My Autobiography – Example


I am Gene Geralde Gonzales, I was born on May 2, 1971 at Baguio City, Philippines. We are seven siblings within the family. I am the seventh baby. My mother’s name is Fe Geralde Gonzales, she is from Cebu City and my father’s name is Mario Dy Gonzales, he’s from Legaspi, Albay. I took my elementary education in addition to my secondary training at Saint Louis School of Campo Filipino positioned at Naguilian Road Baguio City. I had a contented childhood residing with my mother and father and my siblings.

During weekends, we often spend our day within the park. We helped each other in our day by day activities. My household was a happy and a loving family.

During my high school days, I normally spend my free time in the library together with my associates. Our faculty was solely for ladies and because of that I find it onerous to speak with the alternative sex. We often spend our summer season trip within the hometown of my mother, which is located at Minglanilla Cebu City.

My hobbies are studying books, biking, watching films and also cross stitching. I also spend my free time hanging out with my friends. My dream was to turn into a nurse. I was in a position to cross the entrance examination at Saint Louis University and I had my first 12 months as a nursing student. I wasn’t capable of pass one of the major topics so I had to switch to a different college. I needed to take a summer class for my back subject at Pines City Educational Center and from that time I continued my research and graduated within the yr 1992 with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing.

After commencement, I had my self evaluation and took the exam for Civil Service Professional Level, wherein I was able to move the exam. By the year 1993, together with my college friends we went to Manila to have our evaluate and took our board exam for nursing. While waiting for the results of the board examination, I labored as a volunteer nurse at Antamok Mines.

My interpersonal abilities and nursing expertise have been developed during my keep at Antamok Mines Hospital. After I passed the Board Exam for Nurses, by the year 1994, I worked as a non-public duty nurse employed by Miss Cheen Tan, whereby I took care of her father, who was eighty two years of age and with Parkinson’s disease. I assisted him with his day by day actions, bathed and fed him, and likewise made positive he took all his drugs in time. My wage as a personal responsibility nurse was not enough to support my household financially so I determined to use as a caretaker in Taiwan. By March 1996, I went to work in Taiwan. It was my first time to live away from my family. I had a tough time in adjusting to a new environment, with totally different culture and dialect as well. After six months, I was in a position to  communicate with the members of the family of my employer in Mandarin, their native language and in addition do well with my every day activities, particularly cooking their Chinese dishes. I worked as a home helper and as a caretaker. My employer had seven relations. I took care of my employer’s mom who was a stroke affected person, 87 years of age and a hemiplegic.

I assisted her to take a seat within the wheelchair and likewise gave her every day bath. I worked there for three years. My employer needed me to increase my contract, but unfortunately that point only three years was the maximum allowed unless I changed my passport and used one other name. I enjoyed working in Taiwan as a outcome of my employer treated me not as a domestic helper however as considered one of their members of the family. I went again residence to Philippines. By January 2001, I utilized in Dubai as a personal obligation nurse, and received employed by Sheikh Marwan Maktoum Bin Al Maktoum. I worked for the royal family where in I took care of their first youngster. We were three individuals taking care of her, two registered nurses and one registered midwife. I worked there until December 2004. By February 2005, I was employed to work as a coach at Philippine Caretaker Training Center. It is a coaching middle for females who need to work in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore as a domestic helper.

I labored there till June 2006. By July 2006, I took a month course of reflexology at AKSEM Homes Foundation and by August 2006 I labored there as a reflexology therapist till December 2006. On January 1, 2007 I was employed as a trainer at Cebu Asia Training Specialist Inc. located at Dian, Makati City. It was a training center for females who wish to work as a home helper for Hong Kong. By September 16, 2007 until October 25, 2011, I worked as a workers nurse in Dar Elhekma Clinic situated in Salihia Street, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. After working in Saudi Arabia for four years I decided to go residence since both of my mother and father handed away the identical 12 months. I spend my entire life working for my household particularly for my mother and father, as a end result of they were sick and so they needed to take medication to take care of their well being. After I came home from Saudi Arabia, my household home was renovated with my savings.

I have to work to help myself and my two sisters; by August thirteen, 2012, I was re-hired as a coach in Philippine Caretaker Training and Assessment Center Inc. I worked there until June 29, 2013. I resigned because of the poor administration; the manager tended to bring down the workers as an alternative of encouraging them to develop professionally. My plan is to save heaps of for my future since I even have no family and I am single.

Article abstract example

Will Rasmussen in the article “Egypt fights to stem rapid population growth,” writes about Egypt’s dilemma of attempting to cease a vastly growing inhabitants. Egypt’s inhabitants doubled since President Hosni Mubarak took workplace in 1981 and it’s prone to double to 160 million by 2050. The nation’s progress has been quite excessive, in latest years the fertility price is about three.1 youngsters per woman in contrast to the United States’ 2.1. Most of the country’s eighty two million people compressed in city areas close to the Nile River the place some districts host 41k folks per sq. kilometer compared to the city of Manhattan that holds 27k folks per sq. kilometer.

The state’s officials are having a tough time trying to find answer to the so known as “pressing problem” as journalist and former member of parliament states “The inhabitants explosion is a disaster the government doesn’t know the way to deal with.” President Mubarak spoke as soon as in a government sponsored conference in regards to the population enhance saying, “cutting the inhabitants growth was pressing.

” However, Mubarak doesn’t point out an actual number of kids however the federal government prefers a family of two.

The country’s urgent problem presents many issues, one of which is the financial system. The nation’s monetary system is frail as estimated recently to be 7 % and unfortunately has not been steady enough to construct a middle class. Such economic system can’t support a large inhabitants whose one fifth resides on less than a 1$ a day. Additionally, Egypt does not processes many resources because it depends heavily on the water from the Nile and imported goods.

Many are concerned about the general welfare of the folks as Magued Osman, chairman of the cabinet’s Information and Decision Support Center states “The consequences are areal deterioration within the high quality of life and in agriculture land per individual.”

Furthermore, the government has tried to make use of incentives to change the nation’s “behavior”. A few measures taken to restrict giant households maternity benefits that sparked protests. Egypt is not going to legalize abortion which helped Tunisia bring down fertility fee and vasectomy is barely heard of within the state .

Egypt being a predominantly Muslim nation, and customarily the religion permits contraception. However many Egyptian individuals oppose the idea of limiting the number of youngsters to a household. A few believe having a big household is a source of economic strength. Others deem it not for the states or government to determine on such a matter as they are saying it is as much as the creator.

Work Cited

Rasmussen, Will. “Egypt Fights to Stem Rapid Population Growth.” The New York Times.The New York Times., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. .

Arts and its analysis with example

In spite of the reality that most masterpieces make them fundamental, more profound importance appended to them, our early introduction of their hugeness will get via our underlying visible understanding. When we first view a depiction or a statue or different little bit of artwork, we see first the visible points of interest – its dimension, its medium, its shading, and its condition, for instance – earlier than we begin to think about its extra noteworthy hugeness. This art evaluation essay aims to clarify that these visible pieces of information are equally as very important as another translation or significance of a work, for they enable us to see exactly what that extra profound importance is.

The demeanor on a statue’s face reveals to us the feeling and message that the artist is attempting to cross on. Its shading, as properly, can provide indicators: darker or lighter hues can assume a component by they way we choose a bit of art. The sort of traces utilized as part of a bit can ship various messages.

A figure, as an example, might have been minimize with onerous, unpleasant strains or it might need been minimize with smoother, all the more streaming strains that depict a sort of delicacy.

The Marble Grave Stele is a stage piece that was inserted in a a lot bigger little bit of marble. The engravings of the names of who handed on have for fairly a while been lost. In this way, we ought to always translate for ourselves what the complete significance of the piece is.

The artist of the piece is obscure, yet it was inbuilt Greece in round 360 B.C. amid the Classical Era and stands at 171.1 centimeters in stature. Its unique space, as its name proposes, was at a gravesite; presently, it is located in New York City at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Stele was minimize from marble. By and enormous, it is in great situation; in any case, the body of the woman on the left is absent with simply her head surviving. Its stone casing during which it was set is moreover absent.

By nature, individuals look to grasp and to be comprehended. We are interested about existence. We want to precise our personal elucidation of our general surroundings, and we have to know the understanding of others to find the way it thinks about to our personal. Art begins with the maker. An artist is headed to express his or her fascinating viewpoint be it a melodic score, a sketch, a scholarly work, or any variety of completely different structures. There is fulfillment in the unimportant demonstration of making, however the work is satisfied when it evokes real emotion in the being of one other. Art is a methods for relating one explicit understanding to others by technique for feeling, acumen, and the faculties. Art is correspondence, and its enormity can be controlled by the effect it has on each the artists and people encountering the work.

We initially learn of the world utilizing our faculties, so it is regular for us to precise our deepest ideas as tangible pictures. Thomas Cole clarifies the tactile expertise he passes on in his depiction Kaaterskill Falls saying,

“The cascade may be often identified as the voice of the scene, for, by no means like the stones and woods which express sounds as inactive devices performed on by the element, the cascade strikes its own harmonies, and rocks and mountains reecho in wealthy harmony.” (Gaudio)

The sketch gives us an unmistakable visual image of his subjective elucidation. Not solely does is have stylish interest, the work of art clues of the sound-related understanding.

Sound has a significant enthusiastic effect on us. Music can summon recollections of our personal encounters. It can likewise pass on understanding into the lifetime of an arranger. Beethoven carried on with a turbulent life.

While Still existence with Apples and a Pot of Primroses by Paul Cézanne and Still Life with a Skull and a Writing Quill by Pieter Claesz differ in era, and on this way fashion and organization, the message they depict is comparative. Cezanne and Claesz vary terribly in technique, all of the more particularly in context, brush stroke, piece and authenticity. Their partition in time accounts for the inconsistencies in technique nevertheless shockingly does not influence the subject and message.

The method that Still existence with Apples and a Pot of Primroses is a post-impressionistic piece impacts its visible sythesis. Post Impressionism impacts brush stroke and authenticity. This piece in particular highlights snappy gestural brush strokes and is significantly extra approximately painted than Still Life with a Skull and a Writing Quill. This piece additionally has an ill-advised viewpoint, which is most observable when taking a gander on the edge of the tabletop, and how all elements of the plant looks forward and is by all accounts swaying out on the watcher. The watcher likewise has next to zero information of the area that is displayed in the piece. For as much unfavorable house this piece highlights, one would figure the room would assume a bigger half compositionally. The procedures in post-impressionistic artwork have been significantly extra liquid and took into account developments, for example, selection in context, and more described brush strokes. These variables mortgage to a feeling of artificiality on this piece. The plant on the left is by all accounts too hardened to be in any way real.

The following is a case of artwork evaluation:

Peter Paul Rubens’ perfect murals, Venus and Adonis, isn’t only a noteworthy art work of the flowery period in Europe amid the seventeenth century, nevertheless it likewise recounts the fanciful story that starts with affection, and finishes in disaster. Shown in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, this work of art is respected for speaking to the considered one of a form elaborate type of this era, and additionally Rubens’ specific utilization of the medium and the means it achieves the individuals who is seeing it. His tender loving care and sly utilization of images contained in the depiction assist watchers in unraveling the story, alongside the estimations of the interval during which Rubens was dwelling. In focus the piece of the work and taking notice of the verifiable setting from which it came, one can at last comprehend Rubens’ perspective and consequently, interface with the creative creation in a means she or he has by no means envisioned.

This artistic creation, estimating around six-by-seven toes, is a huge work that draws watchers particularly to it once they go into the room during which its showed. It isn’t secured by any glass and is in a particularly sufficiently bright area, in this manner it permits watchers to face near observe the points of interest of how Peter Paul Rubens took care of his medium. Taking a gander on the composition from a photo is vastly completely different from survey it very shut and head to head, since when taking a gander at a photo, one can’t see the floor of the paint that provides the depiction its extremely fragile, one of a form, and smart quality. The work offers off an impression of being in nice situation on the grounds that the higher part of the hues are still exceptionally wealthy and energetic, as noticeable in Adonis’ pink article of clothing.


  • Art Analysis Essay – Juliet Davis
  • Writing a Formal Analysis in Art History – Hamilton College

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Art History Essay Example: Difference between Chinese and European Art: Landscape Painting

Landscape painting refers to the portrayal of pure surroundings in artwork. Chinese were probably the first people to seize pure sceneries in paint. The genre finally spread throughout the world and the Europeans adopted it in the 16th century, through the Renaissance interval. This essay will look at the differences between the two dominant cultures within the genre of landscape painting.

Aesthetic Formula

The first distinction is the aesthetic foundation of the art. Chinese art was deeply influenced by Taoism, Buddhism and Confucian ideas.

Mentalism, which is a central perception of Taoism, is a outstanding characteristic of Chinese fantastic arts. In this regard, the artists did not strive to breed what they noticed, but somewhat they painted how they felt. It was a manifestation type of art, rather than mere reappearances. In Chinese panorama art, feelings and private feelings are embedded into the image. They didn’t simply reproduce an object primarily based on specifics and exact look of the item.

The artists didn’t paint objects while observing them.

They would take nature walks into the woods or mountains, observe and take in as much as they might. In the studio, they would put down on paper every little thing they remembered, primarily based on how they felt. They would let their soul and emotions take the lead, rather than their eyes. It is as a result of of this reason that there are numerous broad strokes and white spaces on Chinese panorama paintings. These voids and white areas had been an integral part of the drawings. Just like summary art, they impressed creativeness amongst viewers.

They didn’t have definite meaning and as a result, the white spaces challenged the viewers’ minds.

On the contrary, western work had been deeply influenced by Christianity. The belief that God is the creator of everything was at the center of the artists’ minds. They therefore sought to breed whatever God created in a perfect way. To them painting was like a divine calling that brought them nearer to God. European painters would set up shop in entrance of landscapes and reproduce them on canvases.

They strived to breed whatever they noticed with precise precision. They subsequently did not pour out their feelings or soul into their work. The only emotion they aroused was nostalgia among the viewers, as they linked the work with their own private experiences in the natural world. Overtime, painters deviated from the religious norm and set out on private experimental initiatives. This was known as Romanticism in artwork.

Although they had been predominantly panorama painters, they infused ideas of civilization into their works. They introduced people, shelters and animals into the landscapes- a
concept that was very overseas to the Chinese painters. Chinese panorama artists hardly ever used humans or any type of civilization of their artwork. They would give a glimpse of a sage or a hut with refined panorama backgrounds. This would guarantee all consideration is drawn to the gorgeous landscapes, quite than the only sage.

Technique and Composition

Another distinction between the two is the method utilized in compositions. Chinese panorama painters mainly used line and stroke. This technique was conventionally adopted in historic china to depict no matter was taking place within the artists’ minds. Another good method utilized by these artists was a classification process, the place the dominant object was known as the Host, while different objects had been thought to be Guests. The visitors had been of equal significance to the host, although they played a complimentary position.

More occasions than not, the mountains have been at all times the hosts. This is because all mountains were sacred to the Chinese. The mountains embody each aspect of living. They believed cosmic forces and common energies had been made manifest in them. It is due to this purpose that the first temples have been constructed on hillsides for folks to harness the facility of the mountains. Other objects, similar to clouds, timber, a hut, a sage and a cascade would play friends to the mountain varieties.

In western landscape painting, the concept of hosts and guests did not exist. All objects got equal measure of importance. Their main goal was to recreate the scene with utmost exactness, with out lacking a single element. They due to this fact utilized the use of shade, gentle and shadow, and patterns and textures to depict the actual appearance of objects. The paintings had components of nature, skies, horizons all incorporated into one.

Color Usage

Both forms of art utilized colours. It was the vary of shade use that differed. Chinese painters only used black and white colours. The paintings appear to be wealthy in hue because of two reasons: the use of prime quality Xuan paper and the fact that colours were blended with different amounts of water, which cleverly created an phantasm of richly hued portraits. The hosts/mountains have been depicted in black, while rivers and cascades were drawn in white.

Western landscape paintings utilized all forms of colours. They have been rich in hue and all components were depicted as they have been in real life. For example, vegetation were green and roses were both purple, white or yellow. They therefore had extra visual appeal than Chinese paintings. European painters used neutral colours within the background and visually appealing ones within the foreground. Also, unlike Chinese landscapes which have been boring, European paints utilized both light and shade that perfectly blended with the rich brilliant colours.


Chinese panorama work lacked perspective. They had no direct method and have been mostly two dimensional planes with voids and white spaces. Their abstract nature and lack of proper direction gave viewers the chance to ponder about their that means, with out a lot to rely on but their own sense of individual perceptions. Western panorama painters were extra direct in their strategy. They recreated the physical surroundings that was already etched in the viewers’ recollections and gave them a chance to reconnect with their environment again, albeit emotionally.

Although these two cultures shared the identical genre of portray, there were obvious components of their art types that separated them apart. While the Chinese paintings were two dimensional, twin coloured work that lacked perspective, western landscape paintings were real depiction of the natural surroundings that had been rich in color and utilized each gentle and shade. Despite their variations, these landscape portraits are wealthy in artistry and still mesmerize viewers to today.


Formal Analysis Paper Examples – Department of Art and Design
Art History Paper Topics – 10 Ideas With Example Essays
Art Research Paper Topic Suggestions

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A Prime Example of Authoritative Parenting

Parental types have a well-documented affect on children, and play a strong position in a child’s development. Authoritative parenting has been proven to doubtlessly reduce a child’s danger of associating with antisocial friends, and deter engagement in delinquent behavior. Authoritative parenting has additionally been proven to boost adults that have healthy emotional adjustment and prosocial behavior. My mother and father used an authoritative parenting fashion that created a stable, partaking, heat and nurturing childhood for me.

I plan on being an authoritative parent.

It labored properly in my family, and because analysis each modern and historically states that authoritative parenting is the preferable fashion.

My household is an American nuclear family composed of a father, mom and two siblings. My father Jim is a really profitable architect and entrepreneur and my mom Michele is the CFO of their businesses, which allowed her to be a keep at residence mom for me and my older brother Kristopher. My parents are a solid example of the authoritative parenting type; their parenting type created a secure, participating, heat and nurturing childhood for me. I consider the productive and effective enterprise relationship they developed as enterprise partners directly influenced how well they parented, and that their experience in joint decision making particularly benefited their parenting, and in the end me as properly.

Throughout my childhood and adolescence they were a stable authoritative parenting team, which helped them create a home with a lot of structure. Minuchin, as quoted by Omer, Steinmetz, Carthy and Schlippe (2013), says “Structure plays a vital position in selling a secure and safe body for family life (Minuchin, 1974).

” I strongly really feel that the structure positively affected my improvement by minimizing battle and confusion. I imagine my parent’s personalities additionally significantly influenced why and how they are authoritative dad and mom. My mom is intelligent, articulate, willful, persistent, moral, logical, and astonishingly organized.

My mother has a dominate personality, and is a girl whose actions are generally the outcome of purpose not her feelings, which is uncommon for ladies. However, she is an incredibly warm and nurturing mom who has always been emotionally available for me. I feel these constructive traits influenced why I generally listened to her recommendation and direction, as she was a reliable and available mom. I have all the time immensely respected and loved

Example of Argumentative Essay

History shows reiteratively throughout the recorded times that the mark set for students will be predominately that which they aim for and mostly stop therein. If students are not shown any higher level of knowledge the students should at no time be expected to aim for that which they did not perceive. Students will indeed float to the mark you set. History has shown us many valuable illustrations; one of them would be the vast comparison between students during the Ottoman empire and students in the reign of the Spartan empire, the Spartans were taught that knowledge is crucial, if it helps you to fight, whilst the Ottomans were taught that knowledge was imperative if it was beneficial in any way. Because Spartan pupils were finite to knowledge that did not pertain to warfare, they were infinitesimally limited in any other area, and to no degree were able to match the heights of knowledge of the Ottoman student body, the mark for these learners had been set considerably inferior than that for the under-graduates of the Ottoman empire, and so the students attained the mark that was set and were prescribed no reason to surpass it.

Therefore it is clear to recognize that the objective a teacher sets for their pupil is all that their pupil will ever feel the demand to accomplish. Students are comparable to a kayak in the sea trying to reach an island to anchor on, and the teacher is the equivalent of the current, the stronger they push to try to reach and help the students, the closer they get to the island. Because students are reliant on their instructors to provide them with an objective to grasp, the supervisors specified a mark, and the students float to the mark that was decided. Therefore the students need only fulfill that which their instructor has itemized for them, and that would be the mark that was stipulated. Since pupils will only feel the need to do what was required in distinction to them, they will inevitably isolate themselves to the mark that was set before them.

Example of application letter

I’m writing to express my interest in the Web Content Specialist position listed on I have experience building large, consumer-focused health-based content sites. While much of my experience has been in the business world, I understand the social value of the non-profit sector and my business experience will be an asset to your organization. My responsibilities included the development and management of the site’s editorial voice and style, the editorial calendar, and the daily content programming and production of the web site.

I worked closely with health care professionals and medical editors to help them provide the best possible information to a consumer audience of patients. In addition, I helped physicians learn to utilize their medical content to write user-friendly, readily comprehensible text. Experience has taught me how to build strong relationships with all departments at an organization. I have the ability to work within a team as well as cross-team. I can work with web engineers to resolve technical issues and implement technical enhancements, work with the development department to implement design and functional enhancements, and monitor site statistics and conduct search engine optimization. Thank you for your consideration.


First Name Last Name

Sample Resume

I am looking for a position at This Company where I can maximize my programming skills, project management, leadership skills, and create new and exciting tools.

I have had 3 years experience in web design and development. I am fimilar with a lot of the languages and software used in creating projects for the web. Futhermore, I have great project management skills and also work well either alone or with a group. I have also worked on small projects and large public releases for large companies.

Design Media
College Humor, Seattle, WA
Graduated: January 2008
Grade: College

Employment History
December 2007 – Present: Web Designer
Company: ComStream
Seattle, Washington
Worked as team lead on many different client projects.

Professional Skills
Adobe Photoshop – Expert
Adobe Illustrator – Expert
Adobe Dreamweaver – Advanced
Php – Advanced

January 2006: New Media Design
Organization: School of Technology
San Fransico
Czech – Beginner
Vietnamese – Conversational

Immigration / Work Status
December 2041 – Permanent Resident – United States

Example of cover letter for support worker

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am very glad to apply for vacancy with your organisation and I believe I have the skills and personal qualities for the stated job.

My various work experiences involved working in different environment, situation and country. I have carry out my duties efficiently wherever I am attached.

As a teacher in abroad, I get opportunity to learn different language, cultures, and environment and mix up with different ethnic group of people.

Currently, I am working in a residential home as Support worker where my main duties includes assisting with personal and social care, facilitating activities, promoting positive behaviour, assisting with medication and hospital appointments, giving physical and emotional support where necessary and help people to live fulfilling life with high spirits. This has made me realise that I love any work, I would get more satisfaction and enjoyment from working.

In addition to my growing knowledge of job, I can offer many skills gained from study, work and other activities, for example:

Analysing complex numerical and verbal information;
Working enthusiastically and productively under pressure;
Good knowledge of English writing and speaking;
Dealing professionally with a wide range of people;
Working in a variety of teams, Ability to lead and develop team; Overcoming obstacles and negotiating for support I need;
Planning and organisational skills;
Understand & able to complete the DWOR;
Flexible for any additional job, shift and different site.

I assure to work hard to give my best with sincerity to satisfy your team, if I get opportunity. Hoping for positive consideration of my sincerely request.

Thank you.


Paragraph example

-You get a limited response face a possible crash
-There is a reduction in the ability to concentrate and remember.
-Don´t drink more than you should to maintain your physiological faculties’ alerts to drive.
-The consumption of alcohol affects the driver behavior.

-The driver´s reaction also becomes slower
-The law allows up to 50 milligrams of alcohol in your blood
-Driving under the influence of alcohol you could hit a car or even a person.
-Driving under the influence of alcohol is the 9th cause of car accidents.

-When you are drunk your thought processes and reflexes are slowed down.
-You should not drink more than two beers.


Topic Sentence: Driving under the influence of alcohol has serious consequences in your driving skills.

Supporting sentence1: When you are drunk your thought processes and reflexes are slowed down. Supporting details: You are unable to make good decisions on the road Supporting sentence2: The driver´s reaction also becomes slower

Supporting details: You get a limited response face a possible crash. Driving under these circumstances you could hit a car or even a person.

Supporting sentence3: Don´t drink more than you should to maintain your physiological faculties’ alerts to drive. Supporting details: Because the law allows up to 50 milligrams of alcohol in your blood, you should not drink more than two beers

Concluding Sentence: If you are considering drinking and driving therefore you must designate a driver or look for a cab.

Drinking and driving, such as bad idea…

Drinking alcohol has some serious consequences in your driving skills. When you are drunk your thought processes and reflexes are slowed down. Therefore, you are unable to make good decisions on the road. The driver´s reaction also becomes slower. You get a limited response face a possible crash. Since driving under these circumstances you could hit a car or even a person. Moreover don´t drink more than you should to maintain your physiological faculties’ alerts to drive. Because the law allows up to 50 milligrams of alcohol in your blood, you should not drink more than two shoots. In conclusion if you are considering drinking and driving so you must designate a driver or look for a cab.

Example of speech text

With all due respect to the English teacher ,and all my friends in this class,…Good Morning!!! In this chance, I would like to tell you my speech that has the theme “Using Internet make us healthy and productive!”

Internet is not sounds familiar, especially among students now. That because Internet is very useful in the learning. But, not just for learning internet could give all of want. Not only that, using internet could make us healthy anf productive.

Why should I say internet could make us healthy? According to a reality, now in the internet had already a lot of entertainment sites, like games. Not only that, internet also provides how to perform a variety of health programs, from variety specialists of health. And not a few people who successfully live with program of healthy living with resources from the internet. Using information from the internet can be done by anyone, without need to pay an expensive, then such as consultations with health professionals.

Next, internet also could make us productive. It because in internet available a variety ways to make different products, starting from simple unti rather difficult to do. People could get productive by utilizing information from using internet.

Provided there is a desire we could successful is to easy, using much information, especially from the internet that available so much information.

So, if we already know that by using the internet could make us healthy, and produktive. Let us use the internet .Of course for purposes that are positive. Because the internet will be good or bad depending on how and to what the Internet was used.

Just that could I to say, thankyou for your attention and Good Morning !!!

(Source :

Creative Strategy Statement Example


The target audience consists of Male and Females ages 18 through to 27 of mixed nationalities. They are keen travellers and enjoy a very active and fun filled lifestyle. They adopt a tight budget to work with due to their income, which would be placed into the low – mid ($15,000 to $38,000).


• Age: 18 – 27
• Annual income: Low to mid ($15,000 – $38,000)
• Sex: Male & Female
• Occupation: Student, part-time / Casual worker
• Free spirited, party animal, like to try new things
• International, domestic


Potential clients like the beachside aspect of accommodation (water sports, lifestyle), Love to be in the heart of activity (Close to city/town centres). Something different yet at the same time similar to home (international). Psychographics:

• Lifestyle: Traveller, explorer, socialite,
• Attitude: Confident, inquisitive
• Personality traits: Motivated, Thrifty spender, love to party, active and fit


The major selling idea for the Black Market Flights campaign is to create a want for Student Flights and its services in the target audience. The advertising campaign communicates to the audience the qualities of the travel experience (full page advertisement). The use of cityscapes featuring world renowned iconic buildings face of the city personality of the city in the advertisement appeals to the audience on an emotional level, the feeling of excitement and freedom of travelling in these exotic locations drawing the target audience into the ‘Black Market experience”. The concept that becoming part of an exclusive Student Flights community/experience is very important to communicate to the target audience. Communicating these ideas to the target audience will achieve the aim of affirming Student Flights as the new and only place to stay when travelling on a budget. The key benefits of this style of approach are to portray Black Market Flights as ______ and to create a want in the target audience to become part of the Black Market Flights community.


The campaigns emotional appeal will stem from the hard working student or worker’s desire to travel and visit exotic locales. The barriers that are encountered by most of the target market involve work and university demands which lead to a day-in day-out-repetitive nightmare. As the “________” campaign is employed, the promotional characteristics of Black Market Flights are conveyed through the audiences want to “escape” from their current life. However, by embracing the “I want to escape my current repetitive grind” the brand will be positioned in this light – Always different, always fun, always _____.

Sdlc with Example

Application of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) in 21st Century Health Care INTRODUCTION
The systems development life cycle, in its variant forms, remains one of the oldest and yet still widely used methods of software development and acquisition methods in the information technology (IT) arena. While it has evolved over the years in response to ever-changing scenarios and paradigm shifts pertaining to the building or acquiring of software, its central tenants are as applicable today as they ever were.The SDLC has been called one of the two dominant systems development methodologies today, along with prototyping (Piccoli, 2012). This paper describes the use of the SDLC in a real-world heath care setting involving a principle component of a regional hospital care facility. The paper can be used as a pedagogical tool in a systems analysis and design course, or in an upper-division or graduate course as a case study of the implementation of the SDLC in practice. First, a review of the SDLC is provided, followed by a description of the case study environment. Next, the application of the methodology is described in detail. Following, inferences and observations from the project are presented, along with lessons learned. Finally, the paper concludes with implications for the three areas of research, practice, and pedagogy, as well as suggestions for future research. BACKGROUND

The SDLC has been a part of the IT community since the inception of the modern digital computer. A course in Systems Analysis and Design is requisite in most Management Information Systems programs (Topi, Valacich, Wright, Kaiser, Nunamaker, Sipior, and de Vreede, 2010). While such classes offer an overview of many different means of developing or acquiring software (e.g., prototyping, extreme programming, rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), etc.), at their heart such programs still devote a considerable amount of time to the SDLC, as they should. As this paper will show, following the steps and stages of the methodology is still a valid method of insuring the successful deployment of software. While the SDLC, and systems analysis and design in general, has evolved over the years, at its heart it remains a robust methodology for developing software and systems. Early treatises of the SDLC promoted the rigorous delineation of necessary steps to follow for any kind of software project.

The Waterfall Model (Boehm, 1976) is one of the most well-known forms. In this classic representation, the methodology involves seven sequential steps: 1) System Requirements and Validation; 2) Software Requirements and Validation; 3) Preliminary Design and Validation; 4) Detailed Design and Validation; 5) Code, Debug, Deployment, and Test; 6) Test, Preoperations, Validation Test; and 7) Operations, Maintenance, Revalidation. In the original description of the Boehm-Waterfall software engineering methodology, there is an interactive backstep between each stage. Thus the Boehm-Waterfall is a combination of a sequential methodology with an interactive backstep (Burback, 2004). Other early works were patterned after the Waterfall Model, with varying numbers of steps and not-markedly-different names for each stage. For example, Gore and Stubbe (1983) advocated a four-step approach consisting of the study phase, the design phase, the development phase, and the operation phase (p. 25). Martin and McClure (1988) described it as a multistep process consisting of five basic sequential phases: analysis, design, code, test, and maintain (p. 18). Another widely used text (Whitten, Bentley, and Ho, 1986) during the 1980s advocated an eight-step method. Beginning with 1) Survey the Situation, it was followed by 2) Study Current System; 3) Determine User Requirements; 4) Evaluate Alternative Solutions; 5) Design New System; 6) Select New Computer Equipment and Software; 7) Construct New System; and 8) Deliver New System.

Almost two decades later, a book by the same set of authors in general (Whitten, Bentley, and Dittman, 2004) also advocated an eight step series of phases, although the names of the stages changed somewhat (albeit not significantly). The methodology proceeded through the steps of Scope definition, Problem analysis, Requirements analysis, Logical design, Decision analysis, Physical design and integration, Construction and testing, and ending with Installation and delivery (p. 89). It is interesting to note that nearly 20 years later, the naming conventions used in the newer text are almost synonymous with those in the older work. The Whitten and Bentley (2008) text, in its present form, still breaks up the process into eight stages. While there is no consensus in the naming (or number) of stages (e.g., many systems analysis and design textbooks advocate their own nomenclature (c.f. Whitten, Bentley, and Barlow (1994), O’Brien (1993), Taggart and Silbey (1986)), McMurtrey (1997) reviewed the various forms of the life cycle in his dissertation work and came up with a generic SDLC involving the phases of Analysis, Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, and Maintenance.

Even one of the most current and popular systems analysis and design textbooks (Kendall and Kendall, 2011) does not depart from tradition, emphasizing that the SDLC is still primarily comprised of seven phases. Although not immune to criticism, Hoffer, George, and Valacich (2011) believe that the view of systems analysis and design taking place in a cycle continues to be pervasive and true (p. 24). Thus, while the SDLC has evolved over the years under the guise of different combinations of naming conventions and numbers of steps or stages, it remains true to form as a well-tested methodology for software development and acquisition. We now turn our attention to how it was utilized in a present-day health care setting. Case Study Setting

The present investigation regards the selection of a software package by a medium-size regional hospital for use in the Home Health segment of their organization. The hospital (to be referred to in this monograph by a fictitious name, General Hospital) is located in the central portion of a southern state in the USA, within 30 minutes of the state capital. Its constituents reside in the largest SMSA (standard metropolitan statistical area) in the state and consist of both rural, suburban, and city residents. The 149-bed facility is a state-of-the-art institution, as 91% of their 23 quality measures are better than the national average (“Where to Find Care”, 2010). Services offered include Emergency Department, Hospice, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Obstetrics, Open Heart Surgery, and Pediatrics. Additional components of General Hospital consist of an Imaging Center, a Rehabilitation Hospital, Four Primary Care Clinics, a Health and Fitness Center (one of the largest in the nation with more than 70,000 square feet and 7,000 members), a Wound Healing Center, regional Therapy Centers, and Home Care (the focal point of this study). There are more than 120 physicians on the active medical staff, over 1,400 employees and in excess of 100 volunteers (“General Hospital”, 2010). In short, it is representative of many similar patient care facilities around the nation and the world. As such, it provides a rich environment for the investigation of using the SDLC in a 21st century health care institution. Home Health and Study Overview

Home Health, or Home Care, is the portion of health care that is carried out at the patient’s home or residence. It is a participatory arrangement that eliminates the need for constant trips to the hospital for routine procedures. For example, patients take their own blood pressure (or heart rate, glucose level, etc.) using a device hooked up near their bed at home. The results are transmitted to the hospital (or in this case, the Home Health facility near General Hospital) electronically and are immediately processed, inspected, and monitored by attending staff. In addition, there is a Lifeline feature available to elderly or other homebound individuals. The unit includes a button worn on a necklace or bracelet that the patient can push should they need assistance (“Home Health”, 2010). Periodically, clinicians (e.g., nurses, physical therapists, etc.) will visit the patient in their home to monitor their progress and perform routine inspections and maintenance on the technology. The author was approached by his neighbor, a retired accounting faculty member who is a volunteer at General Hospital. He had been asked by hospital administration to investigate the acquisition, and eventual purchase, of software to facilitate and help coordinate the Home Health care portion of their business. After an initial meeting to offer help and familiarize ourselves with the task at hand, we met with staff (i.e., both management and the end-users) at the Home Health facility to begin our research. THE SDLC IN ACTION

The author, having taught the SAD course many times, recognized from the outset that this particular project would indeed follow the stages of the traditional SDLC. While we would not be responsible for some of the steps (e.g., testing, and training of staff), we would follow many of the others in a lockstep fashion, thus, the task was an adaptation of the SDLC (i.e., a software acquisition project) as opposed to a software development project involving all the stages. For students, it is important to see that they benefit from understanding that the core ideas of the SDLC can be adapted to fit a “buy” (rather than “make”) situation. Their knowledge of the SDLC can be applied to a non-development context. The systematic approach is adaptable, which makes the knowledge more valuable. In this project, we used a modified version of the SDLC that corresponds to the form advocated by
McMurtrey (1997). Consequently, we proceed in this monograph in the same fashion that the project was presented to us: step by step in line with the SDLC. Analysis

Problem Definition
The first step in the Systems Development Life Cycle is the Problem Definition component of the Analysis phase. One would be hard-pressed to offer a solution to a problem that was not fully defined. The Home Health portion of General Hospital had been reorganized as a separate, subsidiary unit located near the main hospital in its own standalone facility. Furthermore, the software they were using was at least seven years old and could simply not keep up with all the changes in billing practices and Medicare requirements and payments. The current system was not scalable to the growing needs and transformation within the environment. Thus, in addition to specific desirable criteria of the chosen software (described in the following section), our explicit purpose in helping General was twofold: 1) to modernize their operations with current technology; and 2) to provide the best patient care available to their clients in the Home Health arena. A precursor to the Analysis stage, often mentioned in textbooks (e.g., Valacich, George, and Hoffer, 2009) and of great importance in a practical setting, is the Feasibility Study. This preface to the beginning of the Analysis phase is oftentimes broken down into three areas of feasibility: * Technical (Do we have the necessary resources and infrastructure to support the software if it is acquired?) * Economic (Do we have the financial resources to pay for it, including support and maintenance?) * Operational (Do we have properly trained individuals who can operate and use the software?). Fortunately, these questions had all been answered in the affirmative before we joined the project. The Director of Information Technology at General Hospital budgeted $250,000 for procurement (thus meeting the criteria for economic feasibility); General’s IT infrastructure was more than adequate and up to date with regard to supporting the new software (technical feasibility); and support staff and potential end users were well trained and enthusiastic about adopting the new technology (operational feasibility). Given that the Feasibility Study portion of the SDLC was complete, we endeavored forthwith into the project details.
Requirements Analysis

In the Requirements Analysis portion of the Analysis stage, great care is taken to ensure that the proposed system meets the objectives put forth by management. To that end, we met with the various stakeholders (i.e., the Director of the Home Care facility and potential end-users) to map out the requirements needed from the new system. Copious notes were taken at these meetings, and a conscientious effort to synthesize our recollections was done. Afterwards, the requirements were collated into a spreadsheet for ease of inspection (Exhibit 1). Several key requirements are described here: MEDITECH Compatible: This was the first, and one of the most important requirements, at least from a technological viewpoint. MEDITECH (Medical Information Technology, Inc.) has been a leading software vendor in the health care informatics industry for 40 years (“About Meditech”, 2009). It is the flagship product used at General Hospital and is described as the number one health care vendor in the United States with approximately 25% market share (“International News”, 2006). All Meditech platforms are certified EMR/EHR systems (“Meditech News”, 2012). “With an Electronic Health Record, a patient’s record follows her electronically. From the physician’s office, to the hospital, to her home-based care, and to any other place she receives health services, and she and her doctors can access all of this information and communicate with a smartphone or computer” (“The New Meditech”, 2012). Because of its strategic importance to General, and its overall large footprint in the entire infrastructure and day-to-day operations, it was imperative that the new software would be Meditech-compatible. Point of Care Documentation: Electronic medical record (EMR) point-of-care (POC) documentation in patients’ rooms is a recent shift in technology use in hospitals (Duffy, Kharasch, Morris, and Du, 2010).

POC documentation reduces inefficiencies, decreases the probability of errors, promotes information transfer, and encourages the caregiver to be at the bedside or, in the case of home care, on the receiving end of the transmission. OASIS Analyzer: OASIS is a system developed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), formerly an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as part of the required home care assessment for reimbursing health care providers. OASIS combines 20 data elements to measure case-mix across 3 domains–clinical severity, functional status and utilization factors (“Medical Dictionary”, 2010). This module allows staff to work more intelligently, allowing them to easily analyze outcomes data in an effort to move toward improved clinical and financial results (“Butte Home Health”, 2009). Given its strategic link to Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, OASIS Analyzer was a “must have” feature of the new software. Physician Portal: The chosen software package must have an entryway for the attending, resident, or primary caregiver physician to interact with the system in a seamless fashion. Such a gateway will facilitate efficient patient care by enabling the physician to have immediate access to critical patient data and history. Other “Must Haves” of the New Software: Special billing and accounts receivable modules tailored to Home Health; real-time reports and built-in digital dashboards to provide business intelligence (e.g., OASIS Analyzer); schedule optimization; and last, but certainly not least, the system must be user friendly. Desirable, But Not Absolutely Necessary Features: Security (advanced, beyond the normal user identification and password type); trial period available (i.e., could General try it out for a limited time before fully committing to the contract?).

Other Items of interest During the Analysis Phase: Several other issues were important in this phase: * Is the proposed solution a Home Health-only product, or is it part of a larger, perhaps enterprise-wide system? * Are there other modules available (e.g., financial, clinical, hospice; applications to synchronize the system with a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or smart phone)? * Is there a web demo available to view online; or, even better, is there an opportunity to participate in a live, hands-on demonstration of the software under real or simulated conditions? We also made note of other observations that might be helpful in selecting final candidates to be considered for site visits. To gain insight into the experience, dependability, and professionalism of the vendors, we also kept track of information such as: experience (i.e., number of years in business); number of clients or customers; revenues; and helpfulness (return e-mails and/or phone calls within a timely manner or at all). Finally, some anecdotal evidence was gathered to help us evaluate each vendor as a potential finalist.

For instance, Vendor A had an Implementation/Installation Team to assist with that stage of the software deployment; they also maintained a Knowledge Base (database) of Use Cases/List Cases describing the most frequently occurring problems or pitfalls. Vendor C sponsored an annual User Conference where users could share experiences with using the product, as well as provide feedback to be incorporated into future releases. To that end, Vendor C also had a user representative on their Product Advisory Board. Vendor E offered a “cloud computing” choice, in that the product was hosted in their data center. (A potential buyer did not have to choose the web-enabled solution.) Vendor E’s offering was part of an enterprise solution, and could be synchronized with a PDA or smart phone. Design

As previously noted, for this particular case study of software selection, the researchers did not have to proceed through each step of the SDLC since the software products already existed. Thus, the Design stage of the SDLC has already been carried out by the vendors. In a similar vein, the coding, testing, and debugging of program modules had too been performed by each vendor candidate. Thus, after painstakingly analyzing all the wares, features, pros and cons, and costs and benefits associated with each product, we were now ready to make a choice: we would whittle our list of five potential vendors down to the two that we felt met our needs and showed the most interest and promise. The Choice

The principle investigators arranged another meeting with the primary stakeholders of General Hospital’s Home Health division. After all, although we had done the research, they were the ones that would be using the system for the foreseeable future. As such, it only made sense that they be heavily involved. This is in line with what is put forth in systems analysis and design textbooks: user involvement is a key component to system success. Having carefully reviewed our research notes, in addition to the various brochures, websites, proposals, communications, and related documents from each of our shortlist of five vendors, together as a group we made our decision. We would invite Vendor B for a site visit and demonstration.

Vendor B was very professional, courteous, prompt, and conscientious during their visit. One thing that greatly supported their case was that their primary business model focused on Home Health software. It was, and still is, their core competency. In contrast, one other vendor (not on our original short list of five) came and made a very polished presentation, in the words of the Director. However, this company was a multi-billion dollar concern, of which Home Health software was only a small part. Thus the choice was made to go with Vendor B. Ironically, this seller’s product was not Meditech compatible, which was one of the most important criteria for selection. However, through the use of a middleware company that had considerable experience in designing interfaces to be used in a Meditech environment, a suitable arrangement was made and a customized solution was developed and put into use. The middleware vendor had done business with General before and, therefore, was familiar with their needs. Implementation

As is taught in SAD classes, the implementation stage of the SDLC usually follows one of four main forms. These are, according to Valacich, George, and Hoffer (2009): 1) Direct Installation (sometimes also referred to as Direct Cutover, Abrupt, or Cold Turkey method) where the old system is simply removed and replaced with the new software, perhaps over the weekend; 2) Parallel Installation, when the old and new systems are run side-by-side until at some point (the “go live” date) use of the former software is eliminated; 3) Single Location Installation (or the Pilot approach) involves using one site (or several sites if the software rollout is to be nationwide or international involving hundreds of locations) as beta or test installations to identify any bugs or usage problems before committing to the new software on a large scale; and 4) Phased Installation, which is the process of integrating segments of program modules into stages of implementation, ensuring that each block works before the whole software product is implemented in its entirety. The Home Care unit of General Hospital utilized the Parallel Installation method for approximately 60 days before the “go live” date. Clinicians would “double enter” patient records and admissions data into both the old and new systems to ensure that the new database was populated, while at the same time maintaining patient care with the former product until its disposal.

The Director of the Home Care facility noted that this process took longer than anticipated but was well worth it in the long run. Once the “go live” date was reached the new system performed quite well, with a minimal amount of disruption. Training of staff commenced two weeks before the “go live” date. Of the approximately 25 users, half were trained the first week and the rest the next. Clinicians had to perform a live visit with one of their patients using the new system. Thus they would already have experience with it in a hands-on environment before switching to the new product and committing to it on a full-time basis. It is again worth noting that the implementation method, Parallel Installation, follows from the SDLC and is what is taught in modern-day SAD courses. Thus, it was satisfying to the researchers that textbook concepts were being utilized in “real world” situations. It also reinforced that teaching the SDLC was in line with current curriculum guidelines and should continue. Maintenance/Support

Software upgrades (called “code loads” by the vendor) are performed every six weeks. The Director reported that these advancements were not disruptive to everyday operations. Such upgrades are especially important in the health care industry, as changes to Medicare and billing practices are common occurrences. The Director also noted that all end users, including nurses, physical therapists, physicians, and other staff, were very happy with the new system and, collectively, had no major complaints about it. General Hospital expects to use the software for the foreseeable future, with no plans to have to embark on another project of this magnitude for quite some time. DISCUSSION

Many inferences and observations were gleaned by both the researchers and hospital staff during the course of the investigation. First, we all learned that we must “do our homework”; that is, much research and analysis had to be performed to get up to speed on the project. For instance, while the principle investigators both had doctoral degrees in business administration, and one of them (the author) had taught the systems analysis and design course for over ten years at two different institutions, neither of us had any practical experience in the Home Health arena. Thus, we had to familiarize ourselves with the current environment as well as grasp an understanding of the criteria set forth by the stakeholders (both end-users and management). This was an important lesson learned, because we teach our students (in the SAD class) that they must not only familiarize themselves with the application at hand, but they must also interact with the users. Much research has been conducted in the area of user involvement and its relationship to system success (e.g., Ives and Olson, 1984; Baroudi, Olson, and Ives, 1986; Tait and Vessey, 1988). Therefore it was satisfying, from a pedagogical standpoint, to know that concepts taught in a classroom setting were being utilized in a real-world environment.

It was also very enlightening, from the standpoint of business school professors, to see how the core functional areas of study (e.g., marketing, management, accounting, etc., not to mention MIS) were also highly integral to the project at hand. During our research on the various vendor companies, we were subjected to a myriad of different marketing campaigns and promotional brochures, which typically touted their wares as the “best” on the market. Key, integral components (such as billing, scheduling, business intelligence, patient care, electronic medical records (EMR), etc.) that are critical success factors in almost any business were promoted and we were made keenly aware of their strategic importance. Again, this was very rewarding from the point of view from business school professors: we were very pleased that our graduates and students are learning all of these concepts (and more) as core competencies in the curriculum. Finally, probably the most positive outcome from the project was that patient care will be improved as a result of this endeavor. Following that, it was enlightening that an adaptation of the SDLC was applied to a healthcare setting and it achieved positive results. This showed that the SDLC, in part or in whole, is alive and well and is an important part of the MIS world in both practice and academia. In addition, key outcomes regarding each were identified and are elaborated upon in the following section. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE, RESEARCH AND PEDAGOGY

Implications for Practice
This project, and case study, was an application of pedagogy on a real-world systems analysis project. As such, it has implications for practice. First, it showed that concepts learned in a classroom environment (such as the SDLC in the systems analysis and design course) can be effectively applied in a business (or in our case, a health care) environment. It was very satisfying for us, as business school professors, to see instructional topics successfully employed to solve a real-world problem. For practitioners, such
as any organization looking to acquire a software package, we hope that we have shown that if one applies due diligence to their research effort that positive outcomes can be achieved. Our findings might also help practitioners appreciate that tried and true methods, such as the SDLC, are applicable to projects of a similar nature, and not just academic exercises to fulfill curriculum requirements. We find this among the most gratifying implications. Implications for Research

This project could be used as the beginning of a longitudinal study into the life cycle of the Home Health software product selected. It is customary to note that maintenance can consume half of the IS budget when it comes to software, especially large-scale systems (Dorfman and Thayer, 1997). It would be interesting to track this project, in real time, to see if that is indeed the case. Furthermore, an often-neglected phase of the SDLC is the stage at the very end: disposal of the system. By following the present study to the end, it would be enlightening (from all three viewpoints of research, practice, and pedagogy) to see what happens at the end of the software’s useful life. Additional future research might investigate the utilization of the SDLC in different contexts, or even other settings with the healthcare arena. Implications for Pedagogy

Insights for the SAD Course
After learning so much about real-world software acquisition throughout this voluntary consulting project, the author has utilized it in classroom settings. First, the obvious connection with the SAD course was made. To that end, in addition to another semester-long project they work on in a group setting, the students pick an application domain (such as a veterinary clinic, a dentist’s office, a movie rental store, etc.) and perform a research effort not unlike the one described in this monograph. Afterwards, a presentation is made to the class whereby three to five candidate vendors are shown, along with the associated criteria used, and then one is chosen. Reasons are given for the selection and additional questions are asked, if necessary. This exercise gives the students a real-world look at application software through the lens of the SDLC. While some SAD professors are able to engage local businesses to provide more of a “real-world” application by allowing students to literally develop a system, such an endeavor was not possible at the time of this study.

The benefits of such an approach are, or course, that it provides students “real world” experience and applying concepts learned in school to practical uses. The drawback is that it requires a substantial commitment from the business and oftentimes the proprietors pull back from the project if they get too busy with other things. Thus, the decision was made to allow students to pick an application domain, under the assumption that they had been contracted by the owners to acquire a system for them. Such an exercise enables students to engage in what Houghton and Ruth (2010) call “deep learning”. They note that such an approach is much more appropriate when the learning material presented involves going beyond simple facts and into what lies below the surface (p. 91). Indeed, this particular exercise for the SAD students was not rote memorization of facts at a surface level; it forced them to perform critical thinking and analysis at a much greater depth of understanding. Although the students were not able to complete a “real world” project to the extent that other educators have reported (e.g., Grant, Malloy, Murphy, Foreman, and Robinson (2010), the experience did allow students to tackle a contemporary project and simulate the solving of it with real-world solutions. This gave them a much greater appreciation for the task of procuring software than just reading about it in textbooks. The educational benefits of using real-world projects are well established both in the United States (Grant et al., 2010) and internationally (Magboo and Magboo, 2003). From an IS curriculum standpoint, this form of exercise by SAD students helps bridge the well-known gap between theory and practice (Andriole, 2006). As was shown in this monograph, the SDLC is a theory that has widespread application in practice. The project performed by students in the SAD class reinforces what Parker, LeRouge, and Trimmer (2005) described in their paper on alternative instructional strategies in an IS curriculum. That is, SAD is a core component of an education in information systems, and there is a plethora of different ways to deliver a rich experience, including the one described here. Insights for IS Courses, SAD and non-SAD

Other insights gained, by the SAD students as well as the core MIS course, have to do with what the author teaches during the requisite chapter on software. In class, I present this topic as “the software dilemma”. This description is tantamount to the recognition that when acquiring software, businesses must make one of three choices (in general). The options are “make” versus “buy” versus “outsource” when it comes to acquiring software. (There is also a hybrid approach that involves customizing purchased software.) Briefly explained, the “make” option presupposes that the organization has an IT staff that can do their own, custom, programming. The “buy” alternative relates to what was described in this paper, in that General Hospital did not have the resources to devote to developing software for their Home Health segment, and as such enlisted the researchers to assist in that endeavor. The “outsource” choice alludes to several different options available, under this umbrella, on the modern-day IT landscape. The decision to outsource could range from an application service provider (ASP) delivering the solution over the internet (or the “cloud”) to complete transfer of the IT operation to a hosting provider or even a server co-location vendor.

Thus, a project like this one could be used in the core MIS course to further illustrate problems and potential pitfalls faced by businesses, small and large, when it comes to software acquisition. Instructors could use the features of this case study to focus on whatever portion of it they thought best: project management, budgeting, personnel requirements, marketing, etc. It could even be used in a marketing class to investigate the ways in which vendors, offering similar solutions to standard problems, differentiate themselves through various marketing channels and strategies. Furthermore, the case study is ripe for discussion pertaining to a plethora of business school topics, from economics and accounting to customer relationship management. The case is especially rich fodder for the MIS curriculum: not only systems analysis and design, but programming and database classes can find useful, practical, real-world issues surrounding this case that can be used as “teaching tools” to the students. Finally, a case study like this one could even be used in an operations management, or project management, setting. The discovery of issues, such as those raised in this paper, could be fruitful research for both undergraduate and graduate students alike. A team project, along with a group presentation as the finale, would also give students much-needed experience in public speaking and would help prepare them for the boardrooms of tomorrow. Conclusion

Two business school professors, one an MIS scholar and the other retired from the accounting faculty, were called upon by a local hospital to assist with the procurement of software for the Home Health area. These academics were up to the challenge, and pleasantly assisted the hospital in their quest. While both researchers hold terminal degrees, each learned quite a bit from the application of principles taught in the classroom (e.g., the SDLC) to the complexities surrounding real-world utilization of them. Great insights were gained, in a variety of areas, and have since been shown as relevant to future practitioners (i.e., students) in the business world. It is hoped that others, in both academe and commerce, will benefit from the results and salient observations from this study.

Research review example

Please note that ethical standards of peer reviewing constrain me [JP] to give you the original manuscript. I also had to anonymize identifying information in the review. This review is meant as an example of the style used in writing a review; you do not have to understand all the details. Please note that this review is longer than the one you are requested to write.

This is a highly interesting study on a timely subject, the impact of pornography use in adolescence on relationship intimacy in early adulthood. Based on Zillman’s programmatic piece about the “influence of unrestrained pornography” on adolescents and more recent research on teenagers’ use of internet pornography, the study develops a model on how adolescent pornography use may affect relationship intimacy in young adulthood. The study concludes that there is, “at best, minimal support for Zillmann’s claim that prolonged exposure to pornography is associated with sexual callousness” (p. 13). The strengths of the study include, in my view, the focus on an under-researched dependent variable; its attempt to build and test a model; and the (attempted) investigation of gender differences. The weaknesses include, in my view, the theoretical underdevelopment of the model and several severe methodological problems.

Theoretical development of the model

By the standards of Journal [ANONYMIZED], the theory section (pp. 2-4) is very short. While in journals of other disciplines (e.g., Journal of Adolescent Health) such a short introduction is requested, pieces in [ANONYMIZED] are expected to be more specific about the theoretical underpinnings of the study. Although brevity is always preferable, a study that develops and tests a new model does require a somewhat more thorough conceptual definition of the various influences in the model and, most importantly, a rationale for these influences.

Conceptual definitions and rationale for the components in the model: The model has four components, exposure to pornography, pornographic realism, acceptance of recreational sex, and relationship intimacy. However, on p. 2, many more concepts are outlined (based on Zillmann’s paper): habituation, cultivation effects in terms of perceived sexual behaviors, distrust in intimate partners, abandonment of exclusivity as a norm of romantic relationships, and greater endorsement of promiscuity. None of these concepts is tested. Moreover, on p. 3, several other concepts are mentioned, including cynical attitudes about love, sexual pleasure without affection, sexual callousness, and decreasing emotional attachment.

While the latter concepts are related to what is tested, they are not the same. Scanning through the studies that Zillmann and Bryant published in the 1980s, it becomes clear that they have probably something else in mind when they talk about *sexual* callousness than “an impaired ability to form intimate relationships” (p. 4). Finally, it remains unclear why pornographic realism is an important addition to the model suggested by Zillmann. This is certainly not to say that the paper’s model is unrelated to Zillmann’s ideas, but the paper should aim for more conceptual clarity. Key concepts need to be defined. Moreover, it needs to be outlined how the key concepts of the model relate to Zillmann’s ideas as well as when and why they differ.

Rationale for the influences hypothesized in the model:
The model hypothesizes that recreational attitudes toward sex mediate the effect of pornography on intimacy. Pornographic realism is included as a covariate of pornography use (although it is claimed that it is investigated as a mediator, p. 4). However, the rationale for hypothesizing these processes remains vague. First, how precisely are recreational attitudes related to sexual socialization and the sexual script concept (p. 3)? How, and why, are these attitudes affected by pornography? These questions should not be answered on the basis of empirical regularities (as done on pp. 3-4), but on the basis of more elaborate theorizing. Second, why is pornographic realism a covariate (at least in the model tested)? From the quote on p. 4, it rather seems a mediator. This needs some clarification and elaboration, too.

Gender differences
The analysis of gender differences occupies considerable space in the analysis and discussion. However, a rationale is largely lacking why such differences need to be investigated. There is sufficient evidence that females use pornography less often than males do (i.e., gender as a direct predictor), but it is crucial to outline why the processes hypothesized may differ by gender (i.e., gender as a moderator).

Methodological problems

I would like to stress that any research on the issue of the study is admirable, given the enormous ethical, practical, methodological, statistical issues involved. In my evaluation, I take this into account. That said, I do have to raise some potentially unpleasant questions about the design of the study; operationalization of the key measure; procedure/ sample; and analysis.

Design and operationalization of key measure
The paper aims at testing a causal model, but relies on cross-sectional data. The paper outlines on p. 4 that the study includes a time component by asking respondents to indicate their pornography use at ages 14 and 17. Several problems arise. First, cross-sectional data do not permit causal conclusions related to media effects. At the very least, this needs to be acknowledged explicitly and prominently. Also, language suggesting causal relations should be avoided. Second, asking respondents retrospectively about their pornography use at the ages of 14 and 17 raises some questions. Why at ages 14 and 17? Adolescence usually spans the period between age 12 and 17. Why was exposure not measured, for instance, for age 12 (early adolescence), age 15 (middle), and age 17 (late)? Third, self-reported retrospective measures of sensitive behavior are prone to multiple biases, most notably memory bias and social desirability bias.

These biases already plague measures that relate, for instance, to the “past week.” But how can such measures meaningfully be applied to behavior that happened, for the oldest respondents, 11 years ago? Fourth, what exactly were the response categories? “Never” suggests a vague-quantifier scale (e.g., never, rarely, sometimes, often, very often), which carries a lot of problems, most notably the problem that vague quantifiers leave it up to the respondent to decide what the categories mean. However, the positive anchor of the scale is “every day.” Was the scale thus a scale asking about specific frequencies (e.g., once a week, less than once a week). Again, how can such frequencies be assessed validly after so much time? Any information on the validity and reliability of the measure along with a rationale for the operationalization is highly welcome.

Fifth, how does this measurement strategy assess “prolonged” exposure, the key concept in Zillmann’s paper? Assessing retrospectively the use of pornography does not tell us much about the trajectory of porn use. Finally, a retrospective measure is not the same as a measure taken at a certain point in the past, in contrast to what is claimed on p. 4. I perfectly understand that longitudinal research is cumbersome, particularly in that area. That said, it seems difficult to see how the retrospective measurement of pornography use tackles the causal problems inherent in cross-sectional research. In sum, there are several serious issues with the operationalization of one of the key variables, which urgently need to be addressed.

Procedure/ Sample
The paper is unfortunately very brief about the procedure and sample of the survey. Given the self-selection problems in sex research, I was surprised to read that few precautions were taken to minimize this bias. Why was snowballing not avoided, but even encouraged (p. 5)? Why did the study not include some simple quotas, most notably for gender (see below)? Was there a control of whether a particular respondent filled in the survey multiple times? In addition, I assume that informed consent was explicitly asked for, but this should be mentioned briefly. Finally, is there an indication of how many respondents were contacted and what the response rate was? There are also several important questions about the sample. First, why was the study limited to sexually active students? Sexual experience may create a limiting boundary condition for what the paper is interested in.

Second, why was the age frame limited to 18- to 25-year olds? Is this related to the theory of emerging adulthood? Third, why was the study limited to university students? We complain about such convenience samples in experimental research. There may be even more concerns about such samples in survey research. While the concerns raised in the previous paragraphs address very severe shortcomings, they may even be multiplied by the fact that twice as many women as men filled in the questionnaire. This is a crucial problem because the basic conclusion of the paper is that the model only works for women, but not for men. To be sure, the paper mentions these shortcomings in the discussion section, but that does unfortunately not reduce its importance.

Table 2 shows small to moderate zero-order correlations for men and women. However, with twice as many women as men in the sample, an r = -.11 is significant for women, while an r = .13 is not significant for men. Both for men and women, the correlations are in the same direction. I guess that, with an equal number of men and women (e.g., 350 each), the model would largely hold for both. This would also be a more reasonable sample size in terms of statistical power consideration. In conclusion, there is reason to believe that one of the main conclusions of the paper is a result of a severe shortcoming in the sample procedure of the study.

The general problems with the gender analysis notwithstanding, I was wondering why the paper does not apply a multiple-group analysis. This is a more rigorous way of testing whether the various paths differ between women and men than the strategy currently employed. I was wondering whether the SEM analysis used item-parceling strategies. Otherwise, there need to be more manifest indicators in the models. Finally, the statistical testing of indirect effects (i.e., whether they differ significantly from zero) has become a standard procedure and should be included. Discussion

In the light of the problems raised above, some of the conclusions raised in the discussion section may need some reconsideration. (This is my opinion, and the authors may or may not follow them). First, I am hesitant to agree with the paper that the findings have “little if any practical significance” (p. 10). The discussions about effect sizes in media effects research in particular and the social sciences in general have been outlined elsewhere and do not have to be repeated here. Against that backdrop, an explained variance of 8% (with two predictor variables related to pornography) in recreational attitudes and of 16% in relationship intimacy does not seem trivial to me. It may indeed be that other variables (family, peers etc.) have a greater influence, but this needs some more backing in order to contextualize the effects found.

I agree with the paper that the moral panic that surrounds pornography finds no support in any research published so far. However, this does not mean that the effects found in this paper and elsewhere are trivial, at least when considered in the context of media effects research and against the backdrop of the methodological and statistical problems that this kind of research faces. Second, it seems to me that the paper contradicts itself when, on the one hand, it rejects main effects as too simplistic (p. 3) and, on the other hand, describes the found indirect effects as practically insignificant. No serious media effects researcher would disagree that media effects are typically not direct and that a focus on the “how” and “why” of such effects is important. If we can explain how precisely media affect people, then this may have enormous practical significance, especially if we can outline which people may be affected and which may not (in line with Malamuth’s ideas).

Third, I agree that love maps and sexual scripts may explain sexual attitudes and behavior, probably even better than media use (p. 11). But it remains unclear to me where, precisely, this is tested in the model. Some clarification may be helpful. Fourth, it may also be helpful to specify how the distinction between imagined and real sex lives relates to the model tested, apart from outlining that perceptions of pornographic realism may never fully translate into people’s actual sex lives.

In sum, this is important and interesting research. However, the theoretical, conceptual, and methodological weaknesses currently outweigh the strengths of the paper so that its contribution to our knowledge about how the use of pornography affects relationship intimacy in adulthood is limited.

The Stock Market is a Example of Perfect Competition

The stock market is perfectly competitive because there are a very large number of groups in the market. The stock market, as we know it, is a global community that consists of four different groups: public corporations; market makers; buyers; and sellers. Public corporations are businesses that offer shares, or ownership, to anyone willing to pay money for them. Buyers are investors who want to purchase ownership; sellers are shareholders who want to get rid of their stock in exchange for cash. Market makers are companies or individuals who basically match orders from buyers and sellers to ensure liquidity in the market. The stock market is perfectively competitive because it has homogeneity of goods. Buyers can purchase the good from any seller and receive the same good. Price taking occurs only in perfectly competitive markets. Therefore, identical goods sold at higher prices, by one firm will be above the equilibrium demand for goods, which means that the firm which raises price won’t be able to sell any of their goods.

In the stock market nobody has the ability to change the market equilibrium price based on their own behavior. This means that there must be many buyers and many sellers. Everybody is a price-taker, which means that they must accept the market price. The stock market has perfect information. Everybody knows what their own choices are, and they know everything about the product. The buyer is capable of knowing what amount of marginal utility they will receive from consuming a product, and they will also know the amount of marginal utility they will obtain from consuming every possible other consumption choice. The stock market offers free entry in and out of the market. This means that people are not forced to buy or sell things they do not want. It also means that people are not negatively affected by other people’s market decisions References

The Chase-An Example of Descriptive Writing

My wrists started to ache terribly as I trudged along the hard concrete road. Usually, when I took this route home, I passed all sorts of strange looking people. Where we lived, was an odd place, the people there were very friendly, but sometimes too friendly, getting in the way of your private life, asking personal questions that you didn’t really know how to answer. But on this particular night, a humid night at that, there was absolutely no sound to be heard. Not even the squeal of a tyre edging around the street corner, or the cackle of an old man passing by. Feeling the aching in my wrists turn to a sharp pain, I peered down at the several plastic bags that I was holding; full of the essential shopping that I had gone out to get last minute for dinner.

One of the bags (the one that was hurting my wrists) was clearly overfilled, but I couldn’t do anything about that, not now, in the middle of the street. Letting out a heavy sigh, I carried on walking, reaching carelessly into my pocket to clasp my phone. In the humidity, it felt lovely to have the cold, metal block against my hands. I pulled it out, feeling around in the darkness around me for the switch to turn it on with. I paused, under a spot in which the moonlight was beaming down upon on the road. Underneath the only source of light in the pitch black city, I checked my phone for any messages or calls that we important. There was nothing, apart from one message from my sister telling me to buy her some magazines. I hadn’t and since I had already come out of the shop and had begun my walk home, I wasn’t going to go back just for her sake. Feeling even hungrier as the time sped past, I decided that it would probably just be better to go home so that I could eat as quickly as possible.

My stomach however, had other ideas. The loud rumble that came from deep inside it, suggested that I should eat preferably sooner rather than later. Ignoring it, I crouched down and scooped up my plastic shopping bags, hearing the soft rustle from them. My feet felt heavy as I progressed along the long, winding round ahead of me. I knew that to get home from here took an extremely long time, at least 30 minutes walk. Normally, I wouldn’t mind in the slightest, but this time, I couldn’t help feeling like I was in the wrong place at the wrong time. I didn’t quite know why I couldn’t shake the feeling off that I wasn’t the only person in this street. At first sight, it may seem like it, but I’m sure as I walked further down the lane, eyes were penetrating into my back. I shook my head, almost laughing at myself for being so stupid. I was just tired, and with the tiredness, it seemed with me, came childishness and a very extreme imagination.

Continuing my journey home, I followed the shortcut along a broad alleyway to the edge of the city. I felt very insecure going through this route, but at least I knew I’d be home in nothing less than five minutes. I paced down the dark entrance quickly, looking at the bright stars in the sky as I did so. There was a certain smell of something in the air, an odour of something burning in the distance. The smell travelled to my nose and made it itch terribly. Whatever it was, it seemed to be getting closer and closer, sending me into what felt like a deeper sleep. I didn’t understand why, but I knew I had to get away from the smell as soon as possible, so that I could not be overcome with tiredness. Without any delay, I scurried along the never ending passage until I made it to an entrance that seemed to be quite a lot narrower than before. Despite my active imagination, I knew that this felt like a book that I had read as a child. I sniggered until my breath when I noticed that this scenario was remarkably like Alice in Wonderland, excluding the rabbit of course.

Feeling a little afraid at what could happen while I was standing in this backstreet, I retrieved my mobile and rapidly dialled the number of my friend, Skylar. She was a girl that would try her best to help in any situation, no-matter what the issue. I waited for her to answer her phone patiently, but my heart was beating wildly as I realised that there was probably no reception where I was standing. My breath became scarce as I forgot how to in the tension. All I could focus on was the ringer on the phone that was against my clammy ear, and what was going to happen to me in this obscure alleyway. I had heard such stories of people getting hurt and even in some cases, murdered down this route. Thinking back to the headlines, I remember being quite amazed that they couldn’t get out of the alley, although now I understand why. Once you got in, there was no way out. I was completely, hopelessly trapped. Tears started to stream down my pale face, no matter how hard I tried to keep them in. I just wanted to get home and be with my family, not be stuck in this death hole alone.

Not knowing what else to do, I slid down the brick wall beside me. I felt the course material cut through my delicate skin, but decided that this was not important. What was important was getting a phone signal…and getting out. More tears spilt down my cheek as I felt the harsh stinging in my back, the blood gently trickling down my spine, seeming delicate but not feeling like it. I carefully tore a piece of my t-shirt off and wiped my back gently, smearing crimson liquid across it. I winced in pain as it pulsed around my body. I sat in that same place for what seemed like hours, in fact, I didn’t know how long I had spent there before I gradually removed myself from the ground beneath me. Peering around me, I noticed a small crack in the wall that had not been there previously. I frowned and cautiously walked towards it. At closer inspection, it appeared that there was nothing but darkness beyond the crack, and so what had been my spark of hope to get out had been shattered. Unexpectedly, a small eye appeared within the crack. I screamed and jumped back, terrified of what I had just seen.

At this very moment, I witnessed something strange that I had never expected to happen to anyone. The crack began to get larger and larger, until it was almost as tall as me…then out came a creature. The creature was at least twice my size, with large gleaming eyes and sparkling white teeth that seemed brighter than they were due to the light that had appeared from within the crack. Before I could process the fact that there was a huge monster in from of my eyes, it had grabbed my grabbed my arm and started trudging down the alley at snail’s pace, glancing down at me like I was something to put on it’s toast. It’s slimy, yellow skin was snake like and felt unnatural on my own human flesh. Realising what was happening, I struck the beast in the stomach, making it double over in pain and groan loudly. Taking this opportunity, I sprinted down the never ending alley, not knowing what I was going to do when I wasn’t able to get away from it. I kept running until I reached a curve in the alley. At this point, I studied the area behind me, seeing a figure approaching me rapidly.

I tried to cry out for help, but my voice did not utter anything. Instead, I thought of where I had been before the incident, outside the shopping centre, wishing that I could turn back the clock and be there once again. Squeezing my moist eyes shut, I waited for the moment in which the beast would engulf me. Several minutes passed by however, and nothing had happened. Frowning, I released my eyes so that they swung open quickly. I let out a quick gasp of relief and shock when I realised that nothing that was there when my eyes had first shut was at the present location. All around me were gossiping old women and battering adults, moaning about their latest problem and nagging little children that wouldn’t stop screaming the place down. I never thought I would be so happy to see the surroundings that I was in. I quickly located a bench in between a clothes store and a Chinese shop.

I deliberated what had just happened in my mind, thinking about the events that had just happened. It didn’t seem real, but I knew deep inside, that the fear I held was true. It had happened, as unbelievable as it sounded, but I highly doubted that anyone would believe my story if I chose to share it. Deciding to try my best to forget about it, I took a deep breath, inhaling the fresh air around me and walked at a steady pace down the road, heading the long way home. This, I thought had be an eventful day, and nothing would ever replace it.

Example of a perception paragraph

I am discussing the wealth inequality about hos its being distributed. Distribution of wealth is one of the main problems we have in our society, and it depends on the outcome of people in the environment. I am looking at the perception, status, charity and imperialism of how the world is and can be. First, I will discuss status and Imperialism. Imperialism, as defined by the dictionary of geography, is ‘an unequal human and territorial relationship, usually in the form of an empire, based on ideas of superiority and practices of dominance, and involving the extension of authority and control of one state or people over another.

The people in power have unlimited authority because they have all the money they control the less privileged ones with less money. The perception of people about the environment on wealth distribution is one of the problems that deprives the community from improving. Charity is the practice of benevolent giving and caring. It is desirable that the earth should be peopled, governed, and developed, as far as possible, by the races which can do this work best. This are the people in high status that can make the community a better place.

The focus of my paper is to discuss about how wealth should be distributed. There is no real answer to should wealth be evenly distributed or distributed according to class and status?. I picked this topic because of my experience have had with wealth in my family. I personally believe wealth should be evenly distributed. If it is evenly distributed, everybody is going to have equal opportunity in life.

Benefit of cloud computing and example

Cloud computing provides many different business benefits to business that choose to use to the services. First benefit that the cloud computing offers is the ability to afford the service, cloud computing is very financially affordable for business. Using the service of cloud computing, business is able to save money, able to avoid taxing-in-house systems unnecessarily. Refer to the example from this case, Amazon, cloud computing is the biggest payer, only charges business charges businesses for what they use. Cloud business will charge a monthly payment or yearly payment, this will difficult to some businesses because they don’t know whether the service will satisfy for the business or not. Cloud computing is an affordable service for large and small businesses. And cloud computing offer from financial standpoint, that business can use Amazon’s IT infrastructure and pay a smaller amount instead of creating their own IT infrastructure. Moreover, the benefits of cloud computing is improve business in the new way, flexible computing power and data storage, provide data management.

Zynga uses these benefits to maximize their experience with their usage of cloud computing, this company is using Amazon Web Services (AWS). When Zynga release new games, they don’t know what amount of computing resource to dedicate to the games. If they using cloud computing (Amazon cloud computing) it will benefits to them because whether their games will be popular or not, it will help them to save money. In case their games are popular, they can move it to the company’s own private cloud computing (zCloud). The problem that they solve:

In this case Zynga is using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to solve by release their new games to Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. This helps Zynga to increase their efficiency and can save the money in the long run. Secondly, it can solve the problem about capacity of advertising; to launch a coupon promotion. Example from this case study, Outback steakhouse wasn’t sure how popular an upcoming coupon promotion would be, so the company use Microsoft’s Azure cloud to launch promotion. Inter Thirdly, InterContinential Hotels has revamped its infrastructure to include both private and public cloud usage to improve response time for customers, so customers will receive data faster if the data are located on a server. Lastly, IBM, Cisco and other traditional data center giants realize that cloud computing is threat to their technology infrastructure business, the solution is to rising computing costs, they have been steering their customers toward virtualization software, which allows them to run many more applications on each individual server that they buy.

Speech example

An important timeless idea in The Shawshank Redemption directed by Frank Darabont, is hope. The film demonstrates how hope is so significant in life. Frank Darabont indicates the idea that hope is still important in our lives because having or lacking in hope, affects people personally, nationally and worldwide. The film techniques; narration/dialogue, symbolism and lighting were used by the director to enhance this important idea of hope. Through these film techniques the director helps the viewer think about how having or lacking hope can affect our lives and helps the viewer conclude that having hope, “is a good thing”, Andy Dufresnes conclusion as well.

During the closing scene when Red finds and reads Andy’s letter, Dialogue is used as a film technique to portray the inspiring idea of hope. Dialogue helps create the effect of encouragement and comfort. Andy’s letter to Red says, “Remember Red, hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies.” This use of dialogue is heart felt advice from someone who has experienced great hardship. Andy believes that hope is not only ever lasting; it is also the greatest possibility to aspire towards. This dialogue helped me understand the timeless idea of hope because Andy in his letter accurately writes that hope is a good thing and that good things never die (timeless/generation). Those who have the ability and the willpower to hope are those who will be redeemed.

The technique of Symbolism that the director uses effectively portrays the idea of hope, through the poster of Rita Hayworth pinned to Andy’s cell wall. The poster of Rita Hayworth represents the door to freedom and Andy’s desire to escape to a normal life. The poster of Rita Hayworth not only conceals the chiselled hole but also symbolizes life outside of the prison and the hope of a normal life again. For example Rita Hayworth was one of the most popular actresses of that time desired and admired by millions of people. She represents the outside world and the American dream. Rita Hayworth helped me understand the timeless idea of hope because as an attractive famous woman she instils hope for those without hope especially Andy who is imprisoned. Often people (no matter what generation) who are without hope find comfort in a known person. In Andy’s case his desire towards Hayworth parallels his desire to escape. Reminders of the outside world have comforted throughout time. Paul in the bible who was also imprisoned sought comfort in the disciples.

The last technique used to emphasize the idea of hope is lighting. The director uses lighting to reveal the hopelessness of life within Shawshank prison. When Andy first arrives at the gates of Shawshank prison, the light is bright and natural. This lighting represents Andy’s last glimpse of the outside world, that of freedom. As Andy walks into the main door of Shawshank prison, the light rapidly fades into darkness. This use of fading light displays how dark and ominous Shawshank prison is, and contrasts the outside world. This scene also suggests it is the beginning of Andy’s personal hope descending. For example the dim lighting reflects Andy’s mood as he enters the prison. The emotion on his face is sadness, fear, disappointment and grief. This suggests Andy’s spiral into hopelessness. Frank Darabont helps the audience understand the lack of hope is relevant throughout time because most prisoners would feel a degree of despair knowing they are no longer free people and furthermore if they are innocent like Andy the misery and disbelief would be even more traumatic.

Hope is the driving force to happiness and freedom. Without hope we will not be able to overcome great difficulty particularly when all odds are against us. The director Frank Darabont has shown us through the character Andy that his hope is intangible and unbreakable.

MEMO Example

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make
more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Company Name: Idea, Inc.
Date: February 19, 2014
To: MXXXX, IT Director

Your absence at the meeting was greatly missed. We presented issues about why college tuition has been on the rise for the past 40 years. Here is a brief overview on the topics covered.

Lack of State Funding

•Over the past few decades state funding has not kept up with the rise of economic inflation. •The average inflation rate for college tuition is nearly double the economies. •State funding has appeared to become less over the years.

Does More Money Equal to a Better College

•Students will typically go to more expensive colleges expecting a higher degree of education. •University of Massachusetts Lowell and North Eastern University both offer the same high educational criteria with their Business Schools AACSB certified.

Faculty Costs vs. Administrative Costs

•The rise in administrative jobs has increased, whereas the Faculty jobs have stayed neutral. •Administrative Employees of the schools tend to make more money than faculty.


If you have any comments or questions please feel free to contact me by phone during your regular business hours, or anytime through email.

University Of Massachusetts Lowell
Email: [email protected]

Article summary example

Will Rasmussen in the article “Egypt fights to stem rapid population growth,” writes about Egypt’s dilemma of trying to stop a vastly growing population. Egypt’s population doubled since President Hosni Mubarak took office in 1981 and it’s likely to double to 160 million by 2050. The nation’s growth has been quite high, in recent years the fertility rate is about 3.1 children per woman in contrast to the United States’ 2.1. Most of the country’s 82 million people compressed in urban areas near the Nile River where some districts host 41k people per square kilometer in comparison to the city of Manhattan that holds 27k people per square kilometer. The state’s officials are having a difficult time trying to find solution to the so called “pressing problem” as journalist and former member of parliament states “The population explosion is a crisis the government doesn’t know how to handle.” President Mubarak spoke once in a government sponsored conference about the population increase saying, “cutting the population growth was urgent.” However, Mubarak doesn’t mention an exact number of children on the other hand the government prefers a family of two.

The country’s urgent problem presents many concerns, one of which is the economy. The nation’s financial system is frail as estimated recently to be 7 percent and unfortunately has not been steady enough to construct a middle class. Such economy can’t support a large population whose one fifth is living on less than a 1$ a day. Additionally, Egypt does not processes many resources as it depends heavily on the water from the Nile and imported goods. Many are concerned about the general welfare of the people as Magued Osman, chairman of the cabinet’s Information and Decision Support Center states “The consequences are areal deterioration in the quality of life and in agriculture land per person.”

Furthermore, the government has tried to use incentives to modify the nation’s “behavior”. A few measures taken to restrict large families maternity benefits that sparked protests. Egypt is not going to legalize abortion which helped Tunisia bring down fertility rate and vasectomy is barely heard of in the state .

Egypt being a predominantly Muslim country, and generally the religion allows contraception. However many Egyptian people oppose the idea of limiting the number of kids to a family. A few believe having a large family is a source of economic strength. Others deem it not for the states or government to decide on such a matter as they say it is up to the creator.

Work Cited

Rasmussen, Will. “Egypt Fights to Stem Rapid Population Growth.” The New York Times.The New York Times., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. .

Analyse an Example of Propaganda

The use of propaganda has been practiced since early historical times. This is a form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude and view about a given issue in the larger population. This form of communication is meant for some cause or position (Taylor 2006, pp57-78).The information that is given in propaganda is usually not impartial as it is used to influence a given audience and in so doing further a given agenda. The facts used in propaganda are presented in a selective manner usually omitting bits in order to encourage some certain synthesis. Propaganda usually contains loaded messages which are meant to produce emotional response to the given information presented (Sommerville 2012, pp187-193). These being the characteristics of propaganda, the document will evaluate a video “Russia without Putin” produced in Russia during the 2012 election. The paper will examine the various aspects in the video which makes it qualify to be labeled as propaganda. The supporting material will be evaluated as well as textual analysis.


              The release time of Russia Without Putin (2013) video was a calculated move-one day before the 2012 general election. Though there had been a long campaign period by which time such a video could have been released, the same was not carried out until the last minute. Such is the craftiness that can be associated with propaganda material. To the society the video was released to, they were meant to see it as the “savior” card before they committed political suicide by electing anyone other than Putin. Such is meant to be the power of propaganda (Silverblatt & Zlobin 2004, pp314-323). The timing of the video is also a characteristic of a propaganda video in that it was released late into the campaigns and precisely one day before the election. This did not give the voters enough time to deeply analyze the video and see the misleading presentation of facts. The people were not in a position to judge whether what they were being given was true or not. With the devastating effects that were presented in the video of what would happen if they did not elects Putin, then the people were bound to be influenced to believe the video and vote Putin. In most times, any information that is meant to have the good of the people at heart should be presented in such a timely manner that there will be the full evaluation of the same and countering of facts which may not be true. However, with the video, there was no chance or the time to counter the content (Seidman 2008, pp177-184).

In most times as highlighted in the introduction, propaganda material is meant to sway the people’s take in a given aspect. For this case, those rooting for Putin re-election would have wanted to influence most if not all of the voting population. The best option for this group to do this successfully was thus in form of a propaganda video (Reeves 2003, pp164-176). The Russia Without Putin (2013) video was released by Putin’s party channels and pro-Kremlin TV. The loyalty of the two groups is not hard to miss as they are known Putin’s campaign avenues. For the two groups to have released a video indicating what would happen to Russia if their preferred candidate was not elected is propaganda. They two pro-Putin groups were presenting their facts to the people without support of their source of their information or the truth in the same. Objective information should be delivered in such a manner that the reader or consumer is given accurate background with the analysis of the same being at hand. Missing the same is bound to be propaganda as the news will be subjective and often misleading. The same will be done with the intention to mislead. All the pro-Putin groups showed was the bad that would result if their candidate was not elected. They did not give the people the analysis of their subject thus the use of propaganda in the video (O’sahughnessy 2004, pp321-325).

The channel of release of the video by the two Pro-Putin groups also makes the same qualify as propaganda. In most times, for news to reach most of the people, those who are in need of using a communication channel will utilize the most famous and the most effective channel. In the case of “Russia without Putin” video, the channel of choice was YouTube. This is a social media site where the pro-Putin groups targeted the larger audience the aim being to influence and sway the people into voting Putin back (Moore 2010, pp163-172). The groups knew that the release of the video on such a channel as you tube was bound to generate interest as it would reach many in the society especially the youth who are the majority group in consuming and using social media channels. For the video to have not qualified as propaganda and to show its impartiality, the same should have been released through Russia news channels. The same would have enabled the concerned group, in this case the Russia society to see the authenticity and having the plight of the people at heart. However, release of “critical” information on what Russia would turn into without Putin with the use of social media channel affects the credibility and makes the video qualify as propaganda (Marlin 2002, pp97-124).

The content in the video is segmented in such a way that there is a month to month account of Putin-less Russia. The video creators do an impressive job with a specification of the doomsday scenario of how Russia apocalypse will take place after without Putin. The clever crafting of scenes is meant to invoke the memories of the Russians to the past days marked by suffering (Kamalipour 2004, pp238-312). The Russian people are being led or manipulated to believe the calamities that will befall their nation. The specific scenes and accompanying propaganda are as follows:

March 2012- The first month of a “Russia” without Putin is depicted as being marred by the struggle for political power by the various groups that may have had an interest in the same like in the past. The dissolving of the state duma will take Russia back to the dark days when the same was not in place. The various groups in the society who have been struggling to get to power will finally have their way. The video is meant to corrupt the minds of the people as to what will happen with the state when political power in politics is not held by Putin. Such issues as the formation of 200 parties within a month are not factual. The same may be a feat that is hard to occur which can also be read as propaganda (Herpen 2014, pp178-187). With the likes of the USA having been bitter rivals with the Russian, the same are shown to celebrate the fall of Putin where they declare the same as democracy. However, in real sense, such enemies will be celebrating the fall of Russia. The March section part of the video is to persuade the people not to make such a mistake as eliminate Putin from political power.

May 2012

              Business is a big aspect in Russia. The same drives the economy. When such a critical channel is threatened, the people of Russia are bound to rally all the efforts in fighting for the same. Russia without Putin will see the same critical channel (business) face threats from the enemy. After two months without Putin in power, critical business such as oil, the banking sector and the transport sector will be doomed. Such critical amenities will end up in the hands of Russia society enemies. The fact that the video has examples of the same and who happen to be Putin’s political enemies is no surprise. Propaganda dictates that one portray the best case as they would want their audience to believe. In this case, those who have had their voices raised in public in opposition to Putin’s rule such as Eveginia Shirikova, Aleksei Navalnyi and Boris Nemtsov are shown to take over the major businesses (Gillespie 2000, pp 127-137). The Russia people are thus being led to oppose such a move. The fact that the same are Putin’s competitors is meant to show how they cannot be entrusted with such public amenities as banks, transport and oil business. However, as is the case with propaganda, the facts are not supported with people such as Boris Nemtsov being depicted as developing a sudden interest in business whereas he has been renowned for politics rather than his business prowess. With the nuclear aspect being a crucial matter in the whole world the fact that Russia’s enemy in this case the USA will be put in control of such weapons is something many in the Russian population would not be ready to allow. Propaganda in this section is meant to rally the Russian people behind protecting their amenities (Gessen 2013, pp98-112).

September 2012

              The economy is a central part of any state. Russia without Putin will see the country face downfall in this section. The same should not be allowed to take place which is the message and call to the Russian people. The closure of huge companies such as Avto Vaz, the fall of the Russia stock exchange, the depreciation of the rubles against the dollar, highest rates of inflation, and unemployment are all economic problems that have plagued Russia in the past and left many suffering. This section of the video thus plays with the fear aspect in the society. The same would not want to go back to such times. Thus, the people are being reminded that failure to have Putin in power will result in their greatest fear coming to pass- suffering. Russia without Putin will see the society go back to the days when bread, an important commodity during hard times, becomes unavailable. The fact that this part of the video reminds the people of the past is a characteristic of propaganda; relieving past failures in order to make the people think in the opposite direction (Freeze 2009, pp232-235). Going hungry is not something any society would want thus Putin should be allowed to stay in power to make sure that the same does not happen.

November 2012

              If Putin is not in power, by this time as shown in the video, Russia will have degenerated into a violent society with civilians being the causalities. The plight of the needy such as the pensioners will have no one to take care of. This part of the video also relies on rekindling past bad memories in order to make people believe what is on offer to be the best. This is a major characteristic of propaganda (Cunningham 2002, pp128-154).

March 2013

              This part of the video shows the degeneration of Russia just as it has been in the past with many regions wanting their independence from their mother country. Such a scene is reminiscent of the past times such as the end of the Second World War. Pro-Putin activists who made the video are aware of some of the emotional attachment the Russian people have with the motherland. They thus make sure that this part of the video depicts the fall-out within the same as it has happened in the past. In order to avoid the same, the people are made to believe that voting Putin will prevent such a scenario from emerging (Cull et al. 2003, pp157-163).

June 2013

              Occupation of one’s country by foreigners is an aspect that many nations condemn and do not entertain. This is what the society in Russia is made to believe will happen if they fail to retain Putin in power. In the pretense of peace keeping, Russia will be invaded by other nations such as China and Japan occupying the different parts of Russia, for example, Chita, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshensk and Irkutsk and Vladivostok. With their nation’s sovereignty at risk, the Russian society is bound to resist such a move by all means in this case the best option being to retain Putin in power (Chomsky & Barsamian 2001, pp178-183).

August 2013

              This section depicts the woes that will befall the society in this case human suffering. Failure to elect Putin will lead to continued occupation and invasion of Russia by the outside world with a human crisis such as the wiping out of entire societies such as Cossack militia. This is a move the society is being urged by this section of the video to desist from (Brady 2010, pp156-162).

December 2013

              This section of the video is meant to convince the Russian society that failure to elect Putin will lead to the continued triumph of Russian enemies such as Alex Navalny. The same will receive international accreditation with people such as Navalny being awarded the Nobel peace prize. Navalny is a renowned Putin critic and political opponent thus international celebration of the same will mean Russia’s failure (Baker & Glasser 2007, pp231).

February 2014

              International events such as the Olympics are a source of pride and prestige to the hosting nations. The fact that this section of the video depicts the upcoming winter games characterized by violence with Russia as the designated host is bound to touch each and everyone in the Russia society. The people will fight to see that the same does not occur. As per the planned propaganda in the video, the only way they can do so is by retaining Putin in power. The chaos from the games will also affect the rest of the society in that such amenities as communication channels and electricity will be interrupted. This section thus urges the people to protect the pride of their nation in hosting a successful international event by retaining Putin in power (Arutunyan 2009, pp132).


              There was a timely release of the “Russia without Putin” video to the masses specifically one day before the election. The content as presented in the video relied on the influencing power of propaganda material. The target audience in this case the Russian voters were bound to be moved by the graphic portrayal of the doom that would befall their mother-land without Putin. The same would trigger an emotional cord within the voters in such a way that would enhance Putin’s re-election to power. Thus, the “Russia without Putin” video has all the characteristics of a propaganda material.


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