Author Exploration Paper on Writer”s Biography

Born on December eighteenth, 1870, Hector Hugh Munro was the third child of Charles Augustus Munro, an inspector general in the Burma police. H.H. Munro’s mother, Mary Frances Mercer, was killed a mere two years after her youngest son was born. She was killed by a runaway cow in England (Merriman). After her death, H.H. Munro and his siblings were raised in England by their two aunts and grandmother. These three adults had been typically the inspiration for lots of female characters in Munro’s stories (“A biography of Saki”).

Mrs. DeRopp, in “Srendi Vashtar”, is modelled after his aunt Agnes (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). His aunts were each very strict, they usually often used the birch and whip as a form of punishment. However, if Saki had not faced such harsh trials as a child, his future works won’t have been as rich as they’re today{Subjunctive mode}.

Due to the Munro children’s poor health, they have been pressured to be taught by governesses at residence.

At the age of twelve, H.H. Munro was finally able to attend college in Exmouth and Bedford Grammar. H.H. Munro’s father retired when Hector was sixteen. For a couple of years, the small family traveled the continent before his father organized a submit for him in the Burma police. Munro spent 13 months in Burma. Although sick on multiple events, Munro was able to research Burmese animals, and he even raised a tiger cub throughout his time there(A Biography of Saki”).

In 1984, Munro was compelled to return to England after contracting malaria whereas in Burma.In 1896, Munro begn to put in writing political satires for the Westminster Gazette. These essays had been later collected and published as The Westminster Alice.

In 1902, Munro printed a group of his quick stories, called Not-So Stories. Munro also revealed only one work of great non-fiction referred to as The Rise of the Russian Empire. This was the only piece ever written by Munro to include his real name on the guide jacket. For all of Munro’s different items, nonetheless, Munro’s name was nowhere to be found. Instead, Munro selected to write underneath the pen name of “Saki”. The name Saki can imply certainly one of two issues, either Munro was referring to himself as a breed of monkey, or he noticed himself because the cupbearer of Fitzgerald’s Rubaiyat. It is extra probable that the latter option is true, for Saki had usually expressed his admiration for Fitzgerald’s work (Hitchens){Compound sentence}.

During his lifetime, Saki additionally served as a war correspondent earlier than moving to Paris to write for The Morning Post and a French paper. He briefly revisited England in 1907 when his father became sick and died in May. Saki then opened a membership, The Cocoa Tree, and continued to write down for so much of newspapers and publish his brief stories. When struggle was declared in late 1914, Saki enlisted in the army though he was formally too old{Complex Sentence}. He additionally surprised a lot of his admirers by turning down a number of commissions and insisting that he serve in the trenches, claiming that he couldn’t lead troopers if he didn’t first know tips on how to be one (Hitchens). He continued writing{gerund phrase} whereas in the army about his life on the entrance until November in 1916.

Near the village of Beaumont-Home on the river Somes, Saki was shot by a German sniper. On the verge of a crater, the good storyteller shouted, “Put that bloody cigarette out!” Those were to be the “great Saki’s” final words (Hitchens). Although Saki’s hand would write no more, it is quite clear that Saki’s writing has positively been influenced by his life events. H.H. Munro, or Saki, lived and wrote in the course of the late 1800s and early 1900s. This time period was speckled with various wars and revolutions, and gave start to the world’s first great war. Throughout these main events, Saki was there to witness, document, and ultimately give his life to these skirmishes.

During his life, Saki traveled to the Balkans, Russia, Poland, and France as a foreign correspondent from 1902 to 1908. While in these countries, he witnessed “Bloody Sunday” in St.Petersburg and the Russian Revolution of 1905. He additionally criticized the government for its “inept handling” of the Boer War (Silet). Saki’s many travels allowed him to be uncovered to hardships and dangers that “…did a lot to alter the tone of his work” (Silet). Saki’s travels to Europe also “…introduced him to European Folk Literature” (Silet), a genre that supplied him with both subject material and the darker imaginative and prescient of many of his later fiction.

When not traveling the world, Saki was often found in England, the place he made observations concerning the Edwardian society that he lived in. He later transformed these observations into many brief stories, based mostly on the upsetting of the monotonous routine of on a daily basis life (Silet). However, in course of the end of his life, Saki’s work is darker; there seems to be less humor in his writing as time goes on (Silet).

During this period of his life, a touch of naturalism begins to creep into his writing, almost extinguishing the flickering tongue of humor that was evident in all of his work. Saki’s use of naturalism is very obvious in his later fiction, such as the short stories “Dogged” and “The remoulding of Groby Lingfoughn”(Elahipanah). Although Saki wrote many alternative tales, sometimes utilizing multiple genres, there is no question that the various world events that occurred during Saki’s lifetime greatly influenced Saki’s writing. Saki has usually been called a “master of the short story”(Hitchens). Aside from this title, Saki was also a grasp of satire. Satire is usually witty and ironic, and makes use of fastidiously hidden hints within the text to convey its message.

The style not often attacks specific people, and sometimes makes use of extremes to convey the audience to an consciousness of the danger in a selected society (“Characteristics of Satire”). More specifically, Saki was an Edwardian satirist–he usually made enjoyable of his society, and lots of of his brief stories need to deal with terribly strange events taking place to the ordinary individuals of his social class and time interval (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). Saki’s earlier stories are usually extra humorous; his later tales are darker and extra macabre due to his many experiences with warfare and the darker sides of humanity (Silet). Naturalism, a genre that exhibits the harsher aspect of life and portrays the concept man is powerless against nature{appositive phrase}, is also apparent in some of Saki’s aforementioned later fiction. Many figures from Saki’s childhood (mainly his aunts Agatha and Charlotte) are also used as models for many of Saki’s female characters (Silet).

The traits of satire and and naturalism are both clearly portrayed through Saki’s writing. Saki’s short story “On Approval” consists of lots of the basic traits of satire that are additionally present in Saki’s different works. Having lived in England for a lot of his life, Saki knew the the city properly, and selected London, a city he typically frequented, as the setting for this story (“A Biography of Saki”). Gebhard Knopfschrank, a self-pronounced artist, strikes to London from his small farm to attempt his success at painting. As time goes on, Knopfschrank becomes increasingly poor, hardly ever buying meals. However, one day, Knopfschrank enters his boarding home and gleefully buys “…an elaborate meal that scarcely stopped short of being a banquet.” (“On Approval”).

The other boarders, believing that Knopfschrank has finally offered his his art and been found as a genius, rush to buy Knopfschrank’s ridiculously costly work, eager to purchase his work{infinitive phrase} earlier than their costs increase together with his fame. Later, the boarders understand that Knopfschrank has not bought a single portray in any respect. In reality, a wealthy American has accidentally hit, and killed, many animals again on Knopfschrank’s farm. The American hastily paid “‘…perhaps more than they were value, many occasions more than they’d have fetched out there after a month of fattening, but he was in a hurry to get on to Dantzig.’” (“On Approval”). Saki’s use of satire in this piece is obvious. At the end of the story, Saki, by way of Knopfschrank’s character, ridicules Americans and the way they constantly rush around utilizing money to get out of their problems, saying, “‘…God be thanked for wealthy Americans, who are at all times in a hurry to get someplace else” (“On Approval”).

This basic attack on a specific group of people is a component generally used in satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). This story also makes use of satire in one other way–it may be very ironic. Irony is almost always present in satire “(Characteristics of Satire”). On the final evening of his keep, Knopfschrank sells many of his works, noting “Till to- day I have bought not one of my sketches. To-night you have bought a couple of, because I am going away from you” (“On Approval”). This is an instance of situational irony. Satire is also evident one more method in this piece–Saki writes the story in such a way that he makes the members of the boarding house’s unlucky mistake seem more humorous than tragic, which is a key point of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). Saki also states in the textual content that Knopfschrank “…fancied he may paint and was pardonably anxious to flee from the monotony of rye bread food regimen and the sandy, swine-bestrewn plains of Pomerania” (“On Approval”).

This quote portrays a standard theme that usually seems in a lot of Saki’s writings–the upsetting of everyday routines. The use of Saki’s style satire and his personal connections to the setting of the story are evident Saki’s “On Approval”. Saki’s short story “The Interlopers” has clearly been influenced by Saki’s own life and genre. This tale, which takes place in a small strip of disputed forest, is about two enemies–Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym–who are both out late on a stormy evening, patrolling their borders with their huntsmen, every making an attempt to catch and kill the other. After wandering for a while, the men come nose to nose with each other. Before either can react, however, there was a “…splitting crash over their heads” (“The Interlopers”) and a towering tree {participial phrase[present]} falls and pins each males to the ground.

The two talk for a time, at first buying and selling insults, however their exchanges soon turn out to be a lot kinder as the men start to supply one another their friendship. By the top of the story, the previous enemies have now become associates, and they see dark figures rushing towards them. Believing these figures to be their males, coming to rescue them, the 2 feel that all of their troubles are over, earlier than coming to the startling realization that the varieties, presumed to be their saviors, are literally the issues that might be their deaths–wolves. The story ends with Ulrich letting out “…the idiotic chattering of a man unstrung with worry.” (“The Interlopers”).

This story incorporates many examples of irony, which is each a staple of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”) and a common component in lots of Saki’s different stories. Dramatic irony is proven in the midst of the story, when the 2 enemies, preventing over a chunk of land, are ultimately killed by that land. Irony is portrayed in the story yet once more by having the 2 former enemies finish a century-long household feud mere moments earlier than their own demise. Saki even states within the text that “…if there was a man on the earth whom [Gradwitz] detested and wished unwell to it was Georg Znaeym” (“The Interlopers”). This story also connects to Saki’s private life via the story’s setting. This story takes place in a forest positioned “…somewhere on the japanese spurs of the Carpathians” (“The Interlopers”), an space that Saki visited while touring along with his family (Merriaman). Saki’s “The Interlopers” consists of features of Saki’s life, style, and environment in its telling.

Many totally different sides of Saki’s life and his satire can be present in his brief story “The Lumber-Room”. In this story, a young boy, Nicholas, is banned from the garden and forced to stay at home with his unpleasant aunt as punishment whereas his cousins are taken to the seaside for a trip. While at house, Nicholas manages to pull off an excellent trick on his aunt; he compels her to imagine that he is within the forbidden backyard whereas Nicholas steals the important thing to the mysterious lumber-room. Once contained in the mysterious room, Nicholas explores the room, discovering dozens of prizes. While in this room, Nicholas hears his aunt calling and swiftly runs to her, only to discover that she has fallen into the water tank in the forbidden garden and is trapped inside, calling for assist. Nicholas then explains to his aunt, whom he believes to be “…the Evil One” (“The Lumber-Room”), that he can not assist her because, as a result of rules laid out by her, he’s not allowed to enter the garden.

Nicholas leaves the aunt within the water tank till a maid discovers her. Meanwhile, the opposite aunt and the youngsters return from their go to, which turned out to be disastrous. While sitting at dinner, Nicholas displays on the tapestry that he saw, and speculates that the huntsman should still escape from the wolves along with his hounds. This story shows many different elements of Saki’s own childhood. Saki himself was really raised by his two aunts.

Saki, like Nicholas, also despised two aunts, and infrequently based a lot of his female characters off of them (Hitchens). Saki was a practical joker (“A Biography of Saki”), fairly just like Nicholas in the story. Saki was additionally very keen on animals throughout his lifetime (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”), and displays this love of animals in “The Lumber-Room” by scattering lots of them all through the story. Nicholas finds some of these animals in the lumber room; there are lots of animal-themed objects, and Nicholas soon discovers brass figures formed in the images of “…hump-necked bulls, and peacocks and goblins” (“The Lumber-Room”).

There can also be a wonderful guide depicting colourful birds. Saki exhibits his love of animals by putting them in this “…storehouse of unimagined treasures” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses irony, an important element of satire, in this story as nicely. When Nicholas’s aunt is trapped in the water tank and wishes Nicholas to save lots of her, Nicholas is unable to as a result of she dictated earlier that he was “…not to enter the gooseberry garden” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses each satire and his own life experiences to give this story true life and shade.

The events of Saki’s life are closely apparent in his short story “Sredni Vashtar”. In this story, Conradin, a younger boy{appositive phrase}, is pressured by his sickness to stay with his despised cousin, Mrs. DeRopp. One day, however, Conradin is prepared to smuggle an internecine ferret into the shed by his room. Conradin names this ferret Sredni Vashtar and creates a religion round this feral god. His aunt soon grows suspicious as Conradin begins to spend all of his time within the shed, exhibiting fervid devotion to the gracile ferret. As time goes on, Conradin grows increasingly more obsessed with the ferret, and begins to chant “‘Do one factor for me, Sredni Vashtar.’” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Finally, his aunt goes to investigate the shed, puzzled as to why Conradin finds it so interesting. During her visit to the shed, a scream is heard coming from it. Moments later, a sleek shadow darts off into the night, its maw purple and darkish with Mrs. DeRopp’s blood. This story displays Saki’s personal childhood in many ways.

Saki, like Conradin, was weak when he was young, and was not deemed healthy sufficient to attend faculty till the age of twelve (Hitchens). Conradin also feels that “…without his imagination” (Sredni Vashtar”) he would not have been capable of stay due to”…drawn-out dullness” (“Sredni Vashtar). Saki writes that he typically felt the identical way (Silet). Saki, like Conradin, was additionally confined to the care of an overbearing relative whom he greatly disliked–his aunt, Agatha (Silet). In “Sredni Vashtar, Conradin hates Mrs. DeRopp with “…a desperate sincerity which he was perfectly capable of masks.” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Saki most probably felt this identical means in direction of his own aunts. Mrs. DeRopp is definitely based mostly off of Saki’s despised aunt (Silet).

Clearly, many references to Saki’s early childhood are made in Saki’s “Sredni Vashtar”. Saki’s brief stories, which are often about extraordinary issues happening to extra-ordinary individuals, are as relevant in today’s world as they have been throughout Saki’s own lifetime. Many of Saki’s works make the most of the important thing aspects of each satire and naturalism, completely. Saki uses ironic wit and exaggerated situations to enthrall the reader in his works. This same technique is usually present in political cartoons today. Saki has also used his considerable abilities to affect different authors, similar to P.G. Wodehouse. One well-known actor (Hitchens) that was closely impressed by Saki’s work was the late Noël Coward (Hitchens). While staying at a county home, Coward discovered a duplicate of Beasts and Super Beasts (a collection of Saki’s quick stories) and was captivated by the author’s work (Hitchens). “‘I took it up to my bed room, opened it casually, and was unable to fall asleep until I had finished it’” (Hitchens).

When referring to his own writing, Saki often referred to as it ‘“true sufficient to be fascinating but not true sufficient to be tiresome’” (Hitchens). This view of Saki’s prose is type of clear–although his work primarily focuses on the folks of Saki’s day, the large events that occur to them maintain Saki’s work attention-grabbing and interesting. There is no doubt that Saki was in a position to create imaginative works that captivate the reader, lovely short stories which may be extremely detailed, and unique texts which would possibly be unlike another author’s{Parallel construction}. This makes Saki’s tales attention-grabbing and fun to learn.Saki’s work has definitely been influenced by his private experiences, his environment, and the genre of satire. Saki’s ironic quick tales divulge to his readers his private view on the disturbance of day by day routine, events that also happen quite often today.

An exploration into warehouse facility design and capacity

DHL Warehouse Facility Design

The extra clients that DHL serves in a sure area, the bigger the warehouse in that area should be so as to have enough room to store stock. DHL’s headquarters are located in Germany. DHL is the country’s major worldwide courier. As a results of this, the DHL warehouses located in Germany are some of the largest the company owns to fulfill the nations large customer service levels. DHL solely function non-public warehouses because the corporate serves so many alternative merchandise and industries.

Because of this the organisation must have a higher degree of control over its stock to find a way to guarantee consumers’ wants are fulfilled. By working non-public warehousing, DHL has over time been in a place to cut back the general costs of the company as a end result of constantly attaining optimum utilisation of its inventory.

DHL requires large warehouses as a outcome of excessive service ranges and a broad range of merchandise that the organisation brings into its services on a day by day basis.

As service levels increase, corporations require greater warehousing facilities in order to sustain with client demand and to offer more storage space for its merchandise.

Economies of scale is a big factor affecting the dimensions of the warehouses that DHL decides to build. The extra warehouses that DHL decides to construct, the more constructing materials the organisation needs. Therefore, if the organisation decides that it wants to build one hundred new services throughout Europe by 2020, they’ll purchase the raw materials required to construct these warehouses in bulk.

This in turn will drastically scale back the value of the raw materials because the more the organisation purchases in bulk, the less they pay for the materials.

When deciding on the variety of warehousing services an organisation wants, one must think about numerous elements as outlined by Stock (2001):

· Cost of lost sales

· Inventory costs

· Warehousing costs

· Transportation costs

Cost of lost sales

Cost of misplaced gross sales is outlined as the money misplaced from potential sales for whatever cause. An example of a value of lost sale for DHL can be if the organisation was to ship a phone to a consumer. However, if during transit the telephone have been to interrupt, DHL would due to this fact have to reimburse the shopper for the price of the cellphone which might in the end result in the lack of the sale for that exact system. Lost gross sales are essential to an organisation and they are often tough to calculate as they can differ by company, business, product and customer. In the case of DHL, the price of misplaced sales for the corporate could be extremely difficult to calculate because the number of warehouses the organisation operates is constantly increasing. DHL (2019) notes that the organisation operates 1400 warehouses and places of work worldwide. The value of lost gross sales for every warehouse is very different on account of operating many various varieties of warehouses.

Inventory costs

The more warehouse facilities that an organisation operates, the more expensive the inventory prices are going to be. Inventory costs are one of the most important costs for a logistics firm like DHL. The more warehouses DHL owns, the more inventory costs the corporate has to pay for capital prices, service costs, storage costs and dangers prices. Capital cost is the value of the bodily merchandise saved within the warehouses. As DHL has specific warehouses dedicated to merchandise and industries, the turnover charges are both fast and slow, which requires more space. In DHL’s case, capital prices are the most important parts of inventory price for the organisation. The main cause for it’s because the company operates over 1400 warehouses and workplaces worldwide, the corporate must additionally pay capital prices on each product in all of its services all over the world.

Warehousing Costs

Rushton et al (2017) notes that sustaining and operating warehouses account for roughly 20-30% of logistics prices. The extra warehouses an organisation owns, the more fixed costs they should pay. Fixed costs are the overall business prices corresponding to rent, dealing with gear or government taxes. As DHL operates over 1400 warehouses and offices worldwide, the fixed costs for the organisation are large. An example of how DHL managed to dramatically scale back its warehousing costs is when the corporate merged two warehouses into the one facility. DHL got the duty of improving the supply chain efficiency of a number one medical device company. DHL determined to merge the two warehouses into one facility, they then determined to combine its IT platform with the medical units ERP system. This integration gave the client access to its inventory and provide chain. DHL (2019) explains how the corporate was able to cut back the working footprint in half to virtually 29,000 square ft because of merging the warehouses. By working towards finishing the aims the shopper set, DHL managed to minimize back warehouse prices for the corporate as now they might only have to pay insurance coverage costs and authorities taxes on one warehousing facility, rather then two. This is an instance of why the organisation continues to thrive as one of the world’s leading logistics providers as not only did, they satisfy the customers’ needs however managed to cut back its warehousing costs within the process.

Transportation Costs

Generally, transportation prices decline because the variety of warehousing services increases. Transportation usually amounts to over 40% of most logistics company’s expenses. In DHL’s case, the organisation’s transportation prices are the company’s largest expense yearly. However, they can recuperate the funds spent on transporting the products to clients via the delivery and transport charges they charge. According to Frazelle (2018) the overall goal in transportation must be to connect sourcing places and clients at the lowest cost. DHL are capable of achieve this aim because of having so many warehousing amenities positioned all internationally which means that merchandise by no means have to journey too far to succeed in the shopper as there are sufficient warehouses to fulfill buyer calls for and in turn minimizes transportation costs. The company pays much less on transporting items as a outcome of the automobiles spend less time travelling to warehouses. This is an effective example of why having a vast variety of warehouses advantages DHL as they save money on transportation prices.

Capacity Management

Capacity management is guaranteeing that a enterprise maximises its production output beneath any situations. Successful organisations will thrive to work to the most effective of their abilities to have the ability to fulfill shoppers which in flip will make more income for the corporate. For an organisation to maximise their capacity administration, they must have the ability to perceive modifications in product demand. Slack et al (2016) states that seasonal intervals are one of the main causes for modifications in demand for services. Changes in certain merchandise calls for occur because of what season is arising. DHL put together for this by ordering greater than enough inventory and having security inventory of products to deal with any potential provide shortages. Measuring capacity utilisation supplies an perception for firms into how well the business is using its sources. Capacity utilisation permits businesses to judge their performance based mostly on the process’s maximum capability.

Capacity utilisation may be calculated as:

Capacity Utilisation = Actual Output

Design Capacity

While DHL will purpose to run at full capacity throughout all of its operations, it will prove very tough as the company will eventually run into issues at some point. Examples of avoidable causes for DHL: Error in order picking, low ranges of inventory, damage to inventory and so on. Examples of unavoidable causes for DHL: deliberate maintenance of dealing with tools, unexpected weather circumstances and so forth.

Measuring of warehouse performance and productiveness is essential for an organisation like DHL. Just as a outcome of an organisation is performing well financially, doesn’t mean that its maximising its productiveness ranges. It is essential for all businesses to monitor their warehouse efficiency so that enhancements could be made. Many logistics corporations use KPI’s (Key performance Indicators) to monitor warehouse efficiency. Listed under, are the four key high quality indicator for warehouse efficiency as outlined by Frazelle (2002):

· Putaway accuracy

· Inventory accuracy

· Picking accuracy

· Shipping accuracy

DHL needed to ship correct and automated inventory monitoring to have the ability to maximise the organisations capacity administration. Intel (2019) notes that DHL tested an Intel based mostly RFID inventory and monitoring solution. The objective of implementing this method at one of its main facilities was to improve inventory visibility and accuracy, while lowering capital and operating prices. RFID tags are utilized to the outside of each product. The objects are then enter into the system and positioned into large trolleys. The trolleys are then saved away earlier than they are moved into the put-away station. The objects are then taken out of the trolley and placed on a conveyor belt. As the gadgets cross down the conveyor belts, Intel sensors scan the RFID tags and the objects are offloaded and ready for delivery. While trialling this method, DHL recorded all the information of the assorted products scanned by the Intel sensors. DHL found while utilizing these sensors that stock and picking accuracy improved drastically as a result. When orders are first scanned by the intel compute device, the information is enter into the system. When the objects finally move on the conveyor belt the sensors scan the gadgets a second time. This acts almost as a reassurance for DHL that it’s the identical product being scanned twice which helps get rid of error so as choosing. This data can then be accessed by staff whose job it is to ship the products for supply. By implementing this new RFID system, DHL were in a place to cut back human error throughout the availability chain, while also succeeding in aiming to maximise the organisations capability management.

An Exploration of Individualism as Described by Alexis de Tocqueville in Democracy in America

The traditional work Democracy In America by Alexis de Tocqueville has been the explanation for scholarly pursuit in addition to strife inside that very same community. Through a brief examination of this textual content, a quantity of of Tocqueville’s arguments helped to outline lots of the constructs that made America what it was as well as those who have led to what it has turn out to be today. Of the many themes and ideas offered by Tocqueville, his ideas on individualism struck the loudest chord with me.

Tocqueville describes America as a society of joiners because of the reality that it is a nation virtually entirely composed of immigrants. This, along with the pursuit and promise of “equality of conditions” that Americas touted as an unofficial theme, introduced residents from many courses collectively in closer proximity and relation. Although this feels like a great factor, Tocqueville argued that with this mixing of social classes and elevated opportunity individuals would isolate themselves, “bond of human affections is extended and loosened” (p.

483). As folks gained wealth and left behind the every day wrestle to survive many sought out education and as a result of this enlightenment developed the “habit of always contemplating themselves in isolation” (p. 484).

This individualism is likened to selfishness by Tocqueville however he is careful to level out that he does not imagine that it is the similar factor. He does this by describing selfishness as “a passionate and exaggerated love of self that causes man to narrate everything to himself alone,” and individualism as “a reflective and peaceful sentiment that disposes every citizen to .

. . withdraw to a minimal of one aspect with his family and friends” (p. 482). The means in which individualism caused folks to separate from society with only their friends and family triggered a problem, in that, by doing so a public conscience cannot be established. Individualism results in a slowdown of democratic culture and the results in such “fabric of time is torn at every moment and the hint of generations is effaced” (p. 483). If persons are not careful equality of situations can, over time, make “each man forget his ancestors . . . and threatens lastly to restrict him wholly in the solitude of his own heart” (p. 484).

Tocqueville goes on to say, “all the passions that equality provides birth to or favors, there might be one . . . that it sets within the hearts of all men on the identical time: the love of well-being” (p. 422). Unfortunately this type of passion usually manifests itself as an uncontrollable desire to amass wealth and materials issues. “The style for material enjoyments, should be thought of the first supply of this secret restiveness revealed within the actions of Americans and of the inconstancy of which they give every day examples” (p. 512). Although this sort of materialistic pursuit of wealth might seem like true freedom for some, Tocqueville argues that it is actually the manifestation of the middle class American’s overwhelming fear of death. “He who has confined his heart solely to the search for the products of this world,” Tocqueville observes, “is always in a hurry. . . . In addition to the products that he possesses, at every prompt he imagines a thousand others that demise will prevent him from having fun with if he doesn’t hasten” (p. 512). Equality of situations awakens the internal feeling of hope and happiness in all folks, but unchecked theses feelings can result in an all consuming obsession with one’s own mortality that ignites and hinders ardour which leads to “unceasing trepidation” compelling an individual to “change his designs and his place at each moment” (p. 512).

Tocqueville then goes on to describe an America where the individualism described above results in a need for materialistic wealth that “disposes males to imagine that all is nothing but matter” (p. 519). He talks about how this can lead to an American society that emphasizes improvement of “the items of the body” (p. 521) and disregards the development of the thoughts and care of the soul. Tocqueville qualifies these statements by making the claim that there is not a different nation that’s “less occupied with philosophy than the United States” (p. 403). It is each profound and fascinating that Tocqueville saw this taking place in his time because it has actually continued and grown since then. The epidemic of people, just like the Kardashians, becoming celebrities for doing nothing completely illustrates what he describes as “minds so disposed, each new method that leads to wealth by a shorter path . . . each discovery that facilitates pleasures and augments them seems to be probably the most magnificent effort of human intelligence” (p. 436).

These observations lead to another necessary point of Tocqueville’s, the lack of knowledge and allowance for the “profound, gradual work” (p. 435) of ones personal mind. During his travels Tocqueville found few individuals that would take the time to develop a true passion and want for introspection and contemplation. It is because of this that America finally gave start to philosophy and the practice of pragmatism solely serves to illustrate what Tocqueville described as America’s “unparalleled vitality toward application” (p. 437). This “unparalleled energy” is what led to the practice of planned obsolescence and why it is an ever growing a half of daily life in America. With the rapid advancement of technology it is not unheard of for a computer or different system to be out of date inside weeks. Although the system was totally different, Tocqueville noticed this phenomenon when talking with a sailor, “art of navigation makes such fast progress daily that probably the most lovely ship would soon become almost ineffective if its existence were prolonged beyond a couple of years” (p. 428). Rapid development, along with the population’s desire for the “latest and greatest” compelled craftsman “to make many imperfect things very rapidly” (p. 441) simply to satisfy demand. Even language in America changed and commenced to reflect this “industrial taste”(p. 435)

With the ever rising emphasis that was placed on progress and software it’s not surprising that the purity of the arts have been affected as nicely. Tocqueville described the greatest way in which artwork and artists in America couldn’t escape the desire to be related when he talked about how the work turned from depicting “sentiments and ideas” to “emotions and sensations” (p. 442). The embodiment of this, based on Tocqueville, is greatest illustrated by America’s obsession with theatre, which he considered “most pure to democratic peoples” (p. 467). He goes on to say “Most of those that attend the acting on the stage don’t seek pleasures of the thoughts, however vigorous feelings of the center. They don’t look ahead to finding a piece of literature however a spectacle” (p. 467 / 468). This is the direct consequence to and results of the “practical, contested, and monotonous” (p. 448) lives that were created due to the emphasis that was positioned on the materialistic growth we discussed earlier. Through television and movie, this type of spectacle, which Tocqueville criticized and ascribed to democratic societies, has reached a degree of cultural relevance and depravity that he might have by no means predicted.

Tocqueville believed that a powerful and flourishing democratic society might domesticate, within the spirit of its folks, a consciousness of the fragile stability between the finite quantity of material items this world has to offer and the overwhelming have an effect on of an “exalted and almost fierce spiritualism” (p. 510). Throughout the examination of Tocqueville’s words it turned clear that greatest threat to America just isn’t foreign enemies or the federal government, the greatest threat to America are it’s residents. Only through understanding and the abandonment of the selfish apply of individualism will America survive.

An exploration of the way Shakespeare presents Claudius to the audience

The title of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, would at first suggested its eponymous hero, Hamlet, is the major character. However, in a way the entire play evolves across the character and actions of Claudius. Shakespeare has offered Claudius in a phrase as a “smiling damned villain”, whose greed and selfishness paved the way to his tragic killing of the King. This sums up Claudius excellently, as he has two sides to him, one the general public side, “smiling” and the opposite the non-public aspect “damned villain”.

Claudius starts his opening speech as king by saying, “Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother’s death” (Act I Scene II, Line1) which creates the impression that his brother’s dying upsets him, but later it is revealed that he was the trigger of it. This links in with the theme of “seeming and being”, where it appears that he’s grieving however is definitely not. Shakespeare has used “seeming and being” repeatedly to level out the audience that, deception is doubtless certainly one of the major components of the play: “My words fly up, my thoughts remain under phrases with out thoughts by no means to heaven go.

” (Act III Scene V, Lines 97-8), This is Claudius’ confession the place he methods the viewers and Hamlet into believing he needs forgiveness, however then discover out it isn’t true. This is further highlighted when Claudius is speaking to Hamlet: “here within the cheer and luxury of our eye”(Act I Scene II, Line116). Again it seems as if Claudius is being caring and needs to take care of him, in a method like a father would, however he has said this very cleverly and in actuality implies that he wants to keep an ‘eye’ on him.

By utilizing the

Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School phrases ‘comfort’ and ‘cheer’, Claudius is seen to be passionate and genuine, and the way Shakespeare has presented him to be this expert politician is crucial to his character, as he makes use of his wit to get himself out of awkward conditions. Claudius in several parts of the play uses the word ‘our’ to govern individuals. In this case, it seems as though he means for him and Gertrude to maintain and eye on Hamlet, however in actuality he could perhaps be implying, if Hamlet was to do something incorrect the entire state could be a witness.

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Claudius very cleverly makes use of the term ‘our’ once more at the finish of the play: “our son shall win”(Act V Scene II, Line 190), which gives the look that Hamlet and Claudius have settled their issues. He has very cleverly switched his perspective from ‘your son’ to ‘our son’ as the play progresses, purely due to his public look. Also he could have maybe said this so that when Hamlet dies he wouldn’t be a suspect, as he appears so genuine and loving towards Hamlet. When Claudius says ‘your son’, he often says it when he has done something mistaken, and implies “it is your son your problem”.

The picture of heaven and God is usually associated to Claudius, not referring to him as a God, however Hamlet makes use of his father to make daring Claudius’ lustful character when he says: “so excellent a king, that was to this Hyperion to a satyr. ” (Act I Scene II Line 139 and 140) Here Hamlet very precisely sums up Claudius in comparability to his father as a end result of a Hyperion was an excellent sun-god of classical mythology; a satyr was a creature half man half goat. Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School.

The proven truth that Hamlet refers Claudius to a goat is efficient as a end result of the goat is seen to be a very lusty animal, and this info together with lots of other quotes: “incestuous and adulterous beast”, (Act I Scene V Line 42) “a serpent stung me” (Act I Scene V, Line 36) provides the viewers an animalistic perception of him. The proven reality that Shakespeare has stated ‘serpent stung’ is ironic as a serpent can’t sting and this makes the quote stand out, as it is eye-catching and alliteration is used here, and the image of a snake or reptile instantly involves thoughts.

Also, the sibilance here is a ‘s’, which is a connotation of evil. Claudius is once more in contrast with God, when Polonius is speaking to Claudius, he says: “I maintain my obligation as I hold my soul, each to my God and my gracious king. ” (Act II Scene II, Line 44 and 45), as a result of he makes use of God’s name in the identical sentence because the king’s is ironic because in the past the king was seen to be appointed by God, therefore anything a king was to say had to be obeyed. This is ironic as a result of, in this situation Claudius did not inherit the throne the pure means, and needed to commit a vile murder of his own brother to get it.

This once extra shows his greed and selfishness, as he killed his brother to inherit his possessions: “My crown, mine personal ambition, and my queen” (Act III Scene III, Line 55). He has worded this sentence, mentioning his crown first, implying it means the most to him, and then on the finish his queen, which shows he doesn’t care as a lot about her nevertheless it does show that he has some feelings for her although he’s portrayed as this selfish character. Repetition is used right here, and this sentence stands out and reveals Claudius’ greed as all he is saying is ‘my, my, my’.

Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School Shakespeare uses repetition an excellent deal in Claudius’ speech, and in this case he makes use of it to outline Claudius’ intelligence, like several politician, he makes use of rhetoric as a method to manipulate people: “your father lost a father, that father lost” (Act I Scene II, Line 89 and 90), right here he is attempting to steer Hamlet that it’s all part of the circle of life. This is necessary as it outlines his guilt that Hamlet is grieving for his father a lot, and in a means is making an attempt to make him stop mourning to make himself feel higher.

He even digs so low as he says to Hamlet, you grieving so much is a sin: “’tis a fault to heaven, a fault in opposition to the useless, a fault to nature” (Act I Scene II, Line one hundred and one – 2). Moreover, he again provides himself away unconsciously as he tries so exhausting to make Hamlet cease grieving. Shakespeare has offered Claudius as a skilled politician in this sentence as a result of once more he structures it in three elements, and once more repetition is used, to make bold the principle point he is making an attempt to get throughout; your grieving is incorrect. Claudius additionally makes use of Hamlet’s vulnerability as a chance to point out his energy.

He refers to Hamlet as being weak and fragile: “A coronary heart unfortified, a thoughts impatient, An understanding easy and unschool’d” (Act I Scene II, Line ninety six and 97). The incontrovertible fact that he has used the phrases ‘unfortified’ and ‘impatient’, makes this sentence extra fascinating as a end result of he reveals his energy and intelligence by degrading Hamlet. He says he lacks persistence and may be very weak, and just isn’t educated. Claudius is portrayed by Shakespeare, to take benefit of all conditions together with his language. In this case, he makes use of very unfavorable phrases and the effect is it reveals him in energy over Hamlet.

Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School His energy can also be proven in his opening speech as king. Here Shakespeare has confirmed him as very highly effective and in control by dealing with all his issues one-by-one. This is a very structured speech and it creates a robust impression on the audience as they see him as a person of management. “What wouldst thou beg, Laertes that shall not be my provide not thy asking? “(Act I Scene II, Line forty five and 46) Here he is simply displaying off his energy saying what can you ask for that I won’t already offer. Shakespeare has added this part in to make him seem passionate and a loyal king.

Again, look and reality comes into play, as it appears as thought he is doing it to assist Laertes, but could maybe be doing it to show his energy. The theme of seeming and being again reoccurs as Claudius is confessing, the place he is seen to be legitimate, however again says things he doesn’t mean: “My phrases fly up my ideas remain beneath, phrases without thoughts never to heaven go. ” (Act III Scene V, Line 97 and 98) Claudius’ deceit is portrayed right here, as he is asking for forgiveness but he doesn’t imply it, he can’t even be truthful whilst in prayer.

This could have been an act of fright from Claudius as he’s now conscious that Hamlet is aware of the reality. This scene could be very vital because it shows Claudius for his true colours, a coward. His character is now becoming more apparent to the audience, who now have something to construct upon. Rhyming couplets is used here, and Shakespeare uses this so much on the end of lengthy speeches or scene’s and is used as a type of cue level, to let the opposite characters aware of when to come in. This line may be proven in many various methods. In the Kenneth Branagh version, Claudius is in a catholic confession field, with some low

Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School melancholy music in the background, and the camera is slowly zooming in on his face. Which creates a extra dramatic impact and a more private tone, and when this line is due, he does not say it however thinks it. In the Franco Zefereli version he is in front of a cross. Franco Zaferelli similarly uses a cross symbolising the same non secular that means as the confessional. Claudius’ change in character is again shown via his confession speech. A different side to him is proven, maybe as a outcome of he is now conscious that Hamlet is conscious of the truth, and now asks for forgiveness.

“Is there not rain enough in the candy heavens to clean it white as snow? “(Act III Scene V, Line 46) The language on this sentence could be very powerful as Claudius makes use of natural elements, ‘rain’ and ‘snow’, to outline his sin. Claudius’ graphic description of his sin is robust evidence, and his desire to temptation leaves him tormented by his guilty conscience. Also, as a outcome of Claudius makes use of the color white, it makes him seem more pure and responsible, as white is a connotation of purity, and a blank slate. In the Branagh version, he whispers this line and the viewers see him as being trustworthy and this impact is it makes him seem more apologetic.

Although Claudius is portrayed as this corrupted villain, his character is broad open to interpretation. In a way that though he killed his brother to marry Gertrude, he nonetheless has sturdy feelings for her: “She is so conjunctive to my life and soul That, as the star moves not but in his sphere, I could not buy her”(Act V Scene VII, Line 14-16). Here Claudius uses the earth and the planets to state his love for Gertrude, and implies that without her he would not be succesful of do something. Although Shakespeare has Pritesh Kotecha Greenford High School.

presented him to have robust feelings towards Gertrude, his greed and selfishness overrule his love for her: “Gertrude don’t drink… [aside] It is the poison’d cup. It is just too late. “(Act V Scene II, Lines 294… 296) Just as a outcome of he desires to get his own means, he jeopardizes her life and all through the play, his actions lead to the demise of seven harmless individuals, as a outcome of he can’t resist his temptation and has to cover up his crime. In conclusion, Claudius is portrayed as a good king with bad qualities. Although he does have some good features as king, him being intellectual and powerful, his bad qualities over weigh his good.

In a sense that, he is grasping and selfish, putting his own need first, and going to any limits to achieve his goal. Shakespeare has offered him excellently, “with witchcraft of his wit”(Act I Scene V, Line 43) permitting him to conceal his true colors, aside from when he repented and confessed to God. Throughout the play, Shakespeare makes use of one good quote to define his character as; “smiling damned villain”(Act I Scene V, Line 106), as it reveals that he has two sides to him in each way, private and non-private, caring and egocentric, and cleaver however not very clever.

An Exploration of the Fear of Losing Reputation

An exploration of the concern of shedding popularity throughout the Salem Society. Good afternoon, today I shall be presenting my IOP. I have chosen to base it upon Arthur Millers’ novel ‘The Crucible’, which references back to the Salem Witch trials in 1692. There are many themes in Arthur Miller’s ‘The Crucible’, like intolerance, empowerment, honor, hysteria and paranoia, legal affairs, corresponding to accusations and confessions in addition to a number of references to McCarthyism. However the theme of reputation was solely vaguely explored, however but, it performs such a big essential role within the play.

This leads me to my presentation subject. CLICK) Reputation: or to be precise, an exploration of the worry of dropping popularity inside the Salem Society. In today’s presentation I hope to additional explore and develop Arthur Miller’s concepts and interpretations on the loss of status. What is Reputation? So to start with what’s Reputation. (CLICK) Reputation, as acknowledged by the Oxford Dictionary, is the belief or opinion that’s usually held about somebody or one thing, or a widespread perception that somebody or something has a specific behavior or characteristic.

Honor: Before we will isolate status, we now have to understand that there are an entire lot of things that tie in with popularity.

One of the extra apparent ones is honor,(CLICK) or what you know about your self. There is a direct hyperlink between reputation and honor. If one chooses to save tons of his honor or status, it’ll affect the other, negatively in most cases.

An example is: Early on within the story John Proctor confessed to having intimate moments with Abigail Williams, subsequently tainting his personal status but doing the thing which is honorable. Confessing. Here, he chose honor over reputation; he’d rather have a clean conscience (what he knew about himself) than a good reputation (what others knew about him).

After being accused of witchcraft, his dilemma was whether or not to confess to what he didn’t do or die at the rope. This time he didn’t confess. Once once more he selected the honorable thing to do. Dying for what he believed in. In some eyes, his status was made even worse as a outcome of he died an “unrepentant sinner” or as somebody who was shameless of what he has carried out in his life, by this I imply the act of adultery. However, I’m positive some saw him as a martyr, so in a method he was saving his reputation as nicely. What is Theocracy? But before diving deeper into the matter, I wish to introduce the concept of theocracy. CLICK) In Salem at the time, the status of a person was heavily influenced by theocracy, which is a system of government during which clergymen rule in the name of a god. Reputation closely relied on how an individual stood towards god and the church. If a person was true to the church their status was most likely well preserved and untarnished. Since this is a Puritan society, it took issues concerning the church very significantly. The novel itself depicts two views and positions in the direction of the church and god. This is shown perfectly within the line spoken by Judge Thomas Danforth in Act 3 on Page eighty five.

A person is both with this court or he must be counted towards it, there be no road in between Act III, Pg: eighty five The decide is portrayed selfish and extremely loyal to the principles and regulations of his position throughout the novel. His reputation and the public’s opinion of him are most essential to him. There is not a lot to the quote other than it being an example of theocracy. He emphasizes the truth that one should make his thoughts up how they stand to the church and can’t sit on the fence, and never ebb back and forth between towards and for it.

The quote sums up the perspective of the authorities towards the witch trials. Danforth is an honorable man, however, like everyone else in Salem, he sees the world in black and white, meaning he seems at things in a really shallow method and doesn’t see the significance in on the lookout for deeper which means. Everything and everyone belongs to both God or the Devil. The court of Salem, was thought-about blessed and sacred and was God’s means of interacting with humans in a theocracy, one can not have honest disagreements because God is considered to be flawless and at all times proper.

Since the courtroom is conducting the witch trials and representing god, anybody who questions the trials, such as Proctor or Giles Corey, is the court’s enemy. From right here on, the logic is easy: the courtroom does God’s work, and an enemy of the court docket should due to this fact be a servant of the Devil. (CLICK) Importance of Reputation in Salem: Reputation is tremendously essential in theocratic Salem, as a result of ones private life and moralities are the identical as their publics. In an surroundings the place popularity performs such an important position, the fear of guilt by associating with folks of plans that oppose the church was very big.

Many persons are focused on sustaining a great public popularity. Many of the parents in Salem worry that the sins of their friends and associates will taint their names. Various characters base their actions on the desire to guard their respective reputations. For example as the play begins, Parris fears that Abigail’s increasingly questionable actions and the hints of witchcraft surrounding his daughter’s coma, will threaten his reputation and drive him to stop is job, to which I will come later. The protagonist, John Proctor, also seeks to keep his good name from being tarnished.

Early within the play, he has an opportunity to put a stop to the girls’ accusations, however his need to protect his reputation retains him from testifying in opposition to Abigail. At the end of the play, nevertheless, Proctor’s want to keep his good name leads him to make the heroic alternative not to signal the false confession and to go to his demise without signing his name on the made up confession, which contrasts with his unique plan to uncover the pretence of the girls. The Fear of dropping one’s status: In the novel, there are two main characters, which face the concern of shedding or tainting their reputation publicly.

These are John Proctor (CLICK) and Samuel Parris (CLICK). Now I will be exhibiting proof of how their status and the concern of its loss are shown. Parris The main concern that Parris has is dropping his place in society and having people not respect him anymore. He is the minister for the town, which was an important position in the Puritan society. As such, he is in a very visible position to everybody. (CLICK) Thomas, Thomas, I pray you, leap to not witchcraft. I know that you- least of all you, Thomas- would ever want so disastrous a cost laid upon me.

We can not leap to witchcraft. They will how me out of Salem for such corruption of my home. Act I, Pg: 22 This quote is solely dedicated to level out Parris’s fear of losing his standing and status in the village. When his daughter seems to be all paralyzed and persons are saying it’s witchcraft, he becomes very apprehensive. If the town minister’s daughter is involved in witchcraft, or is even possessed by Satan for some other purpose, the minister is going to look dangerous and people are not going to respect him anymore.

We also can see that he’s actually involved about his picture and reputation as a result of he gets so offended when Putnam and others say anything dangerous about him or insinuate anything to do with witchcraft Proctor It’s hard to stray on this question and never come to John Proctor’s reproach of the Puritan society and pleas for his personal reputation. When confronted with the selection of signing a false confession or accepting dying because of telling the truth, John Proctor speaks these traces. (CLICK) “I have given you my soul; depart me my name”

Act IV Pg: 124 You won’t discover another and more passionate line about the need to defend one’s popularity. Proctor speaks these traces on the end of the play, in Act IV, on web page 124, when he is fighting along with his conscience over whether or not to admit to witchcraft and thereby save himself from the gallows. The judges and Hale have virtually satisfied him to take action, and all that’s preserving him from freedom is his signature on the confession, which shall be posted on the church for everyone to see, tarnishing his name. CLICK) This refusal reflects his want to not dishonor his fellow prisoners. He wouldn’t be able to stay with himself figuring out that other innocents died while he knocked on death’s door and received away. More essential, it illustrates his obsession together with his good name. Proctor’s need to protect his one and solely good name retains him from testifying. It seems he has additionally finally come to the understanding of what a good reputation means and what course, and what actions are necessary for it. The most blatant one would be to inform the reality, and never lie to avoid wasting him from the rope. CLICK) By saying ‘I have given you my soul’, he refers to his confession earlier on within the play about committing lechery. There is nothing purer than a soul, as it is the core of an individual, stripped from all its layers of lies and pretence. He has finally come clean of the crime that has been plaguing him for such a very long time. (CLICK) He thinks that sufficient injury was done to his reputation by confessing to adultery, and does not need to tarnish his name any further by confessing to something he did not do. (CLICK)

Another quote from John Proctor is (CLICK), in Act four on page 118, when he says. I can’t mount the gibbet like a saint. It is a fraud. I am not that man. [She is silent. ] My honesty is broke, Elizabeth; I am no good man. Nothing’s spoiled by giving them this lie that were not rotten long earlier than. Act IV, Pg: 118 (CLICK)This quote is drenched subliminal references to reputation as nicely as honesty, as that is also the primary time he has been honest to his spouse outdoors of court docket, because the start of the play. The word ‘mount’ represents a voluntary action. He can’t face the rope like a saint.

Saint referring to Rebecca nurse, who has lived as much as settle for her fate and is already ‘1 foot in heaven’, and that he can by no means be as a lot of a ‘man’ as she is. ‘It is a fraud’ reveals the knowledge of what’s occurring and fraud refers again to the situation as an entire, and the way none of this should have ever occurred, and its all because of a few girls pretending, therefore the word fraud, to be possessed by spirits. The stage instructions of ‘She is silent’, indicate Elizabeth proctor silently agreeing to her husbands talk, however she can also be too afraid of him to answer, and feels like they’re rising further part ever since his confession. John Proctor feels that he is ‘no good man’ as a outcome of he broke one of many Ten Commandments. Conclusion: In conclusion, I consider that the theme of reputation plays a major role in ‘The Crucible’. Parris and Proctor have completely different motifs, in terms of reputation. Ones tries to preserve his, whereas the opposite is fonder of his honor and the households name quite than his status, though both worry the loss of status, it simply that Proctor has partially come to terms with the consequence.

However in today’s society I personally truly consider that reputation doesn’t maintain as a lot power as it used to. For instance if a lady in the household was pregnant with out being married, the entire household was thought of incorrect and soiled. In current instances, women like these even have the prospect to boost their reputation, by taking part in MTV’s sixteen and Pregnant and putting on a great present. Like I said, that is simply an instance, and a few individuals could not agree with me. But nonetheless in fashionable society, status is still an aspect by which we determine and label individuals.

Age of Exploration

The Renaissance brought an array of adjustments to the European continent. New improvements in the fields of science, math, arts, and literature had been sparked during this time interval. With the expansion of humanism, secularism, and individualism, a spirit of curiosity and journey developed amongst Europeans. As new improvements and ideas have been forming through the Renaissance, it gave humans the power to explore and travel to different parts of the world. The improvement of the compass, the lateen, and the astrolabe, coupled with a greater understanding of the geography of the world, allowed Europeans to raised navigate the oceans.

With the development of gunpowder, humans had been also able to protect themselves as they traveled. The development of technology played a key position in the Age of Exploration, however, the first factors that began the surge had been because of spiritual, economical, and social pursuits of energy. An essential factor for the surge in exploration in Europe may be linked to the need to spread Christianity.

The monarchs of both Spain and Portugal financed their expeditions with the goal of spreading Catholicism to the New World. The basis of Catholicism is to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ.

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Even Columbus himself had religious beliefs while making his journey to search out new lands. Columbus “believed he was a divine agent: ‘God made me the messenger of the model new heaven and the new Earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. John…and he showed me the post the place to seek out it’ “ (McKay 499). Explorers Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da Gama additionally had spiritual aspirations as they looked for a trade route to India.

On each expedition, a quantity of missionaries have been introduced along in order to assist convert the natives of the land to the Christian religion.

It was not solely curiosity that led to the exploration of the new world, however as an alternative dreams of riches, lands, and commerce. After the Black Death that decimated the inhabitants of Europe, Europe started to see a huge population development across the continent. For instance, in France alone the inhabitants doubled within the interval from 1450 to 1550. As the population grew, so did the need for items and assets. The calls for for spices similar to pepper, cinnamon, and cloves had been growing amongst the European inhabitants.

The want for silks, precious gems, gold and silver, and other luxuries led to a want to extend trade in Europe. As Europeans tried to obtain more goods, they appeared in the course of different countries to fulfill their demands. For example, explorers Vasco da Gama and Bartholomew Dias each sailed so as to find a much quicker commerce route to India that would keep away from touring by way of the Ottoman Empire. Columbus also set sail to discover a quicker trade route to Asia earlier than accidentally landing in present-day North America.

By finding a direct trade route to Asia, Europeans were also in a place to accumulate extra revenue while trading. They had been in a position to eliminate Italy as the “middle man” and had the chance to obtain direct pricing from Asian countries. As a half of this exploration course of, slavery started to expand as properly. Slavery, up so far, was not a common apply amongst Christian Europeans as a result of they did not consider in enslaving other Christians. As the explorers found new lands, the natives grew to become a new supply for slaves corresponding to, Western Africa.

Slavery was not a main motive initially of the surge in exploration; nevertheless, it boosted the financial system and later became an integral part of the labor force, which spurred on further exploration. The pursuit of glory was another goal within the Age of Exploration. Exploration provided an opportunity to achieve honor for one’s country and king. As Europeans got here to comprehend the amount of undiscovered lands and territories available, they started to become very interested in growing their empires by colonizing foreign lands.

Land is a very important resource alone however many of those new lands had pure assets that would supply an financial growth for their nations, in addition to improve their country’s world presence and power. These new lands offered opportunities for all citizens, even the poor who looked for a new start. With the invention of the printing press, stories of successful voyages spread all through Europe. News of exploration sparked the curiosity of citizens who had been on the lookout for adventure, wealth, and alternatives to alter their world while Monarchy’s would use exploration to increase their area of energy.

Exploration was a harmful enterprise. The risk of drowning, illness, assault, and starvation loomed at every turn. The rewards had to outweigh the dangers concerned. Since exploration was a expensive endeavor, a motivated explorer needed to discover the backing of a powerful monarchy or authorities to finance their voyage. It is known that an explorer had to have the know-how to explore different continents, nonetheless, the flexibility to explore alone isn’t the principle impetus in the Age of Exploration.

China, for instance, had many of these applied sciences before Europe, nevertheless didn’t see the need to colonize foreign lands, increase their nation’s wealth, or convert foreigner’s to their faith. Europeans, then again, were extremely motivated to explore for the needs of economic growth, Christian conversion, and increasing energy and prestige by way of colonization. Works Cited McKay, John P, et al. A History of Western Society. New York, New York. HoughtonMifflin Company, 2008. Print.

A Trip To Moon and Its Exploration

In the times before Apollo 11, the moon was a objective, a target to be achieved to win the realm race. This is how the moon has always been handled, as a goal, not a beginning point. After the Apollo missions, no person has returned, we have really turned our eyes somewhat to Mars and different worlds. The moon offers individuals a unbelievable useful resource: space expedition without taking a trip outrageous ranges. 2 separate Mars crafts have been ruined. This failure perhaps could have been avoided by utilizing the moon as our stepping stone to different planets and past.

The moon has actually not been totally studied, nor has it been used to the utmost of our powers. If NASA and other space companies would use the moon to technique and put together for future aims, it might significantly enhance their alternatives of success.

The moon has all the time been something of a mystery. In ancient times, it was worshipped as a god. A couple hundred years in the past male believed it was manufactured from cheese.

When John F. Kennedy supplied the problem to go to the moon, it ended up being a objective. In current day it is believed of as dominated. The moon’s puzzle is only half resolved and already we bypass it to the following issue. The moon might be utilized experiment fairly cheaply with craft whose last destination was Mars. This would significantly cut-down on expense of speculative costs and cost of failures.

The moon could likewise be utilized to follow mining operations in low gravity, and overseas worlds.

If we discover resources on one other world, training will then begin for astronauts, possibly to late. If we make the most of the moon as a training/experimenting zone then we may be prepared for the longer term. The moon is an out there goal for humans, we know we can ship manned craft there. The moon is the optimum training faculty for any such coaching operations.

The moon may be the key that unlocks the mystery of settlements on different planets. Suppose the world becomes overcrowded, experiences an ice age, or nuclear struggle. Where will people go? Mars has been pointed to as the answer. This accounts for part of the fascination with mars; however, two craft have did not get to mars. If we’re to set up a colony on one other planet, why not apply on the moon. The moon is accessible, easier to get to, and to not mention days, not months, away. A colony on the moon might simply be deserted, and the colonists head for home with minimal provides or preparations. Whereas with Mars, food would must be rationed, packed for the a quantity of month journey home. The moon can act as a testing floor for extra-terrestrial colonies.

The moon is perfect for many forms of experimentation. It has been bypassed swiftly as a summit already reached, a mountain already climbed. Instead of being noticed as an ideal analysis and improvement center, it has been discarded. The moon may prepare us for the lengthy run, educate us about our past, or tell us tips on how to survive the present. It has been to readily forgotten, allow us to return to the “New World,” as those who adopted Columbus did, lots of of years in the past.

Breaking Binaries in The Odyssey: An Exploration The New Woman in The Penelopiad

In the Homeric Epic, women are cast into one of two dichotomous roles: that of the wise and faithful or that of the foolish and disloyal. However in Atwood’s The Penelopiad these roles are deconstructed such that they become fluid as opposed to concrete—such that the women do not wholly occupy one role or the other but rather move on a balance beam between the two, sometimes leaning nearer to one lateral or the other but never resting on the end points of either side.

In the unfettered world of The Penelopiad, woman are granted the voices that they are denied in The Odyssey; they are free to weave their own epic stories of cunning, captivity, danger, victory, and failure. The Penelopiad therefore gives rise to a “new” woman who is not bound by Homeric conventions that confine reader to a singular understanding of The Odyssey and its characters; rather Atwood unveils a myriad of possibilities, explanations, and motivations behind the events of The Odyssey as they are imagined by Homer.

Our minds are opened to realities and potentials either unconsidered, or considered but immediately abandoned for lack of emphasis, by the readers. We are made to ponder what seem to be obscurities and minor inconsistencies in The Odyssey that upon deeper exploration and analysis serve to completely revolutionize the conventional reading of The Odyssey in terms of the female characters. Atwood accomplishes this impressive feat by exploring the “dark alleyways” that lead us to alternate, but plausible, conclusions as evidenced by the expressions of the muted cast of The Odyssey—Penelope and the twelve hanged maids. The Odyssey presents Penelope as being wholly wise.

She is the appropriate counterpart for the wise and cunning Odysseus. She is revered by the other characters for her wisdom. She is not made to appear foolish because one cannot be both wise and unwise in a dichotomy. In The Penelopiad she exhibits an even more fierce display of her wisdom, but also admits her foolishness and poor decisions. For example, she tells us that she knew Odysseus was still alive because he had not yet appeared to her in a dream, and admits that she had recognized Odysseus upon his arrival but placed the bow to be sure. She tells also that she had asked the prettiest and most faithful of her maids to entice the suitors and learn of their plots by any means necessary. Yet she fails to consider what Odysseus would think after returning home and hearing, or worse observing, the behavior of the maids.

Moreover, when she knows that he has returned she sets her mind to proving her wisdom and faith by telling “the beggar” of her woes she had suffered in his absence and of the shroud. She also pranks him by setting Eurycleia to wash his feet knowing that she would recognize the scar and laughing to herself at how they tried to cover it up, and she tests him with the bow. But not once did she consider her maids. Nor did she think that she to tell Eurycleia of her activities with the maids knowing how faithful she was to Odysseus and how he would trust her judgment. Nor did she consider the possibility of their being raped or seduced when she set them upon the suitors to be her spies. Such folly and unwise decisions conflict with the Penelope we come to know in The Odyssey, but all is revealed in The Penelopiad.

Coral Howells notes, in her piece “Five Ways of Looking at The Penelopiad,” that, “Penelope’s is not the only voice here; her tale is frequently interrupted by the voices of her twelve hanged maids, those nameless slave girls who have nothing to say in The Odyssey” (Howells 5-6). Similar to Penelope’s plight in The Odyssey, the maids are cast in a dichotomous role—that of the whore and disloyal servant.

They are painted as scandalous, ungrateful, spiteful woman who abuse the household of their master Odysseus with their disrespect for the queen and her son, as well as their interactions with the suitors. Eurycleia is all too willing to, “report in full on the women…who are disloyal…who are guiltless” (Homer 406). And despite Odysseus dismissal, she was in fact later called upon to expose the disloyal servants for the whores that they were, according to The Odyssey that is. The possibilities are opened in The Penelopiad. For example, the women are condemned in the Odyssey for having sexual relations with the suitors. This behavior is attributed to their role as whores and unfaithful servitude without any consideration of other possibilities or circumstances.

In The Penelopiad, they maids speak of being, “dirty girls” by occupation. They say, “If our owners or the sons of our owners or a visiting nobleman or the sons of a visiting nobleman wanted to sleep with us, we could not refuse. It did us no good to weep, it did us no good to say we were in pain” (Atwood 13-14). In a later chapter Penelope remarks, “It is not unusual for guests in a large household or palace to sleep with the maids…but it was irregular for servants to be used in this way without the permission of the master of the house…However there was no master of the house. So the suitors helped themselves to the maids in the same way they helped themselves to the sheep” (Atwood 116). Therefore, their behavior should have been considered in the same way that Penelope’s was: dutiful and loyal to their master.

Penelope tells the reader that giving visitors to pick of their servant girls was a part of good hospitality—a very important convention in the Homeric epic—and the master of the house happily obliges them in their choice (Atwood 116). Considering this, by sleeping with the suitors, the girls were continuing in the same behavior that would have been promoted and even expected if Odysseus were home.

Despite this reality the maids are placed in the category of the whore, therefore their actions must be presented as indicative of their role. The dichotomous classifications of women in The Odyssey would not allow them to be both promiscuous and faithful. They are limited to obscurity, being minor characters, “neglected to the margins of the narrative;” they serve no other purpose than to fulfill their role in the epic convention and suffer what most readers of The Odyssey would consider a much deserved fate (Howells 6).

However in The Penelopiad the maids become the majority, holding the voice of commendation or condemnation, a voice previously denied to them in the epic. Mihoko Suzuki finds that Atwood uses parody and burlesque to expose the Odyssey’s unfair representation of women and their lack of complexity due to the placed upon them by the epic. She argues that Atwood uses her modern examining of the Penelope and her maids to, “allow agency, intelligence, and voice to female protagonists who may not be equivocally amiable.” (Suzuki 270).

She goes on to argue that that, “through their debunking, light-hearted burlesque Atwood makes a more serious point; the maids function as a tragic chorus, commenting on the actions of the hero, Odysseus (and in a later chorus, Penelope)” (Suzuki 272). Atwood allows the women to occupy identities other than that of the dichotomous prudent and honorable wife and foolish dishonorable harlot. Howells argues that Atwood’s project in The Penelopiad, “Atwood’s project is to retell The Odyssey as herstory” (Howells 8).

And in doing so, Atwood addresses many of the unanswered questions in The Odyssey by allowing. In her re-envisioning of The Odyssey she takes the poem out of the context of the Homeric Epic to speak plainly and bluntly about the true events of The Odyssey, or at least some quite plausible possibilities. Shannon Collins notes that The Odyssey is, “A recitation of a blind poet, who recounts the stories told by a famous liar and adventurer, the poem contains narrative nested within narrative” (Collins 57). Likewise, Howell mentions that, “It seems that Atwood is using Penelope to tell another story within it: the story of the hanged maids” (Howells 6).

The stories have in common therefore that they are both metafictional, true to Homeric epic convention, however as Collins says, “In the Greek epics, women do not star in their own tales so much as play supporting roles in the adventures of others” (Collins 57). Therefore, casting Penelope as the narrator is essential to Atwood’s formation of the ‘new’ woman we find in The Penelopiad. We find in Homers interpretation that the women are described only by other characters but not given the opportunity to speak about themselves. This can have a profound effect on the facts of the story—on what is deemed important therefore which facts are told and untold—and also on how those facts are communicated.

The values, beliefs, frustrations, and insights of a person or group often influence not only the tone and mood of the story—that is to say what is impressed upon the reader—but also the details of the major events as well. For example, Homer paints Odyssus as a cunning, brave, and well deserving hero with amazing exploits while Penelope paints him as a boastful, short-legged, tricky liar with amazing stories. Collins argues therefore that, “each of the women characters also has a story to tell, though their versions may be different from the official one. Our own stories are by necessity different than the stories told about us by others. The story- tellers may claim to tell an objective truth, but who can know the truths of our own individual stories” (Collins 57)?

Although Atwood explains that, “Writing The Penelopiad allowed me not only to revisit an ancient and powerful tale, but to explore a few dark alleyways in the story that have always intrigued me,” she ultimately leaves the reader in the same predicament as the Odyssey; true to the epic, we are left with many questions (Atwood 58). Who’s telling the truth about the shroud, the suitors, and the slaughter: Penelope or the maids? Was it Eurycleia who perpetrated the slaughter of the maids on
her own accord out of jealousy? If Penelope was so wise and indeed recognized Odysseus as she says, why didn’t she tell him the ‘spies’ at the same time she told him about the shroud?

Unlike Homer however, she also opens our minds to new possibilities—perhaps Odysseus’ exploits were over-exaggerated fables adaptations of the truth in which battles with Cyclops were merely bar fights and goddesses were merely high-priced whores. Atwood’s widely imaginative, but strongly conceivable, answers to the unanswered questions of The Odyssey are some of the reasons I and many other readers fall so deeply in love with The Penelopiad. The means by which she develops these new possibilities give voices, first-hand interaction, and real humanity to the women of the Odyssey.

They become real people—real women with real emotions, desires, grievances, and pain—as opposed to the simple manifestation of the roles that they play in The Odyssey: the faithful wife, the disloyal servant. Of course they serve a specific purpose to the plot and themes of The Penelopiad ad they do in Homer, they are not locked into being the muted puzzle pieces that they are in Homer.

Atwood, Margaret. “The Myth Series and Me.” Publishers Weekly 252.47 (2005): 58. Academic Search Alumni Edition. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. . In this brief articles, referenced quite frequently in literary criticism and examination of The Penelopiad, Atwood divulges her motivations behind the creation of the The Penelopiad and her thoughts about the re-telling of classic myths. Particularly, she admits that one of her intentions in The Penelopiad is to respond to, or provide answers to, some of the mysteries of The Odyssey. Atwood, Margaret. The Penelopiad. New York: Canongate, 2005. Print.

Collins, Shannon C. “Setting the Stories Straight: A Reading of Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad.” Carson-Newman Studies 11.No. 1 (2006): 57-66. Library.cn.edu/. Carson-Newman College. Web.

Collins comments on the art of storytelling as depicted in The Odyssey and The Penelopiad. She evaluates the stories told by Penelope, Odyseus (in the Odyssey which are commented upon, or rather revised by Penelope in The Penelopiad), and the maids. Her arguments provide support for the voices of the women of The Penelopiad existing only outside the confines of the Homeric Epic as women, namely the maids, are not given the opportunity to weave their own stories in The Odyssey but are endowed with voices in The Penelopiad to do just that—to tell give an “herstorical” account of The Odyssey.

Mihoko, Suzuki. “Rewriting the Odyssey in the Twenty-First Century: Mary Zimmerman’s Odyssey and Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad.” Approaches to Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. By Kostas Myrsiades. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. 239-54. Analyzing Atwood’s works from a feminist perspective, Suzuki offers valuable insight to the critical nature of The Penelopiad. Particularly interesting are her comments on the voices of the women in The Penelopiad that we do not hear in the Homer’s The Odyssey.

Author Exploration Paper: Saki

Born on December eighteenth, 1870, Hector Hugh Munro was the third child of Charles Augustus Munro, an inspector general in the Burma police. H.H. Munro’s mother, Mary Frances Mercer, was killed a mere two years after her youngest son was born. She was killed by a runaway cow in England (Merriman). After her death, H.H. Munro and his siblings were raised in England by their two aunts and grandmother. These three adults were often the inspiration for many female characters in Munro’s stories (“A biography of Saki”). Mrs. DeRopp, in “Srendi Vashtar”, is modelled after his aunt Agnes (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). His aunts were both very strict, and they often used the birch and whip as a form of punishment. However, if Saki had not faced such harsh trials as a child, his future works might not have been as rich as they are today{Subjunctive mode}.

Due to the Munro children’s poor health, they were forced to be taught by governesses at home. At the age of twelve, H.H. Munro was finally able to attend school in Exmouth and Bedford Grammar. H.H. Munro’s father retired when Hector was sixteen. For a few years, the small family traveled the continent before his father arranged a post for him in the Burma police. Munro spent thirteen months in Burma. Although sick on multiple occasions, Munro was able to study Burmese animals, and he even raised a tiger cub during his time there(A Biography of Saki”). In 1984, Munro was forced to return to England after contracting malaria while in Burma.In 1896, Munro begn to write political satires for the Westminster Gazette. These essays were later collected and published as The Westminster Alice.

In 1902, Munro published a collection of his short stories, called Not-So Stories. Munro also published only one work of serious non-fiction called The Rise of the Russian Empire. This was the only piece ever written by Munro to contain his real name on the book jacket. For all of Munro’s other pieces, however, Munro’s name was nowhere to be found. Instead, Munro chose to write under the pen name of “Saki”. The name Saki can mean one of two things, either Munro was referring to himself as a breed of monkey, or he saw himself as the cupbearer of Fitzgerald’s Rubaiyat. It is more probable that the latter option is true, for Saki had often expressed his admiration for Fitzgerald’s work (Hitchens){Compound sentence}.

During his lifetime, Saki also served as a war correspondent before moving to Paris to write for The Morning Post and a French paper. He briefly revisited England in 1907 when his father became ill and died in May. Saki then opened a club, The Cocoa Tree, and continued to write for many newspapers and publish his short stories. When war was declared in late 1914, Saki enlisted in the army although he was officially too old{Complex Sentence}. He also surprised many of his admirers by turning down several commissions and insisting that he serve in the trenches, claiming that he couldn’t lead soldiers if he didn’t first know how to be one (Hitchens). He continued writing{gerund phrase} while in the army about his life on the front until November in 1916.

Near the village of Beaumont-Home on the river Somes, Saki was shot by a German sniper. On the verge of a crater, the great storyteller shouted, “Put that bloody cigarette out!” Those were to be the “great Saki’s” last words (Hitchens). Although Saki’s hand would write no more, it is quite clear that Saki’s writing has definitely been influenced by his life events. H.H. Munro, or Saki, lived and wrote during the late 1800s and early 1900s. This time period was speckled with various wars and revolutions, and gave birth to the world’s first great war. Throughout these major events, Saki was there to witness, record, and eventually give his life to these skirmishes.

During his life, Saki traveled to the Balkans, Russia, Poland, and France as a foreign correspondent from 1902 to 1908. While in these countries, he witnessed “Bloody Sunday” in St.Petersburg and the Russian Revolution of 1905. He also criticized the government for its “inept handling” of the Boer War (Silet). Saki’s many travels allowed him to be exposed to hardships and dangers that “…did much to alter the tone of his work” (Silet). Saki’s travels to Europe also “…introduced him to European Folk Literature” (Silet), a genre that supplied him with both subject matter and the darker vision of many of his later fiction.

When not traveling the world, Saki was often found in England, where he made observations about the Edwardian society that he lived in. He later transformed these observations into many short stories, based on the upsetting of the monotonous routine of everyday life (Silet). However, towards the end of his life, Saki’s work is darker; there seems to be less humor in his writing as time goes on (Silet).

During this period of his life, a hint of naturalism begins to creep into his writing, nearly extinguishing the flickering tongue of humor that used to be evident in all of his work. Saki’s use of naturalism is very apparent in his later fiction, such as the short stories “Dogged” and “The remoulding of Groby Lingfoughn”(Elahipanah). Although Saki wrote many different stories, sometimes using multiple genres, there is no question that the many world events that occurred during Saki’s lifetime greatly influenced Saki’s writing. Saki has often been called a “master of the short story”(Hitchens). Aside from this title, Saki was also a master of satire. Satire is generally witty and ironic, and uses carefully hidden hints in the text to convey its message.

The genre rarely attacks specific individuals, and often uses extremes to bring the audience to an awareness of the danger in a particular society (“Characteristics of Satire”). More specifically, Saki was an Edwardian satirist–he often made fun of his society, and many of his short stories have to deal with extraordinarily strange events happening to the ordinary people of his social class and time period (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). Saki’s earlier stories are typically more humorous; his later stories are darker and more macabre due to his many experiences with war and the darker sides of humanity (Silet). Naturalism, a genre that shows the harsher side of life and portrays the idea that man is powerless against nature{appositive phrase}, is also apparent in some of Saki’s aforementioned later fiction. Many figures from Saki’s childhood (mainly his aunts Agatha and Charlotte) are also used as models for many of Saki’s female characters (Silet).

The characteristics of satire and and naturalism are both clearly portrayed through Saki’s writing. Saki’s short story “On Approval” includes many of the classic characteristics of satire that are also found in Saki’s other works. Having lived in England for much of his life, Saki knew the the city well, and chose London, a city he often frequented, as the setting for this story (“A Biography of Saki”). Gebhard Knopfschrank, a self-pronounced artist, moves to London from his small farm to try his success at painting. As time goes on, Knopfschrank becomes more and more poor, rarely purchasing meals. However, one day, Knopfschrank enters his boarding house and gleefully buys “…an elaborate meal that scarcely stopped short of being a banquet.” (“On Approval”).

The other boarders, believing that Knopfschrank has finally sold his his art and been discovered as a genius, rush to purchase Knopfschrank’s ridiculously expensive paintings, eager to buy his work{infinitive phrase} before their prices increase with his fame. Later, the boarders realize that Knopfschrank has not sold a single painting at all. In fact, a wealthy American has accidentally hit, and killed, many animals back on Knopfschrank’s farm. The American hastily paid “‘…perhaps more than they were worth, many times more than they would have fetched in the market after a month of fattening, but he was in a hurry to get on to Dantzig.’” (“On Approval”). Saki’s use of satire in this piece is evident. At the end of the story, Saki, through Knopfschrank’s character, ridicules Americans and how they constantly rush around using money to get out of their problems, saying, “‘…God be thanked for rich Americans, who are always in a hurry to get somewhere else” (“On Approval”).

This general attack on a specific group of people is an element commonly used in satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). This story also uses satire in another way–it is very ironic. Irony is almost always found in satire “(Characteristics of Satire”). On the last night of his stay, Knopfschrank sells many of his works, noting “Till to- day I have sold not one of my sketches. To-night you have bought a few, because I am going away from you” (“On Approval”). This is an example of situational irony. Satire is also evident yet another way in this piece–Saki writes the story in such a way that he makes the members of the boarding house’s unfortunate mistake seem more humorous than tragic, which is a key point of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). Saki also states in the text that Knopfschrank “…fancied he could paint and was pardonably anxious to escape from the monotony of rye bread diet and the sandy, swine-bestrewn plains of Pomerania” (“On Approval”).

This quote portrays a common theme that often appears in many of Saki’s writings–the upsetting of everyday routines. The use of Saki’s genre satire and his personal connections to the setting of the story are evident Saki’s “On Approval”. Saki’s short story “The Interlopers” has clearly been influenced by Saki’s own life and genre. This tale, which takes place in a small strip of disputed forest, is about two enemies–Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym–who are both out late on a stormy night, patrolling their borders with their huntsmen, each trying to catch and kill the other. After wandering for some time, the men come face to face with each other. Before either can react, however, there was a “…splitting crash over their heads” (“The Interlopers”) and a towering tree {participial phrase[present]} falls and pins both men to the ground.

The two talk for a time, at first trading insults, but their exchanges soon become much kinder as the men begin to offer each other their friendship. By the end of the story, the former enemies have now become friends, and they see dark figures rushing towards them. Believing these figures to be their men, coming to rescue them, the two feel that all of their troubles are over, before coming to the startling realization that the forms, presumed to be their saviors, are actually the things that will be their deaths–wolves. The story ends with Ulrich letting out “…the idiotic chattering of a man unstrung with fear.” (“The Interlopers”).

This story contains many examples of irony, which is both a staple of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”) and a common element in many of Saki’s other stories. Dramatic irony is shown in the middle of the story, when the two enemies, fighting over a piece of land, are eventually killed by that land. Irony is portrayed in the story yet again by having the two former enemies end a century-long family feud mere moments before their own death. Saki even states in the text that “…if there was a man in the world whom [Gradwitz] detested and wished ill to it was Georg Znaeym” (“The Interlopers”). This story also connects to Saki’s personal life through the story’s setting. This story takes place in a forest located “…somewhere on the eastern spurs of the Carpathians” (“The Interlopers”), an area that Saki visited while traveling with his family (Merriaman). Saki’s “The Interlopers” includes aspects of Saki’s life, genre, and environment in its telling.

Many different facets of Saki’s life and his satire can be found in his short story “The Lumber-Room”. In this story, a young boy, Nicholas, is banned from the garden and forced to stay at home with his unpleasant aunt as punishment while his cousins are taken to the seaside for a vacation. While at home, Nicholas manages to pull off a great trick on his aunt; he compels her to believe that he is in the forbidden garden while Nicholas steals the key to the mysterious lumber-room. Once inside the mysterious room, Nicholas explores the room, discovering dozens of prizes. While in this room, Nicholas hears his aunt calling and hastily runs to her, only to discover that she has fallen into the water tank in the forbidden garden and is trapped inside, calling for help. Nicholas then explains to his aunt, whom he believes to be “…the Evil One” (“The Lumber-Room”), that he cannot help her because, due to rules laid out by her, he is not allowed to enter the garden.

Nicholas leaves the aunt in the water tank until a maid discovers her. Meanwhile, the other aunt and the children return from their visit, which turned out to be disastrous. While sitting at dinner, Nicholas reflects on the tapestry that he saw, and speculates that the huntsman may still escape from the wolves with his hounds. This story displays many different aspects of Saki’s own childhood. Saki himself was actually raised by his two aunts.

Saki, like Nicholas, also despised two aunts, and often based many of his female characters off of them (Hitchens). Saki was a practical joker (“A Biography of Saki”), quite similar to Nicholas in the story. Saki was also very fond of animals during his lifetime (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”), and displays this love of animals in “The Lumber-Room” by scattering many of them throughout the story. Nicholas finds some of these animals in the lumber room; there are many animal-themed items, and Nicholas soon discovers brass figures shaped in the images of “…hump-necked bulls, and peacocks and goblins” (“The Lumber-Room”).

There is also a beautiful book depicting colorful birds. Saki shows his love of animals by placing them in this “…storehouse of unimagined treasures” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses irony, an important element of satire, in this story as well. When Nicholas’s aunt is trapped in the water tank and needs Nicholas to save her, Nicholas is unable to because she dictated earlier that he was “…not to go into the gooseberry garden” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses both satire and his own life experiences to give this story true life and color.

The events of Saki’s life are heavily apparent in his short story “Sredni Vashtar”. In this story, Conradin, a young boy{appositive phrase}, is forced by his sickness to stay with his despised cousin, Mrs. DeRopp. One day, however, Conradin is able to smuggle an internecine ferret into the shed by his room. Conradin names this ferret Sredni Vashtar and creates a religion around this feral god. His aunt soon grows suspicious as Conradin begins to spend all of his time in the shed, showing fervid devotion to the gracile ferret. As time goes on, Conradin grows more and more obsessed with the ferret, and begins to chant “‘Do one thing for me, Sredni Vashtar.’” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Finally, his aunt goes to investigate the shed, puzzled as to why Conradin finds it so interesting. During her visit to the shed, a scream is heard coming from it. Moments later, a sleek shadow darts off into the night, its maw red and dark with Mrs. DeRopp’s blood. This story reflects Saki’s own childhood in many ways.

Saki, like Conradin, was weak when he was young, and was not deemed healthy enough to attend school until the age of twelve (Hitchens). Conradin also feels that “…without his imagination” (Sredni Vashtar”) he would not have been able to live due to”…drawn-out dullness” (“Sredni Vashtar). Saki writes that he sometimes felt the same way (Silet). Saki, like Conradin, was also confined to the care of an overbearing relative whom he greatly disliked–his aunt, Agatha (Silet). In “Sredni Vashtar, Conradin hates Mrs. DeRopp with “…a desperate sincerity which he was perfectly able to mask.” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Saki most likely felt this same way towards his own aunts. Mrs. DeRopp is actually based off of Saki’s despised aunt (Silet).

Clearly, many references to Saki’s early childhood are made in Saki’s “Sredni Vashtar”. Saki’s short stories, which are often about extraordinary things happening to extra-ordinary people, are as applicable in today’s world as they were during Saki’s own lifetime. Many of Saki’s works utilize the key aspects of both satire and naturalism, perfectly. Saki uses ironic wit and exaggerated scenarios to enthrall the reader in his works. This same method is often found in political cartoons today. Saki has also used his considerable talents to influence other authors, such as P.G. Wodehouse. One well-known actor (Hitchens) that was heavily impressed by Saki’s work was the late Noël Coward (Hitchens). While staying at a county house, Coward discovered a copy of Beasts and Super Beasts (a collection of Saki’s short stories) and was captivated by the author’s work (Hitchens). “‘I took it up to my bedroom, opened it casually, and was unable to go to sleep until I had finished it’” (Hitchens).

When referring to his own writing, Saki often called it ‘“true enough to be interesting but not true enough to be tiresome’” (Hitchens). This view of Saki’s prose is quite clear–although his work mainly focuses on the people of Saki’s day, the tremendous events that occur to them keep Saki’s work interesting and engaging. There is no doubt that Saki was able to create imaginative works that captivate the reader, beautiful short stories that are incredibly detailed, and unique texts that are unlike any other author’s{Parallel construction}. This makes Saki’s stories interesting and fun to read.Saki’s work has definitely been influenced by his personal experiences, his environment, and the genre of satire. Saki’s ironic short stories reveal to his readers his personal view on the disturbance of daily routine, events
that still occur quite often today.

The Frontier. Deep Sea Exploration

The Frontier
People are born with a natural sense of curiosity. The need to discover helped them conquer the American frontier and today they continue to set their sights on new unknowns. The frontier can be defined as a place of lawlessness and chaos. In the case of the American West, the definition fits with what people believed the West to be during the 20th century.

Once explorers were commissioned and settlers bought land, the American frontier was no longer unknown; the frontier had been conquered. The word ‘frontier’ had since become ingrained into the human psyche after decades of word use, especially in media. Today, a frontier has become synonymous with new ideas, inventions, and exploring other planes.

Though most land masses can be denounced as frontiers, the ocean has yet to be fully explored. The ocean makes up nearly 75 percent of the world’s surface area, yet we know more about the land we walk on than the water that surrounds it. The deep sea remains virtually uncharted and has become one of Earth’s last frontiers. Classified as the deepest part of the ocean, the Marianas Trench is one area being studied.

Continuous research and the drive to unravel the mysteries of the deep have led to the discovery of numerous new species and survival tactics of aquatic animals. The copious amounts of research and discoveries are only brushing the surface of what the ocean holds. The need to overcome disease has made medicine another frontier. New types of surgical methods, vaccines, and sicknesses have pushed researchers and doctors to cure the ill.

Overcoming disease will always be an obstacle for man. For example, finding a cure for viruses, such as HIV, has been a major focus in medicine. The ever mutating DNA and RNA of viruses make researching a cure difficult. The desire to formulate the unknown medicine drives researchers on.

Should Space Exploration Be Continued?

Do you think that space exploration should be continued? Some people think that we should continue exploring the space, and others think that we should stop exploring the space. These people have their own reasons for it or against it. Either way, space exploration has both its advantages and disadvantages. In my personal opinion, I think that we should continue exploring the space because exploring space gives people many benefits. Exploring the space will solve humans’ oversized population and scarce resources problems, and also will improve our technology. If mankind stops exploring the space, our world will only be limited to Earth, and it will be so tiny compared to the universe. The universe is full with mysteries, and the Earth just a small dot in the universe. Human natural curiosity has to motivate people to explore the mysteries of space. Our curiosity compels us to explore the unknown world. If people stop at the origin and do not do anything, they will never be improve.

Some people think that space exploration is waste of resources. They think that even if there is a planet suited for mankind to live, it will be so far away, and it may take hundreds or thousands years to reach it at the speed of light. Right now, mankind does not have a spaceship going the speed of light, and even if scientists invent this kind of spaceship, there is no guarantee that we can provide enough fuel for it to travel in light years. For modern technology, it will be hard, but I believe in the near future, it will be completed. Can ancient people imagine that humanity has invented airplanes that fly on the sky? No one will really know what will happen in the future, and everything will be possible as long as people who dare to dream. Some people may think that exploring the space is waste of money, and we should use those money to fix Earth itself. They think that “the needs of humanity should always come first. While there are people on Earth who need help, they should be helped, rather than seeing money spent on sending robots onto other planets.” (“against space exploration” np). It is common sense that Earth is the only home for humanity right now, and most people think that we should protect the Earth. Yes, space exploration cost huge amounts of money, and this money can improve people’s life in many ways. In my opinion, I do not think that space exploration is waste of money; and it
is more like a long-term investment. We invested hundreds of billions on space exploration, and it is a huge investment for mankind. Someday, the Earth may not be humans only home. The universe is endless, there is a very high possibility that mankind is not only the high-intelligent life beings, and there may be beings that far surpass human intelligence. It may take hundred years or a millennium for people to live on planets beside of the Earth, but I believe the dream will come true eventually. Can our ancestors imagine that we successfully sent a human being in the space? There is no way they can imagine that since they even did not even know what space is in those old days. “Knowledge is invaluable. Furthering our understanding of how the universe came into being, and ultimately how we came into being, cannot be measured as useful solely in terms of cost.” (“Scientific knowledge has value beyond the measurements of cost” np).

Space exploration can be very profitable, and it will relieve the Earth’s burden supplying natural resource. As scientists found out, the universe is full of resources. If we continue exploring space, people will find more resources. Thus, humans can save the natural resources on the Earth for emergency, and exploit vast resources on other planets. If this plan goes successfully, it benefits the whole human race.

Space exploration will also improve our technology. The great invention such as satellite helps people in many ways. For example, the weather forecasting has “saved lives and help us prepare for the worst hurricanes and dangerous storm.” (“The Largest Benefits” np); The GPS has helped those astray people; also the cell phones and internet that we have used. All these great inventions have improved people’s lives, and all these benefits are thanks to the space exploration.

In conclusion, I think that we should be continuing the space exploration. Although space exploration costs a lot of money, it is worthwhile because we have gained many benefits from it. I believe that someday mankind lives on other planets and it will no longer be a dream anymore.

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“Should NASA Continue Space Exploration?” Debate Issue:. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2013. “Is Space Exploration a Waste of Money?” WikiAnswers. Answers, n.d. Web. 14 June 2013. http://debatewise.org/debates/137-space-exploration-is-a-waste-of-money/#no9