Analysis Of Laptops For Graphic Design Use Computer Science Essay

A good friend of mine is looking for for my recommendation on buying a new appliance. He is an Interior Graphic Designer. Recently, he wants to purchase a pocket book which is able to again up the new version of in writing planing package deal such as Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, 3DMAX and and so forth. Furthermore, he besides requires a lightweight and person friendly notebook with durable battery that can last for about four hours.

Gadgets/ Equipment

Laptop theoretical account

Macbook Pro 17’inch

Sony 16 inch VAIO F Series


2.3GHz Quad-core Intel Core i7 with 6MB L3 cache

IntelA® Corea„? i7-2820QM Processor 2.30 GHz with Turbo Boost as much as 3.40 GHz with 8 MB ( L3 Cache )

Operating System

Mac OS X Snow Leopard

Genuine WindowsA® 7 Ultimate 64-bit ( English Version )


8GB 1333MHz DDR3 SDRAM – 2X4GB

8 GB ( four GB x 2 ) DDR3 SDRAM

Hard Drive

750GB Consecutive ATA Drive @ 5400 RPM

640 GB ( Serial ATA, 7200 revolutions per minute )


MacBook Pro 17-inch Hi-Resolution Glossy Widescreen Display

16 inch broad TFT coloring material present ( VAIO Display Premium, 3D Supported, LED backlight )

Video Card

Intel HD Graphics 3000

AMD Radeon HD 6750M with 1GB GDDR5

NVIDIAA® GeForceA® GT 540M GPU with 1GB GDDR3

Optical Drive

8x slot-loading SuperDrive ( DVDA±R DL/DVDA±RW/CD-RW )

Blu-ray Disca„? Drive with DVD SuperMulti


Wi-Fi radio networking4 ( primarily based on IEEE 802.

11n specification ) ; IEEE 802.11a/b/g compatible

IEEE 802.11b/g/n

Primary Battery

6-cell Primary Battery up to 7 hours of radio web

VGP-BPS21A Lithium-ion battery: as a lot as 1.5 hours of usage

Monetary value



Table1: The comparing of the specification of two market out there pocket book.

From the specification tabular array, both Macbook Pro 17’inch and Sony sixteen inch VAIO F Series holding the same processor and chief memory. The Intel i7 processor is essentially the most newest Intel engineering processors which working with DDR3 SDRAM. The chief reminiscence is 2 slot of 4GB DDR3 SDRAM which can be work in double channel method to produce more faster treating power. The troublesome disc of Macbook pro is rather more larger which can hive away more recordsdata. Other than that, the Macbook Pro have a bigger 17-inch show the place Apple declare that the entire present are calibrated. The video card of each notebook are using completely different engineerings which is AMD Radeon and NVIDIA GeForce to Macbook pro and Sony VAIO severally. The Macbook pro 17 is somewhat more better than NVIDIA with its GDDR5 engineering. The battery of Macbook pro can last more than Sony VAIO which is 6 hours and 1.5 hours severally.


Microsoft Windows 7

Windows 7A is the latest releaseA from the working system elephantine Microsoft. It is a sequence ofA runing techniques that are created for utilization onA private computing machines, together with place and businessA desktops, laptops, A netbooks, A tablet Personal computers, andA media centerA Personal computers. Unlike its predecessors Vista and Windows XP, Windows 7 is meant by Microsoft to be a kind of an improvising ascent, which will set up itself on Windows Vista, due to this fact doing all bing bundle and hardware suitable with Windows Vista.

Most of the alterations made in Windows 7 are within the signifier of consumer interface and inner package deal betterments to the operating system. For case, multi-touchA help is targeted, a redesignedA Windows shellA with a newA taskbar referred to as Superbar, and a spot networking system known as HomeGroup. The betterments made are non merely within the expressions and aesthetics of the Windowss themselves, but in addition to extra user-friendly traits, every bit good as enhanced velocity for plans like Windows Internet Explorer. Besides these, there are in addition to expected to be extra customization traits available to customers. Furthermore, Windows 7 claimed to be a more steady platform.

Windows 7 presently has 32-bits and 64-bits reminiscence reference length structure which could be referenced by the processor. This will hold an impression on the maximal sum of memory that can be utilized, which is 4GB for a 32 spot. If the reminiscence reference is far more than 4GB of memory, which is ideal for devouring players, CAD, image editors and heavy multi-taskers. However, any 32 spot package deal you use will still be restricted to 4GB memory. A sixty four spot CPU, OS and purposes is required to take full advantage of the surplus RAM. In add-on, Runing some 32 spot purposes on a 64 spot OS may really be slower.A The further operating expenses in operating 32 spot package deal in sixty four spot manners may do a little debasement in public presentation. Windows 7 is comparatively good in case you are often work with useful resource hungry applications which are 64 spot optimised ( corresponding to picture redaction, CAD and image bundles ) so it might be particularly good to have the ability to work with over 4GB of RAM amongst the other betterments

To better the graphical public presentation Windows 7 has a great structure of GDI Concurrency and Reduction of general memory footmark of Windows because of inordinate paging activity.

Windows 7 architecture of GDI concurrence.

The GDI concurrence was improved by re-architecting the inner synchronism mechanism via which multiple purposes can reliably render on the same clip. Contention as a result of planetary sole lock is avoided by implementing a determine of powdered locks which are non sole however help correspondence. The increased figure of powdered locks adds slightly operating expense for eventualities the place merely a individual application is rendering at a clip. Particular attending was paid to GDI software compatibility as altering inner synchronism mechanism in essentially the most broadly used API stack could probably give rise to clocking issues similar to dead ends and rendering corruption.This work apart from resulted in better rendering public presentation of coincident GDI functions on multi-core CPUs. Multi-core Windows PCs benefit from these alterations as more than one utility can now be rendering on the similar clip. In lower of total reminiscence footmark Windows 7 saves one transcript of the reminiscence allotment per software window by acquiring rid of the system memory transcript wholly. Thus, for a GDI utility window seen on the desktop, the reminiscence consumed is reduce in half.

Apple Mac OS X 10.6

Mac OS X snow leopard 10.6 is the newest model of Mac OS X for Macintosh computing machines like Apple ‘s desktop, waiter and laptop. This working system is predicated on UNIX programming linguistic communication and it’s a line of graphical consumer interface-based operating system.

Unix is a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a clip sharing constellation. Unix system is function beneath Unix doctrine that’s use area text for hive awaying informations, a hierarchal file system ; handling units and sure kinds of inter-process communicating ( IPC ) as files ; and the utilization of a big determine of package tools, little plans that could be strung together through a bid line translator using pipes, as opposed to utilizing a particular person large plan that includes the entire same functionality. In Unix, the meat is the maestro management plan. Many of the public-service firms in Unix together with the meat. The meat supplies companies like to get down and halt plans, , handles the file system and other frequent “ low degree ” undertakings that the majority plans portion, and, probably most importantly, agendas entree to hardware to keep away from struggles if two plans attempt to entree the identical resource or device on the similar time. The meat was given particular rights on the system, taking the division between user-space and the kernel-space to intercede such entree.

The system demands for this operating system are Mac computing machine with an Intel processor ( IA-32 ) . “ Yonah ” processors such as Core Solo and Core Duo can run merely 32-bit functions ; subsequently x86-64 architecture processors corresponding to Core 2 Duo will besides be able to run 64-bit purposes. Beside that it besides wants 1GB of Ram and 5GB of free disc infinite. This version of operating system is merely obtainable for Intel-based Macintosh computing machines and the licences are single-user licences and “ family battalion ” licences for as much as 5 computing machines are available.

This OS is concentrated on artworks and multimedia maps. Mac OS X is considered suited for amusement intents and it is popularly used for exposure redaction and for enjoying photos and music. Apple ‘s ain some in writing application like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro and Aperture, and all of the in writing package from adobe is out there for this platform. Apple Mac OS X 10.6 is more unafraid working system if comparability to others.

Choose probably the most suited Operating System

By making some examine between Microsoft Windows 7 and Apple Mac OS X 10.6, we might be choosing Macbook Pro 17’inch as the model new notebook for this in writing interior decorator.

In footings of security and privateness, the Mac OS X10.6 is far more preferred. Because Mac OS is utilizing UNIX programming linguistic communication and Windows is using DOS scheduling linguistic communication. The DOS scheduling linguistic communication are the more popular technique as many people opt for Windows, whereby this can take to a daily Windows OS to be less difficult hacked by about anyone with distant computing machine cognition. Besides, extra virus or spy-ware can perforate into the Operating system which is able to do our informations unbarred or would possibly merely even corrupt the complete operating system. Furthermore, Mac OS have their ain assist package deal ( anti-virus, private firewall, and so on ) which provides a special diploma of security compared to Windows supported package. Nowadays, most of the virus and illicit bundle which are created largely affects Windows related package in comparability with Mac OS with being viruses and malware plans being created primarily based on the DOS linguistic communication.

In footings of artworks public presentation, while the Macbook Pro and Mac OS is being manufactured with more focus on artworks and multimedia maps, however Windows and any generic Personal computer that comes with it are far more focussed on common office maps. In add-on, the Macbook Pro comes with a calibrated 17-inch high declaration widescreen show. The graduated present will do the displayed coloring material exactly the identical with the existent coloring materials or printing coloring material. This will keep knowledgeable image of a inside decorator with an ideal presentation.

The compatibility of Mac OS is relatively excessive as Windows. For presently, many of the informations or file utilized in Windows are apart from appropriate or can be used in Mac OS though the bundle can non be run in each Operating system. For illustration, the Adobe Illustrator put in in Mac OS can non be put in in Windows, but the file both created or exported by every of the completely different version can be use in each others. Probably the lone things which are n’t appropriate with every others ‘ system is the Windows ‘s feasible file ( .exe ) or ( Preferred Executable ) by the Mac OS that are used to run or put in purposes.

The rendering public presentation in Mac OS is lots occasions better than Windows. Because one of the chief intent of Mac OS is for picture and movie redaction, the package being created have a extraordinarily efficiency rendering public presentation which work together with processor. The processors, in writing treating units ( GPUs ) for an mean Macintosh system are specifically created to its machine, while Windows hardware are easy interchangeable by purchasing any components of the market and stick oning it to a desktop/laptop. Although this would possibly look to be a bonus for the Windows based mostly Personal laptop, its artworks public presentation can merely hardly be comparable with an equal VRAM of a Macintosh system, due to manufacturing unit standardization by the Apple technicians to maximise finish product capableness.

Other than that, the power path of the Mac OS X10.6 are much more higher than Windows 7 whereas the processor is running in a full burden standing which is rendering because the graph shows beneath, the Mac OS X10.6 will holding battery life is longer than Windows 7 when examined on the same sort of Macbook Pro.

Final Decision and recommendation

The concluding dedication on selecting of recent notebook for my in writing inside decorator good friend is purchase a Macbook Pro 17 ” inch with Mac OS X10.6 as the advice. The Macbook comes with Mac OS X10.6 Snow Leopard which is the OS that is most suited to the calls for of he requested. By comparing the general public presentation of Mac OS X10.6 with Windows 7, this shows that Mac OS is executing better in time period of what my pal requested.

Analysis of Graphic Design

Art is a form of expression that dates back to the beginning of time. Since then it has advanced and changed to adapt to fashionable times. Whether that be via a shift in type, in medium, or expertise. Graphic design, opposite to in style perception, really started in 1922, to define graphic art across time. Since the introduction of the modern pc and graphic design software, it has developed into an n art style that is present in all places in the fashionable world. Graphic design has many various kinds simply as normal art does, ranging from the minimalism of Apple, to the typographic nature of many fashionable ads.

Graphic design isn’t just a type of artwork anymore, however it somewhat is a medium through which much of our life is defined. To understand the idea of graphic design, you must first analyze graphic design within the modern world, the methods used, and at last the different mediums obtainable to attain high quality art. In 1976 Ronald Wayne designed the very first Apple Computer Co.

brand. This logo depicted Isaac Newtown sitting under a tree to mirror the revolutionary nature of this. However, Wayne’s design wasn’t appreciated by many, and thus didn’t gain a lot popularity.

In lower than a 12 months, Steve Jobs commissioned Rob Janoff, one of the most famous graphic designers ever, to design the brand new Apple brand, a rainbow silhouette of an apple. This mirrored the idealistic nature of the computers and also showed the highly effective aspect that the computer systems hold with the power to process so many alternative colors.

In 1998 nevertheless, the Apple brand modified its colourful nature to a monochromatic look reflecting the modern nature of the world, not to point out the distinction between the colour schemes of the gray computer systems with monochrome logos. (Davis “Evolution and History of the Apple Logo”)

Graphic design has not simply revolutionized emblem design, but has also revolutionized different aspects of life, similar to notorious cartoons. Before the inception of contemporary graphic design, cartoon artists have handy draw their cartoons, and sometimes resulted in many mistakes and tough wanting images. With the inception of graphic design, cartoon artwork has shifted from being simple and infantile, to being extravagant and mature. The TV exhibits Avatar the Last Airbender is doubtless considered one of the key examples of this. The artwork on this reflects many elements of our own historical past. Such as East-Asian, Inuit, Indian and south-American cultures.

The show has won many awards, a lot of them being for the focus on artwork and the superior high quality of it (DiMartino “Avatar the Last Airbender: The Art of the Animated series”) Before modern graphic design, artists often worked for rich businesses and could not afford to work on their own. Walt Disney founded The Walt Disney Company underneath this premise, and hired many artists to work for him. Now the Walt Disney Company is probably one of the greatest and most well-known firms on the planet, and the shift from old types of artwork to modern graphic design has modified it completely.

Now motion pictures and TV exhibits could be produced in a matter of days with the proper team, quite than in the olden ages where it took many months if not years to produce the artwork for a movie. This trendy graphic design, like another art types holds a battery of strategies associated with it, as these strategies provide methods to convey the thought, or message. One of the simplest strategies that can be used is the easy modification of distinction. High distinction lines make it simpler for the learn to determine the distinction between different sections of the page.

Joost de Valk, the graphic artist behind yoast. om, makes use of this system fairly extensively as seen on their homepage (yoast. com). Other websites similar to wordpress. com also use this method, most famously of their “download” button, to make the deep orange button stand out amongst the calm palette of blues and grays. Through the usage of distinction, consideration is drawn to contrasting items, and thus the reader’s focus is diverted to certain topics. Most contrasts however work immediately with gradients. The website Media Temple makes use of an intensive quantity of gradients, mainly for instance the trendy attitude of their web site.

These gradients are however, subtle. The gradients thus emphasize the importance of sure matters, by inserting lighter colours at the backside and darker at the top, the object is seen to be progressing by way of time in essence. There nonetheless exists quite lots of gradients. Gradients may be radial gradients (circular eminations), vertical linear fade, horizontal linear fade, horizontal radial fade, vertical radial fade and just easy linear fade. These totally different designs all work hand in hand to create direction on the page.

By creating direction on the web page, sure subjects could be emphasized and others can be dismissed. The key flaw that many new designers face with regard to gradients is the move of the gradients. If too many gradients are placed on a page or the gradients distinction, then the gradients will seem novice and will detract from the quality of the website. Gradients should nonetheless be in accordance with color schemes. Certain colors work well together, whereas others are usually a nuisance. Take for example the design of the Los Angeles Lakers brand.

They make the most of the colours of gold and purple, both of that are reverse one another on the color wheel. Thus these colours, by way of contrast, in reality bring out the overall look of the group. Then study the brand that Lasko fans makes use of. Their colour scheme is an easy brown and yellow, and but this color scheme makes their emblem appear uninteresting and overused. Lasko followers, and LA Lakers both have the identical potential for superior brand quality, however due to colour choice, the LA Lakers hold more graphic high quality with regard to their respective logos than does Lasko fans… Cohen “Evolution of NBA Team Logos”,). Gradients, contrast and colour are the three most elementary strategies used in graphic art, and can define a work as both superior, or amateur. All three of those ideas work collectively to create the concept of “visual identity”. Visual identification is a time period coined by Abduzeedo (world renown Brazilian graphic designer), meaning merely the “definitive element within the design course of used across all functions and branding materials”. As mentioned above this could be so simple as the apple emblem, and even as advanced as a stamp.

Most giant organizations have a visual id, even the US Government does. The visual identity of the US Government for instance might be the American flag, or the bald eagle, as that is present all through their whole brand line. During 2008, President Obama used the idea of the visual identification, however took it one step additional and used the “verbal identity”. He associated the word “change” together with his campaign so that this may become an integral a part of it. By utilizing the word change he primarily created a memorable center point for his marketing campaign messages by which people might keep in mind and affiliate with him.

Abduzeedo “The Makery – Visual Identity”) A problem that many graphic artists face is a problem that much of the world faces: “why? ” Much of graphic artwork identical to fashionable problems revolves across the question of “why” and the purpose of art quite than the material it holds. Richard Simkens, a world famend marketer, recognized this concept as the golden circle. (R. Simkens 10) in this golden circle, on the outdoors is the “what”. What the corporate sells or what the artwork is made up of takes half f this circle.

In the middle circle are the “how” or how the company makes and the method that the designer uses to create the artwork. At the center and crucial is the “why” or what the aim of it is. Great graphic artists similar to surrealist Roy Villalobos attempt to research and fix this idea. His art philosophy is that he attempts to precise his emotions by way of the utilization of metamorphic human figures. By attempting to combine the human physiology with what he perceives to be the feelings he creates a surrealist work of art that holds function.

Electronic graphic artwork is what’s presently shaping the world. However, to achieve a great success in electronic graphic artwork, correct software should be used. This software program begins with essentially the most easiest of type: MS Paint. MS Paint, also called Microsoft Paint, is software program that has been bloatware (preinstalled on the pc) for the previous decade, and thus has been used by tens of millions worldwide. MS Paint has very primary capabilities, such as straight lines and form creation, but it doesn’t have extra complex capabilities such as layering or gradient swatches.

Thus, MS Paint is generally dismissed within the skilled graphic artwork world, but it does nonetheless hold some value because it offered the inspiration for all different graphic art software program to stem from. In 2003, Adobe Systems launched the Adobe “Creative Suite”, graphic artwork software program launched to most of the people. Before this the one method you can graphic design on a personal scale would have been via illegally torrenting company software, purchasing the extraordinarily costly Photoshop eight (released in 1989) with a private license or buying personal licenses on extremely costly software.

The major component of “Creative Suite” was in fact, Adobe Photoshop CS. Photoshop CS was revolutionary because it supplied an inexpensive, personal level of graphic design by which even probably the most inexperienced laymen may choose it up and start designing. However, as time went on, Photoshop became increasingly complicated with the addition of a number of capabilities corresponding to “rasterization” and “layer masking” or “layer merging” and thus the accessibility of it degraded as the quality elevated. Soon however, it began to replace much skilled non-public graphic software program, and now it is the most generally used.

Photoshop CS might be compared to the unique Photoshop, nevertheless it held many differences. Since Photoshop CS might utilize 3d picture creation, movement graphics modifying and superior picture analysis, it held a a lot more professional quality of workmanship than the unique and thus comparing the unique Photoshop to Photoshop CS would be similar in evaluating the size of David to Goliath. (“The historical past of Photoshop”) Photoshop was not the one software program that had picture modification capabilities.

In 1996, the software program GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) was launched for Microsoft Windows, OS X and Linux. This software was in essence what many would name a “knockoff of Photoshop”, but these individuals were wrong. Although it had the entire identical capabilities as Photoshop, GIMP was revolutionary. It was free first off, so individuals did not should go out to the shop and buy a 100 dollar cd that they then would have to install. This led to a wider demographic utilizing this, together with individuals from around the globe, thus permitting higher cultural change through graphic art.

However, the extra important side of GIMP would be that it was open supply. By being open supply, it meant that anyone may take the source code or program of GIMP and modify it to fit their very own needs, or even the needs of a selected task. So when new pictures similar to GIF and MPEG got here out, GIMP was the first one to be modified to suit their needs. Although GIMP could be thought of the little brother of Photoshop, the one who all the time imitates what Photoshop does, GIMP is infect the progressive little brother of Photoshop. “A Brief History of GIMP” gimp. org).

Graphic artwork is something that a small proportion of individuals perceive to a limited extent, and even fewer perceive to mastery. Graphic design is shaping the fashionable world on the same fee that our media progresses. Through the usage of media and graphic design every thing is effected, be it the wallpaper in a hospital ready room wall, or the emblem on a billboard in New Jersey. Graphic art hasn’t revolutionized the world, but quite is consistently in accordance with the progression of the world.

Academic Criticism Graphic Organizer

Lady Macbeth was being haunted in her desires because of the actions her and her husband had carried out. Characterizations was also revealed as a outcome of it showed Lady Macbeth was not chilly hearted and that she had a conscience.

Lady Macbeth is wearing a white costume to show her true innocence however her hair is black to indicate the darkness inside. The people have been within the nook as a end result of they wished to hear what she was saying while she was sleep walking

The physician and woman Macbeth are on this scene.

There is also one other woman is carrying old clothing. The physician is a lady on this stage adaptation however is described as a male in Shakespeare’s writing. Again, Lady Macbeth is wearing a white costume and has black hair implying her guilt ridden conscience.

Step 2: Question

Why was it chosen for Lady Macbeth’s character to expertise such guilt when she was such a cold hearted character in the beginning? How did this contribute to the finish result of the play?

Why was Lady Macbeth in all white? Why was the doctor remaining in the corner instead of helping Lady Macbeth again to her bed?

Why in this adaptation did Lynch have the physician as a girl and not as a male just like the play had portrayed?

Step three: Analyze

Lady Macbeth begins to really feel responsible because it shows the darkness that is slowly going to start taking up Lady Macbeth and Macbeth’s relationship and not in a great way.

The doctor stayed in the corner with the lady to level out their curiosity in what Lady Macbeth was saying and the way they have been whispering to one another.

Lady Macbeth was put in all white to indicate she still had a way of innocence to her

Lynch probably made a girl play as the doctor because earlier within the play the physician states that every one men are born of ladies.

Step four: Evaluate

The creator accomplishes the theme that Darkness is Dangerous as a end result of exhibiting how the evil actions that Lady Macbeth had did left a darkness in her that she could not handle. Therefore, haunting her through many nights and ultimately resulting in her own downfall.

The painter completed the portrayal they needed the viewer to see of the guilt ridden soul that Lady Macbeth had obtained and the way she actually was remorseful for the things she did, showing her pure innocence that she has always, shown simply by merely sporting a white costume and the people within the nook whispering showing how her ideas that had been being spoken should have been of high importance and depth.

The director accomplished a portrayal of the doctor in his personal phrases. “All men are born of girls.” I additionally really feel that a male doctor might not have been extra more likely to keep ease drop on Lady Macbeths sleepwalking like a girl would.


Shakespeare’s original textual content of Lady Macbeths sleepwalking scene which had shown the toll that was taken on Lady Macbeth after the murder she had taken half in, was and inspiration not only for painters however for other administrators to remake the play of their interpretations. Both the painting and the Theater production captured the solely real function of the scene that Shakespeare initially had wrote and so they have been each similar in character with solely a slight difference. The portray by Artus Scheiner, had captured Lady Macbeth’s innocence but additionally completed making the scene appear a bit “spooky” with the lighting. In similarity to the theater manufacturing it was additionally dark and Lady Macbeth walked in lighting.

Lady Macbeths true mentality was proven within the manufacturing when she sat on the floor and began to rub her hands together vigorously to scrub off the imaginary blood she sees on her hands. The painting exhibits Lady Macbeth walking calmly however within the production she screams with frustration unable to let anyone what she has carried out, so she is left with having to maintain the secret endlessly. However, Scheiner’s painting captured the principle purpose of this scene in a single image, all by contrasting the lighting and selecting the clothes that she wore to characterize her character with no words. Lynch’s adaptation of the play additionally took benefit of the white dress and black hair appearance to vaguely brush on Lady Macbeth’s true inner self being taken over by evil deeds.

Course Syllabi- History of Graphic Design


History of Graphic Design is a critical contextual research and survey study of the intents, influences, practices, and artifacts of graphic design. The course will be structured on readings, research, and visual presentations on subjects of designer activities throughout history with an emphasis on the broader historical context of the planning, production, form, distribution, reception and cultural integration of graphic design


The Student Handbook is now available digitally rather than in hard copy. It can be found on the PNCA website (under Student Life) and on Homeroom (Home page, under PNCA Essentials).


PNCA is in compliance with federal law requiring colleges to provide reasonable accommodations for students with documented physical and/or learning disabilities. If you have a disability that might affect your
performance in this class, please make it known to the instructor.


At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to : -­‐ Demonstrate and articulate in discussions, writings, and visual presentations an understanding of the historical context of the creation of a work of graphic design (i.e. – time, place, culture, intents)


Synthesize readings and lectures and be able to formulate and post discussion points and prepare visual examples for peer review and feedback (as comments) using online tools


Utilize, and bibliographically document, a range of resources used for the study of the history of graphic design (books, journals, periodicals, online, interviews)


Creative Practice

Identify the roles, activities, and trades of communication design professionals throughout history and distinguish specific fields related to and integrated with the profession of graphic design


Learning Outcomes are
linked to PNCA’s Core
Values which are:

Identify and articulate the influence of fine art (theories, trends, aesthetics, visual styles) on the work of graphic designers

Integrated Knowledge,
Critical Thinking, & Cultural
Social and Ethical



initiate, and participate in, discussion on the planning, process, production and distribution of works of graphic design




formulate a connection of the cultural influences on design from history with practices of contemporary graphic designers through examples, writings, and discussions

Assignments for this Class:

Required Readings and discussion with evidence of comprehension Weekly Subject Research and On-line Posting to Homeroom
Weekly In-Class presentations
Final Research Paper

Topics for weekly research will include:
Design during Cultural Upheavals / World Conflicts
Design for Social Causes / Design for Social Good
Design for Commerce, Consumption, Commercialism
Information Design / Dissemination and Distribution of Information Technological Changes and its Influence on Graphic Design
Design as Author, Designer as Artist, Whole Designer
The Concept of Brand and the Development of Brand Identity
Low Design / Bad Design
Major Benchmarks in Typography
Reactionary Design / Culture Jamming

Expectations/Policies for this course:
Students are required to read and to be ready to articulate a response to all readings assigned in class. Each week there will be an assigned subject research topic that will require independent sourcing, image documentation, writing, and on-line posting on the ‘Homeroom’ site established for the course. Each student will make a 5-10 minute presentation of each assignment postings during classtime with an expectation of the use of prepared supported notes for verbal elaboration on the material presented. In-class and on-line participation in the form of response and discussion and will be expected and recorded. A final research project on the relatedness of the topics of historical practice presented to the practices of a contemporary designer or design firm/group will be in the form of a research paper. (8-10 pages minimum)

You will be allowed two absences without additional penalty – although you are responsible for any work that is missed. The third absence will result in the lowering of an entire letter grade from the computed final grade. A fourth absence will result in a final failing grade of F. Missing 30 minutes of a class period (during any part of the scheduled classtime) counts as an absence. Frequent tardiness (less than 15 minutes) will accumulate to absences (3 tardies =1 absence)

Number of hours students are expected to work outside of class: This class meets for three hours per week, and six hours of work outside of class are expected. (3 credits)


• Weekly Research Assignments timely completion / in-class presentation preparedness and comprehensiveness
• In-Class participation/contributions
• On-Line participation/contributions
• Final Research Paper

Materials /

• Access to, or ownership of, equipment to scan/photograph (digitize), upload and review visual and text information on a regular daily basis. (Computer and Camera/Scanner)
• Money for photocopying (approx. $20 projected)
• Flash Drive (2-4gb)

Recommended: History of Graphic Design text purchases (Personal library)

The books listed here are
predominantly larger
volumes dedicated to a
broad overview and
history of graphic
design. (More may be
added during the
semester) Many less
comprehensive but key
texts are available in the
library as well as journals
and periodicals that are
specific to designers,
styles, and various other
edited groupings – these
should be sought out
and reviewed andutilized
especially for more indepth study on a
research subject.

Major Texts of the History of Graphic Design
Those mark with asterisk* are on reserve shelf at front desk of PNCA library and are available on 3 hr. check out (note: many of these text have duplicates or earlier editions and are available for longer check out periods if needed) Title: Meggs, History of Graphic Design, 4th Edition*

Author(s): Philip Meggs, Alston Purvis
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 978047169902
Library Call#: Z 246 .M43 1983
Title: Graphic Design, a Concise History*
Author: Richard Hollis
Publisher: Thames & Hudson world of art
ISBN 0500203474
Library Call#: NC 998 .H65 1994
Title: Graphic Design: a New History* (1st and 2nd Editions) Author: Stephen Eskilson
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300120117
Library Call#: NC 998 .E85 2007 (1st Edition in Library*)

Students are invited to
contribute to the
additions to this
bibliography through
their weekly research
and presentation.
All sources should be
cited using MLA citation

Title: Graphic Design History, A Critical Guide*
Author(s): Johanna Drucker, Emily McVarish
Publisher: Pearson/Prentice Hall
ISBN: 0132410753
Library Call#: NC 998 .D78 2009
Title: Graphic Design in America*
Author(s): Mildred Friedman, Joseph Giovannini, Steven Heller Publisher: Walker Art Center
ISBN: 0810910365
Library Call#: NC 998.5 .A1 G65
Title: Design, Writing, Research*
Author(s): Ellen Lupton, Abbot Miller
Publisher: Kiosk
ISBN: 1568980477
Library Call#: Z 246 .L86 1996
Title: Communication Design, Principles, Methods, and Practice Author: Jorge Frascara
Publisher: Allworth Press
ISBN: 1581153651

Title: A Century of Graphic Design
Author: Jeremy Aynsley
Publisher: Barron’s Educational Series
ISBN: 0764153242
Library Call#: NC 998.4 .A96 2001

Other Readings:
Journal: Visible Language 28.3, New Perspectives, Critical Histories of Graphic Design, Pt. 1 Critiques
Editor and Publisher: Sharon Poggenpohl

Digital reference (Links)
sites should be added to
online postings

On-Line History of Graphic Design Reference


Week 1 6 Sept

Week 2 13 Sept
Friday, 13 September
is the last day to add
or drop a class.

All information (dates, times and assignments) in this schedule is subject to change at any point during the semester. Updates will be announced and posted.

Welcome / Introductions
Class Expectations / Syllabus Overview / Course Structure / Assignments Using Homeroom / Communication Expectations
Course Resources
Reading Assigned (Posted on Homeroom)

Critical Histories of Graphic Design
Discussion of Readings on the approaches to History of Graphic Design development Lecture: Brief History of Graphic Design, Pt.1
Read on Homeroom these posted excerpts for this class: Graphic Design History, a critical guide, by Drucker and McVarish, Communication Design, Principles, Methods, and Practice, by Frascara, Graphic Design, a Concise History, by Hollis, Megg’s History of Graphic Design, by Meggs and Purvis, Visible Language 28.3 New Perspectives: Critical Histories of Graphic Design, article by Blauvelt

Also read (for this classes visual lecture): “Prehistoric Prelude to Graphic Design” from Graphic Design History, a Critical Guide, by Drucker and McVarish

Week 3 20 Sept

Lecture: Brief History of Graphic Design, Pt.2
Read on Homeroom these posted excerpts for this class: “Early Writing: Mark Making, Notations Systems, and Scripts” from Graphic Design History, a Critical Guide, by Drucker and McVarish
Lecture: Conventions and Norms
Overview of Weekly Research Project Topics, Objectives, Goals, Expectations, Methods Introduction of Topic 1: Design during Cultural Upheavals / World Conflict

Week 4 27 Sept

Student Research Presentations of Topic 1: Design during Cultural Upheavals / World Conflict
Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 2: Design for Social Causes / Design for Social Good

Week 5 4 Oct

Student Research Presentations of Topic 2: Design for Social Causes / Design for Social Good
Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 3: Design for Commerce, Consumption, Commercialism

Week 6 11 Oct

Student Presentations of Topic 3: Design for Commerce, Consumption, Commercialism Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 4: Information Design / Dissemination and Distribution of Information

Week 7 18 Oct

Student Presentations of Topic 4: Information Design / Dissemination and Distribution of Information
Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 5: Technological Changes and its Influence on Graphic Design

Week 8 25 Oct

Student Presentations of Topic 5: Technological Changes and its Influence on Graphic Design
Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 6: Design as Author, Designer as Artist, Whole Designer

Friday, 25 October is
the last day to
withdraw from a class.

Week 9 1 Nov

Student Presentations of Topic 6: Design as Author, Designer as Artist, Whole Designer Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 7: The Concept of Brand and the Development of Brand Identity

Week 10 8 Nov

Student Presentations of Topic 7: The Concept of Brand and the Development of Brand Identity
Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 8: Low Design / Bad Design

Week 11 15 Nov Student Presentations of Topic 8: Low Design / Bad Design Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 9: Major Benchmarks in Typography

Week 12 22 Nov Student Presentations of Topic 9: Low Design / Bad Design Monday, 18
November SP14
registration begins

Questions and Discussion
Introduction of Topic 10: Reactionary Design / Culture Jamming

Week 13 29 Nov Thanksgiving Holiday. No class.

Week 14 6 Dec

Student Presentations of Topic 10: Reactionary Design / Culture Jamming Questions and Discussion
Final Paper – Topic Determination

Week 15 13 Dec

Final Paper Draft Due – Individual Meetings

Week 16 20 Dec

Final Class – Course Wrap-up / Overview

Friday, 20 December
Last day of classes.

Please note: The rest of the template is uniform for all PNCA classes, it includes: PNCA grading policy, statement on plagiarism, library & ACE. This section should be included in any electronic versions of the syllabus, but doesn’t need to be distributed to students in paper form.


The Academic Center for Excellence (ACE) @PNCA is a peer driven support network for students at all levels. ACE provides in person and online assistance with the following: study skills, digital tools, research, writing and editing strategies, math, professional practices (résumés, cover letters, documentation), idea generation, project management, organization, and more. For more information, location and hours, please visit the ACE Homeroom site:

About Your

The Charles Voorhies Fine Art Library provides research assistance, help with citations and bibliographies and a place to document your artwork. Whether you are looking for articles, books, audio collections, DVDs, or Web resources, the library can help! For research help contact Dan McClure ([email protected]) and for help with library materials contact Serenity Ibsen ([email protected]). More information is available at

on Academic

PNCA values intellectual honesty and encourages authentic expression, independent thinking and original writing. The College expects that all work conducted and submitted by our students shall be the combined result of original thought and ethical research. All acts of plagiarism, whether deliberate or unintentional, are considered a violation of the Student Code of Conduct and will not be tolerated on the PNCA campus. It is the student’s responsibility to be aware of and to act in accordance with the PNCA Guidelines for Academic Honesty. This is a document that defines plagiarism, discusses the conventions of ethical research and documentation, and explains the appropriate uses of source materials. These guidelines also describe the student’s responsibility for maintaining documentation and evidence of research in order to verify originality in all writing assignments at PNCA. The document: PNCA Guidelines for Academic Honesty is provided for you in the following locations on campus: the Student Handbook, the Library’s Homeroom site, the Academic Integrity HomeRoom site, the ACE HomeRoom site, the Foundation HomeRoom site, the Liberal Arts Homeroom site. You may also view written copies of the PNCA Guidelines for Academic Honesty in the office of Student Services, the Academic Dean’s office, and the PNCA Library.

Information +

Students are expected to have in their possession a current edition of the Student Handbook. Students are responsible for all the information contained in the handbook, and should refer to the handbook frequently for deadlines, policies, procedures, and

responsibilities. Student Handbooks are available in the office of Student Services. Students are expected to check their student mailboxes frequently for communications from their instructors or from the administrative offices of the college. Week Two is the last week that you may add or drop a class with no penalty. Week Eight is the last week that you may withdraw from a class with a “W.”

This is the
institutional grading
policy for all PNCA

Grades are distributed after the end of each semester.
Grading Criteria
Grade A: Student performance is outstanding. Student exhibits excellent achievement and craftsmanship in all aspects of work. Student exceeds the problem criteria and consistently challenges himself/herself to seek fresh solutions to assigned problems. Student exhibits a commitment to expanding ideas, vocabulary and performance. Student’s attendance, participation and class involvement are excellent. Grade B: Student performs beyond requirements of assignments. Student exhibits above-average progress and craftsmanship in all work. Student meets and exceeds the problem criteria. Student exhibits above-average interest in expanding ideas, vocabulary and performance. Student’s attendance, participation and class involvement are above average.

Grade C: Student performance is average and all requirements are fulfilled. Student exhibits an average level of progress and improvement in all work. Student meets the problem criteria. Student exhibits interest in expanding ideas, vocabulary and performance. Student’s attendance, participation and class involvement are adequate. Grade D: Student performance is uneven and requirements are partially fulfilled. Student’s output is minimal. Student
exhibits minimal improvement in work. Student does not meet the problem criteria in all assignments. Student exhibits minimal interest in expanding ideas, vocabulary and performance. Student’s attendance, participation and class involvement are less than adequate.

Grade F: No credit earned. Student fails to meet a minimum performance level. Student does not exhibit achievement, progress or adequate levels of craftsmanship in all assignments. Student’s work is consistently incomplete or unsuccessful. Student’s attendance, participation and class involvement are inadequate. Pass/Fail Grade: A Pass/Fail grade will be given for designated courses in which the course content is such that direct faculty oversight of the learning experience is not possible, and evaluation on the present grading scale would be difficult. “Pass” implies a “C” grade or above. “Fail” implies less than a “C” grade and course work graded as “Fail” does not apply to the degree. Pass/Fail grades are not calculated in the grade point average. This grading applies to Internships. Graphic Design Co-op uses traditional letter grades. Incompletes

In certain situations, a student may request an “Incomplete” grade in a class. You may petition for an “Incomplete” only if your situation meets both of these conditions:
1. An extenuating circumstance exists and it has prevented you from completing the coursework (Extenuating circumstances are illnesses, family, emergencies, etc.),
2. You are currently in good standing in the class.
See the Student Handbook for more information about Grades and Incompletes.

Graphic Design

Everyone knows the feeling of walking around and seeing something on the floor that catches their eye, usually it is nothing but trash with creative designs and coloring, but why are people so curious to see what it is anyway? Because the graphic designers for that company did their job correctly. Graphic design is the art of getting a message out to a targeted audience through various forms of artwork. Everyone worldwide, businesses and the average person use graphic designing skills every day. Every shirt with a design, logo or message was the work of graphic designers. Another example of graphic design is, a social network. Users on can edit profiles such as adding designs, changing color schemes, and several applications such as games, and music applications. That is one way people use graphic design from day to day. Graphic designers are a key component in any business or company worldwide.

A company or business can only do so well without advertising and innovation. For example, you would not go into a store and view three different boxes of televisions and all it said on every single one was “television” on it without any designs or color. Companies hire innovative graphic designers to get a specific message across to an audience. “Graphic designers consider cognitive, cultural, physical and social factors in planning and executing designs for the targeted audience.” (U.S.) Graphic designers are very valuable to companies and can make or break a company. A product’s message to the targeted audience might be very weak and vague with poor graphic design.

A product can be great with the right color schemes and attractive designs. Graphic designers generate unique images for their company or client which will be seen on their products as a logo, design, or advertisement. They also design company billboards, product labels, with not only by using images, but also using creative writing as well. “Designers make the company because they have to make a design or logo that will compete with dozens of competitors selling the same product or service” (Stone). The advertising industry benefits the most from graphic designers by making sure the product or service is understandable and clear.

Graphic design is nothing new it has been around forever. Historians believe the earliest manuscripts were created anywhere from four hundred A.D. to six hundred A.D. Illuminated manuscripts are manuscripts that has text which is complemented by decorated boarders and images or illustrations. “Graphic design is the combination of computer animations and graphics mixed with drawings to create art, logos, advertising” (“Graphic”). Graphic design focuses on visual communication and presentation of products, businesses, website, or projects.

Graphic design enhances transfer of knowledge and makes everything a lot easier to comprehend and understand the purpose or message the company or client are trying to convey back to the consumer or audience. It is a form of visual communication through a combination of art and technology (Bean). Graphic design did not become as popular until the twenty-first century where it became digital and where computers became accessible. With the internet becoming such a great tool to communicate with others visually and through writing worldwide, advertising became a lot easier and graphic designers were in demand.

Graphic design is one of the most flexible jobs in the market place. Twenty-five hundred jobs are created each year nearly sixty percent are self-employed. There is also a good job outlook through 2014 (“Graphic”). Every company, business, or general public use some sort of graphic design in their everyday life. As new technology arises the demand for graphic designers is rapidly increasing. Graphic design is expected to grow faster than average jobs, thirteen percent over ten years spanning from 2008 to 2015. This definitely makes competition fierce but also a promising future. According to the Bureau of Labor and statistics, about 261,000 graphic designers were employed in the year 2000 (U.S).

By 2008 there were two-hundred and eighty-six thousand graphic designers (“College”). Graphic designers that want to have the best chance to land a job should have experience in website design and animation. Of twenty-five thousand graphic designers who try to enter the workforce, only sixty percent last the first two years, and only thirty percent remain in the field for five years (“Everything”). The graphic design job market will keep growing as long as advertising and computers play an important role in everyday life.

Graphic design is a trait you must learn and have a talent or desire to be creative. The majorities of graphic designers have a four year degree in art design and have an understanding of the business world and production. Seventy percent of graphic designers go to college. Many artists turn to graphic design during their younger part of their life and then after go back to art. Professional graphic designers must be able to assemble a working portfolio to approach companies (“Everything”). A graphic design portfolio is a representation of the owner and all their skills in graphic design. This is similar to a résumé except this is specifically to see the designers art work. Graphic designers should have a bachelors degree in design and take various liberal arts courses that focus on history, writing, psychology, sociology, foreign language and cultural studies.

Graphic designers should also get a good understanding of how marketing, business and production affect their field of work. Designers should have experience using programs such as InDesign, Quark Express, Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. Now there are also over one hundred accredited schools with graphic design programs to further your studies. The accredited schools also help designers deal with the lifestyle that comes with being a graphic designer.

The salaries of graphic designers differ between small and large businesses.”With all the schooling, graphic designers must accomplish their income ranges from twenty-three thousand to one hundred thousand a year, nearly sixty percent of designers are self-employed” (“College). According to statistics shown by occupational employment statistics, the least salary a graphic designer receives is twenty-four thousand, the average salary is forty-seven thousand and highest salaries top off at one hundred thousand or more (“Graphic”). With a small business, it makes making money harder because only local customers know of it. By using the designing skills, small businesses are able to expand and use their talents and abilities to advertise on the internet and throughout the street. Salaries all depend on how well the company does. A dedicated and talented designer could make millions and a designer who does not care could make nothing.

Graphic designers must be able to work with a variety of media restrictions
such as font size, specific colors and designs. Graphic designers are also met with financial restrictions as well (“Everything”). Graphic designers must be innovative from the start to impress their clients or company that they are doing business for. Graphic designers start off by preparing sketches of what their perspective is of the owners’ message to a targeted audience. Graphic designers use various forms of art designs, fonts, color schemes, and it even comes down to the type of paper they use as the layout. Graphic designers also use the aid of computer software for animation, sound, lighting and three-dimensional designs. Graphic designers also use various graphs in their projects and of course get approval for any information or artwork that isn’t theirs.

After they have a rough draft of what they think the owner or business’s message is trying convey they submit it to the art or creative director for review. Graphic designers that work for large advertising, publishing, or design firms usually work a regular forty hour week. Graphic designers that are self-employed or work for small firms have an unstable working environment. Self-employed graphic designers adjust their schedules to accommodate their clients’ schedules and deadlines. Graphic designers that get paid by the project are under a lot pressure because they have to try to keep current clients as well as finding new ones to keep a steady flow of income. Graphic designers’ style of art might be wanted one season and the next season no one might want it.

Graphic design affects every single person every day. Today we see graphic design out in the world through billboards, clothing, logos, labels, and products (Bean). The take out menus, car covers, programs, and websites are the basic examples of how graphic design affects people’s everyday life. That is what will usually make or break a deal at a store. The way the product is presented, advertised, even if the actual product is not that great the way it’s presented will determine if a consumer will purchase it or not. Consumers also dress and present themselves in a way that will make them distinct or stand out from others. Everyone uses some sort of art to design a certain style that they like or appreciate.

People also dress with caution to give the right message to the targeted audience. For example, wearing a Raiders jersey gives the message that the owner of the jersey likes the Raiders or the player’s name that is printed on the jersey. Italso gives the message that they like football. By using graphic designing on clothing, it gives people personality and style. Without the different logos or graphics on a clothing, everyone would look boring and the same every day. The variety of all the graphic designers’ talents and ideas make the clothing styles unique. Unique styles are what brings in the consumers with similar interests. Some styles are so unique that they are worth a lot of money and some are just basic styles that are not as expensive. An important aspect to creating clothing is to know what type of consumers the company is trying to reach out too. Making sure that there is a large amount of people or if the design is popular at time is key to making money.

In conclusion, graphic designing is important to society because everything made or seen is made from graphic design. It adds personality to products and people. Dedicating your time and talent into projects makes the job of graphic designing worthwhile. Making advertisements for companies is an important job because it helps the company gain business and it reflects the artwork. Advertising has been around for a long time and it keeps improving with the new technology. Graphic designing is used to communicate the message that the producers want to go out.

There could be as many designers as there are businesses. Designers seem to have the easy job, but in reality they have pressure and deadlines to meet. Not anyone off the street can make millions, but a dedicated designer that goes through the education requirements will be successful in life. That person will most likely be able to own their own small or large business. Owning a business will have the greatest incoming salary and the best outlook. Graphic designing in the best because it makes everything have a unique part of it. All products are unique with their own logo, label or artwork. The more unique the product is, the more people want to know more about it. Graphic designing creates style which can speak for itself. The better the graphic is, the more popularity it gets. As the main component to a company, graphic designing is the most important role. Without it, the world would be dull and there would be no competition for the best products or the best artwork. Next time a product is looked at, people should comment on the graphic design that mostly persuades them to purchasing the item.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphic Novels

Graphic novels are to be defined as novels in comic-strip format. They are usually shown to us either in series and have a continuous plot or it can be presented in shorter stories. One popular form of a “comic book” is called a manga (漫画). The Chinese character that is used to write manga translates into “whimsical drawings”. Mangas are different from most of the books out there in multiple ways. The beginning of the book for instance starts at the back, having the spine on the reader’s right side. Another dissimilarity is that the text boxes are read from right to left. There are some advantages and disadvantages to writing and reading graphic novels. Some say that graphic novels are better than normal books and some say the opposite. There are a couple of advantages to these types of books. For instance, it is easier to read the content in a shorter period of time and still know what is going on in a graphic novel. They can also be one of the motivations toward children since most of them aren’t interested in chapter books that have no pictures in it. So having graphic novels increases the attraction for kids to read.

Educators have shared experiences that demonstrating graphic novels in the curriculum with their own pupils have been a great way to teach English, science, social studies, and art. Teachers are starting to realize graphic novels are useful gears that help learners study more about history, science, literature and art.

Usually, the crowd tells each other not to judge a book by its cover. But in this case, people can judge the books in this category. Without good art, the comic book might be hard to comprehend due to the lack of clarity in the art section. Also, the text or pictures can be displayed in a way that the reader won’t understand. Graphic novels also have some negative sides to it. For example, to prevent the story from being boring, the authors keep the texts short and juicy which makes the novel lack depth. Another illustration would be that most of the people who read graphic novels first look at the pictures and focus on that more than the text. This makes the readers not understand fully of what is going on but lets them advance throughout the book.

Some educators and parents believe that comic books or graphic novels are not the perfect way of reading that would help their children develop as good readers. They might think that reading these types of books dismisses the idea of quality literature and might think it shows a negative impact on youngsters’ education. There are many debates going on about if graphic novels are either a good or a bad influence on someone who is learning. From my research, I believe that graphic novels are a good influence but the instructors should choose the graphic novels that he/she may present to her class with care. Or else, the teacher might pick out a graphic novel that isn’t appropriate for the level of his/her own students. I believe the same applies for self-learners that like to read graphic novels on their own. It is great they like to read in their own time and I think more people should give graphic novels/comic books a chance.