Reconstruction: Fail or Succeed

Reconstruction failed due to Andrew Johnson, the Black Codes, and the Freedmen’s Bureau..Andrew Johnson’s, who was the father of the black codes, created policies and ideals that led to the black codes, KKK, sharecropping and the Compromise of 1877. Andrew Johnson supported white supremacy in the South and favored Southern political leaders who had aided the Confederacy once war had been declared. After the war, the Union needed to bring the South back into the country in order to revive their economy and rebuild their land. Lincoln first proposed the 10% plan and when Lincoln was assassinated, Andrew Johnson became president and created his own plan for Reconstruction.

The Black Codes and other laws restricting former slaves were not challenged in court or struck down by local military authorities, leaving African-Americans unprotected and subject once again to working for whites involuntarily.Under Johnson’s policies of Presidential Reconstruction, nearly all the southern states would enact their own black codes in 1865 and 1866. While the codes granted certain freedoms to African Americans their primary purpose was to restrict black’s labor and activity. Some states limited the type of property that blacks could own, while virtually all the former Confederate states passed strict vagrancy and labor contract laws, as well as antienticement laws which was designed to punish anyone who offered higher wages to a black laborer already under contract. Blacks who broke labor contracts were subject to arrest, beating and forced labor, and apprenticeship laws forced many minors into unpaid labor for white planters.

The Reconstruction Act of 1867 required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment which granted equal protection of the Constitution to former slaves and enact male suffrage before they could rejoin the Union. The 15th Amendment guaranteed that a citizen’s right to vote would not be denied from race, color, or any condition. During this period of Reconstruction blacks won election to southern state governments. However, white southerners showed a fast commitment to ensuring their supremacy and the survival of agriculture.Support for Reconstruction policies waned after the early 1870s, undermined by the violence of white supremacist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan. By 1877, blacks had seen little improvement in their economic and social status, and the vigorous efforts of white supremacist forces throughout the region had undone the political gains they had made.

The Freedmen Bureau addressed all matters concerning refugees and freedmen within the states that were under reconstruction. The Freedmen’s Bureau was headed by Commissioner General Howard who was appointed by President Andrew Johnson. In the beginning, the Freedmen’s Bureau did not suffer from lack of funding. The Bureau sold and rented lands in the South which had been confiscated during the war. However, Johnson undermined the Bureau’s funding by returning all lands to the pre-Civil War owners in 1866. After this point, freed slaves lost access to lands and the Bureau lost its primary source of funding. The majority believed that the Freedmen’s Bureau made a very small impact during reconstruction. The Freedmen’s Bureau helped black communities to establish schools and churches. Under slavery, blacks had been denied the right to education and religion.

Problems why Students fail?

Do you know the problems students face during their college? Does it affect every inch of you when it comes to different aspects of being in student’s college life? Have you ever notice these problems and what do you do in order to cope up with it? Can you give the problems college students’ face? Are you already aware of it or not? Starting college is a difficult decision to be made. But after finishing it, all of the problems we faced
will worth it.

Being in college can bring much anxiety in the heart of a new college student because of all the unknowns and hidden things behind. “What should my major and course be? Will I meet good friends of mine? How will I find time in all of my lessons? What are the things I should be aware with?” College life is a practice to those students who wants to be successful in their lives in the future. Academics and extra-curricular activities should be managed well.

That is why students should be shaped and taught about being aware of opportunities. There are lots of challenges a college student might face but in order to survive, he must first learn to sacrifice. There are problems we may encounter during these years tat is why we should embrace all the things that may arise. Students must be brave and strong enough to face those challenges that will come ahead.

This book focuses on The Different Problems of College Students. It contains ten (10) chapters which are presented on the table of contents.
Being a college student is a stepping stone in reaching and getting what you want in life afterwards. If we compare our Pre-school, Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary levels of studying. It is the Tertiary level or the college level that plays very important, amazing and hardworking tasks in accomplishing our goals.


This book gives information to all college students who experience different problems in their study. The authors of this book are also a student that is why it became easier for them to write a book like this. But not all the credit is for the authors, there are people behind the success of this book. The authors of this research would like to thank different people who had been part of this book.

First of all, the authors would like to thank Mrs. Evangeline Leonardo who encourage the researchers to make it finish despite of difficulties in preparing it, different problems happened while starting this book, but Mrs. Leonardo became an inspiration to the researcher she said “When you start something make sure that you will finish it”, this message from her became the motivator to the researcher to finish this book. Secondly, the authors would like to thank their parents for always understanding that writing a book like this is a difficult one, their parents became more supportive to them. Having supportive parents became an advantage to finish this book.

To BSA-102, authors would like to acknowledge their section Bachelor of Science in Accountancy, 102 who became an inspiration to them to make recognition for their course and to make their section be proud of what they had done in this book. And lastly, the Lord and God who gave this group especially the leader the strength and guidance in order to be successful on this project.

About the Authors

Balmores, Donabelle – is a 17 year-old girl who graduated at Tañong High school. She was born on February 15, 1996. She lives in Industrial Valley Complex, Marikina City. She wants to be a professional Accountant and Architect someday. She is kind, loving, understanding, serious, funny and awesome. She loves to travel a lot with the ones she love. She has many dreams but she plans it to be one step at a time. Her parents are Leonora Japson and Jefferson Japson.

Padua, Julie Ann L. – is a 16 year-old girl who graduated at Antipolo National Highschool who wants to be a Fashion designer someday. She is small but intelligent, industrious, jolly and friendly, transparent, cute and thoughtful. She was born on July 4, 1996. Her parents are Gracia Padua and Louie Padua.

Cruz, Jenny Ann C. – is a 17 year-old girl from Malanday, Marikina City. She was born on November 29, 1995 and graduated at Malanday National High school. She wants to be a CPA someday. She is a simple person, talkative and prayerful. Before she closed her eyes, she always prays to God to give him strength and guidance. Her parents are Jennifer Cruz and Efren Cruz.

Edillor, Monna V. – is a 16 year-old girl who graduated at Silangan National High school. She lives in Tierra Monte, Silangan San Mateo. She wants to have a better future and to be a CPA someday. She was born on June 20, 1996.
She is a simple girl, sometimes naughty, caring, loves to eat footlong and spaghetti. She is also a very jealous person and quick tempered. Her parents are Rosie Edillor and Ramon Edillor.

Eroles, Melanie R. – is an 18 year-old girl from Ampid I, San Mateo Rizal born on January 21, 1995. She finished 1st year-3rd year high school at Sta. Cruz Institute, Marinduque. She graduated at St. Mary Integrated Learning School. She wants to achieve her goals and to be a CPA someday. She is simple, serious, and funny at times, quick tempered, loves playing and eating burger.

Garcia, Beverly O. – is a 16 year-old girl who graduated at Fortune High school. She wants to be a programmer and encoder. She loves being polite and obedient. She was born on May 8, 1996. Her parents are Cherry Garcia and Pedro Garcia.

Letada, Jessa Lynel N.- is a 17 year-old girl from Farmers 2 Tumana, Marikina City. She graduated at Central for Positive Futures and wants to be happy and successful enough according to my goals. She is tall, serious and happy person.Her parents are Lilibeth Letada and Arnel Letada.

Macaraeg,Ara Mia Julian C. – is a 17 year-old girl born on December 5,1995 who graduated at Tañong Highschool and lives in Tañong, Marikina City. He wants to be a CPA someday. She is serious, moody, sometimes funny, simple and kind. She doesn’t care about what people might tell her but it doesn’t mean she has nothing to say in return. Her parents are Almira Macaraeg and Aaron Macaraeg.

Medina,Jr., Maximino F. – a 16 year-old boy who is studying in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Marikina. He was born on May 13, 1996. She is a typical college students who is not smart but can absorb ehat the proctor teaches. He is sometimes a lazy student. His parents are Maximino Medina Sr. and Ma. Corazon F. Medina.

Boredom in school has different causes that make a student do badly in their learning habit. Its causes could be a simple disinterest. Its effects would either make their school life not so good or their career not so productive. However, this study topic about boredom might not be too interesting to some students. But this would let them know that simple things like boredom could affect their lives.

There are many causes of boredom that a student acquires. There are also such simple factors of becoming bored because of little bit complicated causes that are not popularly known. It is important to have knowledge of a cause of a specific matter. That knowledge would give an idea on how to prevent being bored. Less enjoyable things and topics

Topics or lack of challenge can cause boredom. Students become bored if they already know the topic being covered in class. Gifted student, for example grasp concepts easily and quickly and exhibit skill proficiency beyond their grade level. Boredom in school is also caused by lack of application of knowledge and some students might think that subjects or topics they are learning are not relevant to their lives and future careers.

Atmosphere and weather
The atmosphere and weather are also factors of being bored. For example, for the month of March, students could feel the summer heat; therefore, they cannot focus more on the topic in their class. Thus, it makes them bored once they’ve realized that they cannot cope up with the lessons. Impaired ability of a student to actively focus

One more cause of boredom is the impaired ability of a student. Some examples are: Non verbal Learning Disorder (NLD) that impairs a person’s ability to solve problems, think critically or creatively, form concepts and reasons. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are similar diseases that rob students of the ability to pay attention in class and complete assignments. DISADVANTAGES OF GETTING BORED

Effects of boredom would never have any advantages. Unless being on a fantasy-like situation. Boredom makes students do things that is unnecessary for a student to do. Boredom also redirects the students’ attention or focus away from the lectures.

Low test scores
Boredom may lead students to fail in class by having low test scores. Low test score may be the effect of not being interested in class or not paying attention at all.

Poor stability and retention of material
Poor retention of materials used in lectures is also a factor of having low grades. Understanding a book or any materials that is used in lectures is important. Those who are too lazy to read the material or cannot cope up
with the topic in the book would surely feel bored. Of course, listening to the teacher while reading cannot help you to follow on the discussions properly. Drop-outs

Drop-outs may occur if the students are not willing to participate or focus on their learning. However, dissatisfaction with the variety of classes offered, lack of application of knowledge, and disinterest in classes were more common among those who drops their school. EFFECTS TO STUDENTS

Most of the students would normally care less about the reason of being bored. However, they are pretty much aware of the effects of it to them. Declination to contribute in country’s productivity

Effects of boredom may come to the point that in the future after they graduate, they would not be contributing to the productivity of their country.

Failure to reveal skills to succeed in work place
Boredom also prevents them to acquire the skills they need to advance in their work that causes poor job performance. Without the skills they need, their workplace, school works, or anything that requires focus will make it hard for the students to finish it without mistakes.

Failure to apply themselves in class
However, being a student or an employee, boredom surely causes them to fail to apply themselves in their class or workplace. For a student, being so much bored that they are not focusing on the lessons because they are no more interested in it, they cannot participate in recitations and activities.

Possible solutions that students does to avoid boredom are: reading books unrelated to class, do homework for other class or subject, and chat with their peers. Some could just grab a book; do productive things that could at least satisfy their being bored state.

Read books unrelated to class to satisfy yourself
Reading is a hobby for many because people lose themselves in an imaginary world as they read. Reading is a good discipline. Reading books that catches your interest surely gets rid of your boredom. Do home works for other classes

Home work relieves boredom because it exercises brain capacity and keeps you busy. Doing homework when bored is a good thing to do. Create an artwork
Try painting and other recreations to be entertained. Make a collage of your photos or cut-outs from magazines. Draw a sketch. Use watercolors or crayons for your masterpiece. It’s your time to get creative.

Lack of Self Confidence is having an overall negative view of you, judging oneself or placing a negative value on oneself as a person. A student’s self confidence has a revealing in everything that she/he does. Because of the lack of self confidence, a student can’t have a good academic performance and there’s a possibility that it can lessen a student’s passion to learn and their ability to focus and their willingness to take a risks. A student can have a low self confidence if she/he experience different problems. For example, Accommodations unnecessarily on negative occasions such as failures and disappointments, instead of using the event as a learning experience she/ he choose to think the negative side and also the fear of failure. There are many reasons why a student can’t develop their self confidence. CAUSES OF LACK OF SELF-CONFIDENCE

There are many reasons why students lack self confidence. They are based on the experiences you’ve had in life, and the messages that these experiences have given you is the kind of person you are. If your experiences have been negative, your beliefs about yourself are likely to be negative too. These three causes that are prepared is one of those reason why the students has a low self esteem. Setting of unrealistic goal

Some students think of the thing which doesn’t really exist or happened. Sometimes they just came up on realizing that it is just an imagination and untruthful. For example, you are the student ad you have your final examination tomorrow but unfortunately you don’t want to review your notes and you’re trying to expect you would pass your exam. As we can see, this can’t be happened unless you are a genius student who doesn’t need any materials because of your stocked knowledge. Another example is when your goal is to become a CEO of a company but you have no experience yet, this goal is not realistic because before you became a CEO you need to have lot of experiences first. Lost of a family member

Secondly is the lost of family member, maybe experiencing very traumatic incident may cause decrease in self esteem. For example, after witnessing the death of a mother knowing that they are very close can lead to a feeling of being alone. This can cause hard feelings to a child because she felt like everybody can’t understand her feelings so as a result, her motivation to studies does not go strong.

Past experience of failure
Third and last is Past experience of failure in a exam, if a student experience that, it can cause a low self esteem. For example, every time that he takes an exam he always gets a failed grade and because of that his confidence is goes down. This is the common reason why students get tired in their studies. This is also can cause a lack of confidence because of the reason that he encounters especially during taking of exams. We all feel afraid some times or the other. At times, because of fear of failure, we do not master courage to try out new things. People generally challenge their own potential to avoid facing any larger failure in life. Failure is generally synonymous with lack of confidence in your own abilities. A lot of people go through this feeling of fear of failure.

Self-confidence is the specific drive that brings students in greater heights. People, who are not blessed with those skills, are able to get to the top because they feel and believe that they can do it. Self-confidence
is an invisible motivational drive that will make things happen and turn the impossible into a possibility. Self-confidence empowers people beyond their expectations, and if you lack self-confidence, then you are taking away your chance to go the distance.

People see you as defensive
Some student is become defensive if there’s a thing questioning to them. It can cause a bad or a good reason depending on the answers. Being defensive is also a reason why the self esteem of a student is goes down because sometimes being defensive is not good characteristic to achieve your self esteem. Sometimes student use the defensive way to cover something what is real and too much of being defensive is not good unless things are not real.

You give reason for your action unnecessarily
You can do other way, you can use explanation and this is a good example. If you think your action is good and others think it is bad try to explain to them to understand it. Explanations are better than being defensive.

To develop the self confidence of a student, you need to focus on the things that can help to improve your self confidence. Improving your self confidence increases your confidence and it is a first step towards finding happiness and a better life.

Look at your strength and not your weaknesses
Look at your strength and not your weaknesses every time you encounter different problems. Think positively about yourself to counteract it and do the things that give you a good and inspirational feeling. Focus on the positive way not the negative to achieve your goals and dreams in life. Make the decision carefully and do it right.

Start thinking positively about yourself
Start thinking positively about yourself and make a list of all your positive traits that can help to you develop yourself. You can also ask your friends about your positive traits and this will be helpful to you because it gives
to you more idea on what to do and it will help you gain confidence. And you’ll be positively surprised at how many good traits that you have.

Act as if you’re confident
Don’t be harsh to your decision because being harsh is a wrong move and it gives to you a stress feeling. You can also ask your friend for a suggestion about yourself and to be a more confident student you can express your feelings to others, study your lesson, having fun, and try to become friendly to others. Always think that every trials and hindrances came there has a solution. Like others say, problem is exists because they have a solution.

Life coaching
Life coaching is one of the best tools to improve your self confidence and your set realistic goals. Life coaching is best for the students who have a low self confidence why? Because life coaching helps you to become more proud to your self and it gives to you different ideas to resolve your problems. It is also different from consulting, mentoring, advice, and therapy or counseling. The coaching is a process addresses to a specific personal projects, studies successes, general conditions and transitions in the student life, relationship or profession by examining what is going on right now, discovering what your obstacle or challenges might be and choosing a course of action to make your life be what you want it be.



One of the most common problems students face in college includes lack of motivation. As we all know, college life is different from high school and elementary levels. In here, students are free to do what they want. They can get away from their parents, live in dormitories, drink freely and hang out with friends. But aside from that, college students can also experience different frustrations and pressures in studies.

There are times when they also feel so bored, tired and weak. This is due to lack of motivation. Motivation is the internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.

Because of the different factors that affect students in focusing in their studies they continuously undergo to lack of motivation. Sometimes due to their friends, they are being influenced not to make their tasks. Among the causes of lack of motivations are depression, fear of failure, low self-esteem, lack of interest, and stress.

Depression is a medical illness that causes a constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest. It affects how the person feels, behaves and thinks. Usually it is being experienced by college students especially when they are far away from home. They tend to feel alone and homesick. Others get depressed because of financial problems, relationships and studies. People with depression find it hard to go about their day-to-day activities. Sometimes they might also feel that life is not worth living.

One of the most common symptoms of depression is called anhedonia, or the lack of interest in activities, especially ones that once used to be pleasurable. Depression can wreak havoc on academic and professional success. Treating the depression generally has a very positive effect on motivation and productivity.

Fear of failure
Some people have a character of being a perfectionist. It means they always want things to be perfect. For them mistakes are failures. This develops an inherent fear of failure, which is presented by avoiding work. Instead, people who are afraid of failing avoid the goal feels safer than trying and not succeeding. This attitude must be change because it will lead to taking things for granted. Students feel the pressure when there are tasks assign
to them. They feel nervous whenever the deadline comes. Because of fear to fail in their fields they just simply make things easily in a sense that they do it quickly. This results to unsightly work. Furthermore, there are also students that because of fear to fail did not want to engage in any works. They don’t want to try before quit. Therefore they inclined to lost interest and also lost motivation.

Low self-esteem
Another cause of lack of motivation is self-esteem. People who have low self-esteem tend to believe that they are not capable of succeeding and often self-sabotage. They will miss deadlines, procrastinate, double-book or put in minimal effort so that the project or task is not perfectly complete, there is something else to blame. Aside from that, low self-esteem decreases a person’s self-confidence. Deflecting personal responsibility helps preserve a delicate sense of self that comes with low self-esteem.

Lack of interest
Some tasks are uninteresting and that makes them difficult to engage in. Students require frequent rewards and if the school subject or project is not interesting enough, it is natural to not participate in it. This becomes especially problematic when students are involved in major, class or career that is uninteresting. Their attention will be diverted elsewhere, resulting in poor grades or low performance at work.

Stress takes up a significant amount of cognitive and emotional bandwidth. Some people cope with stress and feeling overwhelmed by avoiding deadlines or finding triggers to engage in substance use again. Lack of sleep due to stress or overwhelm can also make it difficult to feel motivated. While a person is stress they cannot focus on their works and lose a chance to do their task properly. Students mostly college students are prone to this kind of problem. This is because they are busy in their studies, projects, home works and other activities that can generate stress. In fact, students who are stress-out might also be depressed due to frustration. To avoid being stress you need to give yourself some time to rest and have enough sleep

From our previous lessons we discussed about the different causes why students lack on motivation. For us to overcome this problem we must follow some techniques to help you gain motivation.

Develop a primary goal
It is important for a student to build or set up a primary goal. This will help them to get motivated and develop themselves. The most common mistake that we make is that we try to take on too many goals at once. One example of this is my experience. At times I always set up too many goals to achieve. I always say to myself that I can do all of this but later I find myself stuck up and finish nothing. I realized that I cannot maintain energy and focus in the goals that I want to accomplish. So it is really necessary for us especially to students to choose one goal and concentrate on it. This will help you to make things always on the line and help you do other goals.

Based on my experience it is really hard to change your habits. It requires great effort in order to get motivated. As students we should always keep our mind fresh for us to have a good outlook in life. Meditation can be a great way to relax and de-stress, as well as to create emotional and spiritual well being. If you’re a person who loves studying or workaholic, you probably don’t have much energy left to feel motivated. If that’s the case, you need to slow yourself down and let your mind relaxes so you can rejuvenate and reenergize your body. Meditation helps you do both of these things. It gives you the opportunity to let your stress and anxiety seep out of your body and allows you to decompress and find the energy to reach the goals you have set for yourself. So, take a few minutes and just breathe.

Let out the negative and let in the positive. If you want to stay motivated, you have to work at it. And if you follow this activity, your mind will make motivational thinking a habit. Before you know it, your dreams will be a reality. Fortunately, meditation may help you overcome these same scarcity conversations in your head. Now if you could just start meditating you will also be able to find inner peace.

Be physically fit
Even though students are busy in their studies and other activities, they should not forget to take care of themselves. They must stay strong, healthy and physically fit. A person who is physically has much higher energy than those who does not engage in physical activities. Exercising is a good example of making your body glowing. It is not just about aerobic capacity and muscle size. Surely, exercise improves your health but it has even greater benefits for your energy, mood, and brain power. In addition, eating plenty of vegetables and drinking 8-10 glasses of water will contribute to your body’s growth and development. This will help you gets motivated in every action that you obtain.


Every student should acquire or should know the proper applying of decision making in able for them to assess their expected outcomes. Decision making can make your life easier and full of happiness if you just practice controlling and managing your decisions wisely. Every problem in college life has its own solution, the only thing we need to do is to know and find it.

The tips and advices in this book can help you to your problem as a college student but the only one who can really solve your problem is your own self. Money Management is a very effective way to make your budget last up to last day of the month. Although it is difficult to achieve, you’ll start making hard decisions, cannot go to all of your barkada’s hang-outs, but like all other things, we just need practice and be mindful of wherever our money goes. Money Management is very useful especially for students if they only know how to use it appropriately and it can help them to become smart in handling financial figures.

It is only a problem when there is a shortage of money and an inappropriate use of allowances. The recommended tips on this book can help students to be guided in managing money. If it can’t really solve money shortage immediately, it can still become a basis for a college student in their first step in keeping their money in the right place. Our wallets may not have a stomach but it is always better if it is full. When we think on the positive side of pressure on studies, we can definitely tell that it helps us to be matured and take the challenges we faced by encouraging yourself not to give up easily.

Remember that when there is a problem there will always answer for that. Just take time and not decide urgent because when you decide when you’re under pressure you can think for the consequences of your decisions that you made. When you’re under pressure, take that as challenge for you to grow up. Pressure helps you to work hard on your work so be thankful. We can attain the things that we want to if we just strive hard. But also remember when there is positive, there is negative Peer pressure can be good or bad but it depends on the person that thinks about it. He can use it for the betterment of his future career or future life.

It really plays a very big factor when it comes to the development stage mostly of the teenagers. Peer pressure is a part of every teenager’s life, this is where they find themselves and discover what kind of personality they have.

Being a college student, having a relationship or falling in love to the opposite sex is an unavoidable thing. Relationship is good in the fact that this gives you a better determination in studying, somehow makes you feel better to school every day and to impress during class the one you love. But fails to know their limits lead to a very complicated situation which somehow leads to the destruction of your dreams. So it is always good to think a hundred times before engaging to those activities which is not yet ready or not yet allowed for both of you to engage with.

Remember that when reality fails, nothing you could do in order to correct those wrongs you have done. Relationships are good, but sometimes it can be a problem. There are times in every relationship where a couple will have a disagreement or an issue. Disagreements between couples can distract students from their school work and add to already high stress levels. Break-ups can drive some students even further into depression. Depression is a distressing experience but there are many kinds of help available.

Sadly, you may not always get the help you need, sometimes because you may feel too hopeless about your situation to ask. It can change lots of things in one’s personality, especially colleges. I think students should know their limits to handle the things that made them stress. Depression doesn’t have any positive outcome to us but sometimes we need to take the problems seriously,

and treat them as a nature of every man. Think on the positive ways to solve it. Being bored is a choice that you make when the first thing or second you think of to do is unavailable to you. You’re left with things that you considered less enjoyable, and thus you’re bored. When I was in this situation, the solution to that problem was easy.

I opened new doors. I looked for new things to do. Lack of Self confidence is one of the biggest problems of a student because being some students possesses and acquires this. There are many reason why students self confidence goes down. But in order to boost and develop your self esteem, you need the help of this book. Students need to develop their selves in acquiring confidence to achieve good grades and a better life in future. Everyone holds opinions about the type of person they are but keep in mind that these opinions are at the heart of self-esteem and it will affect how you feel about and value yourself. Self-esteem fixed your beliefs about yourself and it can change throughout your life as a result of circumstance and experience. If you have low self-esteem, these beliefs will often be negative.

You may not focus on what you feel to your weaknesses and mistakes that you have made but to those strengths. Learned that Self-confidence is extremely important in almost every aspect of our lives, yet so many people struggle to find it. Sadly, this can be a vicious circle: People who lack self-confidence can find it difficult to become successful. Lack of motivation is the last topic that is discussed in this book. We know that we cannot avoid being lazy or having lack of interest in our works at times. It is normal, but making this a habit is not good. As a student we always have to be motivated in every action we do so that we can come up to a great work. Behind every goal that we desire to achieve motivation has been the influence behind it. Motivation is the force of life, and the drive of all actions. In order to succeed we have to push ourselves and take a lot of effort to motivate ourselves.


Student Orientation Programs – Introduction to College Life, Becoming Familiar with the New Environment, Welcome to the Community!, Conclusion –

Adjustment To College – Types of Adjustment, Services Available to Assist with Adjustment Students,Student,Social,

Organizations that fail to plan are planning to fail

Currently, the numerous organizations pour huge sums of capitals into competitive market in order to get a larger market share and seek more financial profits. Some of them are success, while others are eliminated with a huge financial loss by the fierce competition. However, the main reason why those companies failed is nothing but not having an all-round strategic planning. This essay will discuss that a company with an all-round planning in terms of external and internal environment of the business will help businesses achieve company’s objectives and survive from the intensive competition of the capital market. Planning for internal environment mainly based on company’s weakness and strength can increase the working efficiency and coordination for the purpose of reducing in the operation cost associated with production mistakes, while planning for the external in terms of company’s threats and opportunities can help the business effectively analyze local market and expand company in order to gain more financial benefits.

It is undeniable that a formal planning for a company makes contributions to achieving organization’s objective under the assumption of unchanged and predictable environment (Robbins et al. 2012 p.87). However, it is commonly believed that the capital market is changeable and unpredictable (Kumar 2011, p.18). As a result, a well-constructed plan might not be able to fit in every circumstance of business. Some negative discussions on a formal planning have been issued recently (Robbins 2012, p.87). Firstly, a formal planning may create some rigidity to the working environment that makes management lack flexibility and selectivity, which leads managers to be simply tied on a specific course of action (Robbins 2012, p.87). Secondly, a formal planning may restrict staff’s creativity and intuition. As a company needs someone’s creativity and innovation to be improved, the result of formal planning may reduce the vision to an inflexible company routine, which will be a receipt of disaster (Robbins 2012, p.87).

Thirdly, planning may limit managers’ strategic vision. There is a tendency that a planning especially for the strategic performance of business only focuses on how to maximize organization financial benefits in the capital market. As a result, the managers may simply focus on the field the company currently has, rather than re-creation or reinvention in aims of company expansion in the future (Robbins 2012, p.87). Fourthly, a formal planning can enhance success that maybe a receipt of failure. According to Robins (2012, p.87), managers may follow some precedential business cases that succeed before. Thereby, it is hard and unwilling for them to discard the successful experience of precedents when make a plan for the company. However, this plan may keep managers from doing things in a new way that would be even more successful because successful experience cannot work in every company environment, especially in current uncertain and changeable capital market (Robbins 2012, p.87). However, for the business long-term success, the importance of strategic planning in terms of internal for a business is incredibly meaningful (Topfer 2011, para.1).

Firstly, an internally focused planning can provide an internal analysis of organization that considers internal weakness of company (Ingram 2014, para.3). Through an internal management planning, managers of a company can immediately identify the lack of company’s abilities and resources and then analyze the weaknesses may exist in the future development at the first beginning of a company’s operation, such as the staff skill limitation, the limitation of its product design or the shortage of technical and financial support (Flott 1997, pp.42-3). Thus, remedial measures, such as employing higher educated employees or improvement of manufactory equipment, can be timely acted. Consequently, financial loss or resources shortage can be effectively avoided during the operation (Flott 1997, p.43).

Secondly, an internally focused planning plays an effective role in helping managers identify company strengths as well (Robbins et al. 2012, p.90). Analyzing company strengths by finding out any unique resource or any performance the business does better than other companies, managers are able to discover some competitive advantages (Ingram 2012, para.5). For instance, the world largest mobile company, Apple, they know that they have abundant financial strengths, thus they fully take financial advantages by making considerable investment over $160 million annually in the area of innovation and design of products (Clark 2014, para.1). As a result, Apple attracts millions of loyal customers around the world and makes them willing to purchase the products constantly because of the highest quality and best performance of products (Clark 2014, para.2). Thirdly, internal planning helps managers do some internal adjustment for increasing working efficiency.

For instance, by thoroughly analyzing staff working capabilities in terms of education level, work experience and overall competence, managers can optimize the utilization of human resources. Effectively deploying different human resources into different working departments, where is suitable for each employee, can maximize their strengths in order to achieve higher work efficiency and coordination (Loton 2007, p.373). As a result, the errors of production and wastage that caused by staff’s working against during the operation can be substantially avoided and declined. In other words that the operation cost can be reduced and keep company moving effectively towards its objective (Robbins et al. 2012, p.86). Fourthly, it is also helpful for managers to determine whether the operation of organization is on the right track and check how far they have drifted away from the original objective by an internal planning (Topfer 2011, para.4). Internal planning is a reference point that can allow managers to return to any point of operation once the mistakes happened (Topfer 2011, para.3). The functions of a strategic planning which externally focused are critical for company’s success as well.

An external planning can provide an analysis that examines the threats and opportunities of company that independently exists in the external environment (Olsen 2010, para.10). According to Olsen (2010, para.10), the threats are obstacles that prevent organization from achieving its objectives and have negative effects on future development in terms of external; while the opportunities refer to a positive condition in the external environment that will produce constructive contributions on organization’s success. Through analyzing company’s threats when makes an externally focused plan, managers are able to clearly identify, for instance, what the supply and cost of labor is in the location where operates and whether the labor cost will significantly affect the profit of products (Robbins et al. 2012, p.87). A remarkable example of this is Apple Company. Apple has currently occupied the market of mobile phone over 60%, so a large amount of labor force is required during the production (Worstall 2013, para.2).

In order to have a lower labor cost, the production planning center of Apple decided that settled the factories into Asian countries because Asia have a relatively lower labor cost and plenty of labor supply (Worstall 2013, para.1). A latest statistical data has been carried out that Apple has to pay more $4.2 billion to the production staff if Apple manufactures iPhone in the US rather than in Asia (Worstall 2013, para.1). So, it is obvious that a company analyzing its external condition when makes an external plan is crucial to its objectives in terms of financial benefits. Furthermore, having an external plan is helpful for managers to find out the company’s opportunities, such as a market gap that no organization is currently serving, a new field that can be stepped in for the purpose of exploring market to seek more financial return and developmental opportunities (Ingram 2012, paras 6-7). After analyze external environment of company, managers can timely know what products can affect market share and what changes are in consumers favor that may increase the sale of products (Ingram 2012, para.6).

As a result, effective adjustments in terms of improvement and innovation of products and can be carried out in order to remain company’s long-term competiveness in the market and meet the customers’ demand immediately (Ingram 2012, para.6). Hence, the sales of product can be increased and more financial profits can be brought out. In conclusion, although having a formal planning may bring some negative effects on company’s success, a well-constructed strategic plan in terms of internally focused and externally focused makes contribution to its financial profit and surviving from the market competition. To an internal plan, combining company’s industry status with its strength, it can help company enhance its market position and do some positive adjustment in order to get a higher working efficiency and coordination, while identifying company’s weakness, such as scarcity of resources, some remedial measures can be acted in advance in order to avoid financial loss in the further development.

To an external plan, analyzing company’s opportunities can help business explore new market in order to reach developmental potential. At the same time, an external plan can provide an external analysis that assist managers with identifying company’s threats, such as labor cost and supply. According to Apple’s example, choosing a most beneficial manufactory location not only can have a sufficient labor supply but also save plenty of labor cost. Overall, adhering a strategic plan both internally and externally for a company is constructive and meaningful in its long-term success.

Reference List

Flott, LW 1997, ‘Quality Control: Corporate Planning’, Elsevier Science, July, pp.42-5. Ingram, D 2014, ‘Internal & External Strategic Plan
Development’, Chron, viewed 21 April 2014, . Kumar, B 2011, Capital Market, Anurag Jain, New Delhi, India. Loton, C 2007, ‘Using good business planning to ensure good governance’, Keep Good Companies, July, pp.372-5. Olsen, E 2010, ‘Internal & External Analysis’, OnStrategy, 5 April, viewed 1 May 2014, . Robbins, S, DeCenzo, D, Coulter, M & Woods, M 2012, Management: The Essentials, 1st edn, Pearson, Australia.

Topfer, S 2011, ‘The Importance of Business Planning’, NASDAQ, 25 February, viewed 20 April 2014, . Worstall, T 2013, ‘If Apple Brought iPhone Manufacturing To The US It Would Cost Them $4.2 billion’, Forbes, 25 September, viewed 2 May 2014, .

Organisations that fail to plan are planning to fail

Churchill, a politician and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, during the World War II. The Oxford dictionary generally defines plan as “a detailed proposal for doing or achieving something”. In term of management, planning set out an organisation’s objectives and how those objectives could be achieved. Furthermore, planning can be either formal or informal. In formal planning, the time period is included along with written objectives that are distributed internally, whereas informal planning is concerned with little to no written materials (Robbins et al. 2014). Nevertheless, when the term planning is being used, it is often referred to as formal planning. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the controversial effects of formal planning on the performances of firms that were evidenced in a range of empirical studies, the influence it has on newly established ventures and its applicability at the times of environmental uncertainty.

Camillus (1975) states that “companies that plan formally perform better than those which plan informally”, and he also believes that by formalising plans, the firms’ performances can be improved. An important feature of formal planning is strategic planning, which is known as “the process managers use to form a vision, analyse their external and internal environments, and select the strategies they will use to create value for stake holders” (Robbins et al. 2014). It was argued that formal strategic planning has a relationship to the financial performances of organisations, and that relationship could be positive. This argument was evidenced by a study conducted by Robert Arasa and Peter K’Obonyo (2012).

The study was taken in Kenya, a developing country, paying extra attention to the strategic planning steps, and it concluded that firms that have been engaging in a high-level of strategic planning tend to perform better in both financial and non-financial aspects. This conclusion corresponds to another study conducted in 1994, where the firms were measured in term of mean capital returns for a five year period, and resulted that the firms with strategical planning have a higher chance of survival (Capon, Farley & Hulbert 1994). Nevertheless, the relation-

ship between formal strategic planning and performances of firms is considered controversial due to the fact that despite the studies that have proven the positive link between the two, there are ones that prove the complete opposite (Bhide 2000). Researchers believe that the question regarding the above relationship is “complex and difficult” and their “knowledge respective to it is limited” (Shrader, Taylor and Dalton 1984, p. 167) due to the inconsistency of the studies. The link between planning and organisations’ performances was found to be void, with the effects ranging from null to negative, as commented by Boyd on his meta-analysis review (1991). Additionally, formal planning was also confirmed to produce a small negative effect on financial performance, as it was concluded from an experiment that was conducted by banking organisations (Whitehead and Gup 1985). In spite of having studies as supporting evidences for both of the arguments, the question about whether there is a positive relationship is still remains inconclusive, and the positive effect is considered to be surmised.

The difference that arose from the above studies could be due to the difference in objectives of the firms and/or how they define strategic planning (Whitehead and Gup 1985). Since the positive effect on firms through planning is unconfirmed, it is important to narrow down the target population and to observe the influence of planning only on the new firms. Hence, the next section would focus on analysing the influence of planning on the newly established ventures. As an entrepreneur or prospective business owner would like to establish his/her own business, there are decisions needed to be made about whether he/she should develop the business basing on intuition, or whether it should be carefully considered through planning.

This paragraph would closely scrutinise the influence of planning on new ventures, especially on the development of those ventures, including how planning influence the finance acquisition prior to the development of one firm, chances of new ventures to survive, and excluding financial approach since it is not likely for new firms to generate revenue (Stuart, Hoang & Hybels 1999). According to Delmar and Shane (2003), they focus their findings based on three dimensions of venture development, including “product development”, “venture organising activity” and “disbanding” as they believe those  three are the most essential factors that contribute to the establishments of firms. As a result, there is an enhancement of all three factors when firms’ founders utilise planning. Other than the study of Delmar and Shane, Perry (2001) and Liao and Gartner (2006) have also found a positive link between the chance of survival of a new venture and planning. In addition, there are a number of financial providers required owners and/or entrepreneurs to present a business plan, such as Royal Bank of Canada, or the Barclays bank of Britain, as mentioned by Karlsson (2005).

Nevertheless, it was argued that the importance of business plan on the development of new ventures were considered to be “overstated” in literature (Karlsson 2005). Based on the research that was completed by Bhide (2000), firms founders tend to use their personal funds or bank loans to set up their businesses, and therefore, the financial providers pay more attention to the ability to pay debts of the firms owners/entrepreneurs rather than their business plans, as evidenced by a survey that was completed by a number of American venture capital and equity firms (Gumpert and Lange 2004). The difference in policy of the financial providers might due to the difference in context or difference in regulations, as the financial providers are not from one specific context. Furthermore, there are different elements other than planning that could have contributed to the success of firms, regardless of their size, and one of those factors is the degree of environmental uncertainty.

Therefore, the next component would emphasis on the applicability of planning during the times of environmental certainty. Environmental uncertainty refers to the risks that emerged from unpredictability (Cyert and March 1963), and there are disputes surrounding the applicability of planning during the time of environmental uncertainty. Examples of environmental uncertainty could be the entry of new competitors or the technological advancement of the firm’s rival. There are ones that in favour of planning in time of environmental uncertainty, suggesting that planning should be implemented by managers as it shows the possible risks (Matthews and Scott 1995; Zollo and Winter 2002), whereas there are those who suggested that in times of environmental uncertainty, firms need to rely on intuition and creativity (Mintzberg 1994; Allinson, Chell & Hayes 2000; Bhide 1994). It was also found that planning shows managers the possible risks and hence develop solutions (Robbins et al 2014;

Matthews and Scott 1995). However, it should also be noted that due to the lack of resources, it is unrealistic for growing and/or newly established ventures to excessively focus on planning as it would be costly (Matthews and Scott 1995). On top of that, a business plan is accused for creating a rigid schedule (Robbins et al. 2014). Originally, a business plan process would comprise of external and internal analysis, formulation, implementation of strategies, and then evaluation of results (Robbins et al. 2014). Nevertheless, in reality, Mankins and Steele (2006) suggest that managers should be innovative and creative to make continuous strategic decisions responding to environmental uncertainty. They also pointed out from their researches that firms only make 2.5 strategic decisions per year on average due to their dependence on the planning process, which in turn defined shortcomings of formal planning such as insufficient time to deal with unpredictable matters.

In other words, firms should continuously being innovative in making strategic decisions rather than relying on a business plan (Mankins and Steele 2006; McGrath 1995; Carter, Gartner & Reynolds 1996; Mintzberg 1994) as it might result in the lost of opportunities (Bhide 1994). In the final analysis, the significance of planning is evaluated throughout the discussion of its effects on performances of firms of different size, how it influence on the smaller/newly developed firms, and its applicability during times of uncertainty. The relationship between performances and planning is discussed mainly in term of financial performances, while the relationship between smaller/newly established firms and planning is discussed primarily in term of survival and the firms’ development processes.

Lastly, the essay assesses different perspectives of analysts on whether or not planning is utilisable during the time of uncertainty. Since the results are inconclusive for the most part due to the difference in contexts of studies, it is undeniable that planning would be an important element that business owners should look at in order to improve the chance of success. It is recommended that the business owners should be innovative to fix the rigid nature of planning, and to be flexible when it comes to the time of environmental uncertainty. Additionally, if formal
planning is considered to be unaffordable for smaller firms, the firms founders could be engaging in informal planning, or short-term planning rather than depending merely on intuition.

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Carter, NM, Gartner, WB & Reynolds, PD 1996, ‘Exploring start-up event sequences’, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 151-66.
Cyert, RM & March, JG 1963, A Behavioral Theory of The Firm, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
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McGrath, RG 1995, ‘Advantage from adversity: Learning from disappointment in internal corporate ventures’, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 121-42.
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Fail to plan, plan to fail: A look at a yearly operating business plan

Marketing plan


Executive summary

            Dyad company is a manufacture that deals with electronics products. The company has been in the market for many years and thus it has been established well in the market. The company has come up with a small electronic litter box that will improve the quality and the convenience of people’s life. Dyad company has what it takes to introduce the new product to the market.

Marketing plan

            Dyad electronics is a well-established electronics company that deals with the manufacture of efficient electronics products for home and industries. The company moves with the current technology where it comes up with new products within a very short of time. Dyad electronics company have come up with small appliances that will be every effective in homes and industry. The product is a self-scooping litter box with privacy hood the small appliance has also a clean litter compartment and a disposing tray. The old litter would be disposed in the disposing tray ones the scooping setting has gone off. This is the first small litter box electronic product that have been introduced in the market. The mission of the Dyad company is to enable consumers to improve the quality and convenience of their lives by providing high-quality, innovative electronic solutions.

Product support of mission statement

            The mission of the company concentrates more on improving the quality and convenience of people’s life by providing them with quality electronics solutions. The new electronic product that Dyad company have designed will improve the of peoples life because people will no longer use their manual methods of litter collection in their homes that poses danger to their health. The test on this product shows that it will be taking a very little time to collect a lot of litter. This is true evidence that the new product will improve the convenience of people’s life. It is easy to handle the product and being an electronic product, it does not mean that it poses any danger to the customers because the product is very convenient to use and it is readily available. The features of this product go hand in hand with the mission of the company.

Target market

            Homes and industries are the main target for the new products. Many individuals have been using the manual way of collecting litter in their homes. The manual ways of collecting litter take a lot of time and they are not effective. Despite their inconveniences of those methods, they are still commonly used and that is why this product mainly targets homes. Some industries produces dangerous waist that cannot be collected using the manual method and thus the electronic litter box will be appropriate. The company is targeting this industry where it is planning to supply this product in large numbers. The target market is also based on demographic where people of 35 to 65 years are the main target. This is because people of these ages are the ones who have big families and they undergo a lot of hardship in their family cleaning and that is why the company targets this people.

Competition analysis


            There are many big electronics company that make makes competition to be stiffer. Many companies in the market competing for few customers make the competition in the market to increase. Malware Company is one of the biggest companies in the industry where it has established its brand and logo in the market. This company is the biggest rival of the Dyad Company.

Threat of substitute

            The competition situation in the market based on substitute’s threat is not a competition threat to the Dyad Company. This is because litter box is a unique product that has never been in the market. Is a new product and thus there are no substitute products for it but because of creativity in the market, the substitute will be eventually be in the market.

Buyer power

            In the electronic market, the buyers are powerful because they join hands and decide on which company to buy from this makes it hard for companies to sell themselves in the market. The only way for a company to sell itself in the company is by producing quality products that will convince buyers.

Supplier power

            Competition in this market has been very simple for Dyad Company; this is because suppliers in this market are concentrated. They supply to companies that they are well aware of. Dyad Company has new products which require different suppliers and thus it will be hard to establish new suppliers.

Threats of new entry

            There a lot of new companies that are joining the industry, these companies are offering their products at a cheaper price and thus they attract more customers especially the ones who do not believe in product or company loyalty.

SWOT analysis


            Dyad company has established itself well in the market. Its old products are well known in the market because of their quality and their convenience. This will make it easy for the company to introduce a new product in the industry without any struggle. The second strengths involve its financial status. The company has very low debt compared to credit and this makes it have enough money for the preparations of marketing the new product and thus it will offer this product at a lower price. The low price will make many customers to prefer the product in a greater way because the buyers are used of new expensive products. Lastly, the team of designers of Dyad Company has introduced a production process that is convenient in terms of labor and raw materials. This is a unique production process in the industry that will ensure the company produces cheap but quality products. The ability to produce cheap products and the establishment in the market are they key strengths that will ensure that the company gets victory as far as competition is concerned.


            The company offers credit to its intermediaries for the industry only. This is one of the biggest weaknesses because the company is featuring to another line of products where it will require new suppliers. The company’s financial level cannot be compared with that of other companies like Malware. This is a weakness because the company will not be in a position to compete well in the market. The last weakness is that the company is introducing a product which is new in the market. The product will take time and a lot of company’s resources in order to feature into the market.


            The company has a good relationship with the suppliers and thus it will be easy to find other suppliers to who will be ready to supply raw materials for the new product. The company has established itself well into the industry and it has many loyal customers (Incus, 2014). This is one of the greatest opportunities because the new product will have people to buy it and to market it in the industry. The new product that the company is planning to produce is different is a unique one and thus there is no other substitute in the market. This is an opportunity because there will be no competition in the market as far as the new product is concerned (Sarkis, 2014).


            The major threat of the company is the introduction of a new product which people do not know. That is one of the threats because people may not accept it because of buyer’s ignorance of new products. There is a high entry of new companies in the market with high level of creativity and thus it will take short time for them to come up with a substitute of the new product and that means that the product will face a lot of competition. The buyers in the market concentrate in one companies and this is a big threat because buyers may divert to another company (Skripsky, 2012).

Marketing objectives

            Dyad company is planning to make sure that the litter box will be of good quality and convenient to use. The new product will be sold at a cheaper price that will be convenient for all the buyers regardless of their financial status. The product will be distributed to all the customers around the market. The distribution will be efficient to ensure that the product is effective all around. The company will also launch a promotion plan that will ensure the product is known in the market.

Marketing strategy


            The product will be designed in such a way that it will be convenient to use. This will ensure that all member of the community are given a chance to use the product. The product will also be cheap for it to serve all members of the community. Lastly, the litter box will not have any harm consequences that will affect the consumers.


            The company will use the new design of production process in order to produce cheap product. The price will also be low as a way of product promotion. The company has been in the market for a long time and thus it has made a lot of profit. These profits will be used to produce the product at lower price. The aim of the company is not just to design a litter box but a litter box that will be convenient to all.


            The company has a plan to buy more cars that will be used for distribution of the new product to the market. This will ensure that the buyers get the products wherever they are and with the right convenience.


            Dyad Company has a plan to launch many promotion strategies that will ensure the product is well known in the market. Online, coupons and poster promotions strategies will be the main focus of the company. The above mix will ensure that the objectives of the company have been achieved because they all go hand in hand with the objectives.

Tactics and action plan

            The young team of designers will be responsible of the product quality and design. The designers will come up with a product which will be the best in the market. The company has already started ordering distribution cars. The prize of the product will be agreed by the whole committee after all the calculations have been done on the production process. The promotion strategies will be conducted by the information technology team.


Promotion The first six weeks

Product One month

Distribution One moth

Price Three weeks

Implementation plan

            The management of the company will be responsible of monitoring all the strategies in order to make sure that the plan is implemented to the last point. Promotion strategy will be monitored by through accessing how buyers are becoming aware of the product in the market. The product progress will be monitored through accessing the quality of the product and also views from the consumers. The prize of the product will be monitored through the views from the consumers of the product. Distribution will be monitored through accessing the efficiency of distribution process.


Promotion The first week before launching the product

Product Two weeks after the launch of the product

Distribution One week after the launch

Price One month after the launch of the product


Skripsky, H. (2012). Fail to plan, plan to fail: A look at a yearly operating business plan. Journal of Retail & Leisure Property, 282-286.

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