Arthur Anderson Questionable Accounting Practices: Ethics And Advocacy

1. Discuss how the issues with the Arthur Anderson case may have played out in one other way if the Sarbanes-Oxley Act had been enacted in 1999.

The provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley Act assist minimize the probability of auditor failing to establish accounting irregularities by the following necessities: 1). Improving the inner management. Auditors comment on the inner management of the agency should be reported. 2). Reinforcing supervision for financial irregularities. This act boosts to establish an impartial the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which is responsible for overseeing the efficiency of the certified public accountants and the accounting agency.

3). Strengthening the independence of auditors. It signifies that the act restricts auditors to audit activities only. 4). Encouraging financial disclosure. It also offers whistle-blower safety. 5). Increasing the penalties of ethical and legal misconducts. There are severe monetary and criminal punishments imposed on those auditors that give false statements. Further, the act lays down the standard of auditing required, the quality of management, and independence requirements and guidelines.

2. Discuss how the issues with the Arthur Anderson case may have played out in another way if the Sarbanes-Oxley Act had been enacted in 1999. One specific provision that would assist tremendously is Section 203, or Auditor Partner Rotation. This section calls for auditors to rotate partners assigned to purchasers, so that recent eyes can evaluate the work that has been carried out. This helps to stop the “partner in crime” relationship that contributed to Andersen’s downfall. Finally, the provisions make the whole auditing course of extra transparent, so that individuals on the outside of the company corresponding to shareholders, can easily see what is happening.

three. Determine and talk about which parts of the framework for moral decision making in business (from Chapter 5) performed the largest function in the Anderson case. Arthur Andersen and associate Clarence DeLany based Arthur Andersen LLP in Chicago in 1913. After ninety years of exhausting work, this accounting agency we become often known as one of many Big Five largest accounting companies within the United States. Andersen set requirements for the accounting career and superior new initiatives on the power of its then simple integrity.

By the Eighties, requirements throughout the industry fell as accountancy firms struggled to balance their dedication to audit independence in opposition to the need to develop their consultancy practices. Andersen rapidly expanded its consultancy apply to the purpose the place the majority of its revenues have been derived from such engagements, whereas audit partners had been continually inspired to seek out opportunities for consulting charges from existing audit shoppers. By the late-1990s, Andersen had succeeded in tripling the per-share revenues of its partners. Arthur Andersen was constantly accused of mistaken doing beginning in 1998. Andersen struggled to balance the need to keep its faithfulness to accounting requirements with its clients’ want to maximize earnings, significantly within the period of quarterly earnings reports. Andersen has been alleged to have been concerned within the fraudulent accounting and auditing of Sunbeam Product Waste Management, Baptist Foundation of Arizona, WorldCom and Enron.

On June 15, 2002, Andersen was convicted of obstruction of justice for shredding paperwork associated to its audit of Enron, resulting in the Enron scandal. Nancy Temple (Andersen Legal Dept.) and David Duncan (Lead Partner for the Enron account) had been cited because the accountable managers in this scandal as they had given the order to shred related documents. Since the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission does not permit convicted felons to audit public firms, the agency agreed to surrender its licenses and its right to practice earlier than the SEC on August 31, 2002, effectively ending the company’s operations.

The Andersen indictment additionally put a highlight on its defective audits of other companies, most notably Sunbeam and WorldCom. The subsequent chapter of WorldCom, which shortly surpassed Enron as the most important chapter in history, led to a domino impact of accounting and like company scandals that continue to tarnish American enterprise practices. On May 31, 2005, within the case Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously reversed Andersen’s conviction due to what it saw as critical flaws in the jury instructions

4. Discuss how the situation at Arthur Anderson might have played out differently if their senior management had displayed the habits of sturdy ethical leaders. Standards of any kind are a direct illustration of its management. If organizational compliance exists, it’ll trickle down all through the organization. Arthur Andersen’s moral dilemma deals with greed. The firm turned very grasping and sloppy. They no longer believed in rock solid accounting principles that had been instilled in earlier years. They had been extra into getting cash whether or not illegally of legally. They felt like they had been getting paid more to hide things than to audit. They tried to shred the Enron’s documents even after the courtroom told them to stop all actions of such.

Arthur Andersen considerably helped Enron with their accounting scandal. Had Andersen carried out the job in an moral manor, 1000’s of individuals would not be out of a job or even worst their retirement funds. One of many errors that condemned Arthur Andersen, was the shredding of those Enron paperwork. Even if the corporate was lying they could have gotten away with it. If they stopped shredding the paperwork the jury wouldn’t have discovered them guilty and ruin their popularity. The case did get reversed but the damage was already carried out. To take it additional again than that, I would have maintained acceptable accounting principles just like the founding fathers of the company located. Andersen was doing perfectly fine, financially at least, earlier than it crumbled because of bad choice making.

References:
www.sec.gov/about/laws.shtml – frwebgate.entry.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107 www.commondreams.org/views02/0712-02.htm bodurtha.georgetown.edu/…/Arthur%20Andersen’s%20Fall%20From%20Grace%20Is%20.. information.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2047122.stm www.time.com/time/business/…/0,8599,216386,00.html subjects.nytimes.com › Times Topics › People › D – resources.bnet.com/topic/sunbeam+corp..html studentoffortune.com/…/Ethics-and-Fraud-at-Sunbeam-Corporation

Archaeological Ethics: Moctezuma’s Headdress

Archaeological Ethical motives: Moctezuma’s Headdress

Contentss

Introduction

Back to History

Features about Moctezuma’s Headdress

Amplification of the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Controversy about the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Decision

Mentions

Introduction

“I confide to your consideration my darling kids, the most cherished gems I can go forth you. The nice sovereign beyond the ocean will involvement himself to see that they come into their heritage, should you current earlier than him their merely claims. I know your maestro will make this, if for no other ground, so for kindness I really have shown the Spaniards though it has occasioned my ruin.

For all my dangerous lucks, Malinche, I bear you sick will”Moctezuma.

The history of the states is what represents us daily ; traditions, mores and beliefs are marks of the states, that alone which differentiate one for other. Some artefacts symbolize this singularity and the cultural heritage that many artefacts bring to the states is big, unreplaceable and stuffed with beauty. Its bequest have to be preserved in the most effective method and it’s a obligation of everybody to take attention of those objects.

This undertaking aims to analysis the Mexican history specially the Aztecs and the reign of Moctezuma when the Spanish conquers arrive to Mexico headed by Hernan Cortes. With this conquer there is a explicit point that stand out from the civilization and has been a figure of contention for a protracted clip now. This is the Moctezuma’s Headdress ; nowadays its location is in the Nacional Museum in Vienna.

This endeavor in addition to will contact the purpose of position of the Mexicans and if is just lots to come again to Mexico or remain in Austria its state for the previous old ages.

Back to History

Mexico is recognized as an enormous state, rich from civilization and historical past. From all of the completely different civilizations that Mexico has, an of import and a powerful one is the Aztec civilization.

The Aztecs had been generally known as those who foremost settled in Texcoco Lake ( what right now we called Mexico City ) guided by their God Huitzilopochtli ( History, 2014 ) . After many aged ages of reign and rising, in 1519 Spanish ships got here to the Mexican district in hunt for gold or new districts to widen is power ( Gonzalez y Gonzalez, 2009 ) .

Spanish conquers foremost arrive to Veracruz, and simple travel to Tenochtitlan dominated by the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II. On the forenoon of November 8, 1519 the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II and the Spanish settler Hernan Cortes had their first meeting ; Moctezuma believed that Hernan Cortes was the traditional God Quetzalcoatl, and he was coming again for his district ( Cartwright, 2013 ) . The Aztecs received their conquers pleasant however after two old ages of life with the Aztecs the Spanish conquers destroy most of Tenochtitlan under the bid of Hernan Cortes ; Moctezuma was captive and killed, which is historically referred to as “La noche triste” . This created that Spanish people escaped to Spain, with them, 1000000s of Tenochtitlan artefacts were shipped outdoors Mexico. One of the artefacts involved was the Moctezuma’s headgear and together with many other artefacts they started its journey. This lead that many of them have been misplaced in the journey or bargain, there is not a a sure sum of how many of them the place involved and how many of them are misplaced at present.

The first official phantom of Moctezuma’s headgear was on 1596 in an stock list of the Archduke Ferdinand II of Tirol ( situated in Ambras Castle ( Schloss Ambras Innsbruck, 2014 ) ) , however due to the Napoleonic Wars these relics were moved to the Belvedere Castle in Vienna for their safety ( Rivero & A ; Feest, El Penacho del Mexico Antiguo, 2012 ) .

In 1878 the Moctezuma’s headgear was rediscovered by a geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter, it was founded severely damaged and because of this, he ordered the Restoration and replaced on the Museum of Natural History in Vienna ( Rivero & A ; Feest, Shared Heritage: The Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress in Vienna, 2012 ) .

When the World War I started the museum closes his doors and reopens till March 1915, completing this part the objects had been moved to the Museum of Ethnology in Vienna where there stay until October 19, 1940, holding the start of World War II, they have been moved and saved within the vault of the National Bank in Austria. Until the terminal of the World War II these artefacts were left in the National Bank, subsequently they were changed to the Museum of Ethnology, since so, its place.

At this clip, a reproduction of the Moctezuma’s headgear was created by Francisco Moctezuma, but because of what was go oning within the universe and the sum of cash that the Austrian authorities was soliciting for, he did the copy with a picture, that is really on the National Museum of Anthropology and History in Mexico City.

Features about Moctezuma’s Headdress

Moctezuma’s headgear is portion of the Mexican plume trade ; is see an of import mark of patriotism due to its custom, beauty, complexness, engineering and the colourful of their stuffs which might be from historic species based in many Mexican civilizations.

The plume commerce was created to face for the scope for the upper regulations, monks and successful warriors ; they wear them as a mark of regard, wisdom and self-respect. Since the minute of births via decease, plumes have been portion of the day-to-day lifetime of the Mexica, at the minute of the start, current a plume symbolizes power, award and welcome ; for the decease, plumes had been portion of the belongings that the asleep return with. ( Rivero & A ; Feest, El arte plumario en el Mexico del sigo Sixteen, 2012 ) .

Amplification of the Moctezuma’s Headdress

It was created within the Sixteen century by craftsmen referred to as “amantecas” . At the forepart of the headgear we will respect four different colourss from several types of species ( green, brown, ruddy and bluish ) . At the dorsum there are extra green plumes crisscrossed absolutely to the construction, it has a tallness of 116 centimetres and a hundred seventy five in diameter ( Welt Museum Wien, 2014 ) .

The plumes had been collected when the birds alteration of tegument after sure consideration and with out harming them. The artistic activity of the “Penacho” was actually hard and it concerned a batch of individuals to make this piece of artwork, from goldworkers to craftsmans. It besides had a batch of various methods to its amplification, like noodles and an distinctive art in signifier of mosaic. It incorporates 1,594 pieces of goldworker ( 80 % gold, 10 % Ag, three % Cu ) ( Olvido Moreno, 2013 ) . Its inventive exercise was highly careful and it was guided by an expert referred to as tlatoani, who was in command of supervising and concluding inside informations. Because of its development it permits the piece to be versatile, immune, dynamic and light-weight ; these created that anybody can have on it for hours with out buying tired.

Controversy in regards to the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Presents there are a batch of historic factors and vegetation of art displayed in museums around the universe, but the existent inquiry is if those artefacts should return to its village/city/town of beginning? And if they return to their beginnings what would the old state, which has it before, have it back? Those inquiries has turn into an of import concern when archaeological factors are based or recovered, mainly as a result of those artefacts had been founded in different states far from their beginnings.

The Moctezuma’s Headdress piece has been an unbelievable mark of competition between Mexico and Austria for so much of old ages. It had been the centre of positions, remedies and dialogues between both authoritiess, however with out holding success. Since Mexico fought against its independence, they’ve been looking for to amass it again. The latest to official bespeaking its return was the Mexican president Felipe Calderon. On February, 2010 he proposed, with the coaction of the National Institute of Anthropology and History and the Museum of Ethnology in Austria, to develop a endeavor in which their function was to make a scientific analysis of the piece, with the intent of determine its circumstances and to cognize the proper processs of Restoration that can let the conveyance of the chef-d’oeuvre to Mexico ( Conaculta, 2011 ) . With this endeavor there was apart from bearing in mind a loan by trade of the float of Maximilian of Habsburg, which is exhibit in Mexico City in Chapultepec Castle, along with different artefacts that represent the authorities of Austria.

But after a troublesome and extended analysis that last three old ages, in which specializer might reexamine, analyze and look into the Moctezuma headgear ; the representatives of both states ( Maria Moreno from Mexico and Melanie Kim from Austria ) announced that it could non be moved from one state to other with out impacting their construction ( Amador, 2014 ) . An advanced engineering in which the quivers of the journey are rejected to influence the piece of artwork is required. Until this engineering is reached the best option is that the Moctezuma’s Headdress corsets in Vienna Austria.

Based on the interview with the Dr. Moreno, the research helps the Museum of Ethnology in Vienna to alter and higher the saving and preservation of the maestro piece. Before the Restoration the piece of artwork was uncovered at 90? , like an image, however so it change to a horizontal place 22.5? , this fashion tourers can hold a better grasp of this piece and in addition to it would non impact its development ; eventually she said that whether it is saved beneath the conditions of light management, microclimate and management of quivers, the stake is that we now have “Penacho” for 500 old ages extra ( Olvido Moreno, 2013 ) . What is for sure is Mexico and Vienna has already agreed to interchange goods that symbolize both states, to have the ability to rich culturally and historic these states.

Decision

This headgear piece is a really of import artefact that contains prolonged details about how had been the Aztec civilization and its traditions. Is a mark of beauty, wealth and power for the Mexican civilization, it varieties portion of Mexicans, but we will non deny that it besides form portion of Austrians as a outcome of for all of the history behind it. It represents the Mexican civilization wholly and bettering in engineering would truly give the prospect for Mexicans to accumulate that cultural heritage with such a big importance and influence in the history of Mexico.

The trade of the pieces will besides be valuable for both states, as a outcome of it will convey value for Mexicans and Austrians and besides it’ll non make struggle between the states. The touristry that each items of artwork characterize for the states is immense and its one of many of import aspects to see, it could convey forth more because of the of import and historical value of the objects.

From my level of position, I think about the reality that each are cherished artefacts, they symbolize an unbelievable value of custom and civilization which are situated far off from its roots. But sing the hazards of touring them, this could influence its construction for good, doing it susceptible and with out chance to retrieve. The best option is to attend till engineering is superior at the level the journey could be carried out with out impacting the artefact ; making a win-win state of affairs in which each states have one thing in exchange that can wealthy culturally, traditionally and touristic.

The Austrian-Mexican binational committee analyzing the Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress, February 2010

Mentions

Amador, J. ( 2014, June three ) .Mitos y verdades del Penacho de Moctezuma, documental de Jaime Kuri. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Proceso: hypertext switch protocol: //www.proceso.com.mx/ ? p=373771

Cartwright, M. ( 2013, October 10 ) .Montezuma. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from Ancient History Encyclopedia: hypertext switch protocol: //www.ancient.eu/Montezuma/

Conaculta. ( 2011, January 17 ) .Mexico negocia el retorno temporal del Penacho de Moctezuma. Retrieved October 29, 2014, from Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.inah.gob.mx/boletin/6-museos-y-exposiciones/4819-mexico-negocia-retorno-temporal-del-penacho-de-moctezuma

Gonzalez y Gonzalez, L. ( 2009 ) . Los pueblos indigenas a la llegada de los espanoles. InViaje por La historia de Mexico( pp. 10-13 ) . Mexico, D.F. : Editorial Clio.

History. ( 2014 ) .Mexico Timeline. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from History: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.history.com/topics/mexico/mexico-timeline

Olvido Moreno, M. ( 2013, September 7 ) .El Penacho de Moctezuma. Restauraciones de los siglos XIX Y XXI.Retrieved October 28, 2014, from Youtube: hypertext switch protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=dR6UDB0Lh0Y

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .El arte plumario en el Mexico del sigo Sixteen. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Reseach Gate: hypertext switch protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/238521006_La_sombra_de_los_dioses._El_arte_plumario_en_el_Mxico_del_siglo_XVI

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .El Penacho del Mexico Antiguo. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Research Gate: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/238506996_El_Penacho_del_Mxico_Antiguo_en_Europa

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .Shared Heritage: The Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress in Vienna. Retrieved October 28, 2014, from Research Gate: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/262005724_Shared_Heritage_The_Ancient_Mexican_Feather_Headdress_in_Vienna

Schloss Ambras Innsbruck. ( 2014 ) .Ambras Castle. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Schloss Ambras Innsbruck: hypertext switch protocol: //www.schlossambras-innsbruck.at/en/explore/at-ambras-castle/the-history-of-ambras-castle/

Welt Museum Wien. ( 2014 ) .North and Central America: History of the aggregation. Retrieved October 29, 2014, from Welt Museum Wien: hypertext switch protocol: //www.weltmuseumwien.at/en/wonder/collections/north-and-central-america/history-of-the-collection/

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Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Ethics in Abortion

Critical thinkers apply three completely different ideas when making use of ethics to decision making. Set priorities, try to search out further options and options, and negotiate choices totally aimed or partially reaching an important interest of all involved events (Peter A. Facione). Considering our values, rights, and consequences we will assume abortion is and could be different in accordance with one’s view or the view of others in the matter. After much analysis I want I might say I have decided whether I think abortion is ok, however I am still on the fence in regards to the topic.

I plan to do extra research on this subject and ask people who have experienced making the choice whether or not to abort their baby.

Consequence-based ethical reasoning entails figuring out whether an action is right or wrong in accordance with its penalties. If a certain action will result in a great consequence, then it’s the proper factor to do; if it results in a foul consequence, it’s the incorrect factor to do.

Those could be the overriding common principles. Of course, to use this method, one must define “good consequence” and “bad consequence.” A common definition raises concepts of ache and pleasure, each largely defined to incorporate more than just bodily pains and pleasures. Other possible standards of goodness embrace the concepts of happiness, well-being, and benefit. Take into consideration the bodily and psychological trauma for girls related to abortion. “Which act will lead to the best penalties (Group.

)? If abortion heartens medical and phycological problems is it ethical? Take the case of child Jane Doe for instance. The case was a medical dispute on the proper care of severely handicapped kids. A four-month-old toddler from New York with extreme medical points and her dad and mom choose not to treat the child for the said child’s greatest curiosity. That treating her and doing surgery would solely delay her struggling in her short life expectancy (Gary E. McCuen).

Would it have been better to have aborted baby Jane earlier than she was born with medical disabilities? The youngster was not able to speak for herself. Did the parents do this to end her struggling, or end their very own monetary accountability in addition to caring for a handicapped child? Does each human life have the same dollar amount (Peter A. Facione)? Utilitarianism, a scientific method to ethical reasoning that defines morally proper acts as those which result in the biggest good for the best number of all concerned.

Utilitarianism is doubtless one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics within the historical past of philosophy. A consequence-based approach is that intent is irrelevant. The consequence-based reasoning is that “the end justifies the means” it doesn’t matter how you deliver a couple of good consequence, solely that the consequence is indeed good. Can we actually justify the willful destruction of human embryos by arguing that “the end justifies the means” (Group.)? Is it acceptable to undermine the dignity of human life in the name of medical progress (Torr)? So, if utilizing an embryo for stem cell research will help us fight disease in the future or help couples have kids with no disabilities make utilizing embryos ethical? Is an embryo considered a life (Torr)? Purely in terms of consequence to that individual, there is no method to put greater worth on the one than on the other (Peter A. Facione).

Rights-based moral reasoning involves figuring out whether an action is right or mistaken in accordance with whose and which rights are upheld or violated by the act in query. Such rights would possibly include the proper to free speech, the proper to own property, the best to vote, the best to be free from harm, the proper to go wherever you want, and so forth. In this case, the overall ideas would be something like “One should respect the best of others too. . .” or “This motion is incorrect as a outcome of it violates this person’s proper to . . .” I suppose children have a proper to a contented and healthy childhood. How can a have such rights if aborted? When taking a rights-based approach to moral decisions, one must first determine what rights are concerned (Group.). In the Nineteen Sixties, there was no federal law regulating abortions, and a lot of states had banned the practice completely, besides when the lifetime of the mom was endangered. Abortion highlights the issue when it comes to pro-life arguments and pro-choice arguments (ushistory.org). Did you understand Pope John Paul II is a pacesetter within the pro-life movement? During his landmark 1998 visit to Cuba, he criticized the island’s legalized abortion policies (ushistory.org). The Roe v.

Wade case acknowledged the constitutional right to privacy extends to a woman’s right to make her personal personal medical choices, including the decision to have an abortion with out interference from officers (ushistory.org). “Morality depends on your religion” or, “God tells you what to do.” Those who imagine life begins at conception really feel that the unborn youngster deserves the same authorized protections as an grownup. Ending such a life is equal to murder to those who subscribe to this belief (Group.). Others argue that life begins at delivery and that laws proscribing abortion interfere with the best of a lady to resolve what’s in her own best pursuits. (ushistory.org). Religious duty, who appointed you God? Who gave you the proper to play God? Some folks appeal to religion as the basis for his or her values. Alternatively, some people suggest that our rights are God-given.

This reply, in fact, does not satisfy those that don’t assume there’s a god. But even for many who do, it’s a bit problematic: how are you aware which rights this god has given you? “The choice of whether or not to abort or not is mine and mine alone. I have the proper to say what occurs in my body! “And what about me? I’m the father! Don’t I have any rights? And that child-to-be? Doesn’t it have any rights?” “The flight from the grey”: people can’t perceive something in the easy phrases of black and white, so that they faux it doesn’t exist or isn’t important. After all, doing that’s a lot simpler than entering the gray space, getting lost, getting confused, and getting annoyed with complexity and uncertainty (Group.). It is always easy troublesome for anyone to offer due consideration to alternative views and beliefs (Peter A. Facione).

Values-based ethical reasoning includes determining whether or not an action is true or incorrect based on whether or not or not the action in question adapts to sure values, such as truthfulness, duty, justice, temperance, braveness, self-control, knowledge, equity, pride, ambition, gentleness, frankness, self-interest, faithfulness, gratitude, compassion, self-improvement, non-maleficence, reparation, care, compassion, sensitivity, reciprocity, generosity, modesty, kindness, respect, patriotism, prejudice, equality, and so on (Group.).

Evaluating arguments about ethical issues is not any different from evaluating other sorts of arguments. if you finish up offered with an argument about an moral issue, undergo the identical steps: identify the difficulty, identify the purpose, and establish the premises supporting that time (both those explicitly acknowledged and people assumed); then evaluate the premises, considering whether or not they’re true or acceptable, whether or not or not they’re related, and whether or not they’re sufficient to help the declare. Then resolve whether or not the argument is robust sufficient for you to settle for its conclusion, usually a judgment about whether something is right or mistaken (Group.).

Is it right to abort a baby following all the premises? The best method to protect folks from wrongdoing is to make the wrongdoing illegal? Ethics refers to a set of behavioral ideals or moral principles that guide us in determining right and wrong (Peter A. Facione). Some individuals imagine abortion is a crime, and others think about it to be the free selection of the person. If we apply important thinking and ethics after we determine on abortion does it make us assume abortion is ok?

Apples Ethics and Social Responsibility

Apples ethics and social responsibility

In researching the Apple Company’s Social (Supplier) and ethical duties I found that their initiatives are geared toward Empowering Workers, Labor & Human Rights, Health & Safety, Environment and Accountability. I suppose their method is fascinating however I feel that a big firm like Apple can do far more for the local communities and country as a whole. Apples stance on empowering their staff is an excellent factor. I think extra firms need to acknowledge that a cheerful workforce makes for an total higher employee and customer experience.

Apple Inc. employs staff all round the world and is dedicated to treating staff with respect and dignity. The firm supplies educational resources for all of their workers giving them the chance to earn an undergraduate degree.

Apple has very high standards and expectations in the industry. They present their workers with the appropriate tools necessary to meet the high bar set forth; communicate and preserve a protected and respectable office.

Training on the Apples Code of Conduct is necessary for all new and existing employees. When it comes to Labor & Human Rights Apple is committed to ending excessive work hours, offering a foundation for ethical employment, preventing underage labor, stopping excessive recruitment charges and bonded labor and responsible sourcing of minerals. Apple only does enterprise with corporations that uphold the highest dedication to Human Rights. Apple has very high standards in Health & Safety, Environment and Accountability.

They imagine that every worker has the best to a safe and healthy workplace.

Improving well being and security is important and all employees obtain the appropriate schooling on the subject. All apple suppliers must work alongside of apple to reduce their environmental influence and use numerous strategies to establish dangers. Apple believes in accountability for themselves and suppliers and has strengthened their code of conduct to fulfill the responsibility standards. In my opinion Apple has not quite met their Social Responsibility requirements, and can do extra. In 2012 the NY Post reported that Apple was trying to get rid of the status as stingiest company. They revamped $150 million in charitable donations break up between a quantity of organizations that yr. They donated 500,000 to “SF Gives” in May of 2014. But giving back has never been an instantaneous priority of Apple as Steve Jobs said. Not to say all of the adverse publicity Apple has obtained in reference to the working conditions of their overseas warehouses.

Apple’s Reputation

Have you ever heard the saying you may be “guilty by association”? Unfortunately that’s the method the world works. Foxconn is the main producer of Apple’s merchandise along with numerous different well-known companies. Based out of China the Foxconn-Apple warehouse that employs over 500,000 workers has been in the media in latest years relating to violation of the Labor & Human rights laws. In July 2009, an worker on the Foxconn warehouse that makes iPad dedicated suicide after his home was raided; he was badly overwhelmed and humiliated over a missing iPhone. In a report released in early 2011 by the Guardian there have been numerous suicides from Foxconn-Apple facilities in China. It is claimed that the tragic suicides were a results of the staff being overworked and deplorable working circumstances.

The guardian additionally reported in late 2012 91 kids working at one of Apple’s Foxconn suppliers which is type of ten times greater than what was reported within the previous years. This doesn’t meet the very high requirements set forth by the corporate in the eyes of the common public. In 2009, 137 workers were poisoned by n-hexane use at one of the Apple- Wintek LCD vegetation in East China. N-Hexane is a narcotic that attacks the nervous system when exposed to it. This poison was used for drying touchscreens in order to speed up manufacturing to fill bigger orders obtained by the factory. Most of the employees impacted have been forced to resign and absolve Wintek of all future duty. It is rumored that Apple and Wintek have been very gradual to react to the incidents. Apples reputation has positively taken a success from the negative publicity surrounding their abroad suppliers.

In an effort to clean all of this up Apple has vowed to get rid of youngster labor and excessive work hours throughout the entire provide chain. They want to make positive that the supplier code of conduct is being enforced and practiced at all times. Foxconn has taken steps to prevent future suicide attempts by installing preventative suicide nets around their buildings, offering counselling and requiring employees to signal a no-suicide settlement previous to employment. Apple has also prohibited the utilization of n-hexane and states that the product is not in use at any facility associated with the company.

Suppliers Adherence to Wage and Benefit Standards

The varied labor apply violations amongst Apple’s suppliers nonetheless stay very high. In 2012 China Watch reported- after investigating the working circumstances of 10 of Apple-Foxconn amenities. They determined that it was not only the Foxconn facilities with deplorable work conditions, nevertheless it exists within Apple’s supply chain. According to epi.org Apple itself finds that in more than 28% of cases, suppliers usually are not compliant with the wage and profit standards set. In early 2012 the Fair Labor Association (FLA) conducted a month lengthy investigation and uncovered vital issues at three Foxconn services in China. Among the issues found were -excessive extra time, issues being compensated for extra time, extreme communication gaps which led to unsafe working circumstances amongst the workers and an overall unhealthy deplorable surroundings.

Although Apple is “committed” to making sure honest Labor and Human rights, they want to take extra steps to implement their Supplier Responsibility Standards. I’d first suggest for the corporate to have a major increase in the variety of unbiased audits carried out yearly on abroad warehouses. This will help make certain that employees aren’t working excessive extra time or receiving decrease than minimal wages. Communication is an absolute necessity in large warehouses, and every incident must be documented. The audits can be very important in ensuring that the workers are in a reasonably protected and healthy environment. Apple Inc. wants substantial enchancment in the realm of transparency and secrecy so as to remove labor rights abuses by its suppliers.

The majority of the company’s “secretive practices” involve the whole supply chain. Some of their factories are said to be gated off and have police /security to prevent trespassing, employees should sign confidentiality agreements and live in dorms within the factories. Apple reviews the percentage of their suppliers that violate the code of conduct, however won’t launch the names of the actual services that weren’t compliant. The company must be more forthcoming and discontinue the secretive practices that forestall the basic public from observing working conditions and business practices within its suppliers.

Customer Loyalty

Apple has a really loyal customer base despite the despicable acts the corporate has been associated with throughout the years. In my opinion, most of their customers are working class and know how important it is to be reasonably compensated for their work. Apple’s clients could have some issues if the prices enhance, however they may purchase the merchandise. You could have a buyer like me that feels like the current worth level of Apple’s products is already high. There are four Apple merchandise in my residence 1- IPad 1-Ipad mini 1-MacBook and an IPhone 5s totaling close to $4,000 retail. That is how much Apple made from 1 household in a matter of a year. If all of their clients are paying these types of prices, that’s more than enough for Apple to guarantee that all workers have affordable wage and benefit packages.

This is a company that has prospects waiting in line for days to purchase new revolutionary products whatever the worth. Apple is understood for making a better profit by paying overseas corporations subsequent to nothing for manufacturing. As I previously acknowledged Apple customers are very loyal. I imagine the shoppers would pay more for products if the prices increased. Simply as a outcome of when you begin using apple products it’s like you have to have the next best thing. They definitely stay as much as the popularity of providing new know-how and progressive top of the road products. The firm could obtain adverse feedback from current and new customers, but they’ll nonetheless buy the products out of necessity.

Apple’s Marketing Approach

In my opinion Apple’s general advertising technique is doubtless one of the best in the trade. Anytime a new IPhone is released prospects wait in line for days leading up to just to get the latest and biggest. Online orders undergo the roof and the waiting lists get fairly lengthy. So clearly Apple is doing something right to market their products to customers. According to Forbes magazine Apple is such a great marketer that they gained the 2012 CMO Survey Award for Marketing Excellence and has been the co-winner for 5 consecutive years. In the late 1970’s Apple adopted a 3 level advertising philosophy that remains at the core of their model today. The original three factors are Empathy, Focus and Impute and are considered when implementing present market methods. Apple is thought to have high of the line merchandise and technicians to match.

Their employees are very knowledgeable and keen to assist in giving their clients the best experience possible. That will take any firm a very good distance as customer satisfaction and expertise is important to the success of any enterprise. On paper Apple looks nice, but in order to improve its aggressive advantage in the world marketplace a couple of recommendations must be made. The Apple logo is among the most acknowledged, respected and trusted names in the world today. Apple has already established aggressive benefit in the world marketplace around setting up a prime of the line, small and revolutionary product line.

I really feel like they want to continue to place time and resources into capitalizing on the benefit and enhancing the popularity of the Apple model. Things appear to be going nice for Apple, however achieving an ongoing aggressive advantage requires fixed monitoring of the organizations competitive landscape. Openness to rethinking the company’s present benefits is important in remaining aggressive.

Works Cited

Apple Inc. (2013). Supplier Responsibility Standards. http://www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/pdf/Apple_Supplier_Responsibility_Standards.pdf. China Labor Watch. (2012). Beyond Foxconn:Deplorable Working Conditions Characterize Apple’s Entire Supply. http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/news/new-415.html. Christine Moorman, Forbes. (2012). Why is Apple a Great Marketer. http://www.forbes.com/sites/christinemoorman/2012/07/10/why-apple-is-a-great-marketer/. Connie Guglielmo, Forbes. (2012). Apple’s Supplier Labor Practices In China Scrutinized After Foxconn, Pegatron Reviews. http://www.forbes.com/sites/connieguglielmo/2013/12/12/apples-labor-practices-in-china-scrutinized-after-foxconn-pegatron-reviewed/. Dunstan Pria, Fox. (2012). Apple’s Chinese Manufacturer To Fix Labor Violations. http://www.foxbusiness.com/industries/2012/03/29/apples-chinese-manufacturer-to-fix-labor-violations/. Fair Labor Association. (2012). FAIR LABOR ASSOCIATION SECURES COMMITMENT TO LIMIT WORKERS’ HOURS, PROTECT PAY AT
APPLE’S LARGEST SUPPLIER. http://www.fairlabor.org/blog/entry/fair-labor-association-secures-commitment-limit-workers-hours-protect-pay-apples-largest. Scott Nova, Isaac Shapiro, EPI. (2012). Polishing Apple Fair Labor Association offers Foxconn and Apple undue credit for labor rights progress. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp352-polishing-apple-fla-foxconn-labor-rights/.

Analysis of Pharmacy Code of Ethics

Each occupation has a set of ethical codes and standards which they have to adhere to in order to attain maximum belief and maintain professional relationships with their buyer or consumer. Breach of the defined code will lead to harm of client’s belief, trustworthiness in one’s capacity to work of their surroundings with a non- unbiased view and so on. A Pharmacist’s major objective is to offer and help patients in making the most effective judgment regarding their use of medicine; anything that jeopardizes the moral code must be acknowledged and dealt with accordingly.

In a Drug retailer occupation there are eight moral codes of which 5 I will talk about; the first is to understand the connection borders between a client and a pharmacist (US Pharm D). There might come up circumstances the place one needs to be unbiased and voice an opinion that does not fit the perform of a pharmacist, constantly keep in mind that it’s a professional relationship regardless of how shut one is to the patients outside of work; being unbiased makes it simpler to rationally offer an answer.

In regard to this code, a pharmacist’s major goal is to maintain the belief of the shopper which matches each strategies; belief that the client has listened and understood making use of the medicine and can frequently put it to use the perfect method, and in flip the affected person trusts that you’ve supplied to the finest of your understanding essentially the most acceptable medicine. The principle that best suits the picture represented by this code is Kant’s principle, “to continually deal with others as an end to themselves and by no means merely as ways”, this means that a pharmacist isn’t promoting a particular drug and completely overlooking his persistence health and terminating shoppers total trust.

The pharmacist should in no different means mislead the affected person while offering treatment even if their intent was for excellent. According to Kant’s theory nice outcomes never ever make an motion morally proper. Promoting the health and wellbeing of each affected person in a caring compassionate and personal means is the secondary code of ethics (United States Pharm D).

Emphasis on this code is on full duty of the patient and no other; to offer compassion and treat them in a personal manner whereas sustaining patient’s dignity. Principle of beneficence offers a clear justification of this code in the state that advocates promotion for patient’s welfare. Signing up in a healthcare career like pharmacy doesn’t requires extreme sacrifices with regard to the patient like a surgeon would; right here there is not any absolute responsibility and the act of beneficence isn’t maximized. For instance working on this area won’t require the skilled to cancel their plans for a patients comfort. A stability is maintained between the patient’s and pharmacist’s level of selfishness. The third moral code of a pharmacist is to “respect the autonomy and dignity of every patient” (US Pharm D). The code simply states that a pharmacist will communicate with a patient in such a way that may present cohesive understanding and allow patient to partake in choice making process.

Pharmacist should allow patient the right to be self-determined as nicely as self-worth. Principle of autonomy most intently fits this model and affirms a patients proper to utilize self-independence but provided that the affected person is in a position to make rational and sound judgment. That being said, if the patients fails to be wise there exists an exception. The exception is justified by the principle of paternalism, meaning that other people who’re taking care of the affected person will have the right to determine instead and work with the pharmacist. Like all other professions that have a primary rule of honesty of their relationships, so does pharmacy. A pharmacist should act with a conscience thoughts, tell the truth, keep away from actions that will render impaired judgment and compromise what the profession stands for as nicely as the patient’s well-being (US Pharm D).

This code mirrors initial moral code of pharmacy pertaining to “conventional relationship between the patient and pharmacist” (US Pharm D); just because the preliminary code was validated by Kant’s ethical theory so is this specific code. Under no circumstances ought to a patient be misled. This goes as far as to support the affected person to have the ability to acknowledge whether the medicine they are being giving is a placebo or not. Also principle of beneficence is in have an result on right here due to maximizing welfare of patient, by telling the truth and being sincere there’s room for larger professional judgment. Principle of Utility justifies that pharmacist should act in a way to convey great benefit and fewer harm; again by being trustworthy there’s minimal room for error because of there being a scarcity of suppression of essential info and communication.

Aside from honesty and sustaining sufferers belief, a outstanding code would be regarding your capability as a pharmacist (US Pharm D). A pharmacist has an obligation to remain on top of their area indicating that one must be up-to-date with the latest treatment, applied sciences, and units. Lack of knowledge will lead to poor analysis and endanger a patient’s health. Principle of nonmaleficence states that one doesn’t need malic to cause harm, ignorance as well can lead violating this code. Remember as pharmacist one must avoid hurt and take full responsibility of a pharmacist professional position – briefly there is not any leeway on this ethical code, its absolute.

Adidas: Ethics and Social Responsibility

Adidas is a goods manufacturing firm. It manufactures goods associated to sports activities. It was discovered by Adolf Dassler in 1948. Adolf Dassler initiated its work by producing his own shoe and it was produced in his mother’s kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria after world warfare 1. His brother Rudolf was additionally excited about manufacturing work, so he joined Adolf Dassler in July 1924. They named their firm by Dassler Brother Shoe Factory. But Adolf was not happy by this name and he changed it to Adidas in 1949.

This name was derived from his own name ‘ADI’ is from Adolf and ‘Das’ is from Dassler. After some years both brothers have a battle and because of this, they grew to become enemies. Adolf has Adidas and Rudolf established his own company named ‘Puma’. Both brothers turn into enterprise enemies and are reverse to every other.

These two brothers obtained separated and had been working their own firms, Adidas and Puma. Both have robust competitors among themselves. With this people are additionally getting confused that which is good Adidas or Puma.

Nowadays both manufacturers are thought of costly, however people are more probably to buy Adidas. Adidas makes sneakers, clothes, and different stuff however puma is the one a producer of shoes. So, that’s why we will see Adidas normally and Puma could be very uncommon.

The Adidas logo may be very cool. It so tough for everybody to pick out the logo of the company as the market needs a emblem and Adidas does not have any kind of emblem for 40 years roughly.

Then from one hundred ideas, one was chosen. It was leaf-shaped having three leaves that had been the sign of America, Europe, and Africa. It informs us that everybody is equal and is on the same platform.

The revenue of Adidas company is 14.88 billion in Euros that’s 18.42 billion in US dollars. In Adidas firm, there are 50,728 employers that work.

Adidas is a worldwide business that’s producing sports-related items. Adidas says that they are all the time targeted on the consolation of the customers. The quality of each good is nice and it feels comfortable. Adidas’ purpose is to extend the social and environmental performance of the corporate and they want the lives of people that comply with them will get higher. In 1988 Adidas and Salomon firm get collectively and as a end result of this a model new logo was launched. In this logo, there are two colours, blue and red. Blue is for Adidas and red is for Salomon.

Adidas has a slogan that claims, “Impossible is Nothing”. It was developed by 180/TBWA in Amsterdam. The present advertising technique of Adidas is “Adidas is all in”. The aim of this slogan is to show equality in all brands and to current good material to the shopper.
Adidas has an excellent promoting circle. They rent well-known celebrities as their Brand Ambassador.

With the help of social media and all, they promote a lot. Adidas provide their items to 570 factories on the planet. In Asia, they have reference to 18 countries and supply their goods to them. From the Manufacturing unit, the goods are delivered to the nation warehouse after which they move to the stores across the nation.

Competitors of Adidas are Nike, Gucci, Puma, Lacoste, Reebok, Converse. Adidas is in an excellent financial place now. Adidas have sturdy international commerce and distributive chain. They are strengths of the Adidas company. It additionally has some weaknesses as Adidas have the high value construction and because of this it has a limited product line and it also suffers from overpricing. Adidas have plenty of opportunities as they have exceptions in emerging markets and increases demand in product innovation additional they will modifications the conventional people’s lifestyle too. But this company has plenty of taxes to pay.

Adidas has grown day-to-day and remains to be rising and this is because of their ethics and social obligations as every employer follow the ethics and duties. They know common ethics and so they have knowledge about this. “One of the Adidas Group’s core values is Integrity. For us, this implies appearing according to our values with all our stakeholders. So, we have an Employee Code of Conduct, rules around defending our customers’ knowledge and the Group’s Workplace Standards for our suppliers “. (Jawad, N.D.)

Social accountability is a should in each firm. Adidas have Standards of Engagement (SOE) that confirms the minimal requirement for labor, safety, and well being. It is predicated on the World Federation of sporting goods that the particular person or firms who use the child as their labor aren’t allowed to trade with Adidas as they do not seem to be following the principles of employment laws.

References

Jawad Ghauri (2012) Ethics and Responsibilities http://ghauri123adidas.blogspot.com/2012/02/ch3-ethics-and-social-responsibility.html
Soda, I. (march 9,2015) Adidas- A multinational sports activities goods manufacturing firm http://fancyfrindle.com/adidas-a-multinational-sports-goods-manufacturing-company
Adidas strategic (17-sep-2015) Adidas strategic case study https://docslide.us/documents/adidas-strateagic-case-study.html
Marketing (January 4-2013) Marketing Adidas https://www.studymode.com/essays/Marketing-Adidas-1339930.html

A Review on Lifeboat Ethics

Lifeboat ethics: the case towards helping the poor is a well-known essay written by Garret Hardin, a human ecologist in 1974. This article goals to re examine the lifeboat ethics which was developed by the writer to help his controversial proposal.

In the speculation, the world is in comparison with a lifeboat with a carrying capability of 60. There are completely 50 folks on board, representing comparatively wealthy nations, whereas the a hundred others swimming within the ocean outside the lifeboat stands for the poor nations. To remedy the dilemma of whether or not the swimmers must be allowed to climb aboard on the danger of lifeboat’s safety, Hardin advised that no admission ought to be granted to boat, or to interpret it in a straight method, no humanitarian aids must be provided to the poor international locations.

Regardless of the additional elements which the writer took into consideration from the actual world in the essay, for my part, the essential metaphor itself is questionable.

Firstly, the status of the lifeboat just isn’t an correct reflection of reality.

Arguably, natural resources of the earth are finite, nevertheless, this does not equal to the scarcity of sources within the management of the rich nations. On the opposite, these days within the developed international locations, what the rich have used is out of proportion to their actual needs, which not solely results in colossal waste every year but also creates disposal issues. A acquainted example is the popularity of shedding weight among the many western world, which is not solely a way of pursing magnificence but also a transparent indication of the rising variety of obese individuals who consume food excessively.

In distinction, in the third world especially poverty-stricken nations like Ethiopia, millions of individuals are crammed with untold struggling.

They drag themselves on the street from daily, begging for less than a slice of stale bread. Due to the unfair distribution of resources attributable to the affluent people’s favorable political place, most rich nations currently get hold of greater than sufficient assets and they’re nonetheless casting their grasping eyes on the untapped poor regions. In the light of the facts above, in the lifeboat metaphor folks on board really occupy more room than regular and the real carrying capability of a lifeboat is greater than 60. With no admission given to those swimmers who’re in need, the room isn’t allocated “to every in accordance with his needs”, a precept the creator cited in rationalization of the rationale behind the lifeboat ethics.

The second uncertain level is said to Hardin’s computation of conscience. In defense of the survivors’ guilt arising from not serving to the poor, he claimed that “the web results of conscience-stricken people giving up their unjustly held seats is the elimination of that sort of conscience from the lifeboat”. He defined responsible about one’s good luck as a kind of conscience and the newcomer’s lack of guilt in regards to the rich people’s loss as conscience drain; but the author deliberately omitted the morality of rich people’s indifference to the poor asking for help. Counting the adverse results on total conscience in the lifeboat if no rescue is attempted, the ultimate resolution to the lifeboat dilemma could be modified.

Essentially, the author’s negligence of social injustice against impoverished people and the moral issue indifference is only a result of his bias for the rich international locations. To improve the general population quality, the writer repeatedly emphasised the need of reproduction management in poor nations and growing the proportion of rich nation’s inhabitants. This suggestion actually relies on the idea that the folks in rich nations are innately superior to their counterparts in poor nations, which is an apparent violation of the creed that everybody is born equal.

In conclusion, the poor folks shouldn’t be the sacrifice of the inhabitants development in the developed areas. Logic and rigorous as the essay Lifeboat ethics: the case against serving to the poor may look like, the writer wrote more on behalf of the nations on board, group of which he belonged to. The writer urged people to eliminate sentiment and make rational selections, but sarcastically he himself deceived his mind with prejudice and sense of superiority.

A Reflection of Business Ethics in Class

Although the size of this class is shorter than common, I really feel I learned simply as much, if not more. Business ethics is a really important class in my view. Although, not all of us might be managers, workers within a company should have a point of schooling on such matters. Some of the conditions thought-about on this class were difficult to decipher if they had been wrong or right. However, now I feel that a fuller understanding has been accomplished. This class has taught me many ideas, terminology, and real-life info as well, on this brief essay I aim to showcase all that I actually have learned.

Business’s most often select unethical choices because of cash. It appears that money is the basis of all evil. Given the impediment of being moral or caring for the surroundings or massive earnings, earnings almost always win. Although, actually to a point a enterprise should be focused on money, nobody should go underneath the bus for it.

In my opinion, huge modifications should conclude to fix such issues. Without help of shoppers, these large businesses can be nothing.

Prior to this class I was unaware of the power that consumers have. We completely control markets, as a outcome of we decide the value and necessities of the business. I say this, because if we see an unethical apply, we can boycott that company. Which will lead to its downfall. Although that is true, typically it is tough to completely cease shopping with a certain brand, as a end result of they have merchandise in different brands.

However, if we actually desire to not help such business’s we can achieve this.

The world is filled with corruption, and that most probably won’t change. Although, with that said, we are able to still do our part to cease unethical business’s. Whether it’s through protest, boycott, or schooling. I was never aware of the degree of poor determination making previous to this class. I’m sure that many corporations, even in my residence country conduct some of these shady business strikes as nicely. It can not solely be the United States who does so. We should all work in path of studying about these cases, so that once we enter our future jobs, that we will stay moral in all that we do! Even if I am faced with temptation, corresponding to a bribe, I is not going to fall into this. I feel that being a morally proper individual, is way more essential than the inducement of cash.

Ethics in ICT Education: Utilizing Mobile Gadgets in Teaching and Learning Process

In a technology-driven and digital society, getting information quickly is important to both instructors and students. The expansion and everyday use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have made it possible to quickly and instantly find information, share ideas among peer groups, allow instructors to easily interact with their students, and provide them with enabling platform for research and exploring new ideas. According to FBI-Internet Crime Complaint Center, Nigeria ranked third in the world after US and UK, in internet fraudulent activities. Yet, there is no cyber security law to checkmates these issues locally.

Thus, government should work closely with the ICT community (NCC, NITDA, NigComSat, Galaxy backbone,Telecoms firms, and Consultants), in conjunction with legal community, to enact appropriate cybercrime laws. The write-up, bring to light the importance and application of mobile gadgets in learning process, issues associated with using mobile devices and ways to combat them. Keywords: Digital society, learning, students, instructors, education, mobile gadgets.

Introduction:
Mobile gadgets and phones can be a double-edge sword; the two can be used as a source of many benefits, for instance, the ease with which digital information can be analyzed, transmitted, and shared among numerous people and groups. On the other hand, they can be used to create ways of breaking laws or taking benefits away from others. For example, sending unsolicited e-mails is one of the compelling ethical issues raised by contemporary mobile gadgets users. Generally, information and communication technology (ICT) and the used of mobile gadgets are applied for the good of humankind; however it can also be abused and used as a tool for felony (L&N Long, 2005). Thus, the evolution of mobile gadgets have generated intense controversy and raised serious issues about information and communication technology ethics. An ethical individual accepts and lives by a set of moral principles and values.

These principles define what is socially accepted as “good” and on the other hand what is “bad”, until today society continues to raise questions about what is or not ethical in the used of information technology gadgets. These issues are so important to our society, to the extent that educators see it as core subject that shall be integrated into college curricula. Educators believe that, if members of the society are made aware of the consequences of their actions, then there would be only fewer(marginal) people that will be motivated to commit computer crimes, contaminate systems with false information, post pornographic material to the internet, or abuse sanctity of intellectual property (K & J Laudon, 2003). .

Ethics, Education, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Ethics in information technology “can be defined as the moral conducts and decisions confronting individuals, groups or institutions engaged in information and communication technology (ICT) practices (Martin M. 2009). It could also be defined as the study of moral ideals, character, policies and relationships of people and institutions involved in the activities of information and communication technology (Martin M. 2009). Whereas; educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (AECT, 2004). Conversely, information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be defined as a set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information.

These technologies include internet, tablet computers, smart phones, and broadcasting technologies such as radio and television (Kukulska-Hulme et. al. 2005). The use of ICT (mobile gadgets and phones) for a range of different learning processes has been the prime concern of every right-thinking individual in this era. It is realized that, mobile gadgets and phones could add a completely new dimension to the teaching and learning process due to a wide range of attributes, such as being portable, ubiquitous, pervasiveness and the functions such as voice, video and data services, camera, video, radio, and the internet connectivity (Kukulska-Hulme et. al. 2005). Besides, Bressler, D, et.al. (2007) states that youth should be the target and first priority user group of mobile based teaching and learning, because research showed that teenagers and college students have a higher interest in every mobile phone activity than any other age group. Research Questions:

This text endeavor to address the following questions raised by mobile gadgets and users: I. What ethical, social, and political issue arises by the uses of mobile technology gadgets? II. What are the specific codes of conduct that may be used to guide decision about cybercrime? III. Why do contemporary mobile gadgets pose challenges to the protection of individual rights and intellectual property? IV. How do mobile gadgets affect everyday life of instructors and students? V. How could mobile gadgets allow continuous access to education and reach marginalized groups of a society? RQ1-What ethical, social, and political issues arises by the uses of mobile technology gadgets?

Ethical, social, and political issues are closely linked together. The ethical dilemma we may face in our academic system typically is reflected in social and political settings of the society (K & J Laudon, 2003). Let’s imagine our society, in which we are all living before the advent and penetration of mobile gadgets as a calm pond, an ecosystem in partial equilibrium with individual, society, and political institutions. Under this condition, everyone knows how to act in this pond because social institutions (family, colleges, polytechnics, universities, and organizations) have developed well-honed rules of behaviors and these are backed by laws developed in the political zone of the society that stipulate different do and promises appropriate penalty for violation any of the laid down policy and guiding principles.

Now, information technologies development tosses a rock into the pond. The forces and pulsation as a result of tossing rock (mobile gadgets evolution) into the ponds, which is a powerful shock of new information technology revolutions that hit our social systems which is more or less (at rest or partial equilibrium) and thus generates positive and negative pulses. Suddenly, individuals, and society are confronted with new situations often not covered by the old laws (rules and code of conduct of the nation). The figure below portrays moral dimensions that connect ethical, social and political issues (K & J Laudon, 2003). Figure 1: Moral Dimensions (Ethical, Social, & Political) Issues Related To Mobile Gadgets:

Excerpt from: Essential of Management Information Systems, Fifth Edition.

Information /Property rights and obligations: what information rights do individual or institutions posses with respect to the information about themselves? What can they protect? How will traditional intellectual property be protected in a digital society in which accounting of ownership is difficult? Accountability and Control: who will be held responsible and liable for the harm done to individual, institutions and collective information and property rights? System and Life Quality: what services should we demand to protect individual rights and the safety of the society? What services and practices are supported and accepted by the society?

RQ2- What are the specific codes of conducts that can be used to guide decision about cybercrime? Cybercrime can be referred to as the use of mobile gadgets or computers and internet to commit illicit act. Cybercrime (computer assisted crime) includes e-mail scams, hacking, distribution of hostile software (viruses and worms), denial of service(DoS) attacks, theft of data, fraud and impersonation, online auction fraud, phishing, child pornography, espionage (theft of trade secrets), cyber contraband and so on (Uwaje Chris, 2009). With the proliferation of mobile gadgets that allow easy access to internet and online resources, it becomes more disturbing because the cyber space, through which these crimes are perpetuated, is not defined by political or geographical boundaries, thus enacting or amending laws to curb them becomes a challenge.

According to FBI-Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3 report, 2009), Nigeria ranked third in the world after US and UK, in internet fraudulent activities. Yet, there is no cyber security law to checkmate these issues locally. Similarly, Ewelukwa (2012), lamented that various legislative bills before the National Assembly, aimed at preventing cybercrime, have been neglected by the lawmakers including “The Computer Security and Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Bill 2005 sponsored by the Executive failed to become law (Ewelukwa, 2012).

Ewelukwa (2012) further stated “Other related legislative bills that have not yet been passed by the National Assembly include the Cyber Security and Data Protection Agency (Establishment, etc) Bill 2008, Electronic Fraud Prohibition Bill 2008, Nigeria Computer Security and Protection Agency Bill 2009, and the Computer Misuse Bill 2009. Cyber security entails all measures taken proactively to prevent and ensure safety from cyber attacks and related crimes. Cyber attacks vary and evolve on daily basis with advances in ICT gadgets.

Therefore, government should work closely with the ICT community (NCC, NITDA, NigComSat, Galaxy Backbone, Telecoms firms, Experts and Consultants), legal community, to enact appropriate cybercrime laws, and expedite action to sign the aforementioned bills into laws. Thus, would boost the nation’s image before the online community and globally.

RQ3- Why do contemporary mobile gadgets pose challenges to the protection of individual right and intellectual property? Ethical issues have long preceded the evolution of information technology, they are the abiding concerns of every society everywhere on earth, nevertheless, information technology has raised and heightened ethical concerns, put stress on existing social arrangement, and made existing law obsolete or severely crippled. There are three key technological trends that are responsible for these ethical traumas (K & J Laudon, 2003): I. Increases in Computing Power: Everyday people are getting possession of different mobile gadgets for their day to day undertakings (research works, businesses, leisure and entertainment), due to invention of high powered gadgets with varieties of features made available by the manufacturers.

II. Advancement in Data Analysis & Declining Data Storage Costs: it is clear that with contemporary information systems technology and data analysis techniques, one can assemble and combine myriad pieces of information about an individual much more easily than in the past. For instances, information about an individual such as credit card purchases, telephone calls, magazine subscriptions, video rentals, mail order purchases, banking records, local, state, and federal governments(including court and police records), can all be gathered and mined properly. III. Networking and advances in Internet: sharing and accessing large quantities of data over the internet, open the possibility of mining large pools of data remotely using mobile gadgets, and thus permitting the invasion of privacy of others.

RQ4- How do mobile gadgets affect everyday life of instructors and students? ICT and mobile gadgets in schools, colleges and universities have affected everyday life of both instructors and students, either in positive or negative directions as pointed out below: Students can record homework and assignments on their phone calendar. Help instructors to monitor their lecture schedules.

Use of camera functions in geography and physical sciences subjects to records things and report back to class. Some teachers learned to teach in different ways with an emphasis on independent study, and thus incorporated mobile gadgets in their lessons. Disruption during lectures in cyber- bullying one another using text and blackberry messaging(BBM) Spiteful comments or spreading malicious gossips.

Some students used mobile gadgets (for fashion) to chase opposite sexes

RQ5- How could mobile gadgets allow continuous access to education and reach marginalized groups of a society? It would be very difficult or impossible for the conventional (class-room) delivery method of education to provide continuous and educational opportunities for majority members of a society. ICTs and mobile gadgets have the answers and potential to help reach this objective. They are portable, pervasive, personal, affordable, ubiquitous, and interactive and hence, instruction can be delivered anywhere and at anytime through it. Moreover, it is an aid to formal and informal learning, it supplement and enrich formal schooling, make learning more accessible, personalized and flexible for students everywhere. And thus holds enormous potential to transform the delivery of teaching and learning process.

Mobile devices can overcome geographic, social, and infrastructure barriers to reach populations, and marginalized groups by providing them with access to further learning and development. These devices facilitate distance learning in situations where access to education is difficult or interrupted because of geographical barriers. And therefore, m-learning or mobile learning, offers modern ways to support learning process through mobile devices, such as handheld tablet computers, MP3/MP4 players, smart phones and mobile phones. And thus, a mobile gadget is not only a device, but a door to greater education and continuous interactive learning process.

Advantages of using Mobile Gadgets:
Students, teachers, and researchers have many reasons to consider using mobile gadgets, since these devices are one of the most versatile electronics gadgets in the market today. Besides the obvious communication advantages, mobile phones have features, such as cameras and internet accessibility, that can help students and researchers in all aspects of their learning processes, from their studies to their social and professional lives and practices. Kat Stafford (2013) stated in his write-up some advantages of mobile phone to college students, among which are: emergency communication, parental connection, studying and research, capture memories, social and professional networking and organization. Issues and Crimes Associated with Mobile Gadgets:

As cell phones have rapidly become ubiquitous in everyday life, the issue of cell phones in school has become a hotly debated topic. Many disadvantages also exist concerning student cell phone use, Rebecca Richards (2012), mentioned few such as: causes distractions, exams cheating, e-mail scams, pornography and cyber contraband.

Recommendation:
Provision of redundant internet services (both wired & wireless) in our various institutions of learning using technology such as WIFI, or WIMAX, to facilitate learning processes using ICT gadgets. Universities, polytechnics, COEs, and other institution of learning should use proper network administrative tools to police students over inappropriate use of services provided to them; it can equally ban and restrict access to ALL social networks that can cause distractions to their studies.

Use of software tools like web anonymizers (such as Psiphon, Surfola, Silent Surf, and Merletn) to hide user tracks from their predators. Every institution should review its code of conducts to include contemporary netiquettes, so that students and researchers are made aware of the cause of actions of every crime they committed. Likewise, at national level government should work closely with the ICT community (NCC, NITDA, NigComSat, Galaxy Backbone, Telecoms and IT firms, Experts and Consultants) and Legal community to enact appropriate cybercrime laws, and expedite action to sign all the legislative bills before them into laws.

Conclusion:
While there are enormous benefits to be gained out of mobile gadgets in terms of m-learning, enrichment, portability and flexibility in using ICTs throughout formal educational systems, there is even greater value to be gained in using the mobile technologies to increase access to millions of instructional resources who are currently outside the educational footprints.

A combination of mobile technologies and relevant applications softwares, have the potential to overcome the barriers of time, distance, and allow adult education for those who have not been properly educated and now wish to be informed, well educated, trained or enlightened. It is apparent that ICTs offer opportunities not available previously to educators, using tools such as e-mail; Webinar, audio-video, computer–conferencing, both synchronously and asynchronously. With aid of ICT and appropriate set of application tools, a very rich interactive and learning environment can be created that allows learners to dictate their pace of learning, or place of learning.

While the ICT tools empower our communities, they need not take away the role of the instructors or research supervisors; instead, students, firms, researchers and instructors should come together for a common purpose, work collaboratively with clearly defined roles on a shared platform to attain the set objectives of any kind. These communities encompass all levels and sectors of human endeavor, from basic education to postgraduate studies, from teacher training to business studies, and from non formal studies to language instruction, companies and research institutes. However, only infrastructure, fiscal resources, and policy support, would inhibit exploitation of this potential. And thus, an ICT world is an exciting planet of continuous learning process.

References:
AECT (2004). “Association for Educational Communications and Technology” Retrieved from: http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/file.php/118/molenda_definition.pdf visited on 05-04-2013. Bressler, D, et.al.(2007). “Information and Communication Technology in Education, Retrieved frm. http://www.schoolnet.lk/research/mobile_phones_for_teaching_learning_science/ visited on 07-05-2013. Ewelukwa (2012).” Wanted: A law on cyber security” Retrieved from: http://www.thenationonlineng.net/2011/index.php/business/35334-wanted-a-law-on-cyber-security.html , visited on 07-05-2013. IC3,(2009). “Internet Crime Complain Center 2009”Retrieved from: www.ic3.gov/media/annualreport/2009_ic3report.pdf , visited on 19-04-2013. Kukulska Hulme et.al .(2005). “Innovation in Mobile Learning: a European Perspective” Retrieved from : http://www.schoolnet.lk/research/mobile_phones_for_teaching_learning_science/ , visited on 19-04-2013 Kat Stafford, 2013).

“Use of Cell Phones and College Students” http://www.ehow.com/list_5961606_advantages-cell-phones-college-students.html, visited on 07-05-2013. Laudon K.J, (2003). Essential of Management Information Systems, Fifth Edition, Chapter 5: Ethical and Social Issues in the Digital Firm, P. 142-143 Long L.N, (2005).Computers Information Technology in Perspective, 12th edition, Chapter IT ethics, Crime, and Privacy. P. 278 Martin M. (2009).Ethics in Engineering, 3rd edition New Delhi: MC Graw-Hill P.2-3 Rebecca, Richards (2012). “Use of Cell Phones and College Students” Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_5961606_advantages-cell-phones-college-students.html, visited on 07-05-2013. Uwaje, Chris (2009). “Cyber Crime: Its Implications for Internet Business Growth In Nigeria” Retrieved from: http://techtrendsng.com/cybercrime-its-implications-for-internet-business-growth-in-nigeria/, visited on 15-05-2013.

Dennys Ethics

Denny’s is one of the franchises owned by the Flagstar Corporation. The troubling finances of Flagstar caused their leadership to be so concerned on the numbers of their corporation that they forgot about the management of their employees and their actions. Even though corporate management can’t control all the actions of their employees they can help shape their actions through training and education in the workplace. Therefore the leadership of Flagstar failed and was unethical, as they did not properly address the problems with racism that some of their employees had working for Denny’s.

They also didn’t complete these tasks in a timely matter or even do enough to prevent them. These problems of racism, specifically with the employees’ relations with the customers continued to keep piling up for Denny’s management. This created even more than just financial problems for Denny’s, but also a new public image that they were not fair to all races and were in the restaurant industry where customer service plays a huge part in making money.

Denny’s had a problem with the way in which its employees dealt with serving its customers. They dealt with a federal lawsuit in California where they agreed to stop the alleged discriminatory treatment of black customers. (pg. 309) On the same day on the settlement another similar situation happened across the country in Maryland. However, these customers were secret service agents where fifteen white agents were served their food in a timely manner and five black agents waited almost an hour before asking where their food was. The agents filed a lawsuit against Denny’s, where it made national headlines and caused uproar throughout the country. (pg. 309) Denny’s now faced a huge problem as their public image was greatly declining and had a senior management that was completely unprepared to deal with the huge issue that the company faced.

There is great competition in the fast food industry. Denny’s tried to separate themselves from others by putting emphasis on sit-down service and creating a welcoming atmosphere for its customers. (pg. 310) For a company to be accused of having employees that discriminate on customers based off
of race does not help a company establish this type of atmosphere. Out of the whole Flagstar staff, thirty-six percent are minorities where twenty percent are black, which is twice the proportion of the U.S. population. (pg. 310) However, there are no senior black managers or minority officers at Flagstar and there is only one minority-owned franchise. Flagstar doesn’t have a problem employing minorities, but they do have a problem promoting them. This shows the failed leadership of Flagstar.

There were some diversity experts that defended Flagstar such as Marilyn Loven, who said, “Discrimination results from employees acting individually without the approval of management.” (pg. 310) This might be true as leaders that have the right intention can be “undercut” by low-level front line employees however it is the leaders that must spend a lot of time educating employees about discrimination. She also said that, “No Company can eliminate racism.” In the case of Denny’s they had not one or two cases of discrimination but more than five in pretty short time period.

Denny’s would settle a case one-day and then the next day a new case of discrimination would come up. Denny’s and the Department of Justice worked out settlements where Denny’s would reinforce polices of equal treatment to customers however it showed that those policies weren’t fully pushed by leadership. (Exhibit 1) This lack of leadership showed that the leadership was “unethical” in their handling of their employees and discrimination.

The head of Flagstar, Jerome Richardson took some of the responsibility for the problems that Denny’s faced. He said that dealing with finances “blinded” him to other aspects of running the corporation that he was in charge of. (pg. 311) However, a corporation needs to cover all aspects of the company besides its finances. Its “unethical” for a company to allow continued discrimination and not push programs to educate employees on discrimination.

The company was so focused on making money that they public image went in the drain as the company did nothing to make sure their employees were educated and making a good name for the company. In the case of Denny’s the lack of minority leadership showed corporate discrimination, which reflected on employees discriminating against the customers. This discrimination could happen anywhere but continued to happen at different locations all over the country for Denny’s and reflects on the company itself. It also raises the question of the ethical practices of by the company and how the company responds to cases of discrimination in this case. The continued cases of discrimination by employees showed that the Denny’s leadership was “unethical” as they did not cover all aspects of their corporation.

Torture and Ethics

According to Steven Biko, “the most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.” This is very true when it comes to the way of the world and torture. This is because torture has been used as a tool since the beginning of history. Since the 18th century B.C., torture has been practiced because of the Code of Hammurabi- an eye for an eye. Moreover, it has been used as a method to control a person or group of people who are seen as a threat (Jayatunge, 2010).This is why some people feel that it is a violation of human rights that has global implications. Ethical theories such as ontological, deontological, utilitarianism and natural laws all have differing viewpoints on whether or not torture can be justified.

Although many feel that it is morally wrong, others think it is just depending on the situation or circumstance. There are many opposing views surrounding the act of torture. According to (“The Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, n.d.), torture is defined as an action or practice of inflicting severe pain on someone as a punishment in order to force them to do or say something.

Furthermore, words used to describe it are pain and torment. The word torture along with pain and torment all have bad connotations in most cases regardless of the situation. Being that torture is deliberate; many disagree with the idea of intentionally inflicting pain or agony on a person. Some people are tortured as revenge or punishment while others are tortured for interrogation or personal gratification.

Some forms of torture are not meant to kill or injure the victim. However, many types do result in fatalities. Torture that does not kill the victim usually prolongs their pain and suffering. This is sometimes considered the worst type because if it results in a fatality, it will probably be a long and painful death. There are also many psychological effects that can occur because of torture. Family and friends of the victim can also be affected by the effects of torture.

Currently, there are both international and domestic laws that prohibit the act of torture in many countries all over the world. Whether the torture is deemed acceptable or not sometimes depends on the location or culture. Many cultures view it as inhumane and a direct violation of human rights. According to (“The Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, n.d.), Article 5 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights says that torture is unacceptable. United Nations Convention against Torture also prohibits it and was ratified by over 147 countries in the world. These two alone shows how much some conventions and organizations feel strongly against the act of torture.

Many people are against torture because it can trigger a number of things. Torture is usually so violent that it can have a variety of affects on a person, a group of people, as well as an entire country. Some people who experience torture sometimes suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result. Others have nightmares and flashbacks while some undergo a great deal of anxiety. Depression is another common reaction to torture as well as DESNOS (Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified). Lastly, mental effects can also be a direct result (Jayatunge, 2010).

Torturing enemy combatants has been a controversial subject since the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center by Al Qaeda. This “War on Terror” gave the President of the United States authorization to use force from the military. As a result, this gave the President even more power to use “all necessary and appropriate force against nations, organizations, or persons- he determines who planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist’s attacks or harbored such organizations or person.”

Therefore, any person that fits under that category of having anything to do with the terrorist attack as considered to be unlawful enemy combatants. This means that those persons must be kept in custody until the “War on Terror” is over. After this is done, everything must be done to protect the United States as a country as well as to develop new leads and details on the terrorist attack. In order to do this, some compromises have to be made. Also, some form of torture may be necessary. These enemy combatants have lost all of their rights and have been having both humane and inhumane acts done to them in an effort to prevent future attacks and to uncover information about terrorism and these attacks.

According to Professor Shaun Casey, torture is never morally acceptable in regards to Christian principles. Furthermore, Dr. Casey says that this all goes back to the social teachings of Christ as Lord and Savior. Therefore, they feel like it is wrong to torture any human being (“The Moral Debate about Torture “, 2009). Global implications can develop based off the differing perspectives on whether or not torture is moral. There are a few theories that seem to support the idea of torture. Utilitarianism is the idea of the maximum amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.

Therefore, if torture is something that would benefit or make a large number of people happy, that is exactly what this theory supports. Another theory is ethical egoism. Ethical egoism could support torture because of the type of mentality possessed by an egoist. Egoists make decisions and do things without considering how these types of things may make someone else feel. Furthermore, these types of people feel like they are against everyone else in the world because they see it in two different parts. This means that they would torture a person if they saw a way they could benefit from it without considering anyone else and how it would make them feel (Souryal, 2007). Natural law is defined as rules or many rules that outline what is legal and acceptable behavior in human society.

The natural law is definitely against torture because it is illegal to harm another individual. If this is done, consequences such as jail or parole time can come as a result. Deontological is a theory that focuses on actions more so that consequences. It also focuses on the biblical sense of how to treat others. Therefore, this theory would not support torture because it is not Christ-like. Those who believe in this theory live their lives according to what is pleasing to God. One example used to describe the theory is the story of Abraham in the bible. The slaying of his brother was considered morally wrong. However, the fact that is what commanded to do by God made the difference. In fact, it made it intrinsically good. This relates to torture because a person may say that they were commanded to torture a person by God. Nonetheless, this theory as a whole does not support torture. Ontological theory could be viewed as support for torture.

This is because ontology does not believe that certain acts are always bad. It believes that the reasoning behind the act is the determining factor. For example, although a certain religion may believe murder is wrong, those who believe in ontology may find a murder justified depending on the reason it was committed (Souryal, 2007). Although torture is considered to be one of the most heinous crimes, there are a number of cases where torture is present. For example, there have been victims tortured in prison and under the Prevention of Terrorism Act. Some of the perpetrators have been both police officers and interrogators. Perhaps this is why torture is labeled as a “double edged sword.” It is known to possibly affect both the victim and perpetrator.

Many people who enjoy inflicting pain on others crave satisfaction sadistically. The perpetrators usually lack empathy and get a feeling of satisfaction because they feel superior to their victims (Jayatunge, 2010). Regardless of these acts, there are still ethical theories that support and disapprove the act of torture. This is because some people think it is acceptable when dealing with enemy combatants because of previous terrorist attacks. Utilitarianism and ontological theory can be viewed as theories that support such a violent act like torture. However, the deontological theory does not support torture. In addition, there are conventions, organizations, and laws that prohibit torture because they strongly feel like it is a violation of human rights.

Reference
Jayatunge, Dr. R. M. (2010). Psychological effects of Torture. Retrieved from http://groundviews.org/2010/04/15/psychological-effects-of-torture/ Souryal, S. S. (2007). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth (4th ed.). Retrieved from

The University of Phoenix eBook Collection.
The Moral Debate about Torture. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/episodes/may-1-2009/the-moral-debate-about-torture/2865/ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

Ethics Case Study

Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism would not qualify Tom falsifying data as unethical, as it would have the greatest benefits to the larger quantity of stakeholders whilst only bringing a limited amount of harm. This can be seen through the stakeholders who benefit from Tom gaining full-time employment such as; his parents, the child receiving the life-saving sponsorship, the charity and the government, as Tom could start paying his HECS debt. One stakeholder who would be harmed by Toms dilemma is the small accounting firm in Milton. Ultimately the risk of this actually harming the business due to his lack of experience would be minimised due to Tom being tightly supervised for the first year of work. Egoism also maintains that the agent should do whatever they ought to do if it benefits themselves. In Toms moral dilemma, if he falsifies his CV in order to achieve full time work, he is acting on the natural instinct of self promotion that egoism sees as ethical.

Kantian ethics
Kantian ethics maintains that there are some things that are deemed wrong in themselves, apart from their consequences. This means that Tom should regard the act of lying as wrong; regardless whether it brings about good results. Kants categorical imperative states “I should never act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal good” (Kant, 1996). In universalising a law that is not in relation to specific circumstances, it allows moral issues to be solved by pure rationality. When applying Toms situation to Kants universalisation theory, a maxim for Toms situation could be “one should falsify data if it benefits them”. This could not be accepted as a law universally as falsifying data could not be consistent, as eventually all data would be deemed tainted and therefore unusable, leading to the act of giving information to its own demise.

If it were ethical for Tom to falsify data, Tom would have to accept that it would therefore be ethical for everyone to do so. If everyone was free to fake data, universal lying would weaken trust in communication. Kant also states “act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply means” (Kant, 1996). If Tom falsified his CV, it would result in disrespect as the owners of the accounting firm are basing crucial business decisions on inaccurate data, which is unethical.

Virtue ethics
Applying virtue ethics is based on evaluating how virtuous Tom is, not just the actions or consequences of his moral situation. A virtue that can be applied from Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean is ‘indifference’ meaning good deeds are done for their own sake and not for personal recognition. The two vices of indifference are false modesty (deficiency) and careerist

(excess). Assuming Tom decided to fake his CV he would display characteristics in the vice of excess meaning he is a careerist and would not be classified as virtuous, and therefore unethical.

Ranking of Ethical Theories

1. Utilitarianism/Egoism
Utilitarianism is in line with many fundamental morals that society intends for us to adopt. For example, two fundamental ethical principles are that we must avoid doing harm to others and aim to do good. When I consider certain actions or decisions, I usually evaluate them in terms of their consequences. Although it disregards the ethical element of an action, it looks at the benefits it can cause in solving my moral dilemmas. Egoism also usually takes part in most of my moral decision making. I usually base many of my decisions on the consequences I can achieve, therefore find this most useful.

2. Virtue Ethics
I use virtue ethics to solve some moral issues due to the benefit of gaining insight into emotional and personal values in relation to the action. I believe people are emotionally involved in ethical reasoning making virtue ethics a better way to assess whether an action is ethical or not. I find this theory somewhat useful as I believe every situation cannot be branded under absolute rules, as in Kantian Ethics.

3. Kantian Ethics
Although Kantian seems like the ‘right’ moral structure to follow it is extremely idealistic and would not necessarily result in good outcomes for me or the greater good of everyone. I think due to it being a rigid system, in certain situations for my moral dilemmas, it could not be used as Kantian ethics does not factor the importance of character and motivation in making ethical judgements. Therefore I don’t believe I would assess the ethics of a dilemma accurately, finding this least useful.

PART B

Socially responsible organisations should aim to minimise their negative impacts, but the fast food industry faces extreme public criticism due to the effects it is having on some main stakeholders; consumers and communities. Fast food consumption is potentially harmful and if businesses adopt Friedmans’ shareholder theory by only focusing on short-term profit goals, the long-term welfare of customers is compromised. For example, Bowman, Gortmaker & Ebbeling (2004), indicate that “energy derived from fast food is  10% of a child’s average recommended daily intake, 5 times more than the 1970’s”. This highlights the need for somebody to not only take responsibility but action. “Advertisers spend 100s of billions of dollars a year worldwide encouraging, persuading and manipulating children into a consumer lifestyle” (Beder, 1998), leading to devastating consequences.

The narrow view by Friedman, where businesses adopt the ‘let the government do it’ theory is criticised as society now has a greater concern for a better quality of life which businesses could help achieve. Supporters of Freeman maintain that fast food corporations have a responsibility to their stakeholders and should acknowledge potential health risks associated with consuming fast food. Highly advertised food corporations should have responsibilities beyond enhancing their profits, because they have great social and economic power in society. This undeniable power discounts Friedman’s theory that the ‘business can’t handle it’. If corporations have such power, they should also take responsibility for its actions in these areas.

Nature Neuroscience published a study linking “effects of fast food to those of addictive substances such as cocaine, heroin and nicotine” (Klein, 2010). If tobacco packaging in many countries legally have to display health warnings due to smoking being addictive, why does fast food packaging not have responsibility to do the same? Businesses who adopt a narrow view on CSR compromise stakeholders welfare. For example, on January 1954 in the US “main tobacco companies published a statement named ‘A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers’ reaching an estimated 43,245,000 Americans” (Cummings, 2002).

The advertisement promised consumers that cigarettes were safe and denied all health risks to consumers. This resulted in millions of people dying due to lacking concern stemming from the companies understating health effects in a blind effort to create profit. This scenario could almost determine the future of fast food industries being irresponsible about marketing to addicted consumers. If major food corporations don’t undertake measures to outweigh unhealthy promotion to children and society, they might too face the same consequences.

Business Ethics Case Study

1. Benji Watson is the type of individual corporations everywhere would be proud to have on their team. New Gen Health Sciences is not his only choice, and I do not believe it would be a wise choice for Benji. The mere fact the Benji is a Liberty University graduate tells New Gen that he values honesty, has strong moral principles and prefers to be ethical in his dealings. These are qualities any corporation would value in their employees, even though the corporate culture of New Gen does not place much value in them.

Integrity

“For everyone to whom much is given, of him shall much be required; and of him to whom men entrust much, they will require and demand all the more.” (Luke 12:48 Amplified Bible) God has entrusted Benju with the ability to excel in education. This talent will take him into many places where he will have the chance to show and witness to others just how good God is. If he decides to become a part of New Gen, a company he already knows have integrity issues, he could lose what God originally intended for good. He must “guard and keep the deposit entrusted to him.” (1Timothy 6:20 Amplified Bible) New Gen is rolling out the red carpet to Benji, showering him with gifts to paint a beautiful picture to hang in a house built of cards. He must guard himself, “Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves.” (Matthew 7:15 New International Version)

When the CEO displayed his blatant lack of morals, having no regards for the feelings of the mother of the crying infant, or when he called those same customers he cared so much about, fat and lazy, this should tell Benji exactly how he feels about people in general not just customers. As Christians we are supposed to show love and Business Ethics Case Study 2 compassion for others, not just in public but behind closed doors as well. If this is the attitude at the top it will not take long before it flows down to the rest of the employees. Top management tends to set the precedence for the whole company.

Honesty

“Factually false statements pervade everyday life. Though allocation between honest error and conscious deception is impossible, social science supports Mark Twain’s assertion that ‘lying is universal.’” (10 First Amend. L. Rev. 465 2012)). While this may very well be a true statement, Christians should not have lying tongues. If Benji becomes a part of this organization, a lying tongue is exactly what he will have to have to be successful. The recruiter was quite proud of the way the P.R. people had constructed the lies on the website about the company and confident the lawyer would keep the ex-distributors quiet. Should Benji join this team he too will tell these same lies, and the Bible tell us “One who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much and one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much.” (Luke 16:10 English Standard Version)

Once you open the door for the little lie it will not take a lot of convincing to get you to tell one even bigger. If a company finds it so easy to lie to customers will they not also find it easy to lie to employees? Benji will never be able to have real peace about anything they say. It is difficult to make wise decisions when there is a lack of peace in our lives. One bad decision could lead to many more and before you know it your life has become a total wreck. The type of corporate culture New Gen has displayed will buy buildings, buy businesses and buy people. They will use them as long as they are turning a profit, selling their lies, but as soon Business Ethics Case Study 3 as their numbers drop, New Gen will drop them. No future can be built on a stack of lies. Benji should be looking forward to establishing a relationship with a company whose values line up with his.

Does Benji really want to be a part of a corporate culture that is all about the amount of money they are making, having little regard for the lives they are touching. John Dobson says, “Conventional business ethics is being exposed as a ‘naked emperor’: a discipline with no sound conceptual foundation” (Dobson, 2014). As a child of God we should deal ethically with our brothers and sisters. We should build a foundation on how the word of God teaches us to love one another. True brotherly love would not allow us to knowingly mislead other people. By “keeping our lives from the love of money,” (Hebrews 3:5 English Standard Version), we will not sell out for the temporary pleasure money will bring.

As Christians, having a wrong relationship with money will only bring destruction to us. We must let the word of God be the final authority in our decisions. Benji should build his hopes on things eternal, keeping in mind the “the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God.” (1 Corinthians 6:9) There will be other job opportunities where his values and integrity are not compromised. He should seek God’s best for his life and it is obvious New Gen is not it. They know how business should be conducted, as their promotions claim, but instead they choose to deceive others to get ahead. Benji should stand on what he knows is right and let God reward him.

Stern, Nat. Implications of Libel Doctrine for Nondefamotory Falsehoods Under The FirstAmendment. 10 First Amend. L. Rev. 465 (2012). Dobson, J. (n.d.). Virtue Ethics as a Foundation for Busines Ethics: a “MacIntyre-Based” Criique. . Retrieved June 30, 2014, from

https://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/conferences/antwerp/papers/Dobson.pdf

Ethics in public ad

Since the 1970s there has been a great deal of change associated with the implementation of administrative ethics. These changes have been promoted and motivated by the concept of public administration in the new era. An important position is given to the concept of ethical issues in today’s civil governance. There has been a great deal of research associated with this concept which has been supported by translation of evidences and theories into practice across different continents. Frederickson and Ghere (2005) address both the managerial and individual/moral dimensions of ethical behavior as well as new challenges to administrative ethics posed by globalization. As promoted by Cooper (2001) ethics in public administration is not a transient concept but has proven to be an approach which has shown a great deal of sustainability which is fundamental to the area of public administration. Public administration has certain issues with regard to ethics implementation and finds it troublesome to come to terms with them.

One reason for this is because ethics is embedded in an intellectual framework. This framework is based on stable institutional as well as role relationship levels, among both public employees as well as the organization. According to the views of a number of researchers (Bang and Sorensen, 1999; Keast et al., 2004; Rhodes, 1996; Sorensen, 2002, 2006; Sorensen and Torfing, 2004; Stoker, 1998), current government perspectives believe that clarity and stability at these levels would be problematic. Despite the increasing number of studies that have focused on the importance of administrative ethics, there has been very little effort spent on identifying what is exactly the crux of ethics in administration (Cooper, 2004).

This lack of directed research in the dynamics of operations with regards to ethics in public administration along with constant changes in the principles and policies associated with administrative ethics need to be examined. These developments have raised new topics for concern in this field. One example which can be cited at this juncture is the emergence of the concept of egovernance which would require the identification of a whole new paradigm of ethics in public administration.

Code of Ethics

Almost every organization, institution and profession has a set of code of ethics which are generally expected to guide their stakeholders on how to handle particular issues within that fall within their place of work. Basically, such code of ethics are instituted and adopted in organizations as well as professions as a way of ensuring that relevant stakeholders are in a position to draw a clear distinction about on what is wrong or right.

Understanding the ethical codes of a particular environment, be it an organization or a profession has been found to be instrumental in helping the stakeholders make right decisions in decision situations and this fact has therefore awarded code of ethics great importance across professions. Ethics vary from one profession to another as well as from an organization to another depending on the type of operations carried out, also, the environment within which an organization functions. It becomes an obligation to all stakeholders in a profession, organization or even an institution to understand the laid down code of ethics available as such since violating such qualifies to be termed as a professional misconduct and punishable under the law.

There is generally a rich history about code of ethics and again, the history varies from one profession to another and also across organizations. This paper will seek to offer a detailed analysis of the code of ethics that are available in accounting profession, its history of development, the sources from where these ethics were developed amongst other valuable issues about code of ethics in general. It will explore the major players in the profession, who are basically certified accountants, what expectations are at least expectable from an accountant in his work to their clients, as well as the bodies across the globe that has been awarded the mandate of setting the standards or simply developing the code of ethics for accountants. Accounting has grown to become one of the oldest and also one of the most important services that business world cannot stay without.

In the business world, there is the inherent need for the business owners and other stakeholders to have perfect knowledge of the state of affairs of the business institution in which they have committed their resources, of course for expected returns. To gain this kind of knowledge, an individual who can truthfully and honestly reflect the true financial position within which a business is at any particular time is needed and this can only be a person who have relevant analysis skills.

If such information is made available to the investors, customers, governments and suppliers among others, then it becomes likely that such individuals will be in a position to know whether a business is making profits or otherwise. If there have been steady profits in a particular business and over a couple of the previous years, such a business will remain as worthwhile investment opportunities to investors, a good source of government tax to the government, a good determinant of how much profits to go to each shareholder and would also assure suppliers that their creditor is solvent enough.

In case of loss, not very many profit oriented individuals will want any association with such a business as losses are one of the signs of insolvency. Basically, accounting information is of very important use in decision making and for this reason, such information must be truthful and objective. Incorrect accounting information has the potential to result into decisions that are wasteful in nature and this is a situation which is not acceptable in the business world where resources are always limited.

Provision of such accounting information has therefore come under very strict scrutiny by bodies which are globally recognized and mandated to give guidelines which every certified accountant must adhere to while undertaking their accounting duties. Failure of adherence by accountants has been qualified to become a professional misconduct and in such a case, the accountant in question becomes liable for his irresponsibility. The ethical requirements for professional accountants are established by the International Federation of Accountants (I.F.A) which also enforces that all the guidelines are adhered to throughout the profession of accounting reporting (Reamer, 1998). Statement of Values

Integrity
Integrity is one of the four values that make up the code of ethics in accounting field as a profession. An accountant whose services have been hired by a business entity has to demonstrate a high level of integrity in conducting their duties failure to which they can be held liable for any loss suffered, if such losses are proven to have been occasioned by lack of integrity on the side of the accountant.

Integrity implies that an account under duty has to demonstrate that he is straightforward as well as honest with issues that touch on the financial performance of the entity to which he is offering accounting services. It also implies that there has to be fair dealings as well as truthfulness throughout the service dispensation period. This consequently requires that accountant must not have any association with accounting information in which they believe there are material errors or are misleading. Objectivity

This is another principle in the accounting field that requires accountants not to allow any compromise on their business or professional judgment. It states that a professional accountant must be free from bias, conflict of interest and also undue influence while making a business judgment. Impaired objectivity amounts to a gross professional misconduct and relevant bodies like the I.F.A ensures that such values are upheld throughout the profession. Diligence

This means that a professional accountant is bound by the ethical code to dispense their services with due acre and competence. They are required to maintain an acceptable level of professional knowledge and skills in services delivery so that their clients will be better positioned to have truthful reports about the affairs of a business at any particular time. Informed decisions are likely to be made as a result of data obtained through diligent services and would not cost the decision maker for unexpected outcomes. Confidentiality

This is the requirement that a professional accountant must not disclose any information he has come across during his service time, in part or wholly to a third party or for extra financial gains. Parties whom may stand to gain upon acquiring such information are the competitors to the client and this may turn out to be disastrous to the client. Professional accountants are therefore bound by this value to only use such information for the benefit of their current client failure to which would be looked at as a violation of one of the golden rules. The above are values that have been formulated by I.F.A and generally accepted across the globe by the help of the nations that recognizes this body. Training and Communication

In every organization training is a vital component. Training equips employees with necessary skills, knowledge, and become competence in their accounting work. Employees do participate in ethical training of the company and attain development and eventually improve their morale on the performance of the company. Ethical training provides innovative quality solutions to support the company to operate in an ethical environment and realize their full potential of investors. Training should take place in area of law compliance and ways to treat various differing interest, profits and safety. Communication on the other hand acts as an enhancement to training where issues are discussed openly.

Investors raise views as they become participants and share it out with others of anything they do not understand. Some of communications tools used are company newsletters, article in magazines, internet website and videos. There should effective communication to investors characterized by the following features: honesty which emphasis on free flow of important investment information, confidentiality that protect employees regarding their rights and their professional while abiding to legal act about disclosing information which affects welfare of others and free speech to give support for open competition.

Communication should also promote mutual understanding between the investor and the facilitator of business opportunity. Companies should develop, enforce and put down in writing codes of corporate. A code of ethic should foster a stronger ethical climate and open various channel of communication to help protects against fraudulent financial reporting. Both corporate ethics training and communication is very important to employees individually by developing ethical decision–making skills and to ensure all staff understands and complies with company regulations and policies. Code of Ethics Implementation Plan

The success lies on the corporation commitment on developing code and their contribution (Messikomer and Cirka, 2010). Company needs to implement code of ethics through informal methods noticeable to the context through proper communication and agreement. The implementation plan sound to ensure investment advisors adhere to code of ethics regarding business matters, protect customers and inhibit any inappropriate action. The advisors are responsible for consumers saving and their security regarding their financial status. Customers understanding on code of ethics determine whether their representatives are acting accordance to law and guidelines, as well as representing them appropriately.

Prior to the implementation of code of ethics there are rules: where all employees receive compensation of loss regardless of the amount, employees will perform their discharged duties diligently and competence, and finally, organization will consult the public to get feedback and suggestions regarding on the efficiency and effective delivery of services. Implementation composes organizational changes where employees should conform to these changes: identification of moral leaders who are moral mature and finally, leaders should regularly communicate code of ethics to improve perceptions of trust and leadership credibility. This imperative normalizes ethicality by providing routine communication on moral behavior which reminds employees on their ethics matters. Corporate Social Issues

It is most essential in every organization that it promotes its vision of accountable business to various stakeholders apart from investors and shareholders. There are various areas of major concerns: environmental conservation, well status of employees, community and community at large. Company do largely benefit through adopting a policy of social responsibility through improvement of financial performance, lowering its operation cost, increasing it sales and enhancing customers loyalty. The company consequently attracts many consumers/investors as well as to retain the potential ones to help change the company’s identity and to greatly improve productivity and quality.

There are drivers pushing business towards social responsibility such as the government, which imposes legislation and regulation to deliver social and environmental objectives in the area of business. Secondly, the need for corporate disclosure from investor and stake holders, also, investors are changing its way of accessing companies performance based on criteria of social responsibility.

Management training plays a major role in implementation of corporate social responsibility. There is increased demand for corporate social responsibility in every organization to promote good governance between the organization, investors, society at larger and government. Laws and Regulations Impacting on Corporations

The recent past has witnessed several pieces of legislation that eventually come to force and impact both positively and negatively to corporation. Examples of such laws are the ones concerning environmental conservation that have required corporate bodies to do their business with little to no environmental degradation. This has to a greater extent dealt manufacturing corporations big blows as they have to emit waste product into the environment as they do manufacturing. These set of laws have therefore required that there are amounts of part of the corporation’s revenue set aside to attempt to get rid of the waste materials they emit from the environment.

This has become an extra cost to most corporations since conducting an environmental cleanup exercise has in many circumstances gone into the tune of millions of shillings. Basically, among other effects that recent laws and regulations have imposed on the environment have been extra costs especially meant for cleaning up the waste they emit into environment or compensating individuals who are fallen victims in one way or another of this kind of wastes. Consequently, the revenues have considerably diminished with some of such corporations opted the walk of operations. Monitoring and Enforcement Plan

Monitoring and enforcing adherence to code of ethics is of paramount importance and several benefits have been associated to it. Monitoring is in most cases done by organizational management teams, senior officers in an institution or even bodies which are mandated to safeguard such codes of ethics. Monitoring and enforcing helps keep those who are bound by such codes committed to satisfying the values as stipulated in the code of ethics. As a result, professionals in whatever field are in a position to effectively prevent, detect and report appropriately as well as address any allegation of professional misconduct. A code of ethics can be effectively enforced when there exist individuals responsible for its implementation.

Enforcing and safeguarding a code of ethics from rampant violation would require a clear explanation of the consequences that are to befell the violators. Such consequences must seem harsh so as to discourage those bound by the code from acting against it but instead assist in implementing it fully. Establishing an agreement that is binding between the parties to a code of ethics is also a step in the right direction of enforcing it. Lastly, to successfully monitor and enforce a code of ethics, there needs to be a consistent manner of monitoring behavior as well as rewarding individuals who duly comply with the laid down code of ethics. Ethics Audit

Professionals in any field are needed to continually keep in touch with the practices within their professions that have an ethics relation in light of the ever increasing demand from the social world. To achieve this, the professionals have to engage in rigorous process of auditing ethics and such audits should be hinged on establishing that which is being considered essential in social work. This will in turn help the professionals make an identification of an ethical issue which is pertinent in their practice setting. Furthermore, it will be helpful to professionals in reviewing as well as assessing how adequate their current practice is. Lastly, auditing ethical codes will become helpful in assisting professionals to design a strategy which is practical to tune current practices as desired in the social work. Working Internationally

Securing a professional job internationally is in most circumstances fancied by many if not by all professions across several fields. Such opportunities come with lots of hope to succeed in one’s career and of course earn fortunes out of the opportunity. In the real sense, there are very few professionals if any, who will turn such a chance down. Ethically, before a professional takes on an international duty, he has to consider issues like whether his code of ethics conform with the general ethics upheld in a foreign nation and whether such bodies are concerned with the code of ethics of his/her profession is acknowledged in that foreign nation in which he/she is intending to work.

This is so, because a case of conflicting ethical values may arise and this may cause a crisis that could have been avoided if such issues were put into account prior to taking up of international duties. Like for instance, in accounting profession, there still exist some nations that have not subscribed to the guidelines offered by major accounting bodies in the world like the I.F.A or the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (G.A.A.P). As a result, such nations have their own ways of dealing with some accounting treatments which in many circumstances contrast what such bodies provide in respect of those treatments. Therefore, having an accountant who has been trained and practiced in a country where such guidelines from these bodies are adhered to work in such a foreign country may yield a crisis which in another perspective may be termed as professional misconduct in that foreign country. Conclusion

In conclusion, this paper discusses and identifies the statement of values to include the source and foundation of ethical values and principles; why these principles are non-negotiable, how they have evolved over time, and what moral philosophy or social issues affects the approach to ethics. It also presented and given a training and communication plan, implementation plan, plan for the role of leadership, resolution to corporate social issues, discussed the recent laws and regulations impacting the corporation, how to monitor and enforce the plan; ethics auditing plan and considerations for working internationally. As you can see, code of ethics is needed in every organization to avoid conflict of interest and to deal with issues in a fair and just manner.

References
Baker, R. (1999). The American medical ethics revolution: how the AMA’s code of ethics has transformed physicians’ relationships to patients, professionals, and society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Code of international ethics. (1953). Westminster, Md.: Newman Press. Code of medical ethics: current opinions with annotations (2004-2005 ed.). (2004). Chicago, Ill.: AMA Press. Reamer, F. G. (1998). Ethical standards in social work: a review of the NASW code of ethics. Washington, DC: NASW Press. Watson, D. (1985). A Code of ethics for social work: the second step. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Business Ethics and dilemma

1. Review the assigned readings from the text and article by Carroll (1991). 2. Prepare a 3- to 5-page paper titled, Corporate Social Responsibility. 3. Reflect upon your text readings from Chapters 1 and 9 with a focus on the following core concepts: Organizational Social Responsibility (Chapters 1 and 9)

The Ethical Decision-making Process (Chapter 1)
Corporate Reputation (Chapter 9)
The Corporate Social Responsibility Pyramid (Chapter 9)
The Importance of Trust (Chapter 9)
The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility (article by Carroll and Chapter 9) 4. Read The Merck and River Blindness Case at the end of Chapter 9 of your text. 5. Compose your paper in Microsoft Word. Include your name, the assignment name and number, the course and section number, and the date on your title page. Follow APA guidelines for formatting and citations.. NOTE: Your paper must meet the minimum requirements as outlined in the section of Weekly Written Assignments of the Assignment Guidelines and the grading criteria of this assignment. You are to provide a minimum of 2-3 references in your work. For this assignment, use of general google.com or Internet search references is not acceptable. Use the university library’s scholarly databases. 6. Respond to each of the following questions and statements: Stakeholders:

Produce a list of all key stakeholders that you perceive to have a bona fide interest in the Merck company’s dilemma. Corporate Social Responsibility Pyramid:
Frame the Merck company’s ethical dilemma within the Corporate Social Responsibility Pyramid. E.g. State briefly the key economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. As a focal point, compare and contrast the economic implications against the ethical and philanthropic considerations. Organizational Values:

State briefly and specifically whether the decision to a) proceed with the drug project or b) not to proceed with the drug development best fits with
the company’s declared organizational values and its principles of profitability. Stakeholder Impact and Trust:

If the drug development failed and cost hundreds of millions of dollars, would that harm to the company and its stakeholders be justifiable? If Merck decided not to pursue development of the new drug, what implications do you see this having for stakeholder relations such as the scientists who desire the development. E.g. Is this a trust and leadership consideration? Final Decision:

If you were the CEO of Merck and the final decision on this risky new drug development was yours, what would you do and why? Justify your decision. Using Carroll’s theory, are you comfortable stating your opinion to the board of trustees, employees, and media? NOTE: Since this is an actual, real-life case, your focus should be on producing creative and new thinking that applies the ethical concepts to the material. Also, include an introduction and conclusion in your paper. You are encouraged to use the headings above in Action Item 7 in your paper for organizational purposes. 7. Submit your paper to Turnitin.com.

NOTE: Turnitin.com is used by Franklin University to assist students in detecting plagiarism. Turnitin generates a report within minutes of submitting your paper. Your results will not be e-mailed to you; you must login to review your results. Submitting a paper ahead of an assignment deadline provides you with the opportunity to take action if you need to rewrite any part of the paper. Your professor will provide you with a class ID and password as an e-mail or a Class Communication object.

Submission Instructions
By Sunday, upload your paper using the Submit tool.

Grading Criteria
Content and focus: Response addressed the question(s) posed in a logical, cohesive manner: 0 – 35 points Analysis and critical thinking: Writing illustrates higher order critical thinking, analysis, synthesis, and/or
evaluation: 0 – 35 points Writing style, grammar, sentence structure: Sentences are consistently clear, concise, well written; grammar and punctuation are correct: 0 – 15 points APA and research: Correct use of APA style in body of paper and appropriately references the text and/or other research sources: 0 – 15 points

Technology and how it affects ethics

We live in a world where technology is rapidly evolving everyday, where the second you buy a brand new computer it is already obsolete within that same year with something better already being produced. And now gadgets such as google glass which allow people to take pictures and videos just by blinking without the consent of those around the user, how exactly must we as a people adapt and change our views on ethics as technology continues to evolve.

One of the biggest moral issues today is the creation of unmanned drones and their use during violent conflicts. The main issue many people have against them is their ability to take a human life and not experience the horror or conflict of making such a decision. Where does that leave us as humans where we will eventually allow robots to make the decisions of whether or not to kill a certain person based on data it has collected.

On the other side of this argument there is something called the Millian harm principle where many people believe that (“The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.”) A very strong statement but one that does make sense in my own opinion. Seeing how technology today is already affecting us and making us as humans look at ethics in a different way and perhaps creating new policies in order to adapt to this ever changing world, what we do now may have a bigger effect on people in the future.

In an essay by Patrick Lin he states that “The introduction of any new technology changes the lives of future people. We know it as the “butterfly effect” or chaos theory: Anything we do could start a chain-reaction of other effects that result in actual harm (or benefit) to some persons somewhere on the planet.” However he also states that even though there will be effects on those in the future we should not worry too much because as humans we have no way of actually predicting the future, its more of a caution sign stating that though a new technology may pose some theoretical danger in the future we should consider the consequences of such technology before moving forward with it.

Lastly how does technology nowadays affect us as individuals and our own personal rights to privacy, security, communication etc… Privacy is one of the biggest issues when it comes to technology and how businesses monitor their employees. Companies can track internet usage, individual movement as well as personal information from their employees and though there are rules and limitations as to what companies can collect where do we draw the line as to what is appropriate behavior.

The issue with this is when does it stop becoming a permissible act within a business and ethical issue when it comes to individual rights. There is a fine line between precautions for a business and invading someone’s personal space and privacy, it is why as technology continues to evolve we must carefully traverse this territory and be cautious when creating new ethical policies as they might have a negative effect on us now as well as the future.

References
Kaufmann, F. (2013, May 9). Technology moves faster than ethics | Washington Times Communities. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/frank-kaufmann-way-forward/2013/may/9/technology-moves-faster-ethics/ Markgraf, B. (n.d.). Ethical Issues With Business Technology | Chron.com. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-issues-business-technology-27297.html Thierer, A. (2013, August 1). On the Line between Technology Ethics vs. Technology Policy. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://techliberation.com/2013/08/01/on-the-line-between-technology-ethics-vs-technology-policy/

Development of a Code of Ethics: IT Challenges

Societal changes caused by information technology and the resulting ethical usage The information technology advancements continue to impact the workplace, societies and cultures. In today’s world, information technology is almost part of every business, educational institute, and even personal activity (Brooks, 2010).

Computer and internet access have found their way to households, schools, libraries, people’s cell phones, banks, hospitals, governments, coffee shops, and other public places. As the industry evolves, so do the needs and special niches of society from mainframe systems, to micro systems, to PC-based LAN and WAN systems, to virtual systems and the internet.

Advanced technology means unlimited prospects for the society. In the same token, new technologies mean increased exposure to engage in unethical behaviors. The growing concerns have given rise to efforts in developing code of ethics to prevent violations and address ethical dilemmas. When policies are ambiguous, ethical decisions can vary depending to the personal judgment or interpretation of the manager.

There are instances where the lines are blurry that it becomes difficult to draw the line between ethical and unethical behavior (Brooks, 2010). This is the reason why it is important for education systems and businesses to address the ethical concerns of information technology usage and to develop a code of ethics to prevent ethical dilemmas and violations.

New capabilities of computers give rise to new choices for action. This results in situations where either there is no conduct for guidance or there is inadequate policy to address the situation. James H. Moor, a Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy at Dartmouth College published an article “What is Computer Ethics?” where he identified this situation as policy vacuum (Moor, 1985).

History of the development of Code of Ethics in computing

In the 1950 era, a new technology in the form of TAB machines was introduced by accountants. Very few understood the capabilities of these machines and even fewer had the skills to operate them. The machine accountants were faced with challenges in the usage of the TAB machines and did not have any guidance to follow. The National Machine Accountants Association (NMAA) was founded in 1960 to address the growing issues of this new technology. The changing nature of processing information brought about by the introduction of computers in the early 1960’s gave rise to another challenge.

The industry was changing and the widespread interest on computers required a change in the mission and goals of NMAA. The association’s name was changed to Data Processing Management Association (DPMA) to be more reflective of the new objectives that promoted continuing education and professional certification of its members.

As the computing industry evolved, business leaders, accountants, and educators recognized the need to advance Information Technology (IT) professional development, support IT education, and formulate IT policies that will guide the usage of IT in many facets of society. The association adopted yet another name in 1996 which is now the Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP). Development of Code of Ethics

There are at least two basic factors that influence the development of Code of Ethics for IT. One is from sources outside of the corporate structure, and the other is from the corporation’s governance.

AITP as an outside source. The accounting environment established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board to oversee, regulate, and discipline accounting firms that do not conform to accountability and transparency standards. In the information technology world, similar professional agencies were formed to provide guiding principles in the usage of information technology to ward off undesirable and unethical behavior. A prominent professional association that lends oversight to the guiding principles of information technology is the AITP.

AITP is an association composed of a premier network of IT business professionals focused on providing a community of knowledge, education and resources to its members bound by the association’s guiding principles on Guiding Principles reflect AITP’s beliefs about your role as a member and the impact we want AITP to have in the IT profession. The association extends opportunities to its member to become better leaders that excel through honesty demanding ethical behavior and fiscal responsibility.

The association’s webpage shares news, IT developments and events with chapter members, IT professionals, faculty advisors, student members, and various community groups. Today, there are over 1,000 U.S. regional chapters with members that are linked in who make continuous network connections around the country and across the globe.

Corporate governance as an inside source. Prudent governance of an organization’s IT functions is viewed as an integral part of corporate strategy in facilitating information-based competitive advantage in promoting organizational growth and progress. Enterprise leaders like the board members, executive management and chief information officers are entrusted with the responsibility of raising awareness and understanding to ensure IT meets and exceeds expectations, its risks mitigated, and standards followed (IT Governance Institute, 2003).

These officers are uniquely positioned to fulfill their role in harmonizing the organizational strategy with the accounting, auditing, operational and IT controls that is central in adhering to corporate ethical behavior. It is important for top management to lead in promoting awareness of ethical compliance within their organization as it sends messages to employees that inevitably shape the culture of their organizations. Enforcement issues related to a code of ethics for information technology

The expansion of Internet brings together different cultures and societies where norms of ethical and acceptable behavior, and the role of computing and communication networks within the society vary a lot. In protecting globally distributed systems that employ open public networks, there is a great demand to specify what individuals’ rights and responsibilities are in regard to these networks. The distributed global nature of networks makes this a significantly difficult task.

The lack of centralized authority and differences in moral codes between different groups, such as original developers of networks, business users, private users and governmental organizations lead to significant consistencies. These situations can easily trigger enforcement issues that can result in ethical dilemmas.

Differences of organizational culture can also become problematic when dealing with how operational policies and methods are enforced. Various groups within the company may have significantly different objectives and requirements for the use of networks, and balancing different needs and wishes may be a difficult task. The task of adopting or designing a common communication network to adapt to the various departmental needs becomes complex.

The issue becomes even more complicated when considering the non-technical issues. For instance, it becomes difficult to establish a common ethics guideline that can provide comprehensive protection and security for all aspects of the organizational structure.

There is also an enforcement issue on banning people from downloading data like music off the internet. This is a clear violation of the Copyright laws but protecting the authors is difficult to enforce considering that the internet is open to anyone who has access to a computer. The downloading of music does not cause actual harm to anyone, but it is unethical. A hacker can argue that a crime is not committed since there is no theft, vandalism or breach of confidentiality.

In an Examiner article published by Scot Trodik on “Ethical Issues on Hacking” (Trodik, 2011), the Hacker Manifesto states that the only crime committed is the crime of curiosity and since the information is free, hacking is therefore justified. Conversely, the Computer Fraud and Abuse act of 1986 recently expanded in March 2013 made it illegal to tap into a computer without authorization and access private government, financial or credit card information.

However, this act was flawed because of its broad scope and vague wordings that would criminalize many everyday activities allowing outlandishly severe penalties. Establishing a code of ethics in an online educational environment

Technology has enormously changed the teaching world from the traditional classroom to online learning. Distance learning allows a student to choose courses to enroll in and enables a student to develop a personalized schedule. Higher education institutions that offer online learning should not lose sight in stressing the importance of ethical character development of both the faculty and the learner in the pursuit of a personal, academic and professional excellence.

This educational revolution can pose an ethical challenge because the interaction between the faculty and the learner becomes less personal in comparison to a face-to-face classroom instruction.

It is for this reason that it is crucial to establish and adopt a code of conduct that gives guidance to the maintenance of effective and responsible distance learning programs. Institutions should provide policy guidelines for faculty and learners to follow and incorporate technology ethics in the curriculum. An Academic Conduct Committee should be established to enforce academic rules and promote an atmosphere of learning. Penalties for violators of the code should be weighed with fairness keeping in mind the intent to preserve the integrity of distance learning educational process.

A student handbook on the rules of academic integrity should be a required reading material so that students know what the instances that violate academic integrity. Examples of these violations include plagiarism, fabricating citation, use of unauthorized assistance, and falsifying or altering results of research work.

Among these violations, Plagiarism is one of the most common academic misconduct in a distance learning setting. Many factors lead students to commit plagiarism. Some of these reasons may be because of new rules to learn, academic pressures, poor time management or poor research skills. Notwithstanding these, students should have the responsibility to educate themselves honestly.

References
Al-Rjoub, H., Zabian, A. & Qawasmeh, S. (2008). Electronic Monitoring: The Employees Pointof View. Journal of Social Sciences , 4(3), 189-195.

Brooks, R. (2010). The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology. American Journal of Business Education. October 2010. 3(10), 1-13.

Collack. V. (2007). What is computer ethics? Article analysis. Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.collak.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id

Cone, E. (2008, September 10). Social Responsibility: Doing the Right Thing. CIOInsight
Retrieved from http://www.cioinsight.com/c/a/Research/Doing-the-Right-Thing

Harbert, T. (2007, October 29). Ethics in IT; Dark Secrets, Ugly Truths. And Little Guidance.
Computerworld , 41(44), 34-36.Jennings, M. (2009). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings(6th Ed.).

Mason, OH:South-Western Cengage Learning.Kuzu, A. (2009). Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology,8(2), 91-110.

Mingers, J. & Walsham, G. (2010). Toward ethical information systems: The contribution of discourse ethics. MIS Quarterly. Vol. 34 No. 4. December 2010. 833-854.

Moor, J. H. (1985). What is Computer Ethics? Darmouth College.

Moor, J. H. (2001). The Future of Computer Ethics: You Ain’t Seen Nothin’ Yet! Ethics and Information Technology,3, 38-91.

Moor, J. H. (2005). Why We Need Better Ethics for Emerging Technologies. Ethics and Information Technology, 7, 111-119. doi:10.1007/s10676-006-0008-0

Association of Information Technology Professionals. http://www.aitp.org/?page=Ethics. Accessed August 20, 2013.

Board briefing on IT governance. IT Governance Institute. http://www.itgi.org/Template_ITGIc9a4.html?Section. Accessed August 22, 2013.

Trodik, S. (2011). Ethical issues on hacking. The Hacker’s Manifesto. http://www.examiner.com/article/ethical-issues-hacking. Accessed August 23, 2013.

Core issues in ethics

Humankind can’t continue their lives without desires. If one wants to be happy, surely, he has to discover his best desires that provide him a happy life. Some of these desires that help to continue our lives can be acceptance in our relationships, a good family life and strong social relations. Trying to satisfy these desires has a great meaning to achieve happiness for me.

To start with, however embarrassed I am about this desire of mine, I have an obsession to expect people to accept my thoughts and manners in every situation. Yes, this is not a good characteristic and sometimes makes me an antipathic person but trying to be accepted by someone can give you happiness, too. Besides, if you can manage to make someone love you knowing and accepting all about you, I think that is the absolute happiness.

Furthermore, it seems to me that family is the basic source of happiness. Certainly, I can’t always be a good guy and sometimes I make them upset but I can’t stand seeing them upset. Therefore, I try to do whatever necessary to make them happy. Consequently, when I see happy family faces, I feel deeply happy.

Thirdly, to have friends is one of the most meaningful aspects of life. I believe that one should have three very warm friends at least. For example, I can’t bear loneliness and if I couldn’t share all my heart with these warm friends, I believe that I could never be happy. As a consequence, if you feel like me, it will be worth improving your close relationships in order to be happy.

To recap, humankind has a short life but he is given a lot of desires to be happy. Moreover, if one wants to discover the meaning of his short life, he should look for it in desires. Whether he finds it or not, he will taste happiness just by looking for it.

Business Research Ethics

The accounting world is changing constantly and so are the rules that are being set up to protect companies and their assets. There are codes of conduct that accounting offices and their personnel must adhere to and when they are not followed, there can be an ethical challenges that you have to deal with. Users of accounting information perform different types of creative accounting. Some of these practices are ethical and legal and other are not. It is important for a company to set up procedures that check and double check everyone in the accounting department from the clerks to the Controller. There is never a time in any business that someone is allowed to do things without having someone else check on their work.

When there is no follow up or checks set in place is when the company finds themselves in trouble. As accountants, we are required to make sure that the work that we produce is accurate, credible and true information. This information is used to help investors and banks to make a good business decision in regard to their credit and investment opportunities. Many times, an accountant will get “creative” with the numbers to assure just that outcome. The numbers are inflated to show a better financial picture and this will help the company get more money and have the bank invest more in their future.

Sometimes, this can go on for a long time without anyone knowing it is all false. Other times, companies get caught. May I remind you of Enron? Over the years stockholders and investors have lost large amounts of money due to false reporting or “creative” accounting. It is for this reason that the need for restrictions on those practices and find a solution to this problem became necessary.

A company that I worked for in the past had to eventually file for bankruptcy because the Executive Board was unaware of what the Controller was doing. Many of us were aware of the incorrect numbers and were not sure how to handle it because we could not really prove that the numbers that he was reporting were actually wrong. There are procedures in effect that prevent accountants from doing this, but not all companies follow them. This is why auditors are used with many companies. Auditors are there to make sure that all numbers and documents are proven to be correct and that there is no creative accounting or inflated numbers when looking at financial statements. Auditors can also be a deterrent for theft.

If there is never a check and balance with an accountant in a company, there can be a greater chance of theft. I know of a company that I worked for suffered a loss of over $50,000 because the Controller was not required to get a second signature on checks under $5,000, so he issued himself eleven checks in the amount of $4,000. He would take the check and record that the check went to a vendor or supplier. When the bank statement was sent to our office, he would do the bank reconciliation, so no one saw the actual cancelled check because he destroyed it. Had there been an auditor that would be checking his work, this never would have continued to happen, they would have found it after the first check. It is important accountants to maintain integrity and avoid questionable situations. There are many things that can be seen as inappropriate.

Many times over the years, I have been offered tickets to baseball games, dinners, gift baskets, etc. to use a particular company as a major supplier or to use a certain bank. I never thought much of accepting a gift basket, but I was told by an auditor for our firm that can be misunderstood and never to do that. This is a small scale, many companies have been known to get government contracts or big jobs because of making certain promises. Research has proven to our executives and investors that the only way to make sure that there is no inappropriate behavior by having internal and external auditors to examine the books on a regular basis. Knowing that there are audits completed on a random basis and knowing that those audits are being audited by external companies prevents mishaps, theft and misappropriation of funds.

Having a clear set of policies and procedures in place and also having a clear plan of action for employees that do not follow these procedures is a sure way to insure that your company is protected. GAAP (generally accepted accounting practices) defines what is and is not permissible, but it is not infallible. GAAP can be manipulated and subject to interpretation and accountants can commit fraud any time. Eventually, we have to count on good accounting procedures, our auditors and most importantly, employee ethics and morals to keep everything and everyone in line.

REFERENCES
Al Momani, M. A., & Obeidat, M. I. (2013). The effect of auditors’ ethics on their detection of creative accounting practices: A field study. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(13), 118-136. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1418426106?accountid=458 Leung, E. C. (2004). Accounting ethics. Business and Society, 43(2), 226-226+. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199387513?accountid=458

Ethics Awareness Inventory and Personal Values

Ethics and values coincide with one another. Values are determined by what is right and what is wrong and ethics is actually doing what is right and wrong. Everyday people are faced with making right and wrong decisions. Ethically we make decisions according to our beliefs, values, and awareness. Every decision should be made to do the right thing according to the situation. In this paper I will discuss the difference between ethics and values, and my values in my personal life.

I will reflect on the Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory and discuss my self assessment. I will also reflect on Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) values and how they align with my values. Then we will look at how being a part of the management team at KFF would affect my performance.

Ethics vs. Values

Ethics refers to standards of conduct, standards that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues, which themselves are derived from principles of right and wrong(cite1). In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behavior.(cite1) There are two aspects to ethics: the first involves the ability to discern right from wrong, good from evil, and propriety from impropriety; the second involves the commitment to do what is right, good and proper(cite1). Ethics is an action concept; it is not simply an idea to think and argue about (cite1).

The terms “values” and “ethics” are not interchangeable(cite 1). Ethics is concerned with how a moral person should behave, whereas values simply concern the various beliefs and attitudes that determine how a person act Running head: ETHICS AWARENESS INVENTORY AND PERSONAL VALUES

Ethics Awareness Inventory and Personal Values

Selisecia Royster

University of Phoenix

Management 521

Christie Matthews

July 30, 2009

Ethics Awareness Inventory and Personal Values

Ethics and values coincide with one another. Values are determined by what is right and what is wrong and ethics is actually doing what is right and wrong. Everyday people are faced with making right and wrong decisions. Ethically we make decisions according to our beliefs, values, and awareness. Every decision should be made to do the right thing according to the situation. In this paper I will discuss the difference between ethics and values, and my values in my personal life.

I will reflect on the Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory and discuss my self assessment. I will also reflect on Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) values and how they align with my values. Then we will look at how being a part of the management team at KFF would affect my performance.

Ethics vs. Values

Ethics refers to standards of conduct, standards that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues, which themselves are derived from principles of right and wrong(cite1). In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behavior.(cite1) There are two aspects to ethics: the first involves the ability to discern right from wrong, good from evil, and propriety from impropriety; the second involves the commitment to do what is right, good and proper(cite1).

Ethics is an action concept; it is not simply an idea to think and argue about (cite1). The terms “values” and “ethics” are not interchangeable(cite 1). Ethics is concerned with how a moral person should behave, whereas values simply concern the various beliefs and attitudes that determine how a person act Running head: ETHICS AWARENESS INVENTORY AND PERSONAL VALUES

Ethics Awareness Inventory and Personal Values

Selisecia Royster

University of Phoenix

Management 521

Christie Matthews

July 30, 2009

Ethics Awareness Inventory and Personal Values

Ethics and values coincide with one another. Values are determined by what is right and what is wrong and ethics is actually doing what is right and wrong. Everyday people are faced with making right and wrong decisions. Ethically we make decisions according to our beliefs, values, and awareness.

Every decision should be made to do the right thing according to the situation. In this paper I will discuss the difference between ethics and values, and my values in my personal life. I will reflect on the Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory and discuss my self assessment. I will also reflect on Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) values and how they align with my values. Then we will look at how being a part of the management team at KFF would affect my performance.

Ethics vs. Values

Ethics refers to standards of conduct, standards that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues, which themselves are derived from principles of right and wrong(cite1). In order to apply this definition to practical decision making it is necessary to specify the nature of the moral obligations considered intrinsic to ethical behavior.(cite1)

There are two aspects to ethics: the first involves the ability to discern right from wrong, good from evil, and propriety from impropriety; the second involves the commitment to do what is right, good and proper(cite1). Ethics is an action concept; it is not simply an idea to think and argue about (cite1). The terms “values” and “ethics” are not interchangeable(cite 1). Ethics is concerned with how a moral person should behave, whereas values simply concern the various beliefs and attitudes that determine how a person act

Ethics in Criminal Justice Administration

Nowhere is ethical behavior more important than the administration of criminal justice. Lack of ethical behavior undermines the purpose of the criminal justice system. The cost of unethical behavior will be the downfall of the criminal justice system and only by gaining a true understanding of what ethical behavior is and how to maintain it will the system continue to flourish. While the ethical standard individuals develop through the years are important; utilizing critical thinking skills ensuring ethical standards stay in place. Many people assume that good ethical behavior is part of an individual’s makeup but in reality ethical behavior is learned and therefore not the same for everyone. Ethical and moral behavior begins developing from the time individuals are young and continues to develop and change during adulthood.

It is important to understand that the initial ethical values a person gains usually come from the home environment and are highly influenced by the ethical behavior displayed by parents and family members. Should this life be impacted by crime and violence then this behavior could become the norm and this individual’s ethical values and standards would be outside of the societal norm. As individuals grow into adults life experiences continue to impact ethical and moral standards. Many people live by the assumption that while something may be unethical it is not illegal so no one cares but right and wrong do not always deal in legalities. Just because something is not illegal does not make it right. In the administration of criminal justice ethical considerations are the basis for the use of discretion, force, and due process required to make sound moral decisions.

The study ethics helps understand the consequences of actions and the moral principles used. In the administration of criminal justice ethics must be a permanent part of management and policy making related to punishment. Ethics are also a vital part of decision making in regards to rehabilitation, deterrence, and sentencing. Individuals working in the field of criminal justice maintain authority over other individuals lives (Banks, 2004). This power must not be taken lightly. These individuals must be aware of the power of the position and the ethical standards required when carrying out those duties. So how can the system ensure that individuals maintain ethical standards? Training is the answer to ensuring ethical standards. Most individuals are receptive to training and understand the necessity of maintaining ethical standards.

The cost of legal fees, litigation and damages from claims of ethical violations could cost millions and it seems simpler to maintain training for staff than pay millions if claims. A recent increase in claims against officers for unethical behavior only substantiates this ideal even more (Eastvedt, 2008). It is important for professionals in the criminal justice field to understand the ethical framework where individuals gain their approach for decision making. The first concept is idealism where it is believed the desired outcome may be obtained through using the appropriate action. The issue for these individuals is choosing the correction action in a given situation. The second concept is relativism. This concept is derived from the ideal that while the desired outcome is preferred, everything is relative to circumstance and therefore undesirable outcomes are inevitable no matter the action taken.

There are four approaches to ethical decision making and knowing these will help to identity the orientations of those whom you employ. Situationists believe that everything is relative and base the actions taken on the assessment of the situation. These individuals choose not to acknowledge the universal moral code or rules followed by society. Subjectivist also believe in the relative and reject societal codes however these individuals maintain personal moral principles used when assessing situations. Absolutists follow idealism believing that the best outcome is attained by following the universal moral principles. Exceptionists follow the same belief as absolutists with the slight difference. They believe that certain situations allow deviation from these beliefs (Bailey, 2009). Another important training module is critical thinking.

Critical thinking helps individual’s reason right from wrong to ensure good decision making skills. Critical thinking helps individuals make objective decisions when analyzing information. At the core of critical thinking are cognitive skills and affective dispositions. Cognitive skills are used during interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation. Affective dispositions require and individual to be inquisitive, maintain a concern for being well-informed, know when to employ critical thinking, be aware of one’s own bias, and willingness to reconsider or revise when needed. Making an ethical decision does not occur instantly. Individuals usually have time to consider the action and any alternatives. This is where crimtial thinking plays an intricate part. Critical thinking allow the individual to consider what to believe or what action to take (Meisel & Fearon, 2006).

The Williams Institute and the APPA are working together to introduce the compliance based model and responsibility based model into ethics training. The Williams Institute maintains a belief that ethical responsibility is not based on rules and codes rather relationships and responsibility for ones actions. By giving people the tools to make the right decisions, TWI believes that individuals will make the right decision. The first step is to remove fear from the decision making process and enable individuals to be responsible for the decision made (The Williams Institute, 2001). Ethics training for individuals in the field of criminal justice requires an understanding of individuals within the field and the roles held.

Individual within this field are analyzed and judged on the decisions made whether ethical or unethical. Discretion is required of all individuals in all areas within the system. Understanding of the discretionary roles of each person is vital to understanding how unethical issues can occur. Legislators have the power to define what is considered illegal and punishable under the law. Police officers have a great amount of discretion during decision making on arrests, citations and investigations. Prosecutors often face the least amount of scrutiny based on the faith placed on them upholding the law. Prosecutors maintain discretion when filing charges, downgrading charges, influencing officers, and the death penalty.

Judges maintain discretion over plea bargains, sentencing, reviewing the law, and rules of evidence. Individuals working in corrections have discretion over probation, determining appropriate behavior, supervision of inmates and parole. Each of these individuals has a responsibility for enforcing the law and protecting the rights of the constitution. Training for these individuals should include analytical skills and reasoning, and the ability to recognize the consequences of actions. The five goals that should be attained once the ethical training is completed are being aware and open to ethical issues, become personally responsible, develop critical thinking skills, understanding how the system often encourages coercion, and the exploring individual feelings (Drylie, J.).

Individuals must learn to uphold the rights and liberties of the suspect, the interests of the community, and the law (Albanese, 2006). Ethics in the administration of criminal justice go hand in hand. Individuals who work in the field of criminal justice must maintain ethical integrity to ensure the law functions as designed. As individuals grow and take their place in the world the ethical and moral values from childhood change based on life experiences. Knowing the ethical framework that people use to define their ethical outlook helps administrators develop a plan of action for working with these individuals. By providing training and education to individuals within the criminal justice field society can ensure those values are maintained within the system.

References
Albanese, J., 2006, Professional Ethics in Criminal Justice: Being Ethical When No One is Looking, retrieved May 12, 2013 from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Professional+Ethics+in+Criminal+Justice%3A+Being+Ethical+When+No+One+is…-a0158093018″>Professional Ethics in Criminal Justice: Being Ethical When No One is Looking. Strahlendorf, P., Professional Ethics, Ryerson University, School of Occupational and Public Health, Session No. 174, Retrieved May 12, 2013 from: http://www.bcsp.org/pdf/PresentationsArticles/714_1.pdf Banks, 2004, the Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, retrieved May 12, 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf Drylie, J., Ethics in Criminal Justice, Week 1, CJ3750, Kean University, retrieved May 12, 2013 from: http://www.kean.edu/~jdrylie/docs/Microsoft%20PowerPoint%20-%20Ethics%20Week%201.pdf Eastvedt, Steven R., 2008, Criminal justice ethics- a view from the top, retrieved May 12, 2013 from: http://www.corrections.com/news/article/20030 Meisel, S. I., & Fearon, D. S. (2006). “Choose the future wisely”: Supporting better ethics through critical thinking. Journal of Management Education, 30(1), 149-176. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195719245?accountid=35812

What is the role of Ethics in the Management

Ethical management refers to corporate management that not only fulfills economic goals and legal responsibilities, but also meets the ethical expectations imposed by social norms in conducting business.

There are 5 specific functional areas of management which is covered by business ethics : 1) Ethical management in the workplace. Ethical management is the foundation of CSR (voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner) in the workplace, which covers those ethical issues of the employer-employee relationship. Ethical management assures all policies in the workplace are legal. This will prevent moral issues and discriminating practices such as harassment, child labor, discriminating practices based on age, gender, race and physical attractiveness.

2) Ethical management regarding intellectual property rights. This may take account on issues regarding bio prospecting and bio piracy, copyright, patent, trademark infringement, business intelligence, employee trading & industrial espionage.

Bioprospecting
– the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources. Biopiracy
– the commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advancedcountry or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nationsin whose territory the materials were originally discovered.

3) Ethical management in sales, advertising and marketing.
These are business ethics and ethical management that deals with issues on pricing, anti-trust and anti-cartel law, bait and switch, viral marketing, pyramid scandal and sex in advertising.

Anti-Trust and Anti-Cartel Law
laws that are designed to keep free competition in the marketplace. Competition encourages corporations to have lower pricing and better products for consumers. Without these laws in place, businesses could merge to create monopolies or engage in exclusivity contracts that can drive market prices. Bait and Switch

a sales tactic in which a customer is attracted by the advertisement of a low-priced item but is then encouraged to buy a higher-priced one. Viral Marketing (marketing buzz) referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking services and other technologies to try to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives.

Pyramid Scandal
which involves promising participants payment or services, primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, rather than supplying any real investment or sale of products or services to the public

Benneton Case
Benetton Group S.p.A (Benetton), a leading Italian clothing company, is famous, or rather, infamous for its outrageous promotional campaigns.

4) Ethical management production.
This deals with duties of companies to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm. Most discussions includes moral relations between business and environment. Ethical programs between the organization and the environment that are concerned with practices that may lead to pollution, global warming, increase in water toxicity and diminishing natural resources. (example: waste management, ford pinto case)

Ford Pinto Case
The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car produced by the Ford Motor Company, that is offered as a two-door sedan, then the Pinto added hatchback and wagon models the following year. With over 3 million sold over a 10-year production run, the Pinto competed in the U.S. market. But in 1972, reports of explosions in low-speed collisions involving Pintos struck from the rear started to come in to the National Highway Safety and Trans­portation Admin­istration. Accident investigations in many of the cases revealed that victims had few, if any, trauma injuries as a result of the impacts, but had burned to death when the cars exploded into flames. Some had been trapped inside the cars due to the body buckling and doors becoming jammed shut.

5) Ethical management in finance, accounting and auditing.
Issues within these areas comprise executive compensation, manipulation of financial markets, bribery, fraud (wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain) and false reporting.

Nurse ethics

Ethics has become part of the nurses’ life when it comes to decision making and taking actions in the face of adversity or opportunity. Husted and Husted (2008, p.9) states that the patients has lost their power to take actions on their medical conditions due to the lack of knowledge in the health care settings. Hence, the healthcare providers are there to impart their skills and knowledge to treat the patient with the best care. This assignment would discuss how the medical decisions for A B who has undergone radical mastectomy are made using the model for ethical decision-making.

A B’s husband suspects that there might be a spread of the tumors and informed the nurse in the out patient clinic not to mention to her if she had a spread of the tumor. A has the right to refuse to speak to the counselor and not to know in depth of her disease process. The ethical dilemma is in this case study is, whether the nurse should refrain herself from reveBng A’s progress on her condition. The second ethical dilemma is should A continue to restrain herself from speaking to her counselor.

Yarbro, Frogge and Goodman (2005) states that the prognoses of patients with non invasive tumors will benefit from the mastectomy, however for patients who have invasive tumors are at probability for relapse. After the mastectomy operation the patients are at risk of wound infection, flap necrosis and seroma formation. Yabro et al. (2005) also mentioned that although breast cancer in young women is a rare condition, the disease is more aggressive biologically and has unfavorable prognosis as compared to older women. In most of the conditions, radiation therapy or chemotherapy is given to reduce the chances of relapses and to increase the chance of survival.

This shows that there is high chance for A to have a relapse and that she is also highly at risk for depression due to her medial condition, and the altered body image. Mastectomy causes emotional distress and that is advisable to seek a counselor or a social worker to express the feelings which aids in recovery (Mills, 2006, p.561). In a research done on emotions of patients after mastectomy found that patients who have undergone mastectomy experienced is similar feelings to those of bereavement. Anxiety, denial and tension leading to stress are commonly found after post operation of mastectomy patients .The research further elaborates that the role of the patient in social, sexual and interpersonal is altered thus affecting the individual physically and mentally (Farooqi, 2005, p.270).

Having so many mental and physical conflicts, A should seek help from the counselors and allow herself to express her thoughts so that she is able to cope with the situation. By doing so, she will be able to see things positively and have the courage to move on. Keeping in mind that she has two children, A will also need to make the necessary arrangements for the children in terms of financial, social and physical needs. National University Hospital (n.d) states that patients have the right to know information about their treatment and care plan and to participate in decision-making about their treatment care and their discharge. A has the right to know her treatment plan. She will not be able to see the broader picture of her condition and will remain in depression thinking that it is the end of the world if she remains unaware. When help is provided, she will be highly motivated to move on.

Respect for autonomy is the fundamental rule of clinical ethics. It is defined as an individual right to make a decision without having interferences by others and personal limitations. Healthcare providers should educate and guide the patients so that they can understand the medical condition and will be able to make decisions. Patients have the right to seek consent for their medical treatment and to disclose information about their medical condition to them (Pantilat, 2008).

Therefore, the nurse should inform A regarding the spread of the cancer, if there is, so that she will be able to make a rightful decision on her treatment. This is supported by AustrBan Nursing and Midwifery Council (AMNC) (2006), Code of Professional Conduct, Conduct Statement 7; nurses are required to inform the patient of the nature and purpose of recommended nursing care to assist the patient to make informed decisions. However, the husband had mentioned not to inform A about the spread to prevent their marriage from getting worst. By listening to the husband’s point of views, there are chances of saving their marriage and it benefits A and her family. Beneficence

Beneficence is explained has an action done to promote good for others. An obligatory act to assist patients based on their importance and legitimate interests (Beauchamp & Childress, as cited in Parker & Dickenson, 2010, p.195). In the case study, it is said that A is very stressful and that she does not want to talk about her disease to the counselors. If the nurse listens to the husbands instruction, A’s stress level will not be added on and thus doing good for her. On the other hand, if A is not told about the disease and how much the counselors wanted to help her. The more she will pull herself back and may decide not to have any further treatment. These will deteriorate her condition. SNB Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Value Statement 7 states that clients’ best interests must be taken care of (SNB, 2006 p. 8). Non-maleficence is a principal that requires not inflicting harm to the patients.

Before being ethically reasonable in trying to help the genuine interest, the nurse must be very certain of doing no harm. Aiken (2004), non-maleficence demands that health care providers defend from harm to those who cannot protect themselves. SNB Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Value Statement 5.1 and AustrBan Nursing & Midwifery Council (ANMC) Code of Ethics for Nurses in AustrBa Value Statement 1 both supports that nurses should safeguard the health and safety of their clients against incompetent, unethical or illegal practices. In A’s case, there is no evident that she is in a state of unsound mind or there that she wants her husband to decide for her.

Therefore A should be informed of a disease process and allow herself to speak to the counselors. If A is not told the truth, the nurse is indirectly inflicting harm for the patient as she owes a duty of care. Yeo, Moorhouse, Khan and Rodney (2010, p.293) mentioned that justice is the wider sense of fairness, whereby everyone should be treated fairly and equally based on the individual or groups entitlements. Every patient would want know how much their condition has improved or deteriorated. In A case, she deserves to be treated and to know her prognosis as this allows her to have time to make arrangements in her social life. She may not want to talk about her disease to the counselor but there might be someone whom she feels comfortable in opening up. As her care providers, the team of healthcare professionals should find out the details and provide her with the best care possible.

There is no evidence that A is in a state of unsound mind and that she has given her rights to her husband to make decisions on behalf of her. Therefore it is Madam Aminiah’s right to know her condition and to discuss her treatment plan. Although by breaking the news A would be distressed but it is the responsibility of the practitioners to give her an opportunity to participate in the decision making even if it has to involve a third party with A’s approval. After making discussions with A, she decides that her husband will be the only decision maker, he will be the surrogate decision maker (University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, n.d) and we should respect her decision. Butts and Rich (2013) mentioned that a better ethical approach to patient care is by providing truthful information at the same time keeping the patient composed and educating her successful ways to manage her condition. Although by not telling A the truth may save her marriage life and benefit her family.

The rights of the patients should not be violated. When patient right are being violated, the nurse is at risk of causing harm. SNB Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Value Statement 2 emphasize the mandate of respect and support clients’ autonomy. Value Statement 7 requires nurses to defend those clients who may be vulnerable and incapable of protecting their own interests and to be an advocate in the best interest of their clients. Everyone is considered innocent until proven guilty. The approved investigators must collect enough evidences to visibly convince Nursing commission members that a violation had occurred. Under the Patients’ Right (Scotland) Act 2011, section 3, states that patient has the right to know about their condition and to make decision relating to the patient’s health and well being. As nurses, we should not refrain ourselves from telling the patient the truth unless stated.

This is vastly supported by SNB Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, value statement 2 Respect and promotes client’s autonomy. Therefore the nurse could be liable for professional misconduct under the Nurses and Midwives Act 2012, Chapter 209. Although A is in a stressful situation, there is no evident that her stress is allowing her to loose her rights in making decision for her disease. A is still in a state of sound mind and therefore her rights should not be violated unless she has agreed for her husband to decide for her or she showed signs and symptoms of unsound mind. This case is indeed an ethical challenge faced by the health care professionals. The author’s decision is to inform the patient on her current condition. If A is to have a spread, it’s her right to know so that she could make the right decision. This decision is supported by AustrBan Nursing and Midwifery Council, (AMNC, 2008) conduct statement 7; Nurses support the health, wellbeing and informed decision making of people requiring or receiving care.

However, the physician will be the best person to break the news. Sullivan (2011) mentioned that health information is compulsory for the patient and it is the ethical and legal obligation of the physician to communicate that information so that patients can make decisions. The patient has the right to a diagnosis and, if consented to, the physician has a duty to treat. Therefore the author will update the team doctors. When A had decided to allow her husband to be her decision maker, than her rights will be respected. In A’s case, a family conference would help to resolve not only her medical issue but also her social issue.

The team doctors will have to document the decision in the treatment and progress notes Medical records are legal documentations that are extremely essential and serve as a means of communication in the health care industry. When there is systemic documentation of patient’s medical history and the treatment provided are recorded, it may benefit when used as an evident in the court (Judson & Harrison, 2013, p. 196).

ANMC National Competency Standards for Registered Nurse, statement 6.3 and 8 both highlight that documentation of care plan must bring about towards achieving expected outcome based on continuity of assessment and to be transparent (ANMC, 2006, p. 5 & 6). A’s decision should be clearly documented on the progress notes highlighting the issues of her decision maker and the treatment recommended to her. Situations that offer ethical dilemmas are common in the healthcare industry. In such situations, it is critical to consider not only the standard regulations, but also the professional code of ethics within the profession. To avoid any legal implication, the medial and nursing team should be mindful of their care provided without violating patient’s interest.

Ethics and Moral Reasoning

Even though living in pain can be a physical and emotional toll on a person’s life, no one can judge or comment on it without knowing how it feels, but choosing to end your life for this cause is ethically wrong. A person should not be able to choose between life and death like it is something normal that we do every day. Dying is not the answer to a person’s problems, pains, or sufferings. Now a day technology and medicine are highly advanced and can cure or reduce the pain of a person with a disease. Choosing to end your life is basically committing suicide and suicide is wrong. First, I believe a person should not be able to choose whether they will live or die because dying will ease the pain and suffering they are experiencing but it is not the answer to their problems. People do not realize that by choosing to die they cause problems, pain and suffering to others.

For example, a person may choose to die and have a big medical bill in which his spouse or family will be responsible for and not be able to afford it. Now because of his/her acts this family will be stuck with the financial problems left behind which can cause the person suffering due to financial burdens when they cannot afford it. Then to think on funeral expenses, and how the adults will explain it to children who might be too young to understand why was this chosen. Now a day medicine can cure or reduce the pain of a person with a disease. As I researched on the web I found that because of the “rapid and dramatic development in medicine and technology professionals have the power to save more lives.” For example, when a person has cancer they undergo chemo and/or radiation. Some people have it with success and kill the cancer cells while others don’t. We also have people with AIDS who can live their life pain and symptom free thanks to medicine they have to take and things they have to undergo.

Living with AIDS is a good example on a disease that is terminal and there is no cure for it but there are medicines that can and will help a person live life for many years and with very little to no problems. By ending life with the assistance of a doctor or medicine is basically committing assisted suicide and this is wrong and should not be assisted or encourage. Life is a gift from God and a person should not decide the end of it. Having a doctor assist you and give you medicine to end your life whether it is to end your pain and suffering from a terminal disease is as bad as putting a gun to your head. I believe that having assisted suicide most people abuse it and think it’s the only way out. Some might even doing in despair or they might be desperate to stop all the pain they are in. Others might feel depressed in knowing they have a disease they might not be able to cure and will eventually die from.

Ending a life due to medical issue is morally and ethically wrong and people should let the disease run its course. I don’t know how it is to live in pain and the physical and emotional toll it can have on someone. I cannot judge or comment on any person’s situation but a person should not be able to choose whether they will live or die. I believe it is selfish on their part to choose to end their life and should realize that dying will not stop the problems, pains, or sufferings. It will stop on their part because they will not be here to live it but it would not stop for the family and can even get worse with the death of that person. Medicine and technology are highly advanced and can cure or reduce the pain of a person with a disease. There are many medicines and equipment used to ease, stop and even prevent pain. When a person is choosing to end their life they are basically planning on committing suicide. People should look into the consequences it will bring if they do choose to end their life before even mentioning it.

References:

Assisted Suicide: A Right or a Wrong?. (n.d.). Assisted Suicide: A Right or a Wrong?. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n1/suicide.html Physician-assisted Suicide: The Wrong Approach to End of Life Care. (n.d.). Physician-assisted Suicide: The Wrong Approach to End of Life Care. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/assisted-suicide/to-live-each-day/physician-assisted-sucide-wrong-approach.cfm

Moral values, ethics and philosophy

The dream of a child starts with a stereo type suggestion from parents that the baby will be a doctor – engineer. The baby has no other option to dream of being doctor or engineer. Our education system was framed by the British rulers to create civil servants to serve their purpose. They had created dreams of civil service. As a legacy of the British and the Pakistani system we inherited Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS). However, the glory of civil service has been fading gradually. Education system at home and abroad now aims at creating good executives. The present dream of the youngsters is to find jobs in mobile phone company.

Considering the good market, the private entrepreneurs established a number of private universities where degrees are offered on Computer science, Engineering, Medical Science and Business Administration. These universities have less interest in social science. Philosophy is a less prioritised subject in the university and hardly any student is found having interest to study Philosophy.

The people living in the 21st century have no time to waste in a very ancient field of study like philosophy. People now send their children to universities to groom them up as future executives in Multinational companies. Students are more interested to obtain professional degrees rather than education in social science. The new generation has different attitude towards life style, human relation, demand and satisfaction

We can not live alone. The world is one family and living in this planet demands co-operation with others. Philosophy teaches the discipline of humanity. It defines how to think, how to reason, how to put together good arguments, how to analyse alternatives and action and evaluate its consequences.

Human society creates ideas and thoughts; philosophy guides principle of human life. Without it, there can be no real government, no institution. It is philosophy that has created human ideologies, interpretations, and viewpoints. Philosophy is at the heart of every issue, at the center of every change within society, and within every radical movement human beings have created. Any tradition, any ideology, any religion has behind them a philosophy. The problem perhaps is that common people in today’s society do not like complicated thoughts, the moment they see an obstacle, they scream in rage, they want the simplistic philosophy of a society that consumes and moves and moves and never stops.

The consumption loving practical people believe that there is no particular use for philosophy, because it deals with intangible ideas, which cannot be proved scientifically or verified objectively, and which have nothing to do with providing greater creature comforts or material progress.

The teaching starts with parents telling what it is wrong to lie, cheat, and steal. These children grow up and enter into the real world with some knowledge of right and wrong. But ethics are learnt throughout our lives as we associate with others. In the work place, people learn responsibility, teamwork, punctuality, and communication skills.

Doctors obtain a guarantee from patient indemnifying him of any accident during operation, lawyers appear for client but do not guarantee of winning. Auditors inspect books of accounts and certify correctness of transactions but there is no control over his sincerity to verify transaction. The society relies on their ethical standard and practice. Baby sitter even the mother look after baby and the quality and standard of care and service depend upon their own sincerity.

Government can enforce setting up waste water treatment machine in industries to save the environment from pollution and there is hardly a method to ensure proper use of waste water treatment but the ethics can regulate the management to protect the universe from adverse effect of economic
activities.

In today’s society, laws and contracts are enforced to make sure that the business deals are fair. We live in a society wherein no device, rule or law can control certain things, actions and behaviours. The self-teaching and self regulation can address the situation..

Human being needs only knowledge, self training and self regulation to apply the test through any ethical standard. All will eventually confront moral problems with social, political, or legal dimensions in their roles as citizens, scholars, professionals, parents, members of their communities, and as human beings.

The society has become open and requires a self administration and control. This self control is through values, morals and ethics. Society must develop values, morals and ethics. They all provide behavioral rules.

Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn’t, good and bad. Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values.

Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality-that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice, etc. Ethics develop feelings of right or wrong. Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts. In any society, most people accept standards that are, in fact, ethical. But standards of behavior in society can deviate from what is ethical. An entire society can become ethically corrupt. Nazi Germany is a good example of a morally corrupt society.

Ethics has standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics, for example, refers to those standards that impose the reasonable obligations to refrain from rape, stealing, murder,
assault, slander, and fraud. Ethical standards include honesty, compassion, and loyalty.

Democracy is a free will under certain guidance, norm and practice. Democracy can not function without ethics. Bangladesh is lacking democracy due to lack of ethical and moral practice of democracy.

Members of different organisations take oath of allegiance and Invocation. They use to declare some ethical standard of business and profession. The declaration of quality of production of manufacturers is in the same line of self regulation and promise to practice.

A good and successful professional should have the ethics, values and standards of profession and make their application a consistent feature in all aspects of work. This will include taking personal responsibility for actions and regularly reflecting on experiences to inform future actions and decision making. Human must both act and be seen to act ethically and with the utmost integrity.

The professionals should uphold professional ethics, values and standards, behave with integrity and objectivity, and maintain professional competence, confidentiality, keeping up to date with all codes of conduct and professional standards, informing clients about the ethical standards that apply to professional activities, monitoring compliance with relevant legislation, standards and regulations and the law of the country.

The workplace compliance of quality policy, citizen charter etc are part of ethics of profession which come from philosophy as the law can not reach workplace and inside mind and heart to control our thinking and action with others in the society. The codes of educational institutes, parents, colleagues at workplace and society at large even the service club and professional bodies teach us ethics and human dignity. It upholds the ethics of business and profession.

The teaching of formal education and non formal education of philosophy is
back bone of society and foundation of all knowledge. That is why the business and profession should be regulated by philosophy and not only law and regulation.

The writer is pursuing PhD in Open University, Malaysia, and can be reached at email: [email protected]

How Technology Advancement has influenced Computer Ethics

The 21st century has been dubbed ”the digital age” because of the monumental achievements witnessed in the Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) fields, which have impacted every aspect of human life. The internet has become one of the most lucrative Information Technology (IT) tool which has made communication and exchange of information faster and efficient. Consequently, it has transformed how people consume information. In spite of its benefits, the internet has led to a severe decline in ethics among internet users (Salman, Saad & Ali, 2013).

The widespread use of internet has led to increased and sophisticated crimes, terrorism and wars (May, 2004). This essay will be based on a case involving hackers who hold Personal Computers (PC) hostage. It will outline the potential computer ethics issues associated with holding computers hostage. It will also highlight methods that computer users could use to prevent this type of attack. Moreover, it will highlight governmental legislations that could be enacted against this type of attack.

Ethics is defined as the principles governing both right and wrong among free humans (free moral agents), whose actions are influenced by their freedom of choice (Soskolne, n.d). Advancement of technology presents both positive and negative impacts to a society. Technological advancements have led to a rapid decline in social and ethical issues regarding to security and privacy of personal information (Shieh & Tanthuwanit, 2004). One of the major forms of social ethic violation includes hackers holding personal computers hostage, and hence infringing on both privacy and security of targeted computer users. This in turn compromises information security concerned with the protection of information confidentiality, availability and integrity (Gordon & Loeb, 2002)

According to Perlroth (2014), cyber criminals have devised a new mechanism of freezing computers through malwares, and then demanding a steep ransom pay before unlocking them. Perlroth (2014) adds that computer owners throughout the world have fallen victims of this malicious attack, which denies them access to their personal computers and files stored on them. The hackers instead serve them with a “pop up” message demanding some ransom payment before their computers could be unlocked. Hackers holding computers hostage infringe on personal privacy, and gain access to sensitive information regarding online bank accounts, security passwords and other highly private information (Perlroth, 2014).

Security systems and other general-purpose computers are also vulnerable to this kind of attack because, if these hackers can break into users’ accounts even from [GoDaddy] domains to create malicious subdomains through which they send mails to target clients (Perlroth, 2014), then every computer system is vulnerable to such attacks. This means that not only is the privacy of the computer users compromised, but also the security of their data and the general security of their computer systems (The Canadian Press, 2014).

In order to prevent hackers from holding computers hostage, computers users should double check their domain names, user accounts or web addresses before responding to any email clicks. In line to this, Perlroth (2014) observes that: Hackers were breaking into GoDaddy users’ accounts with stolen passwords and setting up what is known as a subdomain … hackers would set up the Web address… then send emails to customers … because it appeared to come from a trusted source – was more likely to lure clicks.

Likewise also, users should either contact an IT professional to help them remove the ransomware incase infected, or they can wipe their computers clean through formatting them and reinstalling new Operating system as well (Perlroth, 2014). In addition, professional network security personnel should be consulted in order to ensure that passwords, firewalls, authentications and proxy servers among other security utilities are properly set and enhanced to fortify system security (French, 2012)

Although the hunting, catching and eventual convicting of these hackers has not yet achieved substantial success (Perlroth, 2014), the government should enact privacy laws that pronounce higher penalty for perpetrators of personal privacy and security infringement so that their benefit is less in value when compared to pending punishment. Some of the active laws that have been enacted to curb this tragedy include the Computer Fraud and Abuse Acts which cover the use of malicious codes including worms, viruses, and other malicious programs intended to alter or damage data in a user’s computer (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1030). Another legislation that could counter this attack is the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act (NIIPA) which criminalizes the transmission of a command, program, or code with malicious intentions [like holding a compute hostage] (Colombell, 2002).

In conclusion, when hackers hold computers hostage, they infringe on the personal privacy and security of personal information. During the period when the computers are held hostage, computer users not only risk having their sensitive information accessed and sometimes damaged, but they are also financially exploited in order to have their computers unlocked. Some of the feasible strategies of avoiding this attack include exercising a lot of care regarding the types of sites visited and clicked, and avoiding sending payments to hackers whenever a computer is hacked. Instead seek immediate assistance from a professional who will help you to manually get rid of the ransomware without paying the hackers off.

References

Colombell, M., R. (2002). The Legislative Response to the Evolution of Computer Viruses. 8 RICH. J.L. & TECH. 18. Retrieved from < http://jolt.richmond.edu/v8i3/article18.html>

French, A., M. (2012). A Case Study on E-Banking Security – When Security Becomes Too Sophisticated for the User to Access Their Information. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 17(2).

Gordon, L., & Loeb, M. (2002). The Economics of Information Security
Investment. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 5 (4), 438–457.

May, M. (2004). Federal Computer Crime Laws. SANS Institute. Retrieved from < http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/legal/federal-computer-crime-laws-1446? Show=federal-computer-crime-laws-1446&cat=legal >

Perlroth, N. (2014, April 22). Hackers holding your PC to ransom. Deccan Herald. Retrieved from < http://www.deccanherald.com/content/297460/hackers-holding-your-pc-ransom.html.>

Salman, A., Saad, S., & Ali, M., N. (2013). Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement? Asian Social Science, 9(8): 3-8.

Shieh, M., & Tanthuwanit, K. (2004). Privacy and Security: Internet Hacking and
Surveillance. Retrieved from < http://www.ethicapublishing.com/CH16.pdf>

Title 18 U.S.C Section 1030, internet, http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/1030.html Soskolne, C., L. (n.d). Workplace Health and Safety Information: Ethical Issues. Retrieved from < http://ilocis.org/documents/chpt19e.htm>

The Canadian Press (2014, April 14). Computer hacking expert says more bad news to come from Heartbleed. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from

Ethics and Corporate Responsibility in the Workplace and the World

Ethics and corporate responsibility in the workplace and the world is becoming a center of attention. There are many things going on in the workplace that different agencies and people are looking into while placing the blame on the appropriate source. In this paper, a scenario is presented. The scenario involved PharmaCARE and its subsidiary, CompCARE are reviewed and certain questions are being asked for clarity. The paper will look at the stakeholders in this scenario. The paper will do it best to analyze the ethics of PharmaCARE’s treatment of the Colberia’s indigenous population and its rank-and –file workers versus that of its executives.

In additionally, the paper will look at the situation concerning three workers, Donna, Tom, and Ayesha under the supervision of Allen. The study of how whistleblowing, opportunities, and protection could help Allen stop the unethical of CompCare. An assessment of PharmaCARE’s environmental creativity with the Colberian activities. The paper will address the original purpose of and changes to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The paper will now look at the shareholders in this scenario.

The shareholders are major players in an organization or corporation. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines a “shareholder as one that holds or owns a share in a company” (Shareholder, 2013). A synonym of a shareholder is stakeholder and this is someone who has interest in the company. Therefore, the shareholders of this scenario are Allen, Donna, Ayesha, Tom, CompCARE, PharmaCARE, WellCo, and the Colberians. Allen, Donna, Ayesha, and Tom are employees of CompCARE. They are stakeholders in this scenario because they work for CompCARE and this is how they make their living. They want the company to be successful, but at what cost will it cost them.

The Colberians are the people who labor to make the drug, while getting paid $1.00 a day and living in poverty. PharmaCARE is the mother company of CompCARE and its goal is to profit off of CompCARE by any means necessary. WellCo brought the CompCARE from PharmaCARE seeing the profit it could make in this deal. Each shareholder plays a significant part in making sure the CompCARE is successful. The paper will now look analyze the ethics of PharmaCARE treatment of the Colberians.

PharmaCARE has a company in African and found people there willing to share information about local remedies and could supply workers willing to work for $1.00 a day. PharmaCARE probably look at this as a coal mine and struck the deal. This process is unethical in every way. One reason it is unethical, the employees at PharmaCARE is not working for a $1.00 a day wage nor are they living in primitive huts. The employees of PharmaCARE have electricity and running water while the Colberians do not get to enjoy this luxury. The World Trade Organization, WTO established guidelines concerning labor rights and standards. “Moreover, precisely because third world workers are terribly exploited, their employees will pass on much of the cost of improvements in labor standards achieved through international trade treaties to their employees in the form of lower wages” (Global Issues, 2013).

PharmaCARE knew the way it was treating the Colberians was not ethical; the company could not behave in this fashion in the United States. PharmaCARE teamed with some toxic leaders in fatting its profit margin. The welfare of the Colberians did not concern them in any way. Hellriegel and Slocum noted a concern for a global team. The global team would have benefited PharmaCARE tremendously. “The global team helps to define common features of goods and services that will appeal to customers in different countries. The global team members from different countries can provide insight into an input about these unique market needs and requirements for specific attributes of goods and services” (Hellrigel & Slocum, 2011, p.360). A company wants to be correct in dealing with foreigners because if anything is done wrong eventually the world will find out. In this scenario, the executives profit, while the workers receive scraps. The paper will now turn it focus on the workers inside CompCARE and could termination be consider legal in this scenario.

The workers are Allen, Ayesha, Donna, and Tom. Allen is the manager and was responsibility to make sure his staff was not in any health nor safety threat. In the case with Ayesha, she wanted to be promoted and nothing happen. She filed a complaint with the EEOC. “The EEOC was created to increase job opportunities for women and minorities and to help end discrimination based on race, color, religion, disability, gender, or national origin in any personnel action” (Boone & Kurtz, 2012, p. 61). Allen could have avoided this by putting Ayesha on a supervisor track. Allen could have been a role model for Ayesha, while showing her the responsibility of a supervisor.

Allen should have talked to Ayesha and giving her pointers on what she needed to do to be considered for a supervisor job. In the case of Donna, she never was one to stay out of work. She had a perfect attendance until the discovery of mold was found. She became ill because nothing was done to rectify the mold problem. Therefore, Allen do not have a just cause to fire Donna knowing the reason of her illness. She continued to work until she could no longer and filed for worker compensation. “Any employee, irrespective of their length of service, who is dismissed or subjected to a detriment for certain health and safety reasons, would have a potential claim against their employer” (Calcott, 2011, p.12). In the case of Tom, he wanted something done about the mold problem. Tom was a supervisor at CompCARE and he reported to Allen.

Tom noticed how all the workers were getting sick and took action. He informed Allen about the sir quality in the lab. Tom did the right thing in reporting all problems to his superior. The assumed Tom waited and went to Allen again to do something about the air quality. The problem gotten worsen and Tom threatened to turn the company in to OSHA. Tom would be consider a whistleblower. “A whistleblower exposes the misdeeds of others in organizations” (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.100). The Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 prohibits an employee from getting fired for telling on unethical conduct. The paper will now look at how Allen could have benefit by supporting his employees and himself. Allen knew something was not right and yet he did nothing when the problem was not fix. “Employers are well aware of their extensive responsibilities to employees under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974” (Calcott, 2011, p.12).

In the role Allen have, he was obligated and held the responsibility to protect his staff. Allen reported to his boss as to what was going on, therefore he should took the next steps in finding help for his employees. Allen could have benefited himself by having a clear conscious he did what was right. He would have been free from any prosecution the employees would have filed on the company. He would have been protected under the Whistleblower Act as well. Allen’s health was just as much danger as his staff and this should have been enough to make him tell authority. PharmaCARE’s renders a purported environmental stewardship is worst and the company’s public stance should carry an obligation to be a leader in environmental matters. PharmaCARE should be more concern about Colberians’ environment. PharmaCARE should want to help the people who is producing their product.

They could help with building homes for the Colberians, by knowing their conditions. The executives live in nice places with running water and electricity. PharmaCARE can set up a fund in order to educate the people of Colberia. Teaching and showing people how to be more efficient will help PharmaCARE profit more. The people will be loyal to the company helping them. PharmaCARE can help the Colberians to be more productivity in everyday life. When a company goes in a foreign country to do business it should make sure of the country’s policy. Companies move their business to foreign countries are still liable if something happen. The company should be willing to help build the area up the workers live in. Building roadways to carry PharmaCARE’s drugs is a significant matter. The WTO is cutting down on companies that are no treating foreigners’ right. This is in health and safety as well as in the United States.

The WTO is an advocate for under privilege countries. It protects the right of the workers in poverty countries. There seem to be a big issue regarding children workers but this does not seem the case. However, WTO will not allow any injustice to come to workers in third world countries. “The WTO’s agreements permit members to take measures to protect not only the environment but also public health, animal health and plant health. However, these measures must be applied in the same way to both national and foreign businesses. In other words, members must not use environmental protection measures as a means of disguising protectionist policies” (WTO, 2013). The author believes now things are getting better because companies know someone is watching them. The next concern to look at concerning this scenario is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) “is a liability scheme rather than a monitoring program” ( Halbert & Ingulli, 2012, p.207).

According to the Environmental Protection Agency “the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 11, 1980” (CERCLA, 2013). The CERCLA’s function were to assist others when a hazardous substances might endanger others or the environment. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act provided accountability of persons accountable for discharges of hazardous waste. It also established a trust fund to make available for cleanup when no guilty party could be acknowledged. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act do not support the PharmaCARE scenario. The PharmaCARE is a pharmaceutical company and CERCLA’s target is chemical and petroleum industries. CERCLA will assist when the responsibility people cannot be located.

In this scenario the responsible party is known and could have done something about the matter before it got out of hand. The cleanup should fall on PharmaCARE and not CERCLA. There were signs and people to tell the story of what happen and how nothing was done to cease the problem. There were no transporters bringing the mold into the company. The mold grew and causing the air quality to be tamper with. PharmaCare is fully blame for this and should pay for the cleanup and compensate the workers on their health issues. PharmaCARE was bogus and should be made to buy back CompCARE from WellCo. WellCo is an innocent party while things were being withheld from the company.

References
Boone, G., & Kurtz, D. (2012). Contemporary Business (14th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Calcott, J. (2011). Don’t stumble over safety. Works Management, 64(8), 12 CERCLA. (2013). Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/cercla.html EEOC. Retrieved July 26, 2013from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/internal/eeo_policy_statement.cfm Global Issues. (2013). Retrieved August 16, 2013, from http://www.globalissues.org Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2012). Law & ethic in business environment (7th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning Shareholder. (2013). Retrieved August 16, 2013, from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J., W. (2011). Organization Behavior. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

WTO. (2013). Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.wto.org

Business Ethics (Nestle Company)

Introduction
Nestle is the world’s dominating health and nutrition company which is still now committing their promises to the people every day, everywhere by promising ‘Good Food, Good Life’ to their consumers to enhance lives with good foods and beverages. The development of Nestle was formed in the 1905 through the mergers and acquisitions of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, by the brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lactee Henri Nestle, by Henri Nestle. The company was then named after Henri Nestle in the year of 1866.

The constant growing and developing of Nestle have successfully made them a famous brand and most people do recognize the existence of them in today’s world. Nestle’s portfolio has literally cover most of the foods and beverages category for instance, baby foods, bottled water, cereals, chocolate and confectionery, coffee, culinary, chilled and frozen foods, dairy, drinks, food service, healthcare nutrition, ice cream, petcare, sport nutrition and weight management. Identification

Stakeholders
Nestle’s engagement of stakeholders is based on their Creating Shared Value (CSV), which is allowing them to identify and determine emerging issues, to share the responses among the stakeholders and to continue to drive performance improvements. Nestle’s stakeholders can be categorized into three major groups. First group is the group of political which consists of Global Business Leaders, Non-profit Organizations (NGOs), Academics, International Organization, and Government Official. This particular group serves the common interests with Nestle which is in sharing the fresh thoughts and ideas on behalf of how the NGOs, governments and businesses can work closely together in order to eliminate the barrier between developments goals and commercial needs. Second group is the group of experts in social and environmental area that is relevant to Nestle’s field.

This group is to communicate Nestle’s approaches towards the people and environment and collect and examine feedbacks based on CSV efforts and plans. Last group is the group of farmers, traders and key processors that contribute help in agriculture resources of Nestle. This interest in this group is to give the supports to farmers and encourage sustainable development in agriculture worldwide. In addition to this, the stakeholders of Nestle are also relatively supportive to the CSV and were also highly corresponding about the issues, interests and specific areas of concern for example, the growing importance of climate change, the uprising challenges of both under-nutrition and obesity, the reduction of biodiversity from deprived land management, the competition between agriculture land and water resources from biofuels, child labour and also insufficient opportunity and attention given to support the vital role of women in agriculture. Ethical Issues

Despite of being a well-known company, however, the Nestle Company has been boycotted and been listed one of the companies that is doing unethical acts which cause harm towards the consumers or their workers. Based on studies and researches, several cases and incidents have been investigated in regards of Nestle doing unethically.

Marketing Strategy
According to press releases and also Baby Milk Action (2012), one of the Nestle’s present marketing strategies are to discourage the ‘breastfeeding’ of mother to child. In additional to this, Nestle is also adding several logos and labels in the support of advertising reflect to consuming their products, in this case which is baby foods, is more ‘healthy’ and ‘effective’ than consuming mother’s breast milk and this leads to a moral issues for the mothers. On top of that, Nestle is also by this advertisement generalizing that babies who are being breastfed, therefore, are more likely to become sick due to the poor condition of the mother. These advertisements can be misled to exaggeration which is by marking facts with unsupported evidences.

Besides that, the unethical act in exaggerating of the advertising continues where the Nestle Company is targeting on health workers with the claims of their newly formulated formula ‘The Gold’ in their foods and beverages which could possibly reduce diarrhea, cure brain and eye development and also strengthen the immune system. Several investigations was required by the World Health Assembly in order to examine the ‘effectiveness’ of ‘The Gold’ formula, however, been rejected by Nestle Company due to the reason of their research and development is strictly private and confidential. Last but not least, the Baby Milk Action is also questioning about the false reporting that Nestle has been reported towards their baby food products.

The United Reformed Church has spotted Nestle have violated several International Codes of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes, unfortunately, it was being false reported in their policy statements and reports saying the acts of Nestle doing has no harm towards their consumers, however, it does actually harms health. The investigation is still on going, but it has been dismissed constantly. ‘Nestle has gone to great lengths to enhance its corporate image but its disdain for the International Code’, says Yeong Joo Kean, legal advisor of International Code Documentation Centre. This supports that Nestle, in the desperation of enhancing brand images, however, violates several to exchange the success of its company by putting harm towards their consumers. Major Factors That Impact the Issue

There are many factors that impact the ethical issue of Nestle, from social, economic and legal side. In another word, the unethical issues and actions of a company is always caused by the impacts from outside. Firstly, social factors affected the ethical issue of Nestle’s exaggeration advertising on its products. There are 3 reasons why Nestle exaggerate their advertisements and they are the market dominate, effectiveness of advertising and lack of consumers knowledge. Advertisements are effective because the range of advertising is very wide in the areas such as television, radio and online. An advertisement is easier to reach people in many different ways and easier to catch up people’s attention by using emotion and over exaggeration (Simmons, 2012).

Besides that, according to Euromonitor International Plc (2010), Nestle is dominating in foods and beverages market. The effective of Nestle’s brand name and the consumer loyalty is high; therefore, consumers are easier to believe the products from Nestle without any rational judgments. At the same time, there are lack of knowledge on the ingredient and the effects of the products from Nestle because those ingredients used are not be able for people to see and only based on the verification. However, those verifications can only be forged by Nestle. Based on the factors above, Nestle exaggerate their advertisement by saying that their baby milk is better than breastfeeding in order to encourage people consume more on their products.

Another major factor is economy and it is explained by the ethical issues of Nestle is due to the demand of their product and also the desires of increase market share and revenues. Nestle aimed to maximize their profits and ignore the social responsibility of provide the truth of their products to their stakeholders (Shaw & Berry, 2010). The needs from economy growth on Nestle drove them into ethical issue which exaggerate their products and attract people to consume and increase the interest of the shareholders.

Legal factor also impacted on the ethical issues of Nestle. As mentioned before, several investigations was required by the World Health Assembly in order to examine the ‘effectiveness’ of ‘The Gold’ formula” but has been rejected by Nestle because they said the formula is private and confidential. Nestle protected their formula by legal system and this resulted in unjudged of the effectiveness of their products. The real effects of “The Gold Formula” are covered by Nestle and encouraged the ethical issue of exaggeration advertising. Relevant Ethical Theories and Concepts

As from the case regarding the boycott towards Nestle that were raised by the baby milk action organization, Nestle were said to be an unethical company as they used deceptive advertising to target the 3rd world countries while they are having language and literally barriers. (Kinnaird, 2011) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has the twin effects of improving both short term and long-term corporate performance, furthermore, helps improve financial performance, enhance brand image and an increases the ability to attract and retain the best workforce.

For a business to be successful in the long term it has to create value, not only for its shareholders but also for society. As mentioned by Nestle, the organizations’ approach is based on a long-term view, creating significant value to the society and also to maximizes the shareholder’s value as well as profit (Nestlé’s Corporate Business Principles, 2012) but as a matter of fact, in 1974, Nestle started to sell infant formula at developing countries and has a result of malnutrition and caused death of babies. Nestle did not fulfilled the responsibility to have an obligation to benefit the society at large. (Kinnaird, 2011) Kenneth Arrow mentioned that “there are two types of situation in which the simple rule of maximizing profit is socially inefficient: the case in which the costs are not paid for, as in pollution, and the case in which the seller has considerably more knowledge about his product than the buyer.” From the view of business, Nestle were said supported by this statement as they are providing a wider range of choices to their customers.

However, in the case where Nestle used deceptive advertising towards the market had led their consumer to a harmful situation. Hence they were then boycotted by the baby milk action organization. An organization with ethical responsibility is more likely to build a good reputation, which is more likely to bring financial rewards over the long term, and since Nestle’s view is aiming for long term, they should stop the trend of decreasing breastfeeding and advertising exaggerated formula to their customer. In the 3rd world countries, most of the citizens are not educated and aware of the knowledge of bottle-feeding as compared to breast-feeding.

Thus advertisement promoted by Nestle might seem very deceiving to them and tend to believe that the formula product is beneficial to their children. From the theory of Post MacPherson (Shaw, 2011) that clarify the liability of manufacturers as well as the retailers, “due-care” concept which is “idea that consumers and sellers equal and that the consumer’s interests are particularly vulnerable to being harmed by the manufacturer, who has knowledge and expertise the consumer does not have.” At the same time, manufacturers bear the heaviest responsibility to prevent the customer from being injured by defective products. Analysis of the available Options

In the world of business, it is always the decision between narrow and broad view. Milton Friedman argued that business has no social responsibilities other than to maximize profit. (Shaw, 2011) Nestle by then were boycott by the baby milk organization is due to their turning point in their business as they aimed to create significant value to the society but apparently they are only focusing on maximizing the organization and the shareholder’s profit and marched towards the narrow view aspect and abandoned the obligation of bringing positive value to the society. As a matter of fact, Nestle had come out with a framework that look into the CSR in terms of creating shared value with developments by Mark Kramer together with Professor Michael Porter of Harvard Business School. In short, creating social and environmental benefit is the key of making an organization’s competitive over other organization in the long-term, says Kramer (2006) Recommendation and Conclusions

As mentioned above, Nestle has arisen social problems whereas the babies who fed on the baby milk powder are tend to become sick, in serious case of poverty, babies are dying compared to those breastfed babies. In order to defuse these social problems, Nestle should give more attention to these problems. With the issues mentioned as the deceptive advertising, society’s benefits are being reduced. They are not understanding about how the product is really providing the benefits that offered to the product users. In some case, they are lack of knowledgeable about what the advertisement is proposing due to different conditions which experienced by some countries such as the language and culture barriers. Therefore, Nestle should work against the deceptive advertising and provide more accurate information for the customers.

They need to share a common goal and to get through the various aspects of the product development, manufacturing influences, customer’s benefits and the knowledge in order to link between the Nestle’s approach of Creating Shared Values. Apart from that, Nestle need has a need to build up back its company’s confidence and the trust among the company’s products with the customers. Due to the deceive advertising and defective products that brings harm to the infant, customer are becoming less trust on the company’s products and even the brands. In order to rebuild the customer’s perceptions towards the company, Nestle can come out with some new marketing strategies to promote their products. As an example, they can improve their product strategy where the ambiguous details shown on the packaging.

They can improve the labels and packaging to provide more information about the baby milk powder, even in more different language based on the market country accordingly. Besides that, they can practices on their promotion strategy to promote the products itself as telling more information to the customers, publics and enable the company to answer the customers’ questions about the ambiguous details that they receive.

Therefore, customer can know more about the product, in turn, confidence and trust towards the company is being enhanced.

To cut a long story short, boycotts are often lead a company to face problems in earning their profits and position themselves in the market as well as maintain a good relationship with the customers who are purchasing the certain products. At the same time, they do face ethical dilemma which are bringing negative impacts to the society and in turn, it brings harm to the company. In the eyes of others, they are making priority in profit maximization; however, they have ignored the corporate social responsibility which is playing an important role in the business. In order to retain the company’s reputation, several strategies as to reduce the ethical dilemma situations, needed to be done for longer-term effects, no matter to the company or the society. Companies must not only focus on the boycott, but also work into the path of changing the rules in the product development.

Bibliography
Action, B. M. (2012, April 24). Protecting Breastfeeding. Retrieved October 16, 2012, from Why target Nestlé with the boycott?: http://info.babymilkaction.org/nestlebriefing Kean, Y. J. (2005). NESTLÉ AND THE INTERNATIONAL CODE:. An analysis by the International Code Documentation Centre. Klein. J. G., Smith. N. C. & John. A. (2002). Why We Boycott: Consumer Motivations for Boycott Participation and Marketer Responses. Centre for Marketing Working Paper. No (2). 701 Nestlé. (2012). Nestlé Good Foods, Good Life . Retrieved October 16, 2012, from http://www.nestle.com/Pages/Nestle.aspx Kinnaird, E. (2011 йил 22-March ). Nestle Infant Formula Case. From Prezi: Make Your Presentation Zoom: http://prezi.com/r2gtyqwc1gmn/copy-of-nestle-infant-formula-case/ Nestlé’s Corporate Business Principles. (2012). Retrieved from Nestlé: http://www.nestle.com/AboutUs/BusinessPrinciples/Pages/BusinessPrinciplesHome.aspx Shaw, W. H. (2011). Business Ethics. Boston, United States of America: Wadsworth, Cencage Learning. Simmons, L. (2012). Why Advertising Is So Effective. Retrieved October 16, 2012, from Netplaces.com: http://www.netplaces.com/addiction-recovery/cultural-lures-and-addiction/why-advertising-is-so-effective.htm YUNIKA Corp. (2010). Reasons Why Advertising

Business Ethics in Bangladesh

Social responsibility requires individuals engaging in business endeavors to behave in an ethical manner. Ethics are principles of behavior that distinguish between right and wrong. Ethical conduct conforms to what a group or society as a whole considers right behavior. People working in business frequently face ethical questions. Business ethics is the evaluation of business activities and behavior as right or wrong. Ethical standards in business are based on commonly accepted principles of behavior established by the expectations of society, the firm, the industry, and an individual’s personal values. Critically, “Business Ethics” can be defined as the critical, structured examination of how people & institutions should behave in the world of commerce. In particular, it involves examining appropriate constraints on the pursuit of self-interest, or (for firms) profits, when the actions of individuals or firms affects others. (9) With unethical business practices often receiving publicity, the public sometimes believe that people in business are less ethical than others in society.

But ethical problems challenge all segments of our society, including government, churches, and higher education. Most business leaders realize their firms cannot succeed without the trust of customers and the goodwill of society. A violation of ethics makes trust and goodwill difficult to maintain. In thousands of companies, executives and employees act according to the highest ethical standards. Unfortunately managers in some firms behave unethically, and these instances are often highly publicized. Personnel executive say the major reason managers behave unethically is to obtain power and money. Business ethics is a wider term that includes many other sub ethics that are relevant to the respective field. For example there is marketing ethics for marketing, ethics in HR for Human Resource Department and the like. Business ethics itself is a part of applied ethics; the latter takes care of ethical questions in the technical, social, legal and business ethics.

Origin of Business Ethics

When we trace the origin of business ethics we start with a period where profit maximization was seen as the only purpose of existence for a business. There was no consideration whatsoever for non-economic values, be it the people who worked with organizations or the society that allowed the business to flourish. It was only in late 1980’s and 1990’s that both intelligentsia and the academics as well as the corporate began to show interest in the same. Nowadays almost all organizations lay due emphasis on their responsibilities towards the society and the nature and they call it by different names like corporate social responsibility, corporate governance or social responsibility charter.

Primary and Important Sources of Business ethics

Ethics in general refers to a system of good and bad, moral and immoral, fair and unfair. It is a code of conduct that is supposed to align behaviors within an organization and the social framework. But the question that remains is, where and when did business ethics come into being? Primarily ethics in business is affected by the following sources – family, religion, culture, legal system, codes of conduct, and personal experience. It is for this reason we do not have uniform or completely similar standards across the globe. These factors exert influences to varying degrees on humans which ultimately get reflected in the ethics of the organization. For example, ethics followed by Grameen Phone Ltd. are different from those followed by Square Group or Unilever for that matter. Again ethical procedures vary across geographic boundaries.

Family

A person’s values is the source of their ethics, and it is their philosophy, spiritual or religious beliefs that usually help mold and shape those values, but most of all it is how a person is raised by his family that sets the foundation for his ethics in later life. It’s the basic source of business ethics.

Religion

It is one of the oldest foundations of ethical standards. Religion wields varying influences across various sects of people. It is believed that ethics is a manifestation of the divine and so it draws a line between the good and the bad in the society. Depending upon the degree of religious influence we have different sects of people; we have sects, those who are
referred to as orthodox or fundamentalists and those who are called as moderates. Needless to mention, religion exerts itself to a greater degree among the orthodox and to lesser extent in case of moderates. Fundamentally however all the religions operate on the principle of reciprocity towards ones fellow beings!

Culture

Culture is a pattern of behaviors and values that are transferred from one generation to another, those that are considered as ideal or within the acceptable limits. No wonder therefore that it is the culture that predominantly determines what is wrong and what is right. It is the culture that defines certain behavior as acceptable and others as unacceptable. Human civilization is fact has passed through various cultures, wherein the moral code was redrafted depending upon the epoch that was. What was immortal or unacceptable in certain culture became acceptable later on and vice versa. During the early years of human development where ones who were the strongest were the ones who survived! Violence, hostility and ferocity were thus the acceptable. Approximately 10,000 year ago when human civilization entered the settlement phase, hard work, patience and peace were seen as virtues and the earlier ones were considered otherwise. These values are still in practice by the managers of today. Still further, when human civilization witnessed the industrial revolution, the ethics of agrarian economy was replaced by the law pertaining to technology, property rights etc. Ever since a tussle has ensued between the values of the agrarian and the industrial economy!

Laws or Legal System of a Country

Laws are procedures and code of conduct that are laid down by the legal system of the state. They are meant to guide human behavior within the social fabric. The major problem with the law is that all the ethical expectations cannot be covered by the law and specially with ever changing outer environment the law and specially with ever changing outer environment the law keeps on changing but often fails to keep pace. In business, complying with the rule of law is taken as ethical behavior, but organizations often break laws by evading taxes, compromising on quality, service norms etc.

Business Codes of Conduct

A business code of ethics is a series of established principles an organization uses when operating in business or society. Organizations often develop these codes to ensure that all individuals working in the company operate according to the same standards. Most individuals have an internal code of ethics or moral principles they follow in life. A situation one individual finds ethically reprehensible may not seem so to another individual. Using a code of ethics in business attempts to create a basic understanding of acceptable ethical behavior to be used when handling situations involving the company, government agencies and the general public.

Past Experience

If an individual is rewarded or is not punished for behaving unethically, the behavior will probably be repeated. This type of experience encourages other to do unethical things in future. Likewise the threat of punishment and the lack of reward for unethical activities encourage that particular person and all others to behave ethically.

Factors Influencing Ethical Behavior

To encourage ethical behavior, executives, managers, and owners of firms must understand what influences behavior in the first place. The several factors that affect individuals’ behavior in business: the business environment, organizational factors, and an individual’s personal moral philosophy.

The Business Environment

Almost daily, business managers face ethical dilemmas resulting from the pressure of the business environment. They are challenged to meet sales quotas, cut costs, increase efficiency, or overtake competitors. Managers and employees may sometimes think the only way to survive in the competitive world of business is by deception or cheating. In some instances, an organization may use someone else’s successful work without the permission of the owner or originator. Conflict of interest is another common ethical problem stemming from the business environment. Often an individual has a chance to further selfish interests rather than the interests of the organization or society. To gain favor with people who make purchasing decisions for their companies, a seller may offer special favors or gifts, ranging from a metal to clothing to trips.

Some offer cash-a kickback-for putting through a contract or placing orders with a company. Others offer bribes. Such illegal conduct will damage the organization in the long run. In order to limit unethical behavior, business firms must begin by expecting their employees to obey all laws and regulations. The international business environment presents further ethical dilemmas. Business people and government officials in different countries and cultures often operate according to different ethical standards.

The Organization

The organization itself also influences ethical behavior. Individuals often learn ethical or unethical behaviors by interacting with others in the organization. An employee who sees a superior or co-worker behaving unethically may follow suit. An organization can also use rewards to influence the behavior of its members. If an individual is rewarded or is not punished for behaving unethically, the behavior will probably be repeated. Likewise the threat of punishment and the lack of reward for unethical activities encourage ethical behavior. The severity of punishment also sends a message to other individuals who might be considering similar activities.

The Individual Values

A person’s own moral philosophy also influences his or her ethical behavior. A moral philosophy is the set of principles that dictate acceptable behavior. These principles are learned from family, friends, co-workers, and other social groups and through formal education. In developing a moral philosophy, individuals can follow two approaches: The Humanistic Philosophy focuses on individual rights and values. Individuals and organizations adopting this philosophy would honor their moral duties to customers and workers. Individuals and organizations following the Utilitarian Philosophy seek the greatest good for the largest number of people.

Importance of Business Ethics

Most of us would agree that it is ethics in practice that makes sense; just having it carefully drafted and redrafted in books may not serve the purpose. Of course all of us want to be fair, clean and beneficial to the society. For that to happen, organizations need to abide by ethics or rule of law, engage themselves in fair practices and competition; all of which will benefit the consumer, the society and organization. Primarily it is the individual, the consumer, the employee or the human social unit of the society who benefits from ethics. In addition ethics is important because of the following:

1. Satisfying Basic Human Needs: Being fair, honest and ethical is one of the basic human needs. Every employee desires to be such himself and to work for an organization that is fair and ethical in its practices.

2. Creating Credibility: An organization that is believed to be driven by moral values is respected in the society even by those who may have no information about the working and businesses of that organization. British American Tobacco, for example is perceived as an organization for good corporate governance and social responsibility initiatives. This perception is held far and wide even by those who do not even know what business the organization is into.

3. Uniting People and Leadership: An organization driven by values is revered by its employees also. They are the common thread that brings the employees and the decision makers on a common platform. This goes a long way in aligning behaviors within the organization towards achievement of one common goal or mission.

4. Improving Decision Making: A man’s destiny is the sum totals of all the decisions that he/she takes in course of his life. The same holds true for organizations. Decisions are driven by values. For example, an organization that does not value competition will be fierce in its operations aiming to wipe out its competitors and establish a monopoly in the market.

5. Long Term gains: Organizations guided by ethics and values are profitable in the long run, though in the short run they may seem to lose money. For Example, Tata group, one of the largest business conglomerates in India was seen on the verge of decline at the beginning of 1990’s, which soon turned out to be otherwise. The same company’s Tata NANO car was predicted as a failure, and failed to do well but the same is picking up fast now.

6. Securing the Society: Often ethics succeeds law in safeguarding the society. The law machinery is often found acting as a mute spectator, unable to save the society and the environment. Technology, for example is growing at such a fast pace that the by the time law comes up with a regulation we have a newer technology with new threats replacing the older one. Lawyers and public interest litigations may not help a great deal but ethics can.

Business Ethics- Practice in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, though practice of Business ethics is still not so commendable in public sector and small companies, but business ethics has been an increasing concern among larger companies, at least since the 1990s. Major corporations increasingly fear the damage to their image associated with press revelations of unethical practices. The following information about the functions relating ethics and social responsibility of 2 reputed companies of our country will give a brief idea about the practice of Business Ethics in Bangladesh.

ACI Limited

Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI) Limited is one of the leading conglomerates in Bangladesh, with a multinational heritage. They have a mission to achieve business excellence through quality by understanding, accepting, meeting and exceeding customer expectations. They follow International Standards on Quality Management System to ensure consistent quality of products and services to achieve customer satisfaction. They are focusing on improving the food habit of consumers through providing more ready to cook products and ready to eat as well. Their visions are to establish harmonious relationship with the community and promote greater environmental responsibility within its sphere of influence. Their Values are Quality, Customer Focus, Fairness, Transparency, Continuous Improvement, and Innovation.

Ethical Approaches:

Societal Development through Educational Programs: ACI’s guiding principle in all its operations is to be a responsible corporate citizen. Thus Social Responsibility is a top priority for every individual at ACI. Their Initiatives and significant contribution to societal development is Continued Medical Education (CME) for medical professionals and Children’s Education Programs. ACI has also undertaken an English Education program in Faridpur, one of the remotest districts of Bangladesh. This provides support to teach English Language to school going children. Doctors in Bangladesh who are not living in the metropolitan cities have very limited access to the Internet or any other sources of information. In order to keep them updated on the developments in the medical practices regularly, the CME program has been proven highly effective. ACI believes that by promoting education of children, they are contributing to societal development by shaping the minds of their future leaders.

Environment Friendly Practices: ACI has undertaken extensive programs to educate crop farmers all over rural Bangladesh in Good Agricultural Practices. They have a team of agricultural experts working at the field level all across the country, holding a range of technical trainings and field demonstrations. ACI also has similar education programs for animal and poultry farmers. These include, Technical trainings on diverse aspects of farming, and on application of new technologies, Farmers‘ group meeting for sharing of learning and experience, Free visits to farms by veterinarians, to identify problems and give advices to individual farmers. Most importantly, making the farmers aware of ways to protect the environment from hazardous uses of chemicals on their farms, allowing them the opportunity for informed decision-making. ACI hopes to continue to play a leading role in promoting greater environmental responsibility among farmers in Bangladesh.

Unethical Approaches:

ACI Company produces some products which do not work properly, like ACI Aerosol. It is mainly produced for killing mosquitoes, but that’s not true. Most of the mosquitoes go away for sometimes but not killed. Sometimes some products like ACI Atta, ACI Maida, etc contains 1975 grams instead of 2000 grams but they fix their prices for 2kg of the products. These are unethical for their marketing practices.

Unilever Bangladesh Limited

Over the last four decades, Unilever Bangladesh has been constantly bringing new and world class products for the Bangladeshi people to remove the daily drudgery of life. Over 90% of the country’s households use one or more of Unilever products. They aim to give everybody a little something to celebrate about themselves every day. They believe that to succeed in business, it is essential to maintain the highest standards of corporate behavior towards everyone they work with, the communities they touch, and the environment on which they have an impact.

Ethical Approaches:

Effective Code of business principles: Their code of business principles describes the operational standards that everyone at Unilever follows, wherever they are in the world. It also supports their approach to governance and corporate responsibility. Code of business principles are- Standard of conduct, Obey the law, employees, consumers, shareholders, business partners, community involvement, public activities, the environment, innovation, competition, business integrity, conflict of interest, compliance, reporting, monitor. Women Development and Women Empowerment: Unilever strongly believes in the importance of empowering women in Bangladesh, because the progress of any society will be constrained if a significant part of its population is neglected and excluded from the benefits of development.

They believe, with economic and educational empowerment, women can become more vocal about their rights and become stronger in withstanding repression in any form. So they have established “Fair & Lovely Foundation”. The mission of this foundation is to encourage economic empowerment of Bangladeshi women through information and resources in the areas of Education, Career and Enterprise. It is this realization that has brought about the Fair & Lovely Foundation Scholarship Program. Under this scholarship scheme, women who have passed their HSC each receives a Taka 25,000 scholarship to support her tertiary level education.

Unethical Approaches:

Unilever produces Fair & lovely fairness cream, lotion, etc and they claim that skin color will be white after using this product. But that it is not true. There are no scientific values about whiteness. This is totally unethical performance in marketing activities of this company.

Comparative Customer Evaluation on Ethical Performances of 3 Reputed Companies of Bangladesh

Figure – Customer Response on Maintenance of Ethical Procedure by the Companies (1)

Figure – Customer Response on Deceptive Practices Used by the Companies (1)

Figure – Customer Response on Significant Contribution toward Ethical Marketing (1)

Figure – Customer Response on Satisfaction through Using Products of the Companies (1)

Figure – Customer Response on Changing of Defective Products by the Companies (1)

Bribery & Nepotism- A Curse against Ethical Practice

Corruption is a very strong example of unethical behavior and it is still prevailing in different business sectors of our country in the form of Bribery and Nepotism. Nepotism is the way in which someone approaches and compels a person of power and authority to take necessary steps to get his work done by capitalizing kinship, friendship or political lobbying. Bribery means offering gifts, money etc. to get a work done in unethical way. Often public officers are infamously alleged for taking bribes to award public contracts using their power. Bribery and Nepotism also exist in the corporate world, which is very harmful for ethical practices and creates hindrances in building proper and ethical business environment.

Managing or Encouraging Ethical Behavior

Managing the financial operations of a company can be a complex effort. Companies need to balance their desire to grow with the realities of maintaining their financial relationships, satisfying their investors and making a profit. Government Regulations: The government can do so by legislating more stringent regulations. But, rules require enforcement and when in many cases there is evidence of lack of enforcement even the ethical business person will tend to “slip something by” without getting caught. Increased regulation may help, but it surely cannot solve the entire business ethics problems. Trade Associations Setting Guidelines: Trade associations can and often do provide ethical guidelines for their members. These organizations within particular industries are in an excellent position to exert pressures on members that stoop to questionable business practices.

Companies Providing Code of Ethics: Employees can more easily determine and adopt acceptable behavior when companies provide them with a “code of ethics.” Such codes are perhaps the most effective way to encourage ethical behavior. A code of ethics is a written guide to acceptable and ethical behavior that outlines uniform policies, standards and punishments for violations. Because employees know what is expected of them and what will happen if they violate the rules, a code of ethics goes a long way towards encouraging ethical behavior. However, codes cannot possibly cover every situation. Companies must also create an environment in which employees recognize the importance of complying with the written code. Managers must provide direction by fostering communication, actively modeling and encouraging ethical decision making, apart from investing in training employees to make ethical decisions.

Whistle Blowing Technique: Sometimes, even employees who want to act ethically may find it difficult to do so. Unethical practices can become ingrained in an organization. Employees with high personal ethics may then take a controversial step called “whistle blowing.” Whistle blowing is informing the press or government officials about unethical practices in an organization. Whistle blowing could have averted disaster and prevented needless deaths in the Challenger space shuttle disaster, for example. How could employees have known about life-threatening problems and let them pass? Whistle blowing on the other hand, can have serious repercussions for employees; those who make waves sometimes lose their jobs.

Conclusion

The main objective of business is to serve people with their every need for the well-being of human being and to ensure that, there is no alternative of following business ethics. Since the practice of business ethics in our country is still not ubiquitous, we are not getting the proper environment for the business, and thus often we are facing some crisis situation and it is hampering our total economic development. Our policy makers and the top executives of the organizations should give more concern in making ethical policies and take proper steps to encourage business executives and service holders to follow them.

References

1) “Ethics In Marketing On Bangladesh Perspective: Study on Few Companies of Bangladesh”- collected from “World Journal of Management Volume 2. Number 2. September 2010”, the direct link- http://wbiaus.org/10.%20Tajmeela-FINAL.pdf

2) “Business for the 21st Century”- Skinner & Ivancevich

3) “An Integrated Approach to Business Studies” (4th edition)- Bruce R Jewell

4) “Business Studies” (4th edition)- Dave Hall-Rob Jones-Carlo Raffo- Alain Anderton

5) www.managementstudyguide.com

6) www.smallbusiness.chron.com

7) www.cwafford.conveycontent.com

8) www.sagepub.com/upm-data/10923_Chapter1.pdf

9) www.businessethics.ca/definitions/business-ethics.html