist that supports colonial practices to ‘conquer and divide’ and therefore are very reluctant to partake in government conservation strategies. Financial support to deliver the projects is minimum and not guaranteed to be on-going. Green washing by the governments is also another contributing factor affecting Indigenous participation. The land is very sacred and central to Indigenous people and the environmental schemes offered by governments are perceived as a ‘carrot on a stick’ to coax people in to provide information for management plans to destroy the land for mining activities.

Land Councils are funded by governments to administer these ineffective schemes without any accountability. Bohnet’s (2009) application of socio-logical planning framework on a holistic landscape in the Tully-Murray basin to test its transferability and effectiveness for knowledge integration in a water quality improvement planning context in the Great Barrier Reef proved to be challenging that achieved rewarding results. The acknowledgment that social and ecological knowledge is a key issue and research priorities in landscape ecology is supported by Bohnet (2009:1) who states that “further research into the roles of responsibilities of multi-stakeholder for knowledge integration in developing and managing sustainable land- and sea-scapes is recommended”.

Figure 1: Bohnet’s (2009) Flow of the adaption and operationalisation of the socio-logical framework for sustainable landscape planning to water quality improvement planning in the Tully–Murray Basin

Report Reviews

We present a typology of Indigenous governance in environmental management derived through report review of 3 Australian journals, and consider its implications for the integration of IEK with western science. Our analytical framework is underpinned by sociological and rational choice institutionalism and which are differentiated by these three points: (1) Active participation, incorporating participatory planning, engagement with organizations, and coordination approaches; (2) Indigenous engagement, Indigenous development and capacity building for intercultural purpose, incorporating purposes of environmental management; (3) Sharing power, incorporating decision making, defining rules, resource values and property rights. We attempt to find solutions that are associated to Indigenous-driven co-governance; Indigenous governed collaborations; and agency governance; agency-driven co-governance. We draw on the notion of boundary work to examine how interaction at the boundaries of scientific and IK systems can be managed effectively as a contribution to co-management.

The case study of Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation (BWAC) illustrates the work necessary for local co-managers to meld scientific and IK systems ensuring that management decisions are informed by the translation of knowledge. Attributes for effective implementing planning in this case include: (1) Translating the issues and problems and taking into consideration BWAC’s recommendations and objectives for participation in agenda setting and joint knowledge production. (2) Taking into consideration the recommendations presented in the reviews to broker interactions between knowledge systems that are supported by co-governance arrangements to ensure that boundary work remains accountable, and the production of collaboratively built boundary objects. (3) Providing BWAC with support to develop their capacity for improved business planning, governance, on-country planning and strategic planning. (4) Working directly with the organisation rather than Cape York Land Council and Balkanu.

This will ensure integrity and that correct information is provided at the same time providing BWAC with the capacity towards self-determination. Szabo and Smyth’s (2003) summary of the background to the establishment of Indigenous Protected Areas (IPA) in Australia of the legal and policy innovations on which they are based shows that environmental and cultural benefits are inseparable. IPAs are managed and owned by Indigenous peoples and developed collaboratively with federal, state and territory conservation agencies in accordance with IUCN categories that forms part of Australia’s national system of protected areas. Szabo and Smyth (2003:7) through workshopping found that benefits included: Getting Traditional Owners back on country, often after long absences; Involving school children in IPA field trips, transferring knowledge between generations and strengthening languages; Re-establishing traditional burning practices, maintaining waterholes and reducing feral animal impacts; Providing training and employment in managing country;

Promoting renewed interest about caring for the country.

They also write (2003:8);

“In addition to these formal joint management arrangements, most Australian states and territories have provision for some Indigenous involvement throughout their protected area systems. This might involve, for example, a commitment to consultation with Indigenous people, an Indigenous representative on an advisory committee, some employment or responsibility for Indigenous heritage protection. Indigenous people have consistently expressed the view that such arrangements do not adequately recognise their status as traditional landowners and they are seeking more meaningful involvement, especially at the decision and policy-making level. One feature that is common to all co-management arrangements is the lack of opportunity for Indigenous groups to decide whether or not they wanted their traditional lands to become protected areas.” Table 1(Szabo and Smyth 2003:9) shows a comparison of the main features of IPAs with co-managed protected areas in Australia.

Table 1: Comparative features of Indigenous Protected Areas and co-managed national parks in Australia

1. Altman, J.C. ‘Sustainable Development Options on Aboriginal Land: The Hybrid Economy in the Twenty-First Century’. CAEPR Discussion Paper No. 226, 2001. Challenges to broaden the notion of the economy and development to include the customary economy: Altman’s objectives in this journal is clearly defined and summarised to highlight that there are challenges to understanding the dichotomy of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous sustainability. Working for the Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation in central Arnhem Land he proposes a model to converge his social science work with a number of biological scientists based at the Australian Research Council ARC Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management at the Northern Territory University. He argues that to achieve this required a paradigm shift in ideological positions and notions of development that are entrenched in the market mentality that do not accommodate cross-cultural and sustainability issues.

He successfully outlines the economic development problems that are faced by this periphery group describing the hybrid economy consisting of market, state and customary components that politicians, policy makers and Indigenous people and their representative organisations do not fully understand. These are the key immediate challenges that he raises for this shortfalling as cited from page 16: The first is to understand the nature of the economy, plan for sustainability, and nurture the hybrid economy in ways that mesh with Indigenous values. The second is to shift the political debate to ensure a recognition of customary contributions provided by Indigenous people to regional and national economies and industries, and ensure appropriate financial underwriting by those who benefit, Finally, market opportunities in many remote localities are rare, so when new opportunities arise they must be quickly harnessed by Indigenous interests. It is imperative that newly emerging property rights (e.g. in tradeable carbon credits) are commercially realised not alienated as in the past.

Overall, the article is concise, however it should be understood in a pioneering context. In summing up the concepts, argument and method used to show his evidence served its purpose to shed light on this topic to contribute positive approaches to combine Indigenous and Non-Indigenous sustainability. His explanation to show that Indigenous contributions are quantified and should be recognised in mainstream economies was achieved. His arguments provides an alternative pathway to improve the inadequate analytical approaches that fail to ask how develop based on market engagement be delivered to communities that are extremely remote from locational and cultural markets. In its context his suggested framework to understand the hybrid economy through hybrid analytical and intellectual combination of science, social science and Indigenous Knowledge systems is plausible and partially relevant to BWAC.

2. Smith, B. A Complex Balance: Mediating Sustainable Development Cape York Peninsula. The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, 2003. Recognising differences and compromising between Indigenous and non-Indigenous ways: Smith accomplishes his objective to describe a sustainable development project in a remote rural Aboriginal community. He empirically examines through his field work in central Cape York Peninsula (1996 – 2003) the differences and ongoing compromises between forms of social and political and economic organisations of Indigenous and non-Indigenous ways. His methodology effectively demonstrates that development intervention is likely to fail when it is not appreciative of differences between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous ideals and ways of doing things to improve human living conditions. He illustrates that impacts such as colonialism and post-colonial impacts and policies such as ‘self-determination’ and welfare dependencies have contributed to the problems affecting good governance. Shifts in recent policy and research of engagement with economic, social, political and environment considerations were flawed and flagged ‘traditional Indigenous values’ affecting development.

On page 101 he writes; “this lack of engagement with Indigenous ideals and ways of doing things pervades Australia’s mainstream Indigenous discourse”. Whereas the “mainstream discourse, more obviously ‘material’ poverty and social problems take priority over ‘cultural’ or symbolic dimensions of Indigenous life and of the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations”. He develops his arguments based on authoritative sources to support that intervention of external agencies would be more effective when they work with rather than against local values and practices. To support his argument he draws on his fieldwork to examine how a contemporary remote Aboriginal community is pursuing ‘sustainable development’ and how ‘cultural’ dimensions shape and constrain the community’s efforts.

Incorporated into his ethnographical approach a historical analysis showed innovative approaches that explained the corporation’s successes to involve the articulation of different cultural domains – ‘mainstream’ or ‘Western’ and local Indigenous life-worlds – in its day-to-day operations, involving divergent aspirations and values. Aspirations included an emphasis on decentralisation and outstation development, land rights, the resourcing of activities on traditional lands, and town-based economic development, employment and training opportunities. Based on his observations, for Aboriginal autonomy to be successful the social and cultural dimensions of development projects need to be taken into consideration. Again, this paper has to be appreciated in the context that it was written as it is slightly outdated and based on evidence when the movement towards Indigenous sustainable development was in the trailing stages.

3. Smith, B. ‘We Got Our Own Management’: Local Knowledge, Government and Development in Cape York Peninsula, 2005. Indigenous perspectives of governance in Cape York Peninsula: Again Smith relies on his fieldwork in Coen to examine the growing interrelationship of local knowledge and projects of government amongst Indigenous Australians. He relies on ethnographical material to highlight the tensions and complexities of land and natural resource management involving traditional owners. In analysing the ways in which the concept of management he demonstrates the growing interrelation of originally distinct indigenous and exogenous systems that has affected the articulation of Aboriginal identities and implicated in the current importance of local cosmologies. He cleverly entices the reader by telling a story of a meeting about the Hendra virus threats and transferred from flying foxes to horses and humans between local traditional owners and Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS) Scientist.

In particular he relates how Traditional Owner’s version of cosmology that the flying foxes come from the mouth of the rainbow serpent did not agree with the scientist who told them that ‘they flew up from Ravenshoe.’ His statement on page 6 conjures up this extremity “for these men and women, the articulation of Aboriginal world views, including those closely tied to local cosmologies, has provided a key means of asserting not only what they regard as fundamental differences between Aboriginal life-worlds and those social and cultural fields to which these external agencies are fundamentally orientated; but also the necessary primacy of Aboriginal cosmologies and linked forms of social organisation in determining the character of local ‘governance’ projects and ‘natural resource management.”

Firstly, he sufficiently provides an overview of the governance of Cape York Peninsula by providing a historical analysis of the township and ties in an analysis of Indigenous ‘conceptualisation of the innate’. Next, his overview of the development of Indigenous involvement in natural resource management demonstrates the problems associated with negotiating within this framework. He proficiently articulates the views and concerns of his participants and provides evidence that they were not happy with outside organisations based in Cairns working on their business as they felt that their ownership was taken away from them. He writes “the sense of localisation insists on the necessity if Aboriginal people representing themselves and the country with which they have personal ties. It further discriminates between forms of knowledge, decision making and practice held to be indigenous to a particular area and the people tied to that area under ‘Murri [Aboriginal] law’, and those forms regarded as exogenous.”

To achieve his overall objective Smith ties in the work and structure of Chuulangu Aboriginal Corporation situated on the Wenlock River and run by David Claudie who has been very successful in incorporating both Indigenous and Western approaches to cultural and natural resource management as evidenced on their web page: This document is very relevant to BWAC as aspirations and difficulties experienced with outside organisations are very similar to Chuulangu Aboriginal Corporation. Smith’s account of governance in Cape York Peninsula is a very plausible and relevant document that policy makers, politicians and researchers should read to grasp an understanding to guide socio-ecological methodologies for better social dimensions and social responsibility in delivering projects. The Cape York experiences shares similarities with other Indigenous organisations wanting to achieve the same goals, however, their issues and problems are uniquely different outside this region. Case Study and Recommendations: Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation (BWAC)


Binthi Wambal Aboriginal Corporation (Indigenous Corporation Number ICN 4055) is an Indigenous Organisation that is registered with the Office of the Register of Indigenous Organisations as prescribed by the Corporations (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) Act 2006 (CATSI Act). As outlined in the Rule Book the objectives the corporation aims to achieve are:

Return to their traditional land;

Re-establish their spiritual connection with the land;

Work their land in both the ancient way of the Aboriginal, and in the modern way of cattle and crops; Facilitate the training and education of the corporation members and their families; and Establish self-sufficiency towards the future for the next generation.

Binthi country is situated approximately 40 kilometres north of Cooktown on the McIvor River and comprises mixed tenure arrangements within the Guugu Yimithirr Nation (Appendix B). This corporation also manages the protection of the cultural sites within their territory and is aspiring towards self-sufficiency to develop their outstation. They are also very interested in participating in cultural tourism business to share and showcase their culture and country.

Aspects or Issues and Problems

Operating as a small organisation in a remote region, BWAC is under-resourced and does not receive an income to manage the issues and problems that are affecting their objectives to achieve their aims. Binthi people would like to develop strategies and management plans to protect their cultural and natural values that are increasingly affected by mining and pastoralism. With the associated problems of the current economic climate BWAC are keen to address these problems to assist them with funding opportunities and compliancy with the CATSI Act. In 1994 the Indigenous Land Corporation purchased Mt Baird Station for Binthi Traditional Owners and this did not include further support to develop or maintain the property. The rates to the Cook Shire Council are an issue as BWAC cannot afford to pay and Hope Vale Aboriginal Council have paid the outstanding amounts and are currently leasing the property for a 10 year period. BWAC also hold lease titles within the Deeds of Grants in Trust (DOGIT) land which is currently managed by a defunct organisation called the Congress of Clans set up and operated by the Cape York Land Council (CYLC) and Balkanu.

The government transferred the title to this organisation in 2012 including over $7 million dollars in ex-gratia money of frozen royalty funds from Cape Flattery Silica Mines and which has been misappropriated by CYLC and Balkanu. This is currently a very controversial issue and a major concern to all the Traditional Owner Groups within this boundary, as it impinges upon their rights and access to their country. An illegal and fraudulent process occurred whereby the traditional owners were not negotiated with and the rightful owners of Cape Flattery did not receive their monies. As the signatures were obtained fraudulently the protection of cultural and natural heritage for all involved is at stake.

Finally, the community has two tiers of bureaucracy to deal with, including Local Government Authorities and the welfare reform imposed without free and prior informed consent. Partnerships and Cape York Institute that promote this are associated with Cape York Land Council and Balkanu and whose members and affiliates have been the perpetrators of violence that members of BWAC and the community have tolerated for many years. Ironically, they receive millions of dollars of funding from the government to roll out this program with Local Commissioners who all have criminal histories and no qualifications.


Issue 1: Governance and strategic business planning

It is a priority that viable strategic business plans are developed to raise BWAC to a level to be competitive and eligible for funding opportunities to improve administration and governance matters. Regular meetings and reporting are required for compliancy with the CATSI Act and audit purposes. Funding opportunities to employ a Project Officer to oversee this is a positive outcome that will alleviate the pressures of these issues at hand. These are to be developed initially to then set in place recommendations to be implemented. In doing so, it is important that the business drivers be refined to enhance product quality, cost image and passion to make a difference. The vision and objectives may have to be revisited, so that it is short and realistic in an ever changing environment. The current position will also have to be reconsidered and bought into context, so that gap analysis can be undertake to develop strategies are developed in an action plan for every strategy for implementation and review so that they can be improved. Binthi Wambal, Chuulangu and Dingaal Warra are all working towards the same vision and to do so will also involve exposing Balkanu and Cape York Land Council for corruption and fraud.

It is recommended that these organisations and others support each other and it is expected that the strategic business planning process to take one year to thoroughly complete. Issue 2: Rates for freehold property and tenure associated to Deeds of Grant in Trust lands To overcome the issue to generate income BWAC must develop employment and training strategies in conjunction with viable crop and harvest economy, or other suggested ideas. In addition, partnerships with other stakeholders, such as Indigenous organisations, Local Government and government agencies, are recommended as the most practical way for support and to further advance financial problems. It is also recommended that legal advice be obtained on the tenure related problems for counteraction to High Court proceedings and the Human Rights Commission and the International United Nations Committees for breaches of human rights issues.

The same applies to challenging the Welfare Reform Policies currently in place. Financial assistance for initiation start-up of $250, 000 is required to undertake this task and strategies developed to ensure that these outcomes are achievable. Approximately $10, 000 per annum is required for rate payments. The rates will be an ongoing issue and it is expected that the tenure issue can take approximately 1- 2 years to resolve. In the interim, whilst Hope Vale Council is managing the property BWAC can provide support. Within eight years BWAC can be resourced to be able to manage the property.

Issue 3: Mining Threats

It is necessary that BWAC develop a Cultural Heritage Management Plan as prescribed by the Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 (Appendix C) and exercise their right to negotiate with mining companies, as specified in section 29 of the Native Title Act 1993. This is beneficial so that agreements can be reached for the protection of cultural sites. Extensive mapping of the sites have occurred and entered onto the state database, however, as the Native Title are a mess BWAC have lost their right to Balkanu and Cape York Land Council to negotiate any matters to their cultural heritage or funding opportunities for land and sea planning matters.

These three pressing issues are affecting BWAC ability to function and the implication of the problems impinges on the development of their aspirations and poses perceived threats that require a gap analysis to devise strategies for an Action Plan for implementation and review. In addition to these dilemmas there are advantages to including IEK into socio-logical framework for sustainable landscape planning equation contributing towards a holistic and inclusive approach for improved social dimensions and social responsibility without Cape York Land Council involvement.


In consideration of these issues and recommendation it is envisioned that BWAC can overcome these issues to implement their plans to achieve outcomes with the following objectives: Take a leading role in the community on issues such as climate change and sustainability. Ensure that strategic objectives of BWAC are relevant to the local, state and national business community and government. To raise the character and status and advance the interests of BWAC and those engaged therein. Establish and maintain a focused portfolio of activities of activities including research, provision of training, government and executive development programs, consultancy and other entrepreneurial initiatives. Ensure that BWAC delivers quality in all of its endeavours.

Establish an agreed and acceptable system of performance review. Maintain a comprehensive knowledge of the external resources to optimise ongoing and future funding. Ensure that BWAC uses an appropriate and regular system of external and internal communication To maintain contact and communicate with the governments of the Commonwealth of Australia and of its States and Territories and with local and municipal governing bodies and other public and private organisations on matters of concern to BWAC and to the wider community. To increase the confidence of the community in the development of BWAC projects and to ensure transparent accountability. To promote honourable practice and integrity to ensure the success of future projects.

From our review of governance issues and indicators of knowledge integration across the types, we support that Indigenous governance and Indigenous-driven co-governance are important factors towards the integration of IEK and western science for sustainability of social-ecological systems. Distinct Indigenous cultural purposes underpinning IEK, and benefits knowledge integration can be sustained by supporting Indigenous governance without, or with only a limited requirement for power sharing. We conclude by promoting the reports reviewed be regarded as authoritative on the topic to test its general effectiveness in guiding practitioners and researchers to develop robust governance for Indigenous knowledge integration of periphery groups in environmental management.


Altman, J.C. (2001), ‘Sustainable Development Options on Aboriginal Land: The Hybrid Economy in the Twenty-First Century’. CAEPR Discussion Paper No. 226, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), Australian National University, Canberra [Online], Available: Bohnet, I.C. (2009), Integrating Social and Ecological Knowledge for Planning Sustainable Land and Sea Scapes: Experiences from the Great Barrier Reef Region, Australia. Research Article, Landscape Ecology, DOI 10.1007/s10980-010-9504-z, Available: Hill, R. (2006), The Effectiveness of Agreements and Protocols to Bridge Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Toolboxes for Protected Area Management: As Case Study from the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Society & Natural Resources, 19:7, 577-599, Available: Smith, B. (2003), A Complex Balance: Mediating Sustainable Development Cape York Peninsula. The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, Volume 4, Number 2: November 2003, 99-115, School of Economics and Political Science, University of Sydney. Available: Smith, B. (2005), ‘We Got Our Own Management’: Local Knowledge, Government and Development in Cape York Peninsula. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2005/2, Australian National University, Canberra. Szabo, S. & Smyth, D. (2003), Indigenous Protected Areas in Australia. In, Jaireth, H. and D. Smyth (Eds), Innovative Governance: Indigenous Peoples, Local Communities and Protected Areas, pp 145-164. IUCN-sponsored by publication, published by Ane Books,
New Delhi. Available:

Appendix A: Hill’s Conceptual framework for bridging two management toolboxes Kuku Yalangi versus Wet Tropics World Heritage Area

Appendix B: Guugu Yimithirr Map

Appendix C: Cultural Heritage Study & Cultural Heritage Management Flow Chart

Examples of Research Proposal on Physical Activity and Environmental Perception

Background and Rationale

Gender is an important confounder in the epidemiology of physical activity, where men are more physically active than women (Aadahl, Kjaer & Jorgensen, 2007; Azevedo, 2007). Within sport research, the focus on race and religiosity from a social science perspective has for a long time been a marginal research area. The early research on race and sport has been criticised for being ethnocentric (Fleming 1994) with stereotypes like ‘Arabic countries are not interested in sports’ or ‘Muslim girls are constrained by their parents from participating’ and that ‘the level of physical activity among Muslim women is low outside and inside their home’. These need further groundwork examination to determine its accuracy. Researchers have explained the low level of participation of women of Asian and North African origin in sports in Europe as a result of both religious and cultural barriers as well as racism and discrimination within sports organisations.

For example, it is often argued that Muslim immigrant girls face gender-specific barriers that limit their leisure-time activities, such as household responsibilities. Racism as an explanation for the low level of involvement is currently widely accepted among researchers (Carrington and McDonald 2001). Lovell (1991) found that Asian women are often given less attention and discriminated against in physical education because of teachers’ ideas of Asian girls as passive and frail and therefore not interested in sports. Sport participation has scientifically been proven to provide these benefits: lower risk of getting heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, colon cancer, and diabetes, lower high blood pressure, reduced anxiety and depression and improved mood. It also helps cope with stress and control weight, provides more energy, promotes better sleep and overall appearance (Moore, 2007).

The Purpose of the Study

This research aims to identify the kinds and level of physical activity that Bruneian university students do on their daily routine and association of environmental perception from developing country (Brunei) and developed country (United Kingdom). The study will look into the physical activity engagement of the target group within a period of 7 days.

Research Question:

1. Are the gender differences in physical activity among Bruneian University students studying in the United Kingdom?

2. Are there differences in perception of the environment between male and female among Bruneian university students in the United Kingdom?

Procedures and Protocols

This research will be using quantitative methods of data gathering in the form of a survey. Snowball sampling will be used in this research. Approximately 150 Bruneian University students are expected to participate in the survey, consisting of 50% males and 50% females. All Bruneian students must be study in the United Kingdom for at least one year of academic year or two terms (2010/2011). The participants will be volunteers and the age range is from 18 to 59 years old. The participants will be recruited if they show interest in an email sent out from a social networking service (Facebook). The participants will be examined based on their time spent (moderate to vigorous activity) being physically active in the last 7 days, with the data examined through transcription and content analysis as well as environmental perception.

Survey Questionnaires

This study will use various self-administered survey questionnaires that are designed to determine the kinds of daily physical activity that Bruneian University students engage in as part of their daily routine, especially within a period 7 days. This study will look into the time spent by respondents sitting as an indicator of sedentary behaviour. In each of the four domains, the number of days per week and time per day spent in both moderate and vigorous activity will be recorded. There are three levels of physical activity proposed to classify respondents – ‘low’, ’moderate’, and ‘high’. Another set of questionnaire will be focus on their environmental perception on the environmental factor from Brunei to United Kingdom. The data needed will be derived from direct surveys, opinion or Internet surveys and literature review

Data Analysis Methods

The physical activity data from the questionnaire will be transformed into energy expenditure estimates as MET. To calculate the weekly physical activity (MET-h week-1), the number of hours dedicated to each activity class will be multiplied by the specific-MET score for that activity and statistically analysed. This will be used to find significant relationships between and among the data gathered. The data will be analyzed using PASW Statistics 18 (SPSS). The correlation between physical activity level and environmental perception will be analyzed.

Likely Value of Results

The results will show us the continuous measure of physical activity and will be reported as median MET-minutes. Median values and interquartile ranges can be computed for walking (W), moderate-intensity activities (M), and vigorous-intensity activities (V) within the time period surveyed. Total scores may also be calculated for walking (W), moderate-intensity activities (M), and vigorous-intensity activities (V) for each domain (work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure) to provide an aggregate summary of the data. The result of this study can be use as an intervention for Bruneian students that study in UK or any other country in order to improve their health and physical activity.

Carrington B, and McDonald, I (2001).“Race,” sport and British society. London. Fleming, S. (1994). Sport and South Asian youth: the perils of ‘false universalism’ and stereotyping. Leisure Studies 13(3), pp. 159–177. Moore, K. (2004). Muslim Women Athletes Move Ahead, But Don’t Leave Faith Behind. Physical Activity. Lovel. T (1991), Sport, racism and young women, in G. Jarvie (ed.), Sport, racism and ethnicity, London 58–73.

Aadahl M, Kjaer M, Jorgensen T. (2007) Influence of time spent on TV viewing and vigorous intensity physical activity on cardiovascular biomarkers. The Inter 99 Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil ; 14: 660-5.

Azevedo MR, Araujo CL, Reichert FF, Siqueira FV, da Silva MC, Hallal PC. (2007). Gender differences in leisure-time and physical activity. International Journal of Public Health; 52: 8-15.

Environmental Policy, Sustainability, and Government Regulations

The impact of environmental and government regulations made United Parcel Service (UPS) an innovative company that developed a strategic environmental management system that adheres to the principles of ISO 14001 standard (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). To ensure compliance with regulations in the various countries and the United States, UPS has region environmental mangers and district environmental coordinators within their operations. The managers have access to training programs that include but not limited to water and air quality, transportation environmental, hazardous waste management and underground storage tanks (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS was a member of the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency’s (EPA) SmartWay program that was discontinue in 2010. UPS joined EPA’s Climate Leaders program that advocated companies developing comprehensives strategies pertaining to ensuring safeguarding the climate, this program ended in September 2011 (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010).

In 2010, UPS achieve a 6.1 % emissions index reduction that exceeded the EPA Climate Leader goals (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). The company introduced the Eco responsible Packaging Program that uses cube optimization, meaning that packaging is only as large as it needs to be for shipping, the materials for packaging are environmentally friendly. The carbon neutral shipping expanded to 36 other countries (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). This program using carbon offsets reduces the carbon emissions associated with shipping reducing UPS carbon impact. UPS begin facing the possibility of the depletion of scarce resources before most companies. As early as 1935, UPS begin to use alternative-fuel vehicles for transporting to the many various points across our nation. The 1,900 alternative fuel and technological advanced vehicles today are a small part of a long-run plan to protect the resources of the future (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010).

UPS continues to find alternatives to developing ways in reducing their carbon imprint and preserving our natural resources. Air transportation leaves the bigger carbon imprint using a transportation index UPS continue to pursue strategies in that area for carbon avoidance which focus on a decarbonization synergy strategy to reducing air fleet emissions (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). This involve in the long-term fuel efficiency aircraft and using biofuels. UPS continues to analyze water usage and consumption in their foreign hubs, using the global water tool of the World Business council for Sustainable Development, maintain a low water use (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS reduce their water consumption by 1 percent from the 2009 level (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). Some of the ways UPS was able to do this was by only washing their vehicle when needed, dry washing their airplanes and use environmental friendly washing agent that reduces the need to rinse.

When UPS facilities expanded low-flow water fixtures was included in the design of the newer facilities in different countries and older facilities upgraded to include the fixtures (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). An example of this is their LEED design headquarters that won gold status certification and an energy star stamp for energy efficiency (French, 2012). Their headquarters built in a forest that use 35 acres and left the rest of the forest surrounding the building including a preserved natural brook (French, 2012). As the building ages, upgrades continue to meet and adhere to the challenges of being a green building. UPS continues to be on the cutting edge as a company invested in preserving resources and developing an alternative, so that in the end the next generation has a chance at life. Being innovative in sustainability benefits the company in a strong demand for their services and products.

The environment benefits from the reduction in carbon emissions by using variety of transportation for shipping it ensures the lowest combination of carbon impact and UPS meets the needs of their customers (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS needs to continue to be proactive, innovative and continuing to developing as a sustainable company. In continuing to be innovative, they are also a profitable company because customers see them as an environmentally active company that is trying to reduce their impact on the environment by leaving a better way of doing business. This show that companies can still make a profit and take care of the environment as a sustainable partner with the world. UPS embodies corporate citizenship in their leadership in redefining the transportation options for air and ground that can be a model for future business in how to protect and preserve the environment.

The advance and innovative facilities built and upgraded in the various countries is another sign of their corporate citizenship. UPS worked in two of EPA’s program, which add to their knowledge, and analysis of how to develop and reduce their carbon imprint, reduce their emissions and lowered their water consumptions to name a few. UPS operates the largest private alternative fuel fleet in the air and freight industry and continues to grow in this area as they continue to use their vehicles as laboratories in experimenting with new technologies and advancements in fuels (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). The eco-friendly packaging that UPS uses includes recycled fiber envelopes and boxes that eliminated bleached paper (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). In following their own instincts and guidelines, UPS has become the model for other corporations to follow in maintain a responsible, sustainable relationship in the many communities that they operate in around the world.

French, M. (2012, January 01). [Web log message]. Retrieved February 5, 2012 from UPS 2010 sustainability report. (2010). Retrieved January 27, 2012 from

Short Story for Environmental Science

One day there was a rare endangered species of owl named Paul who a school named attended Animal Rescue Elementary School. On Paul’s first day at Animal Rescue Elementary he was assigned to an ecology class. The longer Paul stayed in the class he started to like it, especially when the class reached subjects like adaptations and pollution which intrigued him. The class focused on these subjects ,and subjects like these for example they conducted an experiment on how and why species go extinct and experiments on the effects of the law of supply and demand. Every morning Paul had a different opening to solve before time is called, which included questions like “What is a population in an ecosystem?” Furthermore Paul also liked to raise his hand to answer questions like “What is biodiversity” asked by his teacher And Paul quickly became a star student in his class. And all star students in this class get to pick subjects to do labs on and they have to brainstorm and vote on the subjects they want to participate in so they came up with two subjects which were symbiosis and niche, but only one can be worked on at a time so the teacher decided to go with niche. The teacher decided niche because the definition of niche included the word habitat which is the vocabulary word of the week, which is assigned every week and documented. Later on that year a spelling bee had come up for the school and Paul had to spell the word biome to be accepted into the spelling bee. Paul passed with flying colors. Paul’s whole community came to support the event, because it is only held once a year. In the competition Paul came across words like threatened species and environmental science. And like the brainy act Paul was he spelled word correctly and made it to the semi finals. In the semi finals Paul finally misspelled a word which was consumption, but in the competition the only other competitor also spelled the word wrong. So another word was given to the both of them which was species and both of them spelled it correctly and so the finals started and the word that was given at that point was earth. Paul spelt the word correctly but the other competitor didn’t so Paul had to spell one last word which was acclimation, which Paul asked for the definition because the word was all so knew to Paul and the instructor gave the definition “Acclimation- the act of adapting” replied the instructor. So Paul spelt the word and he had finally completed the spelling bee and won. Paul was congratulated on his achievement at his graduation which was only 3 weeks away. And Paul strived in middle school and high school and he went to college and graduated and became a teacher at the same elementary school that he graduated from.

Environmental Science Final Project

Earth provides us with many resources to accommodate our needs like food, oil/gas, minerals, and so much more. The problem that all countries seem to face is atmospheric pollution, such as global warming. Global warming is a big priority when it comes to pollution in modern society. In this paper I will bring to your attention the problems we face with global warming, which nonliving/living factors contribute to or are affected by the problem, the effects it has on humans, our current sustainability strategy, my sustainability plan, benefit and challenges of the plan, and required government, societal, and global support. The problem with global warming is that when CO2 and other heat-trapping emissions are released into the air, they act like a blanket, holding heat in our atmosphere and warming the planet. Overloading our atmosphere with carbon has far-reaching effects for people all around the world, including rising sea levels, increasing wildfires, more extreme weather, deadly heat waves, and more severe droughts (“Global Warming”, 2013).

Human activity is the biggest contributor to global warming, for example when we use fossil fuel we are releasing CO2 into the air from our vehicles and when we use it to generate electricity, CO2 can also be released when we cause deforestation. According to Gale (2013), “Crowded landfills, polluted water, and poor air quality are just a few of the environmental problems that affect both industrial and developing nations. Perhaps less obvious but no less ominous a threat to the environment is the general increase in temperatures worldwide and the resulting climate changes. This phenomenon, known as global warming, could have serious negative effects on humans and all other living things on Earth. Global warming is a complex problem, and governments have had great difficulty deciding how to address it.”

First of all, we need to realize that the biggest contributor to global warming is our everyday activities. Whether it be driving a vehicle, operating plants, deforestation, and so forth. According to “Atmospheric Pollution: Global Warming and a Possible Use of Bio-Fuels in a Wide Scale,” “Global warming is causing climate changes [7]-[19], producing significant consequences to human society and biodiversity, such as the poles melting, with the increasing of oceans level, increasing intensity of hurricanes, extreme events, changes in rainfall patterns (floods, desertification), oceans acidification and biodiversity decreasing [20]- [25].

Therefore, it can cause monumental damage to the economic system, as described in the Stern report [26]. For example in the 1999’s to 2000 some areas in the United States experienced record breaking heat temperatures, at the beginning of this year Australia endured a heat wave that caused hundreds of fires. Most importantly here in the U.S. our society had to suffer from loss as well because of Hurricane Katrina, people were displaced from homes and it caused billions of dollars in damages. When catastrophic events like this occur, people aren’t the only ones affected. Animal life is as well, because their habitats are destroyed. As you can see everything is affected by global warming. The positive and negative impact global warming has on the human race can change from one year to the next depending on how much CO2 we are emitting into the atmosphere. As of now we are emitting high levels of pollutants into the air.

According to “Impacts of Climate Change” (2013), “Recent studies of how climate change might affect human health expanded particularly swiftly in the 1990s, catching the attention not only of experts but the public. Here as in some other categories, the work was increasingly supervised not by a particular government but by international organizations, from the venerable World Health Organization to the new International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, established 1988). Yet here as in some other categories, it was becoming clear that global generalizations were of little value compared with studies at a regional level. For example, insect vectors of tropical diseases like dengue fever and malaria (which already affected half a billion people) would expand their ranges. The main impacts would be felt in developing nations, but people in the developed world tended to worry chiefly about how such diseases might spread to the temperate zones.” The only positive effects I see occurring are regions that are known for having cold climates like Canada, would eventually have warmer weather.

However, I truly feel that positive and negative effects play hand in hand. One region in the world will have great weather, and another will be really damaging. In order to have a balance there needs to be sustainability. At this very moment there are thousands of cities in the U.S. that have established different programs or projects to help reduce global warming issues like greenhouse gases. “Cities are approaching sustainable planning in a variety of ways. Some are preparing a separate sustainability plan as a guiding document for community-wide action. Others are adopting climate action plans that focus on strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy conservation and other activities. Still others are incorporating the concept of sustainability in their comprehensive plans, either by adding an element to an existing plan or by making sustainability the overarching theme for a complete revamping of their plan (“Embracing Sustainability In Community Plans”, 2010)”.

For example, in some communities here in the state I live in are encouraging people to recycle glass, cardboard, and plastic. While other communities or newly built subdivisions are pushing people towards energy conservation like getting energy efficient appliances. Most contractors here are actually selling homes that are furnished with energy efficient appliances, to promote energy conservation. Bike paths are being designated in towns where people can travel from their home to parks or grocery stores. If we all contribute to being a part of anyone of these projects, its outcome may be rewarding to not only us, but also our environment. As far as my plan goes to sustain the amount of greenhouse gases, is to start within my own home before I try to encourage the community to follow my plan. There are several ways I could reduce the amount of emission my family and I contribute to. We could be more energy efficient by updating our home like putting new windows in, upgrading our appliances, our heating and cooling system, and our lighting throughout the home.

Once I have completely updated our home, I plan to track how much money I saved in six months and compare it to the last six months prior to renovations. The purpose of doing this will help me encourage others to go green in their homes. Secondly, I need to consider riding a bike to work or to the park when permitted by the weather. This activity however, I would like to encourage friends and neighbors to have a bike day once a week during summer to convince them that there are healthier ways to protect our environment and our health. The third project I would like to do is encourage my husband and his fellow coworkers to carpool to work, instead of taking separate vehicles. By using one vehicle they will be reducing the amount of greenhouse gases into the air versus the amount of emission five cars will give off. Lastly, I would like to start a recycling program for waste product that can be recyclable like cardboard, plastic, aluminum, and glass. I would like to get the whole town involved in this. There is a town that is close to mine that contract’s through a garbage company that gives incentives to their customers who recycle. They give the customer two garbage cans one for waste and the other for recyclable material.

For those who recycle, receive a discount off their utility bill. This is a project that I would sincerely commit to accomplishing, because everyone wins in this. The environment, the discounts we get, and the garbage company. However, with plans there will always be challenges and barriers that I will need to overcome like the recycling project. I would have to talk to the city, the local garbage company, and possibly even higher authority to come up with a plan that will work for everyone. This is a process that will take a long time to accomplish. Going green in my home will be challenging because projects like this don’t happen all at one day. Another challenge is not everyone in the community will always have a bike. In this case, I could possibly do one week as bicycle day and another as a walkathon. Although there may be challenges that I may face the benefits to this would be much greater in the end, because it will motivate others, money will be saved, and the environment will look healthier. In order to achieve a goal as important as this one, we would need to have everyone on board such as our government, city officials, businesses, and the residence in the community. It only takes a few voices to be heard, but I would also find a research program locally or globally to help encourage those that need the encouragement on how badly greenhouse gases are affecting our world and local environments.

Once our voices are publicly heard it will promote our sustainability project, and people maybe open minded to the idea. Given all these points on how greenhouse gases effect the environment, how do you currently feel about the issue? Because in all honesty, there was a time when I did not even have a clue on how greenhouse gases drastically effected the environment nor did I plan on reading about it. We need to keep in mind that what we do today is going to affect us tomorrow, three years from now, and pushing forward into the future. We know that greenhouse gases is a problem, everyone /everything contributes to and is affected by it, the positive and negative effects, current sustainability strategies, my sustainability plan, the benefits/challenges, and lastly the support that is needed to achieve a sustainable program.

Reference Page

Global Warming. (2013). Retrieved from Sthel, M. S., Tavares, J. R., Lima, G. R., Mothé, G. G., Schramm, D. S., Da Silva, M. G., & Castro, M. P. (2009). Atmospheric Pollution: Global Warming and a Possible Use of Bio-Fuels in a Wide Scale. International Review Of Chemical Engineering – Rapid Communications, 1(6), 564-570. “Global Warming.” Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. Embracing Sustainability in Community Plans. (2010). Retrieved from

Micro Environmental Factors

What micro environmental factors have affected Xerox’s performance since the late 1990s? Xerox has dominated the industry by inventing photocopying, but changes in the internal environment shook its fortune and market value. At the beginning of technological change, Xerox lacked a solid management level. Poor leadership makes poor marketing decisions. Restricted product options limited necessary opportunities for growth and staying atop competition. They were stuck on the copying and printing technology at the time when the customer market moved on to sharing documents and information digitally. The inability to meet customers’ demands drove down the stock price and cost the company profits. To stay in business, Xerox had to make changes in marketing channel firms, namely the revision of suppliers, by outsourcing to China.

It improved product cost, while preserving quality and creating better customer value. Vast management modifications, in form of attaining good leadership, cutting down on workforce, and changing focus from selling product to fitting customer needs, saved company’s economics from declining. It is until the recession of 2001 that negatively marked all economic activities; to recover, Xerox made a major decision to acquire ACS, an IT company. Incorporation has equipped the company with new expertise, capabilities, and business channels to proceed with a new business plan. Importantly, innovations allowed improving document management process, Xerox’s new production and marketing focus, dropping the number of technological errors and lowering labor to complete tasks.

As the company expanded offering a broad portfolio of document management technology and services products, it redefined its name and altered Xerox’s competitors from copy machine producers to IT companies like HP and IBM. A new strong competition usually inspires more effort to serve customers better. These changes in the Xerox’s micro environmental factors have positively affected the company’s ability to serve its customers. Being in business for more than 50 years brings the company advantages in the form of branding and strong reputation with consumers and other customers.

Environmental Science

Gagandeep Rai Period 3/4 Criteria air pollutants assignment​ Multiple Choice 1. A pungent reddish­brown gas often associated with photochemical smog. (C) NO2 2. A corrosive gas from burning coal often associated with industrial smog. (d) SO2 3. A dangerous indoor air pollutant. (A) CO 4. Emitted from diesel and burning fuel. (E) PM10 5. All of the following are examples of primary air pollutants except. (c) tropospheric ozone 6. The greatest emission of sulfur dioxide comes from (C) Industrial processes 7. The least amount of nitrogen oxide emissions comes from (A) on­ road vehicles 8. The accumulation of tropospheric ozone at night depends mainly upon the atmospheric concentrations of (B) volatile organics 1. What are they? The six criteria air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides,lead,particulate matter and tropospheric ozone. These six pollutants significantly threaten human health, ecosystems and/or structures. 2. How is each produced? Sulfur dioxide is mostly produced from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil. It can also be released during volcanic eruptions. Nitrogen oxides are produced from vehicles as well as stationary fossil fuel combustion. Some is also released through lightning and forest fires.Carbon monoxide is formed by incomplete combustion of most matter. Vehicle exhaust and many other combustion process produce Carbon monoxide. It is also a indoor pollutant when exhaust systems on natural gas heaters misfunction. Carbon dioxide is produced from complete combustion of most matter such as biomass and fossil fuels. Particulate matter is released when fossil fuels and bio fuel is burned. Also it is released with activities that involve movement of dust or sand. Lead is released from old paint, gasoline additive and combustion of fossil fuels.

Environmental and Consumer Influences Analysis

People should not be locked into the use of one or two categories of products, therefore companies have to expand their brands to fit into the lives of consumers. People are unique and so are the preferences of their needs and wants. A basic product such as laundry detergent that so many consumers use on a continuing basis can be affected solely by the consumer. There are many factors that influence consumer purchases, psychological and social being the main facts. Everything from motives, perception and attitudes contribute to the influence consumer behavior toward the products. I want to explore three external factor traits and the effects they have on a social, ecological and cultural consumer plain. Cultural

The factors that influence consumer behavior toward laundry detergent purchases are personal and from family among other. It is almost guaranteed that whatever detergent that was used in the house during their childhood will be the detergent they buy in their adult age. Ironically they can choose from more than 80 different laundry detergents in the United States. Personality also can have an impact on choice, however which brand they decide to purchase is what they will purchase on a consistent basis, is generally a recognizable order and regularity to cultural behavior. When dealing with consumers from two different cultural backgrounds are married then they have to make a compromise. This in turn creates a new cultural purchasing desire for the next generation. From the perspective side of it when growing up the thought and idea of laundry soap does not appeal to you. All you know is that your clothes are clean and they smell good.

As you get older your perspective changes and you take notice of the brand use and how effectively it works. Once out on your own you either, stay with the product you grew up with or you make a change. It is your attitude toward the long history of the product you use, more importantly you trust in your parent’s judgment as to why they chose the product they used so therefore you use it without really noticing. Tide and Gain has a great way of advertising toward good wholesome family values. This in itself is why they both are the top leading brands in sales. These two products among others have also learned from extensive studies to not only tap into the social aspect of the customer, but to also look into the social aspect relevant to the environment. Detergents now reach out and advise to the environmental side of a new social group.

In other words being more environmental friendly, this along with the psychological need helps to create the feeling of doing more for the environmental needs of the world and still holding true to family values. Consumers feel empowered when they go to the store to purchase the detergent for his or her family. Each consumer has buying power and that power determins which brand is worth the money he or she has earned. Manufactures know and understand this hence why they try to market toward the emotional, historical or strongest social grouping to keep that market interested in staying loyal to that brand. Social

As consumers we are either pressured or constantly being influenced as to what, when and how we should spend our money. Marketers have learned to advertise on most if not all social media, plus word of mouth. Detergent fits into social marketing with young people cause most of the time clothes are washed in a Laundromat or dorm type atmosphere. When at first the consumer was influenced by cultural and family. Being with his peers can create a different reason for purchasing detergent. If a particular brand is still testing on animals or still using harmful chemicals for the environment, the consumer through social understanding might make a different choice in the detergent they use. Price perception plays a part in the choice also. Consumers want to know that there hard earned money is being spent on fair and reasonable products. Marketers take this into effect when advertising. A consumer’s attitude toward something that might be overpriced and did not work will not be apt to make the same purchase again.

This experience affects expectations, and interest. When conversation comes up as to what detergent you use a negative experience will result in notifying shoes within their social group as to why not to use product so and so. I know it seems far fetch that the younger generation sits around and talks about laundry detergent. However in the middle class families do talk about things like this. This external factor affects consumer behavior in many ways, considering that America is actively changing. Society has undergone a constant change in response to the development of new technology. Laundry detergent has changed its formula to meet the needs of a socially environmentally aware society, and so has new washing machines. Ecological

The ecological factors that affect consumer behavior are physical and social surroundings. The physical surroundings of the consumer at the time of purchase can affect the brand purchase if the store does not offer the brand of choice. Then the consumer can choose another brand that they feel is close enough to the brand they normally purchase. This is why most stores now carry a store brand that is located close to the leading brand. Pricing plays a part also, with prices increasing and the economy still trying to make its way back into good standings. It no longer seems reasonable to pay high prices for a product when you get a similar product that does the exact same thing but at a lesser price. Then we look again at the environment effects of the way we shop. We now have more environmental friendly detergents, being able to use cold water rather than hot water. We also have less chemicals and better machines to efficiently get more out of the laundry detergent we use.

The factors that influence us as consumer to purchase the products we do connects to our psychological and social being. Our motives, perception and attitudes contribute to the influence of goods we consume. Marketers study our behavior toward products to see what mostly influence us to spend the way we spend. It is our external factor is that have the most effects. How we engage in our social environment draws from our cultural background, this also gives way to our ecological consumption of goods.

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Laundry Products: Laundry Detergents. (2012, March 12). Retrieved from The United States Environmental Protection Agency:

Psychological Factors. (2012). Retrieved from Medical onditions:

Bagozzi, R. P., Gurhan-Canli, Z., & Priester, J. R. (2002). The Social Psychology of Consumer Behaviour. Philadelphia: Pearson.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). What Is Personality? Retrieved from Psychology:

Cherry, K. (n.d.). What Is Social Psychology? Retrieved from Psychology:

Chapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision Making. (n.d.). Retrieved from California State University, Sacraimento:

Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (2010). Consumer Behavior. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Pearson.

Environmental Science

Gagandeep Rai Period 3/4 Criteria air pollutants assignment​ Multiple Choice 1. A pungent reddish­brown gas often associated with photochemical smog. (C) NO2 2. A corrosive gas from burning coal often associated with industrial smog. (d) SO2 3. A dangerous indoor air pollutant. (A) CO 4. Emitted from diesel and burning fuel. (E) PM10 5. All of the following are examples of primary air pollutants except. (c) tropospheric ozone 6. The greatest emission of sulfur dioxide comes from (C) Industrial processes 7. The least amount of nitrogen oxide emissions comes from (A) on­ road vehicles 8. The accumulation of tropospheric ozone at night depends mainly upon the atmospheric concentrations of (B) volatile organics 1. What are they? The six criteria air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides,lead,particulate matter and tropospheric ozone. These six pollutants significantly threaten human health, ecosystems and/or structures. 2. How is each produced? Sulfur dioxide is mostly produced from the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil. It can also be released during volcanic eruptions. Nitrogen oxides are produced from vehicles as well as stationary fossil fuel combustion. Some is also released through lightning and forest fires.Carbon monoxide is formed by incomplete combustion of most matter. Vehicle exhaust and many other combustion process produce Carbon monoxide. It is also a indoor pollutant when exhaust systems on natural gas heaters misfunction. Carbon dioxide is produced from complete combustion of most matter such as biomass and fossil fuels. Particulate matter is released when fossil fuels and bio fuel is burned. Also it is released with activities that involve movement of dust or sand. Lead is released from old paint, gasoline additive and combustion of fossil fuels.

Environmental Protection

What is your carbon foot print?
A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as “the total sets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person.”[1] However, calculating the total carbon footprint is impossible due to the large amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural occurrences. It is for this reason that Wright, Kemp, and Williams, writing in the journal Carbon Management, have suggested a more practicable definition: “A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100).”[2] Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services.[3]

For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted. Most of the carbon footprint emissions for the average U.S. household come from “indirect” sources, i.e. fuel burned to produce goods far away from the final consumer. These are distinguished from emissions which come from burning fuel directly in one’s car or stove, commonly referred to as “direct” sources of the consumer’s carbon footprint.[4] The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from ecological footprint,discussion,[5] which was developed by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s which estimates the number of “earths” that would theoretically be required if everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person calculating their ecological footprint. However, carbon footprints are much more specific than ecological footprints since they measure direct emissions of gasses that cause climate change into the atmosphere. Measuring Carbon Footprints

An individual’s, nation’s, or organization’s carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment or other calculative activities denoted as carbon accounting. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological developments, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), carbon capture, consumption strategies, and others. Several free online carbon footprint calculators exist, with at least one supported by publicly available peer-reviewed data and calculations from the University of California, Berkeley’s CoolClimate Network research consortium.[6][7] These websites ask you to answer some basic questions about your diet, transportation choices, home size, shopping and recreational activities, usage of electricity, heating, and heavy appliances such as dryers and refrigerators, and so on.

The website then estimates your carbon footprint based on your answers to these questions. The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon offsetting. The main influences on carbon footprints include population, economic output, and energy and carbon intensity of the economy.[8] These factors are the main targets of individuals and businesses in order to decrease carbon footprints. Scholars suggest the most effective way to decrease a carbon footprint is to either decrease the amount of energy needed for production or to decrease the dependence on carbon emitting fuels

How has engineering changed us?
As we enter the twenty-first century, we must embark on a worldwide transition to a more holistic approach to engineering. This will require: (1) a major paradigm shift from control of nature to participation with nature; (2) an awareness of ecosystems, ecosystems services, and the preservation and restoration of natural capital; and (3) a new mindset of the mutual enhancement of nature and humans that embraces the principles of sustainable development, renewable resources management, appropriate technology. During the past several centuries, the successive development of the printing press, wired and wireless communication, and the Internet have enabled the ubiquitous creation, shaping, and sharing of knowledge.

One could argue that as a result of these developments, the capacity for universal participation in decisionmaking in politics and other spheres has risen to an unprecedented level, as has the potential for enhancing the quality of life for a broader segment of humankind. Today, a new world of robust communication lies before us, and it has all been made possible by the talents, skills, and dedicated work of engineers and scientists. How we develop and use this capacity will determine our destiny. The essence of engineering, on the other hand, is integrating all knowledge for some purpose. As society’s “master integrators,” engineers must provide leadership in the concurrent and interactive processes of innovation and wealth creation. The engineer must be able to work across many different disciplines and fields–and make the connections that will lead to deeper insights, more creative solutions, and getting things done. In a poetic sense, paraphrasing the words of Italo Calvino (1988), the engineer must be adept at correlating exactitude with chaos to bring visions into focus.

How can we create a sustainable community?
There are many definitions and there are many different ways for communities to attain a more sustainable future. The sustainability of a community depends on creating and maintaining its economic and environmental health, promoting social equity, and fostering broad-based citizen participation in planning and implementation. Communities that engage citizens and institutions to develop sustainability principles and a collective vision for the future and that apply an integrative approach to environmental, economic, and social goals are generally likely to be more successful. Job creation, energy use, housing, transportation, education and health are considered complementary parts of the whole. Since all issues are interconnected they must be addressed as a system. The process includes: • broad and diverse involvement of citizens

• the creation of a collective vision for the future
• the development of principles of sustainability
• an inventory of existing assets and resources and additional assets that would benefit the community • clear, measurable goals
• the development of community indicators to evaluate progress • open and transparent communication
• early, visible results
• celebration of success
Sustainability is a process of continuous improvement so communities constantly evolve and make changes to accomplish their goals. The initiatives and resources on this website have been selected to help you learn about ways to make your community healthier, safer, greener, more livable, and more prosperous.

How can renewable energies transform our society?
Renewable energy is important because of the benefits it provides. The key benefits are: Environmental Benefits Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Energy for our children’s children’s children Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite and will some day be depleted. Jobs and the Economy Most renewable energy investments are spent on materials and workmanship to build and maintain the facilities, rather than on costly energy imports.

Renewable energy investments are usually spent within the United States, frequently in the same state, and often in the same town. This means your energy dollars stay home to create jobs and fuel local economies, rather than going overseas. Meanwhile, renewable energy technologies developed and built in the United States are being sold overseas, providing a boost to the U.S. trade deficit. Energy Security

After the oil supply disruptions of the early 1970s, our nation has increased its dependence on foreign oil supplies instead of decreasing it. This increased dependence impacts more than just our national energy policy.

Is it important to create micro energy system or macro system? An energy system may be thought of as an interrelated network of energy sources and stores of energy, connected by transmission and distribution of that energy to where it is needed. The transformation from stores of energy in food to work, and subsequent dissipation of energy is an example of such a system. The starting point of all energy in this “food chain” or “energy chain” (considering only the vegetable and cereal part of our food) is the sun.

Environmental Factors

The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola Company’s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. These factors vary by location and can include culture, customs, and even legal matters. The Coca-Cola Company has been able to successfully examine these factors and create marketing campaigns that have allowed the company to grow in leaps and bounds over the past 100 years.

Global economic interdependence

Global economic interdependence is when different economies rely upon one another and can include goods and service exchanges. Coca-Cola is one of the most famous soft drink brands in the world because they have successfully marketed their products across the globe. These foreign economies rely upon Coca-Cola products to stock their shelves to meet the consumers demand. With such a strong demand, countries would want the company’s product in local stores to increase sales and thus taxes collected.

In order to get products to foreign markets, Coca-Cola is faced with trade restrictions and agreements. Restrictions can include tariffs which impose taxes on imported goods or quotas that limit the amount of certain product that is brought into the country (Kotler, Keller, 2012). These restrictions can lead to questions as to whether entering that foreign market is profitable. A high tariff could cut into profits while other trade restrictions may not allow a product to enter the market at all. A stiff market to enter may require a very detailed and successful marketing plan in order to reach the most potential consumers. A failed plan could result in the company paying more for the product to enter that market rather than the amount of money being made.

Demographics and infrastructure

Demographics must be examined prior to entering a foreign market. Household income, population, and age can all play a factor in a marketing plan. Poor countries such as those in Africa may not be able to afford to purchase a product and therefore, would not be included in a marketing plan for a high priced item. Also, if there is a limited amount of infrastructure the product may not be able to be transported. Countries that lack infrastructure such as paved roads or electricity would become difficult markets for Coca-Cola to enter. Without roads or railroads, Coca-Cola would not be able to deliver their product to the consumers. Electricity is typically needed in order to keep the beverage chilled and to record sales transactions. A country lacking infrastructure will have a difficult time getting popular goods to their consumers.

Cultural differences

Cultural differences play a role in the marketing process. Different cultures will have different ideals and may even use products for different reasons. What may be acceptable in the American market may be a sign of disrespect in another. Knowledge of cultural differences can make or break a marketing campaign and also the entire company. For example, the Japanese commercials tend to have more animation and songs in the commercial. Also, the culture is also more advanced in technology so vending machines are more advanced in Japan than the ones we see here in America. Finally, different cultures may see certain products or ingredients as unhealthy. What may be delicious to consumers in China may be horrid to the taste buds of those in America. Social responsibility and ethics versus legal obligations

Social responsibility and ethics are values that should be followed but not necessarily obligated to do so. On the other hand, legal obligations force a company to perform certain actions. For example, Coca-Cola is not legally obligated to set a certain price on their product. However, they are legally obligated to place nutritional and ingredient information on the product. As previously mentioned, different cultures play a role in marketing. What one culture may see as a social responsibility may be a legal obligation in another. As many know, Coca-Cola once contained the drug cocaine. Legally, cocaine is outlawed in the United States but may not be in other countries. What some may not know is that Coca-Cola still contains an extract from the coca leaves that is not classified as illegal (New York Times, 2013). In some cultures, it may be unethical to sell a product that has any derivatives from any mind altering plants.

Political systems and the influence of international relations

Political systems can decide whether to allow a product to enter their market or impose extreme conditions that must be met. In addition, international relations can play a part as to where a product goes. Currently, the United States has a trade restriction with Iran that limits what can be exchanged between the two countries. Iran, once considered an ally, is now an evil and thus trade restrictions are in place. Coca-Cola may find it difficult to get their product into this market through a legit trade agreement. If Coca-Cola was faced with the fact that nobody would be allowed to import their product, they would be able to develop a marketing plan for domestic use that would portray that they are the only country who gets to receive the product.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 prohibits bribes being paid to foreign officials to assist in obtaining or keeping business (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, n.d.). This Act would prohibit Coca-Cola from bribing an Iranian official to allow them to export their product to the country. Because of this Act, large corporations can no longer pay foreign officials to keep their products in stores of countries that have banned them either by local or international law. These different laws and stipulations create barriers for a product to be introduced into foreign and domestic markets.


Advancements in technology have made marketing both easier and more difficult at the same time. Social media sites such as YouTube now promote products before the user can watch the video they intended to view. As technology advances, previous innovations become cheaper and open the doors for new consumers to obtain these products. As the amount of people who are able to access the internet increases, so does the amount of people that can view advertisements. One of the newest fads for technology is making more products “green”. Environmental friendly products are now the big rage and consumers will pay more for a product if it is deemed “green”. Advances in technology will eventually lead to more products being green and thus creating a decline in the demand.


The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola Company’s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. Factors such as political influences, technology, and cultural differences all play a part on marketing. Differences in these factors can determine whether a product should be entered into the market. It is the responsibility of the manufacture, such as Coca-Cola, to perform their due diligence and evaluate its findings.


New York Times. (2013). How Coca-Cola Obtains Its Coca. Retrieved from

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (n.d.). Spotlight on Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved from

Environmental Science Chapter 18 Review

Chapters 18-1 & 18-2 Review
Section 1 Review –
1. List six forms of renewable energy, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each. Pros: 1) Passive solar heating may hold a great advantage for a homeowner if there is reliable sunlight that is able to shine into the home and create warmth. Also, it will reduce energy bills in their liquid even when the sun is not shining.

3) Wind power is cheap, clean energy that is the average household. 2) Active solar heating systems have the advantage of storing heat in essentially free once the infrastructure is paid for. 4) Biomass fuel is in abundant supply and can convert waste into energy.

5) Hydroelectric energy may be expensive to build, but are inexpensive to operate. Unlike fossil fuel plants, hydroelectric dams do not release air pollutants into the atmosphere that cause acid precipitation. They also last longer than most other plants. 6) Geothermal energy is almost entirely emission free and can be built underground.

Cons: 1) Passive solar heating may only be seen as an effective use of power if the climate is able to provide enough sunlight. 2) Active solar heating plans are expensive and in most areas, an active solar system will be unable to capture enough sunlight to replace the heating and electrical systems in a house. 3) Wind power can be a failed energy source, for wind is inconsistent, unsteady and unpredictable. 4) Biomass fuel is costly to produce and needs a substructure of fossil fuel for production and use. It can result in habitat loss, deforestation, and harmful air pollution. 5) Hydroelectric energy is directly related to how much water is available, thus potentially causing a drought. They also relate to interventions in nature due to damming of water, changed water flow and the construction of roads and power lines. 6) Geothermal power is also expensive to obtain and must be managed carefully so that it is not depleted

. 2. Describe the differences between passive solar heating, active solar heating, and photovoltaic energy. Passive solar energy uses the sun’s energy to heat something directly while active solar heating and photovoltaic energy uses energy from the sun that is gathered by collectors.

3. Describe how hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy, and geothermal energy pumps work. Hydroelectric energy is produced by heating up water to produce steam, which then spins the turbines and generates electricity. Geothermal energy is created when steam rises through a well and drives turbines, which generate electricity. The leftover liquid water is then pumped back into the hot rock. Geothermal energy pumps are used so when the ground is warmer, the heat is transferred from the ground to warm the house and when the ground is cool, heat is transferred from the house to the ground to cool the house. 4. Explain whether all renewable energy sources have their origin in energy from the sun. Only a small fraction of the sun’s energy reaches the Earth. However, this energy is enough to power the wind, plant growth, and the water cycle. So nearly all renewable energy comes directly or indirectly from the sun.

Section 2 Review –
1. Describe three alternative energy technologies, and identify two ways that hydrogen could be used as fuel source in the future. Three examples of alternative energy technologies are tidal power, ocean thermal energy conversion, and solar chimneys. Tidal power is when the tide rises, water flows behind a dam and when the tide falls, the water is trapped behind the damn. When water in the reservoir is released, it turns a turbine that generates electricity. OTEC is when warm surface water is brought to a boil in a vacuum chamber. The boiling water produces steam to drive a turbine that generates electricity. Solar chimneys use the greenhouse effect to produce moving air that escapes through a central chimney where wind turbines make electricity. Hydrogen can be burned as fuel, for it does not contain carbon, so it does not release pollutants associated with burning fossil fuels and biomass. Hydrogen isotopes can also be used in a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. 2. List as many ways as you can for individuals and communities to conserve energy. – Replacing light bulbs with new energy efficient models – Adjusting the temperature of your home while away or sleeping – Wash clothing with cold water

– Install low-flow showerheads and faucets
– Turning out lights in vacant rooms
3. Describe the difference between energy conservation and energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is the percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work while energy conservation means saving energy.

4. What factors influence a person’s choice to conserve energy? Factors that may influence a person’s choice to conserve energy are to help lower their energy bill and help the environment.

Environmental factors effecting motor skill development

Child development is defined as to how a child ables itself to complete more difficult tasks as they grow in age. Development is often confused with growth, which refers to a child’s tendency to grow bigger in size. Parents can become concerned easily when a child’s developmental skills take longer then the “normal” or when pressures of milestones are not satisfied “on time”. Developmental milestones are functioning tasks or skills that should occur at specific ages. Observing what specific environmental factors influence the development of motor skills in the infant and toddler stages and how that compares to my findings of the children I personally documented, is what will be discussed. I searched for other scholars who have current information and academic research of similar topics finding information that was both, similar as to my own research concluding a main point that the environment of these children have an effect on how they will learn.

A common topic that has been analyzed in these journals is Gross motor skill development. It is a specific factor that plays a crucial role in the child’s overall development and of course combined with the environment in which the child is confined to has a profound effect to the development of these motor skills (newton 2008) . The aim of this study was focusing on the two main environmental factors affecting children motor development. Looking over the articles it reveals that there are many particular factors within the family details such as socioeconomic status, mother’s educational level, relationships with family and the existence of siblings can also affect a child’s motor ability, Preschools also have became an infuencial part of development for all children but also can be a detriment to a child’s development by not attending, due to the simple fact that nowadays large amounts of time children spend at them so by not having a child go through life with preschool would set them back as far as motor development goes. The social-cultural background where a child is brought up from, creates specific demands for his/her motor behavior.

This thought can go with the fact that movement programs are very important for the development as well, such as physical education, especially if the social-cultural environment that the child is in does not require them to be very active. If the child is not pushed or has no motivation to do these obstacles, that are often taken for granted, then can cause a long term even life altering issue down the road. These are all the “social norms” nowadays with children. It is becoming incredibly competitive to get into colleges and other type of educational programs and it all starts from these crucial infant years where all these environmental factors that the family contributes too have a say in what a child will be like as it develops. Many of these environments are expected and often not over looked or analyzed by parents due to the reason that the child is so young that these things don’t have an impact on them yet.

That is false, the first five years of a child’s life are the most important in developing these motor skills for the rest of their life, and that is a fact that is not looked at close enough by parents. This is a huge developmental problem that has been happening for ever and now that there is studies and documentation proving that this here is correct, it needs to be and is being put into action. All of the environmental factors have some way played a role in the children I observed lives but because of the limited length of paper I will discuss the two most obvious influences.

This purpose of this paper is to document the environment that infants and toddlers are in and describe how these environmental factors have affected them. To begin I observed a toddler and an infant but both of the same family. The two children are different ages but similar environments and upbringings. I observed the children in there home environment looking at the situation as a Mother-child interaction first then I observed the sibling vs sibling interactions that the children tended to take a like too. I continued to follow the children on and off for two weeks at different locations and got the opportunity to observe the toddler and infant in both of these settings. At each observation site I sat with a notepad and jotted down how they interacted under these three circumstances and noted of the surroundings environments each time I observed. At the end I had a lot of notes and information to choose from, but the way that I chose what information to use was by organizing my notes into my three main cases then divided them into infant and toddler. All the situations that most frequently happened for each child i used as conclusive information and discarded the minor details.

The majority of the two weeks of observing the infant under these two cases my evidence appeared to be quite on point with other researchers studies. To begin, the mother-infant relationship (parent-child). WIthin my study I found when playing with each other the infant was much more responsive to this one on one play then a group of people. What I noticed was the child did not do as much looking and observing like statistics show or as he did in the other cases. seven out of fifteen times the mother demonstrated what I wanted the infant to do, that involved a motor skill, most of the time picking up a block or a toy car, the child attempted the action after watching the mother demonstrate.

What I noticed of those fifteen times all seven of the successful tries were because it was right in front of him. if it was far away he would try with a different object that was closest to him and wouldn’t even notice that he was using a different toy. As for the toddler he payed much closer attention but on the contrary of his fifteen attempts he actually cared that he used the same exact object as his mom. For him I used a test involving throwing of a ball. His mother would throw the ball using different styles such as over the head, two hand, one had, and under arm. Eight of the fifteen attempts the toddler successfully mimicked the motor skill of which hand to use and the style in which the mom threw it, which was very surprising in this case for the reason that this usually does not develop until five or six years of age.

The next case I observed was the sibling vs sibling. typically we think of the mother to be seen as the leader to specific child development. However, when the child has siblings the situation becomes much more influenced. (circirelli 1975). A child’s position in the family or sex even of the sibling has a huge influence on the interactions they have. The environment used was once again the home setting but the family has there own jungle gym outside in the backyard. I used this play set to see if these sibling influences can play a role in development of specific skills . Studies have shown that, irrespective of the age difference among the children of the family, the elder siblings lead the youngers’ behaviour (circirelli 1975) and those in turn imitate elders’ movements (abramovitch et al. 1979: Lamb 1978). As I continued my research outside I watched and studied how they were interacting. The younger infant, surprisingly can walk at his age of sixteen months old.

There was a set of stairs that the toddler was walking up to get to the top of the gym and eventually slide down the slide to only continue the process over and over again. The infant continued to watch and observe for about fifteen minutes with no signs of him motivated to make a move or give it a try. To our surprise the infant began pointing and mumbling as if he wanted to make an attempt. He was brought over to the play set, climbing up the steps and eventually we got him to go down the slide. He held his hands on the railings same position as where she did as if he was copying her techniques exact and the influence of his big sister took effect. This whole process took about twenty- twenty five minutes but once he tried it one time, the infant, like his toddler sister continued to doing the routine using similar if not the same route.

All in all he was hesitant, the infant waited, studied, and then slowly analyzed the process as he did it for his first time, and then continued to go on with the process as his big sister had been. The infant and the toddler both have demonstrated there developing gross motor skills. These skills are coordinated with many other parts of the body such as the legs and arms and the ability to notice what one is doing and mimic the other is all part of the development of the these physical abilities of large body movements ( Berger, 2009).

Reference section
1.) kambas, A. (2009). environmental factors affecting preschoolers motor development. 2.) Infants learn about objects from statistics and people. By: Wu, Rachel, Gopnik, Alison, Richardson, Daniel C., Kirkham, Natasha Z., Developmental Psychology, 00121649, 20110901, Vol. 47, Issue 5

3.) Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

4.)nicholson, T. (2010, june 2). What can a one year old do?. Retrieved from 5.)Developmental Science; Nov2009, Vol. 12 Issue 6, p1060-1069, 10p, 3 Charts, 4 Graphs

SAB expanding into Tanzania – environmental factors

The two dimensions or environmental segments that played a big role in determining whether Tanzania’s macro-environment would provide a suitable and supportive entry for South African Breweries are namely the Political or Legal Environment and the Economic Environment.

Firstly, in general, any well organised and effectively functioning government, and country, would attract investment and business from outside.

The political leaders of Tanzania are striven to enhance the current political stability within mainland Tanzania, while also vitally focused on creating necessary political cohesion between Tanzania and the island Zanzibar.

A factor that is essential to any well-functioning government and country, which would have attracted SAB, is that Tanzania had managed to rid its government of corruption. This was managed by the thinning –out and restructuring of the government in power, pre SAB’s involvement.

Although Tanzania owned its own brewery (Tanzania Breweries Ltd) this company had fallen under complete disarray. SAB grabbed the window of opportunity to acquire a share in the company. As a result, SAB acquired a 45% share in TBL (which later increased to 52%). This was a great opportunity, as TBL was an already well-established brewery that had certain assets, employees, client-base, distribution channels and government connections. In essence, this would have made the integration of SAB into TBL a much smoother process.

However, whenever a new organisation tries to establish itself in a foreign country, one can expect some sort of hostility, as well as a battle between the government’s regulations and the organisation’s expectations. At the time, the Tanzanian government seemed cooperative and supportive of the whole endeavour. The government and SAB had a relatively joint relationship, and this meant that there would be some sort of mutual agreement between them as to the activities of the organisation.

Secondly, in order for an organisation to evaluate whether it would thrive in a new economic environment, it is vital that it must determine the character and direction of the economy in which it wishes to establish itself.

Overall, Tanzania’s economy is growing continuously. This would be a key factor in determining whether or not it would be a healthy environment for an organisation to put down roots. With growth and profits as one of SAB’s primary objectives, the average growth of 6 per cent between 2000 and 2006 made Tanzania an ideal location for SAB. There was also a great improvement once the government had moved away from the socialism concept of a free-market, and instead embraced a more market-orientated form of industry.

The reasonable low entry cost of entry also made it more economically viable for SAB to initiate the start of a new organisation, as the potential economic detriments were limited. In addition, there had been a serious under production and distribution of TBL products to the public. The evidence shows that more beer was being imported into Tanzania than was actually being produced by its own brewery. Thus, there was a definite short-fall in ‘supplier meeting consumer demand’. SAB would have seen the potential to satisfy the demand of more customers, and the huge economic benefits that would come from that.

A negative factor with regards to Tanzania’s economy, is that a relatively high inflation rate is present, and this in turn affects consumer consumption priorities. However, this does not pose much of a threat to SAB, as the benefits of the new organisation far outweigh the negative attributes.

At the time, SAB was under the impression that they would be taking over a workforce of about 3000 employees, who all had knowledge and experience in the industry. This would save a vast amount of expense on employee training and employment administrative costs.

Tanzania’s economic environment had a large degree of appeal, and SAB would reap the benefits, provided it maintains sound management principles and effective business strategies, for years to come SAB made a very alert and smart business move when the company decided to expand its global boarders and establish itself in outside countries, such as Tanzania, where it can increase its performance and client base, and accelerate the growth and profits of the enterprise.

The vision and mission statement of TBL hold the key to its future success.

TBL’s vision, mission and values were created to maintain and enhance the various core functional components of its industry, that is: to ensure the wellbeing and performance of its employees who all have a high work ethic level; to provide a valuable service and product; to maintain customer satisfaction and loyalty; to remain dedicated to shareholders; and to secure the long term sustainability of the industry.

SAB pursed an External Growth Strategy of Horizontal Integration, through TBL in Tanzania. SAB sort out ownership or an (increased control) over another similar/ alike industry, which was actually its competitor. SAB and TBL merged/acquisition/takeover??

Essentially, this strategy was most attractive as it provided the opportunity for SAB to expand outwards globally, achieve a higher growth rate and increase profits. This enabled SAB to improve its competitive advantage over other organisations. The existence of a current trained and experienced labour force, as well as capital investments (TBL’s assets acquired from the integration and investments made later on by SAB), have aided the successful expansion of the organisation.

There have been a few problems with regards to the integration of the two organisations. More specifically; surrounding the management styles, previous corrupt practises, over-employment, public scrutiny, and legal and governmental issues. Fortunately, the majority of these problems have been resolved.

This was a very successful and business venture. TBL and SAB, and the Tanzanian economy have benefitted from the integration of the two organisations.

Environmental protection

Environmental protection has become a major concern for society. Admittedly, with the rapid development of economy, our environment is faced with new challenges. People increasingly attach importance to the protection. So it has been common that teachers and students discuss environmental protection in class. City planners take environmental problems into consideration as well. Factories are no exception. They begin to try reducing pollution to meet the needs of environmental protection instead of the short-term interest.

The main reasons are listed as follows: firstly, the serious air and water pollution affects everyone. In addition, only by making joint efforts to protect our environment can cities survive. Last but not least, businesses to make a profit pay more attention to environmental protection for their interest in the long run. From the picture above, we can see even the communication between parents and son rely on the Internet. With the rapid development of advanced science and technology, people increasingly make full use of the Internet to communicate with each other instead of face-to-face contact. As far as I am concerned, electronic communication only partly replace face-to-face contact. Admittedly, the Internet’s being put into use widely is the inevitable result of social development. It is indispensable to our daily communication. In addition, there is no denying that the electronic communication does save plenty of time for us, we can communicate easily beyond the limit of time and place.

But every cion has its two sides. People are meeting increasingly on the Internet, on television screens. Undoubtedly, it is not beneficial to the deepen the emotions and between people. We cannot express our feelings fully without face-to-face contact as well. Some body language like a hug of comfort or a kiss of love will never be express through the electronic communication. Therefore, though the electronic communication bring convenience to us, to some degree, electronic communication can never replace face-to-face contact. My View on Traffic Accidents In recent years, plenty of news about people injured or killed by cars on roads can be heard , which shows us that traffic accidents have been risen. But why are there so many such terrible events? As far as I am concerned, to begin with, it is the result of more cars are running on the roads with the development of economy.

Increasing accidents follow the increasing cars. In addition, there is no denying that the road conditions sometimes can’t meet the requirement of cars. But I think the most important one point is the lack of the safety awareness. And when being drunk, most people insist driving .As we all know, quite a lot of traffic accidents are due to the drivers who drive cars after drinking. Drunk drivers’ mind is vague, and they can’t control themselves and the car well, so they can easily get into trouble out of consciousness.

Environmental regulation of oil and gas

Demand and supply


       The global oil and gas industry face an External Environment that is more dynamic, more challenging, and more diverse; less understood and has greater information symmetry. These Environmental factors include: Political, Economic, Technological, Legal, Environmental and social factors.

       Political Environment: This involves the risk that political decisions and events that occur worldwide can affect the profitability and sustainability of the investment in the global oil and gas industry. Political decisions are very diverse thus they influence the oil and gas industry. For example, if there is political unrest in the major Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) there could be no smooth operations of the oil and gas industry, thus oil and gas companies tend to prefer countries with stable political systems and a history that can guarantee long-term Leases.

       Economic Environment: The economic development directly influences; the policymakers, citizens managers and institutions. The Gross national income (GNI) generated by both the domestic and international production activities of national companies and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of countries do generally shape the global industry of oil and gas. The economical factors include; Inflation rate, Prevailing interest rates, unemployment level and the level of disposable income and income distribution.

       Technological environment: These relate to the applications of new innovations such as Websites Internet as a business tool. Thus the oil and gas organizations need to be aware of the latest relevant technologies for them to succeed and surf the wave of change.

Dubai as significant producer of oil and gas

       Dubai is a major player in the world market and its role in international trade cannot be overemphasized since it contributes almost 10 percent in this trade. This country has repeatedly dominated the international market arena due to the following reasons, one it occupies a very strategic position in the middle of U.A.E coast and additionally it has one of the most efficient harbors in the world hence playing a crucial role in the transportation of goods between East and West markets. Also Dubai in the recent years has pursued to strengthen its strategic location by pursuing a free and balanced economic policy therefore gaining an international reputation which has not only seen the increase of Foreign direct investments (FDI) and also growth of service, commercial and industrial fields. Dubai is also endowed with natural resources like oil, gas just to name a few and also it has one of the best infrastructure in the world and therefore this resource and proper systems has seen the economy of Dubai take off in a way never witnessed before. The aim of this paper is to explore Dubai as a primary producer of oil and gas and its place in the international trade of oil and gas arena.


ASWATHAPPA, K. (2010). International business. New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Education.

GAO, Z. (1998). Environmental regulation of oil and gas. London [u.a.], Kluwer Law Internat.LAX, H. L. (1983). Political risk in the international oil and gas industry. Boston, International Human Resources Development Corp

MACDONALD, D. (2007). Business and environmental politics in Canada. Peterborough, Ont. [u.a.], Broadview Press.

NEELANKAVIL, J. P., & RAI, A. (2009). Basics of international business. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe

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Building systems integration for enhanced environmental performance

     Culture & Technology

       Architecture is considered as the art that involves designing and the construction of buildings and since Antiquity, the art of architecture has been known to be closely related and associated with history of art (Jaradat, 2012). The reasons why architecture has been closely related to art is that a lot of the public works, such as the religious buildings were constructed with aesthetics in mind in addition to the functionality of the buildings (Jaradat, 2012). The buildings were built with a primary aim of inspiring people and also perfume the function of serving the public. For this reason, the buildings involved the service of various people in the society which included the craftsmen and various artists in the society.

        Furthermore, labourers were also part of the teams that took part in the construction of the buildings ensuring that the artistic features and the functionality of the buildings were brought out as required. The interior of the buildings as well as the exteriors of the buildings were used as showcase for the various fine arts paintings, relief sculptures, frieze, and stained glass (Demkin, & American Institute of Architects, 2008). Furthermore, the decorations included various works of art such as the metalwork and the mosaic. It is also to be noted that the development of public buildings also involved visual arts. From the many centuries that have passed, the primary functions of early architecture were to have a consolidation of security and power within the buildings. Furthermore, the aim of the works of architecture was also to make the gods happy (Jaradat, 2012). It was observed that as the society became richer, the functions that were performed by early architecture also became more important in the society.

        According to Emmitt, (2013), there have been a lot of technological developments that have taken place over the past years which have led to the transformation of how buildings are constructed. The development in technology has changed the way buildings are designed and the types of buildings that are being constructed across the world. There has been great change in the materials that are being used by the process engineers in the construction of buildings (Emmitt, 2013). The materials being used in construction of buildings have made the work of the process engineers easier than it was before the developments in technology. It has become possible for the process engineers to construct any type of building that they want, primarily because of the type of materials that are currently being used.

      While architectures have continued to adopt the ancient designs and styles of buildings, process engineers have been busy embracing changes that have been brought up by developments in technology, as observed by Quatman, & Dhar, (2003). It is observed that over the centuries, what architectures have been doing in the society is relying on the past ancient designs as guidance. A lot of the architectural works have been influenced by ancient designs meaning that architectures have been slow in embracing changes brought about by technological developments. Compared to architectures, process engineers have been in the forefront in embracing technological advancements (Vough, et al., 2013). Process engineers have been able to embrace technological developments through the materials that they use and the equipment used in carrying out the construction works.

        Furthermore, Vassigh, & Chandler, (2011) has observed that architecture has continued to remain immune to the forces of transformation as well as progress over the centuries primarily because the profession has not fully embraced the changes and developments in technology. Architectures have continued to make use of the past designs of buildings to gain inspiration for their work (Vassigh, & Chandler, 2011). It has been observed that architects have been slow in embracing the changes brought by developments in technology compared to the master builders who have been able to make use of technology for new development in building and construction. Furthermore, research has shown that master builders have continued to rise up today in ranks from that of being process engineers to being the primary players in construction of buildings (Marsh, 2000). The master builders have taken the duty of identifying the suitable materials for constructions and the suitable design that can match certain materials. Architects have continued to be reserved in developing new models in construction.

          A lot of reservation has been made by architects for the purpose of maintaining the ancient culture in construction of buildings. On the other hand, master builders have taken the challenges of experimenting with new ideas on building materials and types of designs in construction (Marcus, 1989). The developments in technology have made it easy for the master builders to become more innovative in designing of buildings and the construction of buildings. The use f technology has enabled master builders to construct buildings that were never there in the past centuries through the use of material that is more durable. The lack of change in the culture of architects of getting inspiration from ancient buildings from time to time has been a contributor to the view that master builders have risen in ranks more than the architects (Chappell, & Willis, 2013).

        It has been observed that both in the private and the public sector, the owners and investors in buildings like to ensure that there is accountability in the buildings that they construct. The accountability that is needed is with regard to the materials being used and the quality of building that is being constructed (Jaradat, 2012). To ensure that there is no confusion and that there is total accountability, the process engineers are the ones that take the whole responsibility. The process engineers are tasked with the issue of designing the buildings, allocating the costs and the types of materials that are supposed to be used. Furthermore, the process engineers are the ones that are in the forefront in determining the type of human resource that is need for the completion of the buildings as per the needs of the owners (Jaradat, 2012).

           Therefore, considering that architects are only concerned with the designing, it becomes impossible for the owners of the buildings to hold the architects accountable in case of anything (Vough, et al., 2013). The lack of accountability on the side of the architects has left6 room for the process engineers to take up the responsibility of being accountable. Therefore, the owners of buildings tend to employ the services of the process engineers in terms of the design and the construction of their buildings, leaving the architects out of the loop (Jaradat, 2012). From the perspective of accountability, it can be noted that process engineers are the ones that rise up to the ranks of master builders as compared to the architects who are left to continue undertaking their role of designing (Chappell, & Willis, 2013).

          According to Marsh, (2000), over the years, research has shown that there has been great change in terms of leadership in construction projects. It has been observed that owners of constructions, private and public, both have been observed to employ the services of contractors. The use of contractors to take care of the construction project has led to what is referred to as contractor-led construction, an observati0o made by Rajpatty, (2008). Under the contractor-led construction system, the contractor is at the helm of the construction project and is the one that hires the architects to design the buildings. According to research done, the owners of construction projects feel safe with this type of arrangement where the contractor is at the helm. It provides some form of convenience to the client and offers a one-stop-shop where the client can be able to get everything that is needed to complete their project without having to engage the services of different people. Rajpatty, (2008) observes that the contractor-led projects create a single point of control and responsibility within a project in terms of designing o9f the buildings and the construction of the buildings.

           Furthermore, it has been identified that the system whereby the contractor or the process engineer is at the helm, of a construction projects enhances control over costs and the schedule of the project (Chappell, & Willis, 2013). The client is able to monitor the progress of their buildings as it is being constructed and can be able to trace how the costs are incurred in the project. It has also been noted that clients prefer the contractor-led system in building and construction because it is believed to foster some form of collaboration between the contractor and the client (Marcus, 1989). The end result of the collaboration that is fostered Through the use of the contractor-led system is that there is a process that is less adversarial and the construction of very high quality buildings (Marsh, 2000).

         It can be noted that indeed the roles of that the architects play has changed a lot and the role that process engineers play. The process engineers have continued to rise in ranks due to the accountability that clients require, and which the architects find difficult to provide (Vough, et al., 2013). Furthermore, it has been noted above that the aspect of control over costs and ensuring collaboration has also been part of the contributing factors that have led to the rise in the ranks of process engineers as compared to the architects who seem to be immune to change.

        Furthermore, it has been noted that technology has been a major booster to the rise in ranks of the process engineers in terms of the materials for construction and the equipment used in the construction projects (Chappell, & Willis, 2013). Therefore, the rise in ranks of the process engineers compared to the architects leads to some questions that need to be answered. Are there any impacts that architects bring in the construction of buildings? Is the role of architects becoming obsolete? What need to be done to improve the role played by architects in the construction industry? These are some of the questions that need to be researched to help understand why process engineers have risen in ranks compared to architect.


Chappell, D., & Willis, A. (2013). The Architect in Practice. Chicester: Wiley.

Demkin, J. A., & American Institute of Architects. (2008). The architect’s handbook of professional practice. Hoboken: Wiley.

Emmitt, S. (2013). Architectural Technology: Research and Practice. New York: Wiley.

Jaradat, S. (2012). The Architect’s Role and Interactions in BIM-enabled Projects.Marcus, P. (1989). Building a Construction Contract That Works: The Owner’s Role. Arbitration Journal, 44(1), 3-14.

Marsh, P. D. V. (2000). Contracting for engineering and construction projects. Burlington, VT: Gower.

Quatman, G. W., & Dhar, R. R. (2003). The Architect’s Guide to Design-Build Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Rajpatty, S. J. (2008). The Role of the Estimator in Today’s Construction Industry. AACE International Transactions, 1-9.

Vassigh, S., & Chandler, J. R. (2011). Building systems integration for enhanced environmental performance. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Pub.

Vough, H. C., Teresa Cardador, M. M., Bednar, J. S., Dane, E., & Pratt, M. G. (2013). What clients don’t get about my profession: a model of perceived role-based image discrepancies. Academy Of Management Journal, 56(4), 1050-1080. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.0490

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Midnight rider. Environmental Science & Technology

The Midnight Rider


            This documentary series explores the life of Paul Revere who was an American patriot. He was born in Boston, Mass, and he was a superb silversmith and also an ardent patriot however he was a mediocre military leader. As a member of sons of liberty, Revere became the main express rider for Boston committee of safety (Peltier, 2005). His role was to carry information such as letters, news, copies of proposed resolutions and dispatches to the patriots who were dispersed all over New England and also as far as Philadelphia and New York (Pelley, 2009).

            Revere’s famous ride in 1775 to Lexington was only the most popular of the numerous courier services that he carried out. Later Revere was court-martialed and given an acquittal for his leadership for the period of failed 1779 Penebscot Bay expedition (Dorsey, 2007). Although was released his was not grated a similar treatment and therefore he was forced to walk on foot to Lexington and at Lexington Green he witnessed the late phases of the battle. Subsequent to the American Revolution, Revere carried on with great success his trade in silversmith (Sullivan, 2012). Revere supplied materials for constitution of U.S.S and also worked together with Robert Fulton during developing copper boilers for the steamboats (Keene, 2013).

            Americans in the 21st century have a lot in common with their patriotic forefathers even though they are separated from the midnight ride of Paul revere by 238 years (Countryman & Foner, 1985). They are ready to fight for their sacred rights whenever they feel that they are being denied their rights. They are inspired by the Paul Revere’s ride since when they remember the reason for this ride they get inspired and are ready to face their own fight against the forces of tyranny (Dorsey, 2007).


Countryman, E., & Foner, E. (1985). The American Revolution. New York: Hill and Wang.

Dorsey, A. (2007). Black History Is American History: Teaching African American History in the Twenty-first Century. Journal of American History, 93(4), 1171-1177.

Jensen, M. (1970). The American People and the American Revolution. The Journal of American History, 57(1), 5.

Keene, C. (2013). Mystery of the midnight rider. New York: Aladdin.

Peltier, M. J. (Director). (2005). Paul Revere, the midnight rider [Documentary]. united states: A & E Home Video :.

Pelley, J. (2009). Midnight rider. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(6), 1661-1662.

Rachum, I. (1993). From “American Independence” To The “American Revolution”. Journal of American Studies, 27(01), 73.

Revere, P., & Forbes, E. (1963). Paul Revere’s ride; a deposition.. Worcester, Mass.: A.J. St. Onge.

Ruepp, K., Heyne, U., & James, J. A. (1995). Midnight rider. New York: North-South Books.

Sullivan, R. (2012). My American Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Thelen, D. (1994). The Practice of American History. The Journal of American History, 81(3), 933.

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Environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms: perspectives from law, economics, and business

Responsible businessIntroductionResponsible business concerns itself with allowing and ensuring the application of social and moral principles in business decision making. Through the definitions, the following principles of responsible business can be drawn:

Business for profit: When people engage in business, they are expecting to receive profit. The first principle of responsible business lies in the fact that it is just and in fact expected to make profit and for such profits to increase as more experience is gained in business. As such in the pursuit for responsible business, profits should not be left behind or side stepped, strategies employed by business managers, and even mechanisms used in the business need to be directed towards generating profits. The reward for doing business properly lies in the excess returns received from investments on the business.

Business ethics: the business operates within the concept of society, plays a part in accentuating the lives of the community. Responsible business calls for businesses to be subjected to a code of conduct. Businessmen are not exempted from being moral even as they pursue the profit. As ethics apply to all areas of life, so the same applies in business. Business needs to be done in as much honesty as is possible. If the business environment is to improve then behavior in business also needs to change and improve.

Professional ethics: a responsible business is run under corporate codes. As a business continues to change and the environment within which it operates transforms, it is only responsible for such codes to continually change. Therefore, a business is defined as responsible not just within the code of business ethics but also when it operates through the professional code of ethics governing it. While ethics are general in business, professional ethics are specific and designed for that particular business.

Business almost seems to operate under no particular ethics, rules and responsibilities. In many cases business persons are only concerned with the monetary value and nothing else. Responsible business on the other hand adheres to a code of conduct, set forth not just by law and moral values but also by the profession and industry within which the business operates, (Sanford 2011). Scholars agree that businesses can no longer operate as independent entities, existing separately by society. They need to uphold and be held responsible by the society. They exist as part of and in partnership with society and can therefore not ignore the societal responsibilities.

Drivers of responsible businessThe natural/ ecological environmentResponsibility to the environment consists of the concern for the interaction between human beings and the natural environment as it exists. The responsibility of businesses to the environment developed as a separate factor in responsible business from the 1960’s. At the time, pictures taken from space showed vulnerability in the existence of earth and its ecosystem. Environmentalists began lobbying that animals, plants and the general ecosystem in itself had value in and of itself. As such demands on various businesses to treat these entities responsible began. The general notion of responsibility to the environment is that if businesses continue exploiting and fail to be responsible towards the environment, it will be completely destroyed and in the process the human race will also be destroyed.

In the year 2009, the summit on sustainable development, brought focus to the fact that in another 50 years more than 10 billion people will be existing in the world. This is in addition to the problems currently facing the existence of earth such as rescinding existence of energy, excess carbon and a declining ozone layer (Smith 2010). The summit concluded that there is need for a green revolution to improve the status of the environment. The industrial world, at least a large percentage has failed to uphold its own responsibility towards ensuring a change in the strategies about the use of natural resources, and also the technology used to make use and exploit the natural environment.

Sustainable development as responsible businessToday’s businesses are expected and in fact it is demanded of them that sustainability becomes a part of their strategy. The government and even the clients coming to business are looking for more and more evidence that the business is acting responsibly in the environment. According to smith (2010), Customers want to live in a pollution free environment, so businesses whether manufacturing or even service providing have to change the way they operate. In order to maintain a clean environment, businesses require operating with technologies that are clean and also sources of clean energy such as solar rather than coal and oil. Sustainability can be simply defined the ability of the environment to replenish itself and remain healthy for the next generations. Surprisingly by opting to use more environmentally friendly and energy efficient technologies, businesses are able to save on their overhead costs.

Recycling: this refers to the ability to re-use raw materials over and over again. The advantage of recycling is that it cuts the amount of raw materials required for products and as such allows the environment to replenish itself. Normally businesses produce a lot of waste some which is very difficult to manage such as plastics. Recycling encourages the businesses to come up with processes that make use of their waste. Newton (2005) states that The concern is mainly for ever filling landfill, and therefore responsible businesses calls for either new and better ways to deposit the wastes or better yet new ways to make use of the waste. Landfills are responsible for methane production which is responsible for climate changes and damage to the ozone layer. In many western countries, recycling is not just a business responsibility but in fact a law that could attract stiff penalties.

Competitive advantage: in the past, businesses have made use of Ricardo’s principle which simply encourages cost cutting measures such as cheaper raw materials, labor and even investment of capital. The cost effectiveness produces greater profits for the business. However, Gibson (2005) indicates that recent research and benchmarking with large companies such as Coca Cola and General Motors shows sustainability provides greater advantage. Organizations committed to taking advantage of best practices are also gaining a larger market share.

New opportunities for product differentiation: product differentiation offers a chance for businesses to excel beyond their competitors even in the same industry. A product based on sustainability is not only considered a product of high quality but also one that is environmentally friendly and therefore more responsible even for the consumer. The market is gradually shifting from traditional products towards more energy efficient, fuel saving and alternative energy products. Testimony of this lies in the recent increase of interest and growth of the market share for products such as solar panels and energy saving bulbs. Zott (2014) shows that Responsible business in this era therefore translates to product differentiation through:

•Use of raw materials that have been proven to have less damage to the environment

•Companies that are setting benchmarks in terms of going beyond what is environmentally compliant.

•Less and less wastage from the business and more recycling of the same.

•Reduced emission of toxic wastes from the business.

As many environmentalists have shown nature in itself shows the best system of sustainability. Plants for example prosper in sunlight and with sufficient moisture. They are consumed by animals and insects. Through this consumption, the animals produce waste which in turn is used to ensure fertile soils on which more plants are grown. In this same way, human beings and especially businesses are tasked with the responsibility of being eco-friendly that is use, produce, consume and transform waste into something else through recycling.

Role of the government in responsible businessThe World Bank report in 2003 on sustainability emphasized the need for more structured and responsible governments to ensure sustainability. The governments are tasked with the responsibility of creating better policies and institutions through which businesses small and large alike can be held responsible. In the past, weak governments and poorly maintained social institutions have turned out to be quite costly to nature and the environment. Weak governance has brought about income inequality, political unrests and environmental disasters, (Hay et al 2005).

Governments provide the legal framework through which businesses can be held responsible. Constitutions and laws of a country are often used as the back drop to determine the concern and interest of the government in securing its own environment for example. The legal framework provides laws within which every business should operate. The legal frameworks set forth by each country have been changing constantly, becoming more focused to immediate and more tragic causes of environmental degradation. Through the legal framework for example, majority of the mines and timber yards have been closed and shut down for causing damage to the environment.

Governments also put in focus environmental conservation so that the activity is not just being carried out haphazardly. They provide a platform for integrating environmental concerns and responsibility into the economic and social development of the country. Through environmental policies also, there is conservation of critical natural resources. Businesses endangering such resources can face severe penalties through these policies. Governments often partner with businesses to ensure sanctuary of forests, animals that are going extinct among others.

Businesses often ignore the importance of contributing to the community within which they operate. The governments of such countries ensure that majority of the profits generated from the business go back to the community. The foremost principle for all governments is increased economic growth, poverty eradication and bridging the social class gap. All businesses operating within the country need to uphold this principle. . In addition, according to Moon (2001), the government ensures that even as businesses operate they do not meddle with the rights of the nation’s citizens. The government gives power and strength to citizens who may feel powerless to fight the businesses and especially the large entities. This is not to mean that the government only has responsibility to consumers, it also ensures that businesses operate in an environment which allows them to flourish and therefore generate profits.

ConclusionIt is now obvious that companies that are socially responsible and businesses that adhere to a particular code of doing business have better reputations and therefore a larger market share. The bulk of responsibility lies in the business owners ensuring that they have developed moral responsibility as the back bone on which their decision making is based. Managers and employees then have the duty of protecting the welfare of their consumers and other stakeholders which include the communities they operate within. While the main concern for business is an increase in the profit margin, those that have shown an inclination towards more responsible business strategies have attracted not just a large number of consumers but also investors. People are more interested in ensuring the growth and success of a responsible business especially with more and more of the media focusing on errors and embarrassment news featuring businesses that have failed in their responsibility.

Businesses are held up to societal standards and failure to uphold them is frowned upon. Whereas there was a time when businesses could attempt to cut corners in their responsibility, today this is not an option. The government and even citizens are aware that companies and businesses operate with certain expectations and values. Employees and other stakeholders require business to be conducted responsibly. Failure to do so encourages massive labor turnouts as employees seek more sustainable businesses. Responsible business therefore cuts into all corners of conducting business from governing the contracts with clients, to those with suppliers and even the community upholding the business.

Responsible business is not just a mirage of expected rules and regulations. Indeed it operates within a justice system through which governments obtain and have the power of demanding responsible business. Responsible business is part and parcel of strategic management. Each decision in the business must reflect the true responsibility and code of ethics of the business. In some cases this may require special attention being paid to particular areas of responsibility. Today, companies are going far and beyond what is expected of them in running business because they understand the importance of taking responsibility to ensure their survival.


Gibson, K. (2007). Ethics and business: an introduction. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Hay, B. L., Stavins, R. N., & Vietor, R. H. K. (2005). Environmental protection and the social responsibility of firms: perspectives from law, economics, and business. Washington, DC, Resources for the Future

Newton, L. H. (2005). Business ethics and the natural environment. Malden, MA, Blackwell.Sanford, C. (2011). The responsible business reimagining sustainability and success. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass

Smith, N. C. (2010). Global challenges in responsible business. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Zott, L. M. (2014). The environment. Detroit, Greenhaven Press

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