Assignment Writing Guide

INTRODUCTION
While your task includes solely 25% of your topic grade, it serves an important function in serving to you give consideration to the ideas and make clear your studying. In this sense, the task prepares you for the exam, which is far more heavily weighted at 75%. Scoring nicely on the assignment can sometimes imply the difference between a pass and a fail for the topic – or a excessive distinction versus only a distinction. This Assignment Writing Guide consists of 5 parts: 1. Importance of citation and referencing

2. Using peer reviewed / scholarly journal articles;
three. A nine-step method to writing assignments;
4. The fundamental format of an task; and
5. Appendix A – Example assignment with added comments

IMPORTANCE OF CITATION AND REFERENCING

1. Assignments should include proper citations and referencing using the Harvard ‘authordate’ style referred to in the AIB Style Guide, that is: a. citations (or in-text references) of quoted and paraphrased materials to support your arguments/comments; and b. a reference record relating particularly to your in-text references.

2. Your grade shall be adversely affected if there aren’t any or poor citations and/or reference listing, as referred to above. 3. Your task should normally include the following number of relevant references from different sources in the reference record.

a. BBA assignments: 5 – 10
b. MBA assignments: 6 – 12

4. All references have to be from credible sources similar to books, peer reviewed journals, magazines, firm documents and recent articles. Students are extremely inspired to use peer reviewed journal articles as this will contribute in the course of the next grade. 5. You are inspired to utilize the AIB online library (i.

e., EBSCO Host) which may be accessed through the AIB website. 6. AIB checks assignments with anti-plagiarism software. Please fastidiously verify your assignments earlier than ultimate submission to make certain that all quoted and paraphrased supplies are properly cited and referenced. 7. You are strongly advised to carefully learn The AIB Style Guide for clarification of these necessities.

USING PEER REVIEWED/SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ARTICLES

Peer review is an academically accepted measure of high quality. Peer reviewed journal articles are usually considered extra credible, authentic and reliable as they are evaluated and really helpful for publication by a number of experts within the subject. It is due to this fact strongly advised that you just use the latest peer reviewed / scholarly articles in your assignment. This is not going to solely offer you up so far knowledge but may even enable you to produce quality work. The “Refine your search” possibility (as proven below) in the AIB Online Library may help you to filter and assume about the peer reviewed / scholarly articles. Preferably you must filter the publication date to throughout the final three to 5 years.

A NINE-STEP APPROACH TO WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

The following provides a recommended nine-step approach to writing assignments. It is strongly beneficial that you just observe these steps in sequential order to be able to address your assignment requirements. 1. Read, perceive and tackle the task question

Carefully read the task question and make positive you understand clearly what’s being asked. Your submission have to be responsive to the project question. This is the primary and most essential step. By doing this you’ll know what you should do, tips on how to do it and whether or not you want some form of assistance to complete the project. Furthermore, make sure you examine the word count and ensure you perceive what is required.

The word count must be used as a information as to the desired length of your written project. But, be conscious that submissions that exceed the word depend information by more than 10% could have marks deducted. Then, consider the subject of the assignment and who will read it. Do the assignment instructions recommend that the project ought to be aimed toward a specific supervisor of a selected organisation? If no explicit supervisor is mentioned within the instructions, assume that the trainer will be the audience. Whoever the reader is, goal the project at them and their requirements and data.

2. Do background studying and jot down notes

Do some brief background studying across the subject, beginning along with your textbook, jotting down the main ideas and concepts that appear relevant. Is there any relevant historical past associated to your topic? Or is there any necessary detail that will be of high significance to the future? Are there any important people involved? Knowing such particulars will give you a greater concept as to how to begin and end your project. three. Organise your assignment Make a tentative, organized record of headings and a few sub-headings and subjects about important points that should be addressed. Inform yourself as to how Table of Contents (TOC) fields are formatted in MS Word, or different word processing software you could be using; and how to update the web page numbers on your Table of contents as your composition grows and evolves. Fine-tune your listing of topic headings as you begin gathering details about the assignment’s matters. Organisation is always the key to a well-written assignment. It not only gives you direction as you write, however it additionally gives your paper a sure stage of professionalism.

4. Collate information and notice your sources for correct citation and referencing

Gather info from articles and different credible sources (preferably from peer reviewed journal articles). Take notes and write down reference information about your sources (you might overlook or lose them, otherwise). The AIB Style Guide has details of what information is required for referencing within the task; be positive to acquire all that information when you first have your arms on the supply of data. Collecting all the required data for proper quotation and referencing as quickly as you encounter the supply will prevent treasured time through the course of your writing. The listing will also turn out to be useful if you wish to double check info.

5. Organise your notes bearing in mind the marking criteria

Organize your notes and finalise the outline with its headings and sub-headings and topics. Consult the Assignment Cover Sheet and Assessment Sheet and the marking standards on your project with weightings for concepts, utility of ideas and so forth. Bear these in thoughts as you propose and write the assignment. Comparing your outline with the Assignment Cover Sheet and Assessment Sheet will let you realize when you have lined every thing that the assignment requires or when you have included something that’s irrelevant. It will provide you with a chance to finalize your define earlier than continuing with the actual writing.

6. Start writing the assignment

Then, and only then, begin writing the task. The notes below concerning the format of an task have particulars of how each a half of the assignment ought to be written (and embrace the beneficial length of some sections). For your project writing, we advocate you employ the Office Word Format/Font command to set Times New Roman Regular 12 point font, and the Format/Paragraph command to set 1.5 line spacing – discuss with the AIB Style Guide.

7. Re-read and re-write your assignment making certain you adhere to the word count

Re-writing is crucial. Make sure you add or delete acceptable words or paragraphs and examine the spelling and grammar. Prior to re-writing, read and re-read your draft. Check whether or not the move of thoughts is evident and maintains continuity. Check for any grammatical errors, spelling errors and/or improper use of periods, commas or query marks. Make certain you learn your project fastidiously to check for errors or omissions. Lastly, make certain that you adhere to the required word count, and add / delete words as needed.

8. Write the Executive Summary

Now write the Executive Summary. This is the summary of the whole project. Include solely salient points of your project. It is called a summary as a outcome of it is imagined to be transient and comprehensive.

9. Write the References

Add the References according the necessities of the AIB Style Guide, and submit the assignment to AIB, remembering to provide a word count which incorporates the Introduction section via to the beginning of the References section (that is, don’t embrace the Executive Summary/Abstract, References or Appendices in the word count).

BASIC FORMAT OF AN ASSIGNMENT REPORT

This section will clarify how you should develop the sections of your project. An instance assignment that follows this format is provided at Appendix A. Title web page Give your task a title and type out the primary words from the assignment for the marker to know what the task is all about. Include the name of the enterprise investigated in case you are writing a case examine. The title of the project should be complete enough to give the reader an idea concerning the coverage of the task. Also, you have to place the word count (which consists of all textual content from the Introduction part to the top of the Conclusion section) here. Executive summary

This tells your reader what the assignment is about because it describes the subjects or points mentioned, in addition to providing a abstract of the conclusions and proposals and causes for them. Before going via the entire assignment, readers first want to see the summary. In reality in plenty of busy enterprise situations, sometimes choices are often made solely on the premise of executive abstract whether it is persuasive. Your govt summary ought to include what you did, how you did it, what your major findings were and what are your key recommendations.

Although the executive summary appears as first section of the task, it should be written last after finishing the task. Do not include any sub headings in this section. It is often one or two paragraphs and shouldn’t be more than 250 words. Remember to not embody these phrases in the word depend, besides if you are asked to write down a marketing plan. As the manager summary is a half of the advertising plan, it is included within the word rely.

Table of contents

After the title web page and the executive summary, you must show a table of contents with a listing of the numbered sections and subsections of the project, with their web page numbers. Numbered appendices, tables and figures with their titles also wants to be presented within the table of contents. MS Word offers a function for inserting an automated table of contents. Please make sure the desk of contents is up to date earlier than you submit the finished project. To update the web page numbers in the contents table, when you’ve completed your assignment:

• left click on on the table
• right click on and choose Update Field
• guarantee “Update web page numbers only” is selected
• click OK

Introduction
The introduction tells your reader what you will tell them in the physique of your task. The first paragraph of your introduction provides the background to the task and why it is helpful. Then your second paragraph should say what the purpose, objective or objective of the task is, any limitations and a really temporary summary of the sections (no more than about two strains for this abstract of the sections). The entire Introduction section mustn’t take more than about half a web page or so.

Discussion
The sections after the Introduction are where you begin the discussion, outlining related information and events. A rule of thumb is that there should be at least one part or subsection heading per web page. These sections after the Introduction will comply with a logical sample of thought. Make your headings longer than just one or two cryptic words, in order that in addition they help the reader to quickly understand the sections and flow of the task. Present info in a logical order. Use information from a number of credible sources to help your findings and try to not embody numeric calculations in the principle physique of the assignment. Instead, embody these as an appendix to the task.

This is to prevent interrupting the circulate of the project. Acknowledge all sources using the Harvard ‘author-date’ type. The begin of each part should make apparent its hyperlink to earlier sections; for example, ‘The previous sections discussed strengths; this section turns to weaknesses’. Transition words are especially useful for this linking of paragraphs; for instance, ‘moreover, moreover, as well as, consequently, so, on the other hand, in contrast, however, however, nevertheless’.

A&P 1 chapter eight study guide

1)What is a joint?
Functional junctions between bones
2)How are joints classified?
Structurally: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Functionally: immovable, barely moveable, freely moveable
3)Describe the 3 types of fibrous joints.

•Syndemosis: sheet or bundle of dense connective tissue
•Sutures: solely between flat bones of skull
•Gomphosis: binds tooth to bony sockets
4)What is the operate of the fontanels?
Allows the cranium to barely change which allows the infant to cross by way of the start canal extra easily.

5)Describe two forms of cartilaginous joints.
•Synchondrosis: bands of hyaline unite the bones
•Symphysis: bones are lined by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage, and the cartilage is attached to a springy fibrocartilage.

6)What is the perform of an intervertebral disc?

They take up shocks and help equalize stress between the vertebrae when the body moves 7)Describe the structure of a synovial joint.
Two bones are held collectively by a joint capsule composed of two layers. Ligaments assist reinforce the capsule. The cavity between the bones are filled with a viscous fluid called synovial fluid.

8)What is the operate of the synovial joint?

Allow free movements
9)Name six kinds of synovial joints and describe the structure of every. •Ball + Socket: globular shaped head articulates with a cup formed cavity •Condylar: Ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of one other •Plane/Gliding: practically flat or barely curved

•Hinge: convex floor of 1 bone fits into concave surface of one other •Pivot: the cylindrical floor of one bone matches rotates in a hoop fashioned of a bone and a ligament.

•Saddle: articulating surfaces have each convex and concave surfaces. 10)Define the next movements and provides an example.

Flexion-bending parts, angle decreases, parts come closer
Extension-moving components, angle increses, parts move farther away Hyperextension-extension beyond anatomical position Dorsiflexion-movement at the ankle that brings the foot nearer to the shin Plantar flexion-moves the foot farther from the shin Abduction-moving part away from the midline, elevating the arm Adduction-moving half towards the midline
Rotation-moving half around on an axis
Circumduction-moving a part so the end follows a circular path Supination-rotation of forearm so the palm is upward

Pronation-rotation of forearm so the palm is downward Eversion-turning the foot so plantar floor is going through laterally Inversion-turning the foot so the plantar surface is dealing with medially Protraction-moving a component forward Retraction-moving a component backward
Elevation-raising a part
Depression-lowering a part

11)Describe how a movement happens at a joint when a muscle contracts. The fibers pull the moveable finish (insertion) towards its fixed end (origin) 12)What part helps to maintain collectively the articulating surfaces of the shoulder joint? •Coracohumeral ligament

•Glenohumeral ligament
•Transverse humeral ligament
13)What factors permit an especially big selection of movement in the shoulder? •The looseness of its attachments
•Large articular surface of the humerus compared to the shallow depth of the glenoid cavity 14)What structures form the hinge joint of the elbow?
Trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna

15)Which parts of the elbow permit pronation and supination of the hand? The head of the radius

16)Which constructions help maintain the articulating surfaces of the hip together? •Iliofemoral ligament
•Pubofemoral ligament
•Ischiofemoral ligament

17)What types of movements does the structure of the hip permit? •Flexion
•Extension
•Adduction
•Abduction
•Rotation
•Cicumduction
18)What types of joints are within the knee?
•Modified hinge joint
•Plane joint

19)Which elements help hold collectively the articulating surfaces of the knee? •Patellar ligament
•Oblique popliteal ligament
•Arcuate popliteal ligament
•Tibial collateral ligament
•Fibular collateral ligament

20) Describe the next joint problems.
Sprain -over streching or tearing the connective tissues
Bursitis-overuse of a joint or stress on a bursa
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)- immune system attacks body’ wholesome tissues. Synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickens. Then articular cartilage is damaged, fibrous tissue infiltrates and interferes with joint motion. Osteoarthritis-articular cartilage softens and disintegrates gradually Lyme Arthritis-casues intermittent arthritis of a quantity of joints 20)Which type of joint is the first to level out indicators of aging? Fibrous

21)Describe the loss of function in synovial joints as a progressive progress (while aging). •Begin in 30’s but progresses slowly
•Fewer capillaries serving synovial membrane; slows circulation of synovial fluid; leading to a chance of stiffening •More collagen cross-links shorten and stiffen ligaments; affecting range of motion

Anthem Study Guide Answers

1.The sins/ wrongs that Equality 7-2521 accuses himself of are

•Sin to write
•Sin to assume words no others think and to put them down on paper no others are to see
•We have dedicated a higher crime, and for this crime there is not any name
•We are alone here under the earth. The laws say that non amongst men could also be alone, ever and at any time.
•We had been born with a curse. It has at all times driven us to thoughts which are forbidden.

2. Equality 7-2521 is joyful when he hears his life mandate as a outcome of he (they) knew that he was responsible, and felt as a street sweeper he would have a method to erase his sins.

3. The Council of Vocations assigns Equality 7-2521 the job of a avenue sweeper due to his incompetence. I say this as a outcome of Equality 7-2521 is different from everyone else, so I can inform that the council, and everybody else don’t like different.

4. This novel takes place in the future.

I know this as a outcome of Equality refers to “the men before us”, and “the unmentionable times”. When he is underground in the tunnel.

5. If I had Equality’s curse my teachers would more than likely react to this “curse” by giving me more challenging work to finish. Equality on the other hand isn’t so fortunate as a end result of his “curse” is of excessive disapproval as a outcome of they imagine that no one should learn faster that his “brothers” and if considered one of them is “dumb” all of them have to be “dumb” alongside along with his brothers, and Vice- Versa.

6. Equality doesn’t besides the moral teachings of society. In truth he does man issues to go against it. He even admits in the novel that he actually doesn’t care. “and yet there is no disgrace in us and no regret. We say to ourselves that we’re a wretch and a traitor. But we feel no burden upon our spirit and no concern in our coronary heart. And it appears to us that our spirit is evident as a lake troubled by no eyes save these of the sun. And in our heart there’s the peace we have recognized in twenty years.” This is an excerpt from the top of chapter one that shows though Equality is aware of that he has committed sins he is at peace even in his incorrect doings.

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7. The residence of the Infants is the place the place you reside until you are 5 years old with all the kids of the town who had been born the identical 12 months every little thing was clean and white. The house of the scholars is the place the place there are ten wards, for there ten years of learning. Men should study until they attain their fifteenth year. The home of the road sweepers is for all the road sweepers, and it is Equality’s house after he was given a career by the council of students. The house of the useless is the place where everyone goes at the age of forty. Council of Vocations decides your job/ mandate.

Chapter Two
1.The character traits which would possibly be revealed are her straight and thin physique, she has eyes that are darkish, onerous, glowing, fearless, unkind, and without guilt. She has golden hair, and is overall intimidating.

2.The unmentionable times- the period we stay in now that the council of elders forbade anyone to speak of. The unchartered forest- a forbidden place that lay close to the sewage space The evil ones- those that lived in the unmentionable times

The nice rebirth- the time period/ setting of the anthem

3.The word Equality is struggling with is the word “I”. I believe the mentioning of this word is punishable by demise in there society because it goes against it and would trigger the rediscovery of this word. The word “I” contradicts the beliefs of the society as a outcome of it goes towards the good “we” concept, and way of life. the rediscovery of the word “I” may trigger a variety of the folks to rethink their lifestyle which could result in riots, rebellion, and chaos. Chapter Three

1.Equality discovers tips on how to make mild out of copper, and wires. This is a vital discovery as a outcome of it will make life easier by giving them brighter mild, it wouldn’t burn out as shortly as a candle, and fires would be less likely.
2.The council of scholars consider that everybody is aware of every little thing that exist, if everybody doesn’t find out about one thing then it doesn’t exist. Their belief’s contradicts with Equality’s beliefs as a end result of he believes that the secrets and techniques of the earth aren’t for everyone but for these who seek them. Chapter Four

1.Equality’s new name Unconquered may be very fitting as a end result of Equality is a free willed character who hasn’t been conquered by the laws & ways that everyone is predicted to reside by, and doesn’t hearken to the foundations. Chapter Five

1.Equality’s major motivation in conducting his experiments is his hunger for data, and to be taught more of the times earlier than the Great Rebirth. He felt pleasure when he was conducting his experiments as a outcome of he was learning extra 2.Equality is thinking about seeing his personal picture as a outcome of he desires to know the way the Golden One sees him. Equality is starting to really feel the emotion of self-interest, and love. Chapter Six

1.The prisoners by no means tried to escape because they felt they deserved that punishment, they felt they owed being punished to their brothers. Another purpose they didn’t escape is as a end result of they were afraid of the results and punishments of attempting to escape. Chapter Seven

1.The real causes behind the council’s rejection and concern of the reward is: •They are afraid of going again to the old means of expertise and individualism, offending the council, and getting punished. •They wish to hold every little thing as easy as potential for people in order that they’ll depend on the council. 2.When Equality says “We are old now, however we were younger this morning” , he implies that now he feels more skilled, and has a greater understanding of things than he did that morning earlier than he escaped.

Chapter Eight

1.Equality is beginning to experience love and affection for the Golden One and he’s also feeling joy. Also since now Equality has turn out to be more dependent and has to hunt for his personal food and feed himself he’s feeling prideful. 2.Equality laughs when he remembers that he is “the Damned” because he doesn’t feel damned at all in reality he’s joyful.
3.In Anthem the Uncharted Forest symbolizes the unknown, and every thing that got here earlier than the Great Rebirth. Chapter Nine

1.While you are hopeful, curious, and wondrous different males aren’t. You are outspoken, and you are feeling satisfaction, different men aren’t. You are prideful, unbiased, and joyful, while other men are cowards, dependent, sorrowful, and they cringe in selflessness. Chapter Ten

1.The house that Liberty & Equality is a two story house that has a flat roof, and tons of home windows. It has one bedroom, a library full of books, a mirror, lights, and clothes. They discovered the house unusual and unique because it had a flat roof ,and only one bedroom, this is unusual for them because they’re used to sleeping in a room with 30 other individuals. Also the house had lots of issues that they weren’t used to and had never seen like windows, mirrors, totally different clothes, and a room full of a bunch of unknown books. Chapter Eleven

1.The nice uncover that Equality make is the word “I”.
2.Equality realizes that the right goal and objective of his life is to focus and stay for yourself and to not concentrate on others or stay for others.

Chapter Twelve

1.The primary characters Equality, and the Golden One take the names Prometheus and Gaea due to who in history these names characterize and because they read them in a e-book and didn’t know of another names. They weren’t allowed to have names in there old society as a outcome of having a reputation shows individualism, and makes you different from your brothers, and sisters. 2.In his future, Prometheus plans to raise his son to be an individualist and to make use of the word “I”.

Analysis of the Odyssey guide 11

1) Odysseus travels to the Underworld and makes the choices in accordance with Circe’s directions and takes much more instructions from Teiresias on tips on how to get house to Ithaca.

2) Many many of the dead want to discuss to Odysseus (especially his mother), and he wants to draw his sword to maintain them away.

3) Odysseus turns into frightened and goes again to his ship instantly, and sails on to Ithaca.

Two quotes:
1) “But you, Achilles,there’s not a person on the earth more blest than you—there never has been, by no means will be one.

Time was, whenever you have been alive, we Argives honored you as a god, and now down here, I see,you lord it over the lifeless in all your power.So grieve no extra at dying, great Achilles.”

I reassured the ghost, however he broke out, protesting,“No successful words about death to me, shining Odysseus! By god, I’d somewhat slave on earth for an additional man—some dirt-poor tenant farmer who scrapes to maintain alive—than rule down right here over all of the breathless lifeless.

I chose this quote because it reveals a conversation during which every man thinks about life on the opposite side. They each appear to find that the other world is best than the one by which they inhabit.

2) “Here Perimedes and Eurylochus held the victims, while I drew my sword and dug the trench a cubit every means. I made a drink-offering to all of the useless, first with honey and milk, then with wine, and thirdly with water, and I sprinkled white barley meal over the entire, praying earnestly to the poor feckless ghosts, and promising them that once I obtained back to Ithaca I would sacrifice a barren heifer for them, the most effective I had, and would load the pyre
with good issues.”

This quote shows each how precise Odysseus conducts this process and likewise how a lot he wishes this chance to work out. I can see how a lot he needs to be able to talk to Teiresias so he makes certain to do this offering completely appropriate.

Genuine Question:
Why does Odysseus really feel so frightened when he’s at the Underworld?

Odysseus could possibly be frightened for so much of reasons. He could presumably be afraid of being mobbed by the group that surround him in the Underworld. Odysseus is also frightened of any other things spoiling his chances of getting house to Ithaca.

Activity Based Costing Study Guide

Hours of design time| Facility-level| General manufacturing unit administration Plant building and grounds| Direct labor-hours* Direct labor-hours*| *Facility-level costs cannot be traced on a cause-and-effect foundation to particular person products. Nevertheless, these prices are often allocated to products for exterior reviews using some arbitrary allocation foundation such as direct labor-hours -Unit-level activities- are performed every time a unit is produced. The prices of unit-level actions should be proportional to the variety of items produced.

-Ex.

Providing power to run processing gear is a unit-level activity as a result of power tends to be consumed in proportion to the number of models produced. -Batch-level activities- encompass tasks which might be carried out each time a batch is processed, similar to processing purchase orders, organising gear, packing shipments to prospects, and dealing with materials. Costs at the batch level depend upon the number of batches processed rather than on the variety of models produced. -Ex. The value of processing a purchase order is similar irrespective of how many units of an merchandise are ordered.

Product-level activities- relate to specific merchandise and typically must be carried out no matter what number of batches or units of the product are manufactured. Product-level activities embody maintaining inventories of components for a product, issuing engineering change notices to modify a product to fulfill a customer’s specifications, and growing special check routines when a product is first positioned into manufacturing. -Facility-level activities- are actions which may be carried out regardless of which merchandise are produced, how many batches are run, or how many units are made.

Include gadgets similar to manufacturing facility administration salaries, insurance coverage, property taxes, and building depreciation. An Example of an ABC System Design -Under ABC, the manufacturing overhead costs on the prime are allotted to products via a two-stage course of. -In the first stage, overhead prices are assigned to the activity price swimming pools. In the second stage, the costs in the activity value pools are allotted products utilizing activity charges and exercise measures. -Ex. In the first stage price task, varied manufacturing overhead costs are assigned to the production order exercise value pool.

These costs may embody the salaries of engineers who modify products for individual orders, the value of scheduling and monitoring orders, and different prices which may be incurred as a consequence of the variety of totally different orders obtained and processed by the corporate. -Once the quantity of price in production-order exercise is known, procedures from Job-Order Costing are adopted. Example of Activity Based Costing Comtek Sound, Inc. , makes two merchandise, a radio with a built-in CD player (called a CD unit) and a radio with a built-in DVD participant (called a DVD unit).

Both of these merchandise are sold to car manufacturers for installation in new vehicles. Recently, the corporate has been shedding bids to provide CD players as a result of competitors have been bidding less than Comtek Sound has been willing to bid. At the same time, Comtek has been profitable every bid it has submitted for its DVD player, which management regards as a secondary product. The advertising manager has been complaining that on the prices Comtek is willing to bid, competitors are taking the company’s high-volume CD business and leaving Comtek with simply the low-volume DVD enterprise.

However, the prices rivals quote on the CD gamers are below Comtek’s manufacturing costs for these units–at least according to Comtek’s typical accounting system that applies manufacturing overhead to merchandise based on direct-labor hours. Production managers suspected that the standard costing system may be distorting the relative prices of the CD player and the DVD player–the DVD participant takes extra overhead sources to make than the CD player and but their manufacturing overhead prices are similar under the standard costing system.

The firm might have even been suffering a loss on the DVD items with out knowing it as a outcome of the cost of these units has been so vastly understated. Conversely, it appears Comtek has been overcharging for the CD units all along since their prices have been overstated. -When a company implements activity-based costing, overhead cost often shifts from high-volume merchandise to low-volume merchandise, with a higher unit product price ensuing for the low-volume merchandise. -This occurred in the Comtek example, the place the value of the low-volume DVD models elevated from $150 to $207. 0 per unit. This increase in value resulted from batch-level and product-level costs, which shifted from the high-volume product to the low-volume product. Fewer DVD items are processed per manufacturing order than CD items. Evaluation of Activity Based Costing Benefits -improves the accuracy of product costs in 3 ways: -it often increases the variety of cost pools used to accumulate overhead prices, which in turn accumulates prices for each main activity -the activity price pools are more homogenous than departmental value pools.

In precept, the entire prices in an exercise cost pool pertain to a single activity. In contrast, departmental price swimming pools include the prices of many alternative actions carried out within the division. -Activity-based costing uses a variety of exercise measures to assign overhead prices to products, a few of that are correlated with volume and some which are not. -makes it clear that batch setups, engineering change orders, and different actions cause overhead prices somewhat than just direct labor.

Managers thus have a greater understanding of the causes of overhead costs, which should lead to higher decisions and higher cost management. -can be used as part of packages to enhance operations Limitations -The Cost of implementing ABC -the price system should be designed, which entails a cross-functional team. It requires taking valued workers away from different tasks for a major project. -The data utilized in ABC must be collected and verified. In some cases, this requires amassing information that has by no means been collected earlier than. Because of these prices, some managers may resolve that the prices outweigh the expected benefits ABC costing would result in. *When is ABC most likely definitely worth the effort? When companies have: -products that differ substantially in volume, batch size, and within the activities they require -conditions have considerably modified for the explanation that existing value system was established -overhead prices are high and rising and no one appears to grasp why -management doesn’t belief the prevailing price system and ignores data from the system when making selections -Limitations of ABC Model relies on numerous crucial assumptions: -the price in every exercise pool is strictly proportional to its activity measure. We have little evidence on this, suggesting that overhead costs are less than proportional to exercise. Also known as rising returns to scale–as exercise will increase, the typical value drops. -This signifies that product prices computed by traditional or activity-based costing shall be overstated for the purposes of making decisions

A Travel Guide About Idaho Trip

Traveling round Idaho doesn’t find yourself mountaineering trails, as there additionally a beutiful path round a variety of cuisines and its unique flavors. The available eating places concentrate on native delicacies, however in addition they supply a selection of dishes from completely different corners of the culinary world. The same is with actions and social conferences. For example, the Sun Valley Harvest Festival is a harvest that takes place in Idaho in September. This is a singular opportunity to try native delicacies.

As the locals themselves define this vacation: that is essentially the most lovely time of the year when you can get pleasure from delicious food, study the brand new developments and methods of meals production, as nicely as the chance to style great wines and regional beer, and what is the most important—to meet new and thrilling people alongside the way in which.

Idaho additionally, in addition to its spectacular rivers, lakes, and beautiful mountain landscapes, has been acknowledged in the field of winemaking.

Local wines are primarily the mixture of local weather, geography, and fertile soils which were used to supply excellent, regional grapes.

The Snake Valley is residence to greater than 50 vineyards on greater than 1, 6000 hectares. While in Idaho. it’s worth asking residents concerning the path of local vineyards. The countless, free flowing river, volcanic lava fields, fascinating mountain ranges are just part of what awaits travelers in Idaho. This state has numerous national parks, which during the year generate a lot of vacationer visitors through the season and beyond.

A Guide to Classical Management Theory

The classical administration concept is a faculty of administration thought by which theorists delved into how to find the very best method for workers to carry out their duties. The classical management concept is divided into two branches, the classical scientific and the classical administrative. The classical scientific department comes from the scientific mindset of trying to increase productivity. During the peak of the classical scientific theory, theorists would use nearly mechanical strategies towards labor and group to achieve objectives of productivity and effectivity.

Some of the fundamental methods of the classical scientific concept embrace creating standardized methods for a task and dividing work between workers equally. On the opposite hand, the classical administrative principle focuses on how administration may be organized to attain productivity. Henri Fayol, a leading figure in administration principle, devised several management theories geared towards efficiency, similar to creating a unified path amongst managers, centralization, and discipline. Other management theories centered on building staff confidence, corresponding to establishing teamwork, utilizing initiative, and fairness.

Strengths of Classical Management Theory

Current administration group and construction can find a lot of its roots from the classical administration concept. One of the main advantages of the classical administration theory was to plot a strategy for the way management should operate. Management rules devised throughout this period could be seen as a foundation for current management conduct right now, corresponding to serving as a drive of authority and accountability. In addition, one other benefit of the classical administration theory is the concentrate on division of labor. By dividing labor, duties could possibly be accomplished more shortly and efficiently, thus permitting productivity to extend.

Division of labor can be seen in many purposes at present, ranging from fast food restaurants to massive production amenities. In addition, the classical administration concept additionally gave rise to an autocratic management style, permitting staff to take path and command from their managers. Flaws of Classical Management Theory

The primary weakness of the classical administration theory arose from its tough, rigid structure. One of the primary ideas of the classical management theory is to increase productiveness and effectivity; however, attaining these objectives often got here at the expense of creativity and human relations. Oftentimes, employers and theorists would focus on scientific, nearly mechanical methods of increasing productivity. For example, managers would use assembly line strategies and project management theories that focused on efficient division of tasks. However, employers ignored the relational facet in workers, in the means of trying to predict and control human conduct. In truth, the human relations motion arose in response to the classical management theory, as a approach to perceive the function of human motivation in productivity. Additional flaws of the classical administration theory include a heavy reliance on prior expertise.

The theorists of this time only tested their assumptions with sure industries, similar to manufacturing and other high production corporations. However, in today’s surroundings, the inflexible construction of classical administration concept would not translate properly in most firms. Many companies understand the significance of bettering worker motivation and conduct, and implement departments devoted solely to bettering human relations. Advantages and Benefits of the Classical Management Theory

by Julianne Russ, Demand Media
Classical management theory was launched in the late 19th century. It became widespread in the first half of the twentieth century, as organizations tried to handle points of industrial management, together with specialization, effectivity, larger quality, price discount and management-worker relationships. While different administration theories have advanced since then, classical management approaches are nonetheless used right now by many small-business homeowners to build their companies and to succeed. Ads by Google

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Hierarchical Structure
One of the benefits of the classical administration construction is a clear organizational hierarchy with three distinct management ranges. Each management group has its personal objectives and obligations. The prime management is usually the board of administrators or the chief executives who’re responsible for the long-term objectives of the organization. Middle management oversees the supervisors, setting division targets in accordance with the accredited budget. At the bottom degree are the supervisors who oversee day-to-day actions, tackle employee points and provide employee coaching. The ranges of leadership and responsibilities are clear and well outlined. While the three-level structure will not be appropriate for all small businesses, it might possibly profit those that are expanding. Division of Labor

One of the advantages of classical administration approach is the division of labor. Projects are damaged down into smaller duties that are easy to complete. Employees’ duties and expectations are clearly outlined. This approach allows employees to narrow their area of expertise and to focus on one area. The division of labor approach leads to elevated productivity and better efficiency, as employees are not expected to multitask. Small-businesses homeowners can benefit from taking this method in the event that they want to improve production with minimal expense. Monetary Incentive

According to classical administration theory, staff should be motivated by monetary rewards. In other phrases, they may work harder and turn into extra productive if they have an incentive to look ahead to. This offers management simpler control over the workforce. Employees really feel appreciated when being rewarded for hard work. A small-business proprietor can take this method to motivate the workers to attain production targets. Autocratic Leadership

The autocratic management strategy is the central part of classical management concept. It states that a corporation should have a single chief to make choices, to prepare and direct the workers. All selections are made on the prime stage and communicated down. The autocratic leadership approach is useful in cases when small-business choices have to be made quickly by a frontrunner, with out having to consult with a big group of individuals, such a board of administrators. Small businesses, especially sole proprietorships, can have an advantage in taking this approach, as they
want a powerful chief to develop. Sponsored Links

Classical Management Theory

Early Management Theories
Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, the place organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational utility was, since staff behave predictably (as machines do not often deviate from the norm), administration knows what to anticipate, and staff operating outdoors expectations are changed.

Classical Management Theories
There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol?s Administrative Theory, Weber?s Theory of Bureaucracy. Although these faculties, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas haven’t replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new faculty has tended to enhance or coexist with earlier ones.

Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, U.S.A

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) ?The Father of Scientific Management?. Scientific Management theory arose from the necessity to enhance productivity in the U.S.A. especially, the place expert labor was in brief supply firstly of the 20 th century. The only way to broaden productivity was to boost the efficiency of employees.

Taylor devised 4 ideas for scientific management principle, which were: 1. The improvement of a true science of management,
2. The scientific choice and coaching of employees,
three. Proper remuneration for quick and high-quality work
1. Small Business >
2. Managing Employees >
3. Managers

Advantages and Benefits of the Classical Management Theory
by Julianne Russ, Demand Media Classical administration concept was launched in the late nineteenth century. It became widespread in the first half of the 20th century, as organizations tried to address points of industrial management, including specialization, efficiency, greater high quality, value discount and management-worker relationships. While different administration theories have evolved since then, classical administration approaches are still used right now by many small-business homeowners to construct their corporations and to succeed. Ads by Google

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Hierarchical Structure

One of some great benefits of the classical management structure is a transparent organizational hierarchy with three distinct administration levels. Each administration group has its own aims and obligations. The high administration is often the board of administrators or the chief executives who’re liable for the long-term targets of the organization. Middle administration oversees the supervisors, setting division goals in accordance with the accredited finances. At the bottom level are the supervisors who oversee day-to-day actions, handle employee issues and supply employee coaching. The levels of management and duties are clear and nicely defined. While the three-level construction may not be suitable for all small businesses, it could possibly profit those which would possibly be increasing. Division of Labor

One of the advantages of classical administration approach is the division of labor. Projects are broken down into smaller duties that are straightforward to finish. Employees’ duties and expectations are clearly outlined. This strategy permits employees to slim their area of expertise and to concentrate on one area. The division of labor strategy leads to elevated productiveness and better effectivity, as workers aren’t expected to multitask. Small-businesses owners can benefit from taking this strategy if they wish to increase production with minimal expense. Monetary Incentive

According to classical administration theory, employees ought to be motivated by monetary rewards. In other phrases, they may work more durable and become extra productive if they have an incentive to look forward to. This offers management simpler management over the workforce. Employees feel appreciated when being rewarded for exhausting work. A small-business proprietor can take this approach to motivate the employees to realize manufacturing targets. Autocratic Leadership

The autocratic leadership method is the central a half of classical management principle. It states that an organization should have a single chief to make selections, to arrange and direct the employees. All choices are made on the prime stage and communicated down. The autocratic leadership strategy is useful in situations when small-business choices need to be made rapidly by a frontrunner, without having to consult with a large group of people, such a board of administrators. Small companies, especially sole proprietorships, can have an advantage in taking this approach, as they want a robust chief to develop. Sponsored Links

A Guide to Reflective Practice

a) What is reflective practice?

Reflective follow is the method of thinking about and critically analysing your actions with the aim of adjusting and bettering occupational apply.

b) Why is reflective follow important?

Reflective follow is essential as a end result of it accurately assesses the need of every service consumer. It is important that every one care workers become acquainted with reflective practice as our occupation is dependent upon shared help, care workers.

c) How reflective follow contributes to enhancing the quality of service provision

Reflective practice contributes to bettering the standard of service provision as the care sector continuously revises insurance policies and procedures and new requirements are continually being set.

Care staff are to maintain up to date on any revision of insurance policies, procedures and standards to allow them to do their job to the standard expected of them.

d) How standards can be utilized to help a social care employee reflect on their practice

Standards assist social care staff so they work in the identical level as other social care employees and even their peers! It helps standardised the service they’re giving.

By having a regular, they can always mirror with it and achieve the same standardised level. You have to know the requirements to understand what is expected of you as a health and social care employee, and then you should replicate to make certain you are meeting these requirements, these can be the CQC ESQS and your code of practice that are found in the managers office and in every workers office.

All codes of apply ought to be adhered to at all times.

You arrange a mentor meeting to feed again to the social care worker. You have comments to make which include both praise and constructive criticism

a) Why is it necessary for a social care worker to seek suggestions on performance?

Feedback is essential as a result of:

* units up goal and the particular person knows what needs to be improved on gets the particular person motivated and centered on what must be achieved * helps to identify weaknesses and strengths within the person * specific and stress what is important to the organisation and the job and hence what the individual concerned ought to be prioritising * induces competition and problem – a form of motivation * encourages a learning surroundings, as oppose to a win-lose efficiency setting – encourages initiatives and ‘risk’/taking possibilities important for progress * reduces uncertainty within the performer’s mind – reduces stress and pointless power loss, and will increase motivation and confidence (performs even better)

* establish within the performer’s thoughts what wants regular consideration, and establish some sort of coaching that focuses on those areas via a routine, vs. what could be learnt and concentrate on one thing else * establishes a system of praise and constructive criticism – rewards and enchancment; grows with the organisation * Seeking feedback is important because it provides a worker some idea of how they are working – what they’re doing properly and what could be improved. * Criticism alone makes the worker really feel hopeless but constructive criticism provides information on how the employee can overcome issues and become a greater worker – it offers them solutions and makes the situation much less hopeless. * Good work deserves reward but it can enable the worker to turn into complacent. It ought to be given with information about how the employee can construct on their successes.

b) The different ways in which individuals could react to receiving constructive suggestions.

Some folks will react totally different to others depending on how the constructive feedback is given and obtained, I think it would depend on what type of individual you’re and what type of day you have had your supervisor should take this in to consideration before talking about constructive suggestions. Some people would pay attention to what is being said take it on board and do something about it and perceive everybody has weaknesses and they aren’t alone. Others may be upset at what is being stated and take it to heart, they might turn into indignant and feel let down by colleagues, manager. You ought to have the ability to feel you presumably can discuss to your manager about your emotions and be in a position to improve in your weaknesses.

c) Why is it necessary a for social care worker to use feedback to enhance their practice

Because suggestions informs you of the areas of your work which will want fantastic tuning/further training or a different approach and in addition what you are doing very well and have been praised for by a client or two for instance. It also offers you the chance to ask what to do with the feedback, the place to achieve training required and when, the means to enhance on certain skills and so on. Everyone ought to be reflective, not simply in their jobs but in life. Feedback provides a framework with which to be a reflective, this means recognising each the good and bad in their follow and using that information to make it better sooner or later. Without that you stay stagnant, there might be all the time room for enchancment.

The Pact study guide

1) at 11 years of ages, George had actually shown off a collection of misaligned teeth as well as his mom took him to an university of medication and dental care to get dental braces in hopes if improving his smile.

2) George as well as his mother relocate to Newark from South Carolina

3) shahid rj’s dad, Shahid Jackson, acted as a dad to George. They fished as well as exercised together.

4) a secure home setting assists George withstand stress to participate in negative tasks

5)George’s initial work was a groundskeeper at the complicated in high park yards.

6) George’s third grade school instructor, viola Johnson, was his motivation

7)As a kid, Sam wondered and was constantly going to discover. Nevertheless, he discovers his mommy’s key was that she could not review.

8) from South Carolina, Sam’s family relocates to Newark.

9) in 1968, Sam’s father purchased a residence.

10) Sam’s mommy places dames hair inside a plastic bag and inside a bible once it is reduced.

11)sam’s moms and dads divorced when he was 11

12) Sam aided his mother by reviewing Her mail, making down payments at the bank as well as helping to create money orders for bills

13) Sam’s residence was always full since his mom never ever turned away any type of member of the family who were not financially stable as well as needed a place to remain.

14) Sam was closest to his sibling Fellease

15) Sam’s good friend noody obtained a scholarship to Essex Catholic senior high school And an additional at Fairleigh Dickinson University. Nevertheless noody returned house after fresher year

16) Sam was caught by the proprietor when he attempted to take an icee

17) Reggie was a fighting styles teacher that Sam’s bro took king fu lessons from

18) Miss Schimmel recommends Sam to head to a magnet program at College secondary school since it would give sam a far better shot of entering senior high school.

19) Rameck’s mom’s mother that is additionally like a mom to Rameck.

20) Rameck’s Parents were bad influences on him. They both looked to medications throughout demand

21) Rameck Matured in Plainfield.

22) Mrs.Hatt Motivates Rameck in school. he remained in the talented as well as skilled program.

23) Rameck’s Father remained in jail.

24) the deal Rameck struck with god was If God obtained among his moms and dads off of medications he would never ever make use of medications.

25) Rameck’s First task was sweeping hair from the flooring of bill’s barber shop in Plainfield

26) Ma operated at a post office in Newark

27) Rameck Gives the money to his mother to pay the electrical energy expense. Rather

28) Rameck Met George and Sam at his very first day at College high in Plainfield. They took the exact same AP training courses

29) The college produced “college within an institution” to react to a situation Since companies were complaining that they were having difficulty fulfilling brand-new federal standards for working with more minority employees.

30) George associated good friends to avoid of difficulty

31)via highschool, Rameck Began peaceful and maintained himself however gradually he ended up being extra included as well as eventually became popular in his college

32) Rameck determined to skip class and return later as well as spray his educator, that he didn’t like, with ridiculous string when she responded to the door.

33) Sam, Rameck, and also George came to be thinking about seton hall since

34) The young boys ended up being curious about seton Hall since they Saw advantages of a complimentary college and achieving achievement and also going to college with each various other would be a wonderful experience. The deal created when the children all consented to put on the same university.

34) in the incident with the crack head, Rameck as well as some pal participated in punishing a crackhead for smoking around them in the institution location. Rameck pulled out a knife from his pocket as well as jabbed his upper leg. The authorities later discovered him and his good friend and arrested him. and later after his release he was put on residence arrest.

35) When the damaged man really did not turn up for any one of the court dates the court threw away the charges. prosecutors still might have revitalized the instance but his lawyer pleaded with them to provide him a break and also not to go after the matter. They really did not and also Rameck got a second chance.

36) The money making system that Sam and also his close friends had were to Rob medication
suppliers. In the longrun, Sam needed to encounter the effects as well as wound up in an adolescent detention facility.

37) Carla Dickson was a professional for the premedical/predental plus program

38) George’s viewpoint on peer pressure is if you discover the right people to hang with- guys you trust fund- that share your worths and your relationship, you’ll locate that you can take on almost anything

39) Rameck was felt ecstatic regarding the summer program he George as well as sam were mosting likely to.

40)Carla becomes crazy with George Rameck and Sam due to the fact that they wished to depict the program as a jail.

41) Jawanza kunjufu’s theory concerning education and also black boys is that Smart energised as well as enthusiastic black boys_systems so in appropriately prepared to enlighten them that the boys start to lose interest as very early as 4th grade and also are usually lost to the streets by senior high school.

42)Carla made Sam Make a consultation to talk with the professor to attempt to comprehend why he had actually gotten The reduced Mark as well as to make his case for himself

43)Carla supported sam by paying attention to him, motivating him, as well as advising him of what he’s set out to come to be.

44) Sam felt guilty since nobody in his family has actually ever been offered such a chance. He feels he can be helping out at home

45) cArla scheduled Sam Rameck as well as George to live and work with campus for the summertime.

46) Rameck tried to get the group to distribute from around him and also micheal. But the white person wouldn’t leave. Rameck’s anger triggered and also he slammed the
white man on the ground. he realizes that he needed to change

47) Rameck took a sweatshirt from the bookstore however after escaping the clerk, he understands that he just used his last possibility to be in seton hall. He was wise sufficient to be there. he would certainly be shamed if he had to go back house.

48) Rameck arranged a mentoring program for children in bad communities. As a result it came to be called ujima as well as their first event ended up being successful. In addition to the program itself.

49) Rameck’s ideology on repaying was no monetary value can be placed on the feeling that comes when you understand you’ve made a distinction in an additional persons life. When you do touch one more persons life, the gifts go on increasing.

50) George Rameck as well as sans experience with rap was serious.they strove to become famous and also popular and also sent their mixtapes to confidence Evans. Yet in the end they chose to adhere to their desire for coming to be medical professionals.

51) Rameck and Kay separated since she had been with one more male the very same time she was with Rameck. His plan before break was to quit his desire and also come to be an educator simply to win Kay back.

52) gain access to med was a brand-new program made to assist minority trainees do better in clinical school. It helps Sam and also Rameck by permitting them to take their initial year of clinical college courses while completing their last year of college. That would leave them a much lighter tons when they entered they’re very first main year in med college. No George really did not go with them. He hasn’t gone due to the fact that he had a sufficient GPa to authorize a letter of intent to enter into oral institution.

53) Sam and his girlfriend separated as well as later he discovered she was 4 months pregnant. But it had not been his for sure.

54) Sam struggled in medical school because he wasn’t as comfortable in subjects such as science as well as math like Rameck was. he would study all night to recognize whatever.

55) on one of his gos to residence, Sam observed that his sibling, Fellease, hair was thinner and finer. She had aids

56) when attending oral college, George struggled financially. he had so many unpaid debts and also bills to pay. on the top if that he had obtained burglarized of 45 dollars. An individual that asserted to sell speak took George to a private place as well as took out his gun, asked for the money, and also ran off.

57) the young boys provide each various other economical yet thoughtful birthday celebration presents. Like a however of money or something stationary

58) after absorbing two close friends as well as his brother, George understands he needs to clean house due to the fact that costs increased. He asked all 3 of them to leave.

59)the 3 miss out on vital life lessons by not having papas there to show them. As an example George really did not know just how to drive. the boys educate each other or wanted to various other buddies for assistance.

60) DWB implies driving while black. Rameck gets drawn over when DWB as well as fined with outrageous costs. Ultimately, it turns out that His friend save him as well as took a wonderful policemans recommendations to submit a grievance.

61) sam had actually made use of review publications as well as practice examinations and also had frequently stayed up researching all night when he stopped working the first time.

62) Sam takes the area and also ultimately rejects the one at Maryland medical facility.

63) SAMs philosophy on willpower is: when you have actually stopped working repeatedly as well as think you’re done, that last shot is frequently the one you pull. His obstacles in ending up being a doctor were mostly set backs. For instance, when he failed the
state board exam or when family members concerns showed up.

64) all 3 children end up in the Newark location for their residencies

65)

66) Ma made it to Rameck’s college graduation. It was a present for her to see him graduate especially when no person in his family members had the opportunity to finish med college

67) with the money the three doctors collect they made a decision to place it towards a fund for a clingy pupil.

68) Sam mored than happy because he had conquered a lot in life as well as came to be a successful doctor. He uncovers his purpose by realizing that the regional individuals need him. Specifically friends and family.

69)

Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1 Study Guide

Anatomy – the study of the form or structure and arrangement of body parts and their relationships Physiology – the study of the functions of the body parts or structures and their relationships in maintaining life processes. Levels of Structural Organization The human body consists of levels of structural organization that are associated with one another. There are six levels of structural organization:

I. chemical level – It is the simplest level and it includes all of the chemical substances essential for maintaining life. These substances are made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Atoms combine to form molecules, which may be simple or complex. Different types of molecules combine to form or~anelles (“little organs”). Organelles are specific structures that carry out specific functions. 2. cellular level – The cell is the basic unit of structure and function and of life. Cells vary in size, shape, and function and may contain many types of organelles.

3. tissue level – Tissues are groups of similar cells that perform a specific function.
There are four major types of tissues in the human body:

a. epithelial tissue – It is found lining body cavities and covers the surface of the body. It functions in protection, secretion, and excretion.
b. connective tissue – It is found on the surfaces of and in organs and tissues and functions in protection, support, and attaching organs and tissues to each other and to the walls of body cavities.
c. muscle tissue – It functions in the movement of body parts and organs, and in the movement of substances throughout the body.

There are three major types of muscle tissue:

(1)

skeletal muscle – It is found attached to and
covering bones and it functions in body
movement.

(2)

cardiac muscle – It is located in the heart
wall and functions in the contraction and
relaxation of the heart as it beats.

(3)

smooth muscle – It is located in the walls of internal or visceral organs and it functions in moving substances throughout the body. d. nervous tissue It is located in the brain and spinal cord, and extends to various tissues and organs. It functions in transmitting electrical or nerve impulses from the external and internal environments to the brain and spinal cord where it is interpreted and a response occurs.

4. organ level – Organs are groups of two or more types of
tissue working together to perform a specific function.
5. organ system level – ~ sTstems are groups of organs
that work closely together to perform a common function.
There are eleven organ systems in the human body:

6. organismal level – It is the highest level of structural
organization and it consists of groups of organ systems working together to maintain body structure and function. Organ systems work together to maintain an internal environment that is fairly constant, stable, or balanced. This is referred to as homeostasis (“to stay the same”). Changes do occur, but within very narrow ranges or limits.

Homeostasis
Body parts or structures function efficiently in maintaining metabolic processes and when the survival needs are within certain limits or optimum levels.
The survival needs include: water, oxyqen, nutrients, an appropriate bod~ temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Water is necessary for chemical reactions, excretion, and secretion.

Oxyqen is required for many of the metabolic reactions that break down nutrients and provide energy. Nutrients provide energy for cells and cell processes. Bod~ temperature must be maintained within a certain range for chemical reactions and cell processes to perform efficiently. If the body temperature falls too low or increases too high, chemical reactions will slow down or may stop. Atmospheric pressure is the force of air on the body surface by the weight of air. It is important in breathing and in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. To maintain homeostasis there are control mechanisms. Control mechanisms consist of three parts:

i. receptor – It responds to sensory stimuli from the internal and external environments. The information is sent along afferent pathways to the control center.
2. control center – It consists of the brain and spinal cord which interpret and analyze the information and determine an appropriate response. Information is then sent along efferent pathways to the effector.
3. effector – It consists of tissues, organs, or glands that perform a motor response to the original stimulus that was received by the receptor. The response involves a feedback mechanism. If the response slows down or inhibit~ the stimulus it is a neqative feedback mechanism. If the response speeds up or enhances the stimulus, it is a positive feedback mechanism.

Most control mechanisms for homeostasis in the human body are negative feedback mechanisms.

Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1 Study Guide

Anatomy – the study of the form or structure and arrangement of body parts and their relationships
Physiology – the study of the functions of the body parts or structures and their relationships in maintaining
life processes.
Levels of Structural Organization
The human body consists of levels of structural organization that are associated with one another.
There are six levels of structural organization:
I. chemical level – It is the simplest level and it includes all of the chemical substances essential for maintaining life. These substances are made up of atoms.
An atom is the
smallest unit of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Atoms combine to form molecules, which may be simple or complex. Different types of molecules combine to form or~anelles (“little organs”). Organelles are specific structures that carry out specific functions.
2. cellular level – The cell is the basic unit of structure and function and of life. Cells vary in size, shape, and function and may contain many types of organelles.
3. tissue level – Tissues are groups of similar cells that
perform a specific function.
There are four major types of tissues in the human body:
a.
epithelial tissue – It is found lining body
cavities and covers the surface of the body.
It functions in protection, secretion, and excretion.

b. connective tissue – It is found on the surfaces of and in organs and tissues and functions in protection, support, and attaching organs and tissues to each other and to the walls of body cavities.
c. muscle tissue – It functions in the movement of
body parts and organs, and in the movement of substances
throughout the body.

There are three major types of muscle tissue:
(1)

skeletal muscle – It is found attached to and
covering bones and it functions in body
movement.

(2)

cardiac muscle – It is located in the heart
wall and functions in the contraction and
relaxation of the heart as it beats.

(3)

smooth muscle – It is located in the walls of
internal or visceral organs and it functions
in moving substances throughout the body.

d.
nervous tissue It is located in the brain and spinal cord, and extends to various tissues and organs. It functions in transmitting electrical or nerve impulses from the external and internal environments to the brain and spinal cord where it is interpreted and a response occurs.

4. organ level – Organs are groups of two or more types of tissue working together to perform a specific function.
5. organ system level – ~ sTstems are groups of organs
that work closely together to perform a common function.
There are eleven organ systems in the human body:
ao

g.
h.
i.

j.
k.

integumentary system
muscular system
skeletal system
nervous system
endocrine system
cardiovascular system
lymphatic system
respiratory system
digestive system
urinary system
reproductive system

6. organismal level – It is the highest level of structural
organization and it consists of groups of organ systems working together to maintain body structure and function. Organ systems work together to maintain an internal environment that is fairly constant, stable, or balanced. This is referred to as homeostasis (“to stay the same”). Changes do occur, but within very narrow ranges or limits.

Homeostasis
Body parts or structures function efficiently in maintaining metabolic processes and when the survival needs are within certain limits or optimum levels.
The survival needs include:
water, oxyqen, nutrients, an appropriate bod~ temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Water is necessary for chemical reactions, excretion, and secretion. Oxyqen is required for many of the metabolic reactions that break down nutrients and provide energy. Nutrients provide energy for cells and cell processes. Bod~ temperature must be maintained within a certain range for chemical reactions and cell processes to perform efficiently.

If the body temperature falls too low or increases too high, chemical reactions will slow down or may stop. Atmospheric pressure is the force of air on the body surface by the weight of air. It is important in breathing and in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. To maintain homeostasis there are control mechanisms. Control mechanisms consist of three parts:

i. receptor – It responds to sensory stimuli
from the
internal and external environments. The information is sent along afferent pathways to the control center.
2. control center – It consists of the brain and spinal cord which interpret and analyze the information and determine an appropriate response. Information is then sent along efferent
pathways to the effector.
3. effector – It consists of tissues, organs, or glands that perform a motor response to the original stimulus that was received by the receptor. The response involves a feedback mechanism. If the response slows down or inhibit~ the stimulus it is a neqative feedback mechanism. If the response speeds up or enhances the stimulus, it is a positive feedback mechanism.

Most control
mechanisms for homeostasis in the human body are negative feedback mechanisms.

A MANAGER’S GUIDE TO GOVERNMENT IN THE MARKET PLACE

A MANAGER’S GUIDE TO GOVERNMENT IN THE MARKET PLACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.INTRODUCTION

II.MARKET FAILURE
A.MARKET POWER
B.EXTERNALITIES
C.PUBLIC GOODS
D.INCOMPLETE INFORMATION

III.RENT SEEKING

IV.GOVERNMENT POLICY

A.QUOTAS
B.TARIFFS
V.CONCLUSION

I.INTRODUCTION

According to Mr. Michael Bay, author of the Book, “Managerial Economics and Business Strategy”, they have treated the market as a place where firms and consumers come together to trade goods and services with no intervention from government. But as you are aware, rules and regulations that are passed and enforced by government enter into almost every decision firms and consumers make. As a manager, it is important to understand the regulations passed by government, why such regulations have been passed, and how they affect optimal managerial decisions. We will begin by examining four reasons why free markets may fail to provide the socially efficient quantities of goods: (1) market power, (2) externalities, (3) public goods, and (4) incomplete information.

The book analysis includes an overview of government policies designed to alleviate these “market failures” and an explanation of how the policies affect managerial decisions. The power of politicians to institute policies that affect the allocation of resources in markets provides those adversely affected with an incentive to engage in lobbying activities. The book will illustrate the underlying reasons for these types of rent-seeking activities. The book will examine how these activities can lead politicians to impose restrictions such as quotas and tariffs in markets affected by international trade.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
•Identify four sources of market failure
•Explain why market power reduces social welfare, and identify two types of government policies aimed at reducing deadweight loss.

•Show why externalities can lead competitive markets to provide socially inefficient quantities of goods and services; explain how government policies, such as the Clean Air Act, can improve resource allocation. •Show why competitive markets fail to provide socially efficient levels of public goods; explain how the government can mitigate these inefficiencies.

•Explain why incomplete information compromises the efficiency of markets, and identify five government policies aimed at mitigating these problems.

•Explain why government attempts to solve market failures can lead to additional inefficiencies because of “rent-seeking” activities. •Show how government policies in international markets, such as quotas and tariffs, impact the prices and quantities of domestic goods and services.

II.MARKET FAILURE

Market failure is a concept within economic theory describing when the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient. That is, there exists another conceivable outcome where a market participant may be made better-off without making someone else worse-off. Market failures can be viewed as scenarios where individuals’ pursuit of pure self-interest leads to results that are not efficient – that can be improved upon from the societal point-of-view.

The existence of a market failure is often used as a justification for government intervention in a particular market. Economists, especially microeconomists, are often concerned with the causes of correction. Such analysis plays an important role in many types of public policy decisions and studies. However, some types of government policy interventions, such as taxes, subsidies, bailouts, wage and price controls, and regulations, including attempts to correct market failure, may also lead to an inefficient allocation of resources, sometimes called government failure. HOW IT WORKS / EXAMPLE:

Under free market conditions, prices are determined almost exclusively by the forces of supply and demand. Any shift in one of these results in a price change that signals a corresponding shift in the other. Then, the prices return to an equilibrium level. A market failure results when prices cannot achieve equilibrium because of market distortions (for example, minimum wage requirements or price limits on specific goods and services) that restrict economic output. In the other words, government regulations implemented to promote social wellbeing inevitably result in a degree of market failure.

MARKET POWER
Market power is the ability of a form to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfectly competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Market participants that have market power are therefore sometimes referred to as “price makers”, while those without are sometimes called “price takers”. Significant market power is when prices exceed marginal cost and long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. HOW IT WORKS / EXAMPLE:

The macroeconomics concept of perfect competition assumes that no one producer can set a price for the whole market. Among companies that produce similar goods and services, all have varying levels of market power, but none are sufficient to effect a sustainable price change. In other words, all producers must compete based on a collective market price. A monopoly is the best example of a company with substantial market power. With little or no competition, a monopoly can, for example, raise market prices by reducing its level of output.

Market power is the ability of a firm to set P > MC.
Firms with market power produce socially inefficient output levels. Too little output
Price exceeds MC
Deadweight loss
Dollar value of society’s welfare loss

ANTITRUST POLICY
An antitrust policy is designed to affect competition. The general goal behind such a policy is to keep markets open and competitive. These regulations are used by different governments around the world although the laws often vary. Broadly speaking, antitrust law seek to wrong competitor businesses from anti competitive practices. The goals of antitrust policy is to (1) To eliminate deadweight loss of monopoly and promote social welfare and (2) Make it illegal for managers to pursue strategies that foster monopoly power.

PRICE REGULATIONS
Government oversight or direct government control over the price charged in a market, especially by a firm with market control. Price regulation is most commonly used for public utilities characterized as natural monopolies. If allowed to maximize profit restrained, the price charged would exceed marginal cost and production would be inefficient. However, because such firms, as public utilities, produce output that is deemed essential or critical for the public, government steps in to regulate or control the price. The two most common methods of price regulation are marginal-cost pricing and average-cost pricing.

Graphical presentation of Marginal-Cost Pricing:

EXTERNALITIES
An externalities is a cost or benefit which results from an activity or transaction and which results from an activity or transaction and which affects an otherwise uninvolved party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. For example, manufacturing activities which cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole society, while the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own house. If external cost exist, such pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if he were required to pay all associated environmental costs.

If there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. For the purpose of these statements, overall cost and benefit to society is defined as the sum of the imputed monetary value of benefits and costs to all parties involved. Thus, it is said that, for good with externalities, unregulated market prices do not reflect the full social costs or benefit of the transaction. Government regulations may induce the socially efficient level of output by forcing firms to internalize pollution costs. Example of this is the Clean Air Act of 1970. EXAMPLES OF EXTERNALITIES

A negative externality is an action of a product on consumers that imposes a negative effect on a third party; it is “social cost”. Air pollution – from burning fossil fuels causes damages to crops, (historic) buildings and public health. Anthropogenic climate change – is attributed to greenhouse gas emissions from burning oil, gas and coal. Water pollution – by industries that adds effluent which harms, animals and human. Noise pollution – which may be is mentally and psychologically disruptive. System risk – describe the risks to the overall economy arising from the risks which the banking system takes. Socially Efficient Equilibrium: Internal and External Costs

PUBLIC GOODS
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.[1] Examples of public goods include fresh air, knowledge, lighthouses, national defense, flood control systems and street lighting. Public goods that are available everywhere are sometimes referred to as global public goods.

Many public goods may at times be subject to excessive use resulting in negative externalities affecting all users; for example air pollution and traffic congestion. Public goods problems are often closely related to the “free-rider” problem, in which people not paying for the good may continue to access it, or the tragedy of the commons, where consumption of a shared resource by individuals acting in their individual and immediate self-interest diminishes or even destroys the original resource. Thus, the good may be under-produced, overused or degraded.[2] Public goods may also become subject to restrictions on access and may then be considered to be club goods or private goods; exclusion mechanisms include copyright, patents, congestion pricing, and pay television.

Uncoordinated markets driven by self-interested parties may be unable to provide these goods. There is a good deal of debate and literature on how to measure the significance of public goods problems in an economy, and to identify the best remedies.

Graphical presentation of Public Goods:

Nonrival: A good which when consumed by one person does not preclude other people from also consuming the good. •Example: Radio signals, national defense
Nonexclusionary: No one is excluded from consuming the good once it is provided. •Example: Clean air
“Free Rider” Problem – Individuals have little incentive to buy a public good because of their nonrival & nonexclusionary nature. Public goods provide a very important example of market failure, in which market-like behavior of individual gain-seeking does not produce efficient results. The production of public goods results in positive externalities which are not remunerated. If private organizations don’t reap all the benefits of a public good which they have produced, their incentives to produce it voluntarily might be insufficient.

Consumers can take advantage of public goods without contributing sufficiently to their creation. This is called the free rider problem, or occasionally, the “easy rider problem” (because consumers’ contributions will be small but non-zero). If too many consumers decide to ‘free-ride’, private costs exceed private benefits and the incentive to provide the good or service through the market disappears. The market thus fails to provide a good or service for which there is a need.

The free rider problem depends on a conception of the human being as homo economicus: purely rational and also purely selfish—extremely individualistic, considering only those benefits and costs that directly affect him or her. Public goods give such a person an incentive to be a free rider.

For example, consider national defense, a standard example of a pure public good. Suppose homo economicus thinks about exerting some extra effort to defend the nation. The benefits to the individual of this effort would be very low, since the benefits would be distributed among all of the millions of other people in the country. There is also a very high possibility that he or she could get injured or killed during the course of his or her military service.

INCOMPLETE INFORMATION

For markets to function efficiently, participants must have reasonably good information about things such as prices, quality, available technologies, and the risks associated with working in certain jobs or consuming certain products. When participants in the market have incomplete information about such things, the result will be inefficiencies in input usage and in firms’ output.

•Participants in a market that have incomplete information about prices, quality, technology, or risks may be inefficient. •The Government serves as a provider of information to combat the inefficiencies caused by incomplete and/or asymmetric information.

Government Policies Designed to Mitigate Incomplete Information •OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) – the regulations are carried out by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the more severe causes of market failure is asymmetric information, a
situation where some market participants have better information than others •SEC (Security and Exchange Commission)

•Certification – Another policy government uses to disseminate information and reduce asymmetric information is the certification of skills and/or authenticity. The purpose of certification is to centralize the cost of gathering information.

•Truth in lending – Regulation Z and TLSA require that all creditors comply with the act. A creditor is defined as anyone who loans money subject to a finance charge, where the money is to be paid back in four or more installments. A creditor must also be the person to whom the original obligation is payable. TLSA has some exemptions regarding the types of loans covered, the most notable being business, agricultural, and commercial loans.

•Truth in advertising – This advantage may give firms an incentive to make false claims about the merits of their products to capitalize on consumers’ lack of information.

•Contract enforcement – Another way government solves the problems of asymmetric information is through contract enforcement.

For example, suppose your boss “promised” you payment for labor services at the end of the month. After you have worked for a month, your boss refuses to pay you—in effect gaining a month’s worth of your labor for free.

III.RENT SEEKING

Rent seeking is an attempt to obtain economic rent by manipulating the social or political environment in which economic activities occur, rather than by creating new wealth. A simple definition of rent seeking is spending resources in order to gain by increasing one’s share of existing wealth, instead of trying to create wealth.

•Government policies will generally benefit some parties at the expense of others. •Lobbyists spend large sums of money in an attempt to affect these policies. •This process is known as rent-seeking.

An Example: Seeking Monopoly Rights

•Firm’s monetary incentive to lobby for monopoly rights: A •Consumers’ monetary incentive to lobby against monopoly: A+B.

•Firm’s incentive is smaller than consumers’ incentives.

•But, consumers’ incentives are spread among many different individuals.

•As a result, firms often succeed in their lobbying efforts.

IV.GOVERNMENT POLICY

Sometimes rent seeking manifests itself in the form of government involvement in international markets. Such policies usually take the form of tariffs or quotas that are designed to benefit specific firms and workers at the expense of others. In this section, we will examine how government tariff and quota policies affect managerial decisions.

QUOTA
Limit on the number of units of a product that a foreign competitor can bring into the country. Reduces competition, thus resulting in higher prices, lower consumer surplus, and higher profits for domestic firms.

TARIFF

Lump sum tariff: a fixed fee paid by foreign firms to enter the domestic market. Excise tariff: a per unit fee on each imported product.
•Causes a shift in the MC curve by the amount of the tariff which in turn decreases the supply of all foreign firms.

V.CONCLUSION
Market power, externalities, public goods, and incomplete information create a potential role for government in the marketplace. Government’s presence creates rent-seeking incentives, which may undermine its ability to improve matters.

FINAL EXAM: Study Guide

1. Which of the following is an action that could damage an asset?

2. Which law requires all types of financial institutions to protect customers’ private financial information?

3. An AUP is part of a layered approach to security, and it supports confidentiality. What else supports confidentiality?

4. Which of the following is a detailed written definition of how software and hardware are to be used?

5. Which of the following is not a common type of data classification standard?

6. What does a lapse in a security control or policy create?

7. Which of the following is any weakness in a system that makes it possible for a threat to cause it harm?

8. Which of the following terms refers to the likelihood of exposure to danger?

9. Which type of attacker intends to be helpful?

10. Which domain is primarily affected by weak endpoint security on a VPN client?

11. Identify two phases of the access control process.

12. You log onto a network and are asked to present a combination of elements, such as user name, password, token, smart card, or biometrics.
This is an example of which of the following?

13. Which of the following is a type of authentication?

14. Identify an example of an access control formal model.

15. Which of the following access control models is based on a mathematical theory published in 1989 to ensure fair competition?

16. Which of the following are primary categories of rules that most organizations must comply with?

17. Which of the following is not a part of an ordinary IT security policy framework?

18. Which of the following helps you determine the appropriate access to classified data?

19. Which of the following refers to the management of baseline settings for a system device?

20. Identify a primary step of the SDLC.

21. Which of the following is a process to verify policy compliance?

22. When monitoring a system for anomalies, the system is measured against _.

23. Which of the following is not a type of penetration test?

24. Identify a drawback of log monitoring.

25. Which of the following is not a type of monitoring device?

26. Identify the primary components of risk management.

27. Which of the following is not a part of a quantitative risk assessment?

28. What are the primary components of business continuity management (BCM)?

29. Which of the following determines the extent of the impact that a particular incident would have on business operations over time?

30. What does risk management directly affect?

31. Which of the following is a cipher that shifts each letter in the English alphabet a fixed number of positions, with Z wrapping back to A?

32. Identify a security objective that adds value to a business.

33. Which of the following is an asymmetric encryption algorithm?

34. Identify a security principle that can be satisfied with an asymmetric digital signature and not by a symmetric signature.

35. Which of the following is a mechanism for accomplishing confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation?

36. In which OSI layer do you find FTP, HTTP, and other programs that end users interact with?

37. Identify the configuration that is best for networks with varying security levels, such general users, a group of users working on a secret research project, and a group of executives.

38. Which of the following would you not expect to find on a large network?

39. Which of the following is a weakness of WLANs?

40. Identify an advantage of IPv6 over IPv4.
41. Identify one of the first computer viruses to appear in the world.

42. Which of the following is not a primary type of computer attack?

43. How do worms propagate to other systems?

44. Which of the following type of program is also commonly referred to as a Trojan horse?

45. Which defense-in-depth layer involves the use of chokepoints?

46. How does a standard differ from a compliance law?

47. Which of the following is not a principle of the PCI DSS?

48. Identify the compliance law that requires adherence to the minimum necessary rule.

49. Identify the compliance law whose primary goal is to protect investors from fi nancial fraud. 50. U.S. organizations must comply with

An Idiot’s Guide to an Easier College Experience

When people are in high school the only class in which they have to do any significant amount of writing is their English class. Subsequently, the only type of paper that most people are well versed in writing when they get to college is a paper for an English class. This would be fine except for the fact that when one gets to college they are asked to write for a variety of different classes. These could range from your standard English class to a proof for a Math class to a scientific lab report for a Biology class. All of the writings for these different classes require different formats, styles, and languages. If writers do not know these different styles and languages then they will have a much more difficult time being successful in their college career. Knowing these different styles and languages will help the writer to develop a sense of their own rhetorical awareness. If they have a sense of this awareness then they will be better equipped to write to their intended audience or discourse community.

It is significant for student writers to be aware of and understand both what rhetorical awareness is and what a discourse community is because it will make their college experience easier and help them to attain better grades on papers for classes other than English. The first thing that student writers needs to be able to do in order for them to write for a discipline that they are not entirely familiar with, is to have at least a cursory knowledge of what a discourse community is, and what discourse community that they are writing for. In the hand out “Discourse Community Map” by Sylvia Morales, English Professor at Sacramento State University, a Discourse Community is defined as “a group of people who share a particular way of communicating and/or using language that follows certain rules and patterns” (1). In laymen’s terms if two people are part of the same discourse community then they will most likely think relatively alike.

They may share many of the same beliefs. They may have similar values. Also they will most assuredly be interested in many of the same things. In academia a discourse community would most often exist among people that belong to different academic disciplines. So it stands to reason that student writers needs to be able to communicate or write using the same type of language as the discourse community that they are trying to write for. For this reason it is extremely important for student writers to be able to know what a discourse community is and how it differs from the other discourse communities that it might interact with. Being able to identify a discourse community can sometimes be a daunting task. It is not always completely clear-cut. Very often it can be difficult to identify a discourse community because it may be quite similar to other discourse community. There can be small differences that make a big impact on the discourse community. In the article “Discourse Communities” by Gary D. Schmidt and William J. Vande Kopple it says, “sometimes people from different discourse communities focus on different aspects of the same object or general phenomenon” (1).

The two groups are similar in that they are focused on the same object but it is the slight differences on how they focus on the object that makes them part of a different discourse community. One of the easiest ways that a student a writer might help themselves correctly identify a discourse community would be to first ask how do certain discourse communities communicate with each other. Are they only interested in cold hard facts, or do they appreciate discussions about their opinions. Next the writer should ask himself or herself what is the main purpose of the different groups in question. Also it will be helpful to student writers to figure out what claims are these certain groups of people making. Identifying these claims will go a long way in helping the writer determine what are the core values of the different groups.

Once a student write has identified what discourse community they are dealing with, then they can begin to decide exactly what would be the best way for them to go about communicating to members of this discourse community. This would lead the writer to the next significant aspect of writing that they need to be aware of in order to have an easier time in college and achieve better scores on their various college writing assignments. Once the writer has correctly identified the discourse community that they are writing for then they need to know the best way to effectively communicate their ideas to the members of this community. This would be where rhetorical awareness comes into play. In their article “Rhetoric” Gary Schmidt and William J. Vande Kopple define rhetoric as “the art of using language to have desired effects on people” (1). For the purpose of their article they were focusing on the written word. They simplify it by saying that it is “essentially a matter of choice at all stages of the writing process—from the time when writers decide how to organize an essay to the time when they select individual words” (Schmidt et al. 1).

So rhetorical awareness is knowing how to use certain words to get a desired effect, and knowing exactly what effect that the writer is going to solicit from the reader. This is a skill that needs to be developed. It is not something that can be learned overnight. However, it is a skill that if mastered can help student writers have a much easier time in college and earn much better grades on the papers that they write. Different kinds of rhetorical awareness strategies need to be learned and implemented for all of the various types of writing that student writers have to be competent in. For instance, if a student writer were dealing with a scientific discourse community then they would most likely want to choose language and a tone that was more scientific. This would include a fair amount of technical terms and scientific jargon. They would want to discuss only the things that can be proved through research and experimentation. They might choose to insert charts or graphs to illustrate their points. Also they would most likely want to keep their writing succinct.

For example, in the article Effects of Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids on Adhesion and on Gene Expression of Extra cellular Matrix Macromolecules in Human Osteoblast-like Cell Cultures by Estella Musacchio, Giovanna Priante, Alessandro Budakovic, and Bruno Baggio, the writers use most if not all of the rhetorical choices that a reader should expect to find in a piece of writing that is extremely scientific in nature. The tone of this writing is extremely scientific, and there is a large amount of jargon. They write things such as “semi quantitative comparative kinetic RT-PCR with COLI, FN, and TGF-B specific primers was performed using G3PDH as a housekeeping gene” (Musacchio et. al 35). Now most people would not have any clue what this means, but a member of a scientific discourse community would, and they would appreciate this as a well-written sentence. This article also has multiple graphs and charts that help to illustrate the points that the writing is making. A good deal of this writing has to do with the experiments that the writer did.

This is important for people pf the scientific discourse community because it lets them know that the research was sound and it could be repeated. Also the writing in this article is succinct and to the point. Lastly, it is organized in such a way that it is easy for the reader to know what each section is pertaining to. If a student writer were producing a piece of work for a member of a scientific discourse community and they choose to implement these types of rhetorical strategies, as long as their research was sound, it should go along way in helping to insure that they received a good score on the paper. In contrast, if a student writer were producing a piece of persuasive writing then they would want to take a much different approach. They would want to use more colorful language. They would want to use words that grab the reader’s attention. They might choose to use anecdotes or first hand accounts from people that would help to illustrate the point that the writer is trying to make.

For example, in the article Invalid Corps by COL R. Gregory Lande, MC USA Retired uses many of the rhetorical choices that you often find in a well-written piece of persuasive writing. In the article the writer grabs his readers attention right from the very beginning by quoting a famous Roman statesman and philosopher. The quote that he uses is “no man can be brave ho thinks pain is the greatest evil” (Lande 525). He also uses a first hand account form a solider that shows how useful members of the Invalid Corp could be. The solider wrote in his journal about how several regiments of the Invalid Corp help to repel a desperate attack on Washington D. C. by the Confederate Army (Lande 527). If a student writer were to use the same types of rhetorical strategies then it should help them to receive a better grade on any pieces of persuasive writing that they might have to produce for any of the their college courses.

Student writers should not expect that just because they become adept at being able to identify and communicate with different discourse communities that college will be a breeze. Also they should not expect that just because they might be able to perfect the art of rhetorical awareness that they will pass every class. They should not expect this because doing well in college is about more than this. In fact, in the book Academic Writing: Genres, Samples, and Resources by Mary Kay Mulvaney and David A. Jolliffe the authors talk about how some of the biggest challenges that in coming college students have to face are learning how to budget their time and how do find an effective way to deal with stress ( ). College is one of the most fun and exciting times in a young persons life.

However college can also be one of the most challenging and stressful times in a young person life. The top things that most college students stress about are the papers that they have to write and the grades that they receive. What incoming college students writers need to realize is that there are steps that they can take form the very beginning of their college careers that will go a long way in helping them to get through college with a significantly lower amount of stress and anxiety. If incoming student writers learn to identify what discourse communities they are writing for, and if they are able to learn how to make wise rhetorical choice then they will receive better grades on their writing assignments. If they receive higher grades on their writing assignments then it stands to reason that they will receive high grades in their classes overall. If they receive higher grades in their class then their college career will go by a lot more easily.

Works Cited
Jolliffe, David A., and Mary K. Mulvaney. Academic Writing : Genres, Samples, and Resources. New York: Longman Group, 2004. Lande, Gregory. “Invalid Corps.” Military Medicine 173 (2008): 525-28. Morales, Sylvia E. Discourse Community Map.

Musacchio, Estella, Giovanna Priante, Alessandro Budakovic, and Bruno Baggio. “Effects of Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids on Adhesion and on Gene Expression of Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules in Human Osteoblast-like Cell Cultures.” Informa Health 2007: 34-38. Schmidt, Gary D., and William J. Vande Kopple. Communities of Discourse: The Rhetoric of Disciplines. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. 1. Schmidt, Gary D., and William J. Vande Kopple. Communities of Discourse: The Rhetoric of Disciplines. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. 1.

Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide for Unit 2

1) What are the parts of an atom? Where are the subatomic particles found? Protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the nucleus and on the orbitals and sub-orbitals of the atom.

2) How does the Atomic Mass # differ from the Atomic #?
Atomic mass # is the sum of all protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus. The atomic # is equal to the number of protons in an atom. 3) What is an isotope? Give an example (show how it is an isotope). An isotope is a radioactive form of an element or a form of an element with the same atomic # and the same amount of protons but a different atomic mass and a different amount of neutrons.

An example would be deuterium. Its atomic number is 1 and it has 1 neutron. Its atomic mass number is 2 and it is an isotope of hydrogen. 4) Compare and contrast the 3 basic types of chemical bonds and give an example of each. Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen. Ionic bonds form between atoms with opposite electrical charges. An example of an ionic bond is sodium chloride. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share forming molecules.

Carbon dioxide is an example of a covalent bond. Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions between the positive, hydrogen side of one polar molecule and the negative side of another polar molecule. DNA is effected by hydrogen bonds. 5) Why is pH important in Anatomy?

Low pH damage cells and tissues, alters proteins and interferes with normal physiological functions. High pH also causes problems, but occurs rarely. pH is highly important to anatomy because they intertwine with the internal maintenance of the body 6.9) Name the 4 main Organic Molecules in Biochemistry. Describe each one, and provide an example. What are the “building blocks” of each molecule? For example, protein = Amino Acid.

The 4 organic molecules in biochemistry are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The building blocks of the 4 molecules are as followed: Proteins = Amino Acids. Lipids= fatty acid and glycerol. Carbohydrates= monosaccharides, polysaccharides, disaccharides. Nucleic acids = nucleotides.

10) There are 4 levels of protein structure. What are the levels? How do the levels of a protein differ in structure and function? The 4 levels of protein structure are: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The levels of proteins differ in structure in function as followed; Primary- the order of amino acids

Secondary- hydrogen bonds form
Tertiary- folds the secondary structure
Quaternary- several tertiary structures together

11) Describe the structure of ATP and why it is important?
Cells require energy to function. Energy is stored in high-energy bonds connecting a phosphate group to an organic molecule. Adding a third phosphate group to ADP and produces the high-energy-compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Breaking off ATP’s third phosphate releases the stored energy of the phosphate bond, providing energy for work. 12) Why is the plasma membrane important to cells.

Plasma membrane is important to cells because it provides the support and protection that the cell needs and it also shapes the cell. 13-17) Name 5 cell organelles and their functions.
Nucleus- the control center of the cell.

Mitochondrion- converts nutrients into energy that the cell can use Chloroplasts- converts radiant energy into chemical energy Ribosomes- synthesize proteins Lysosomes- responsible for the digestion of materials that are brought into the cell. They also break down old or non-functioning organelles.

18) Describe the structure of DNA.  DNA is a double helix resembling a spiral staircase, with sugars and phosphates as the side rails and nucleotide pairs as the steps. The two halves of the DNA spiral are complementary strands.

19) How does DNA differ from RNA?
DNA stays within the nucleus of the cell while RNA travels. DNA has thymine and RNA has uracil. 20) Describe transcription and translation in your own words. Transcription is changing DNA to RNA. Translation is changing mRNA to a protein. 21) How are mitosis and meiosis similar…..different?

The result of mitosis is 2 cells while meiosis results in 4 cells. Meiosis deals with sexual reproduction while mitosis deals with asexual reproduction.

A Guide to Classical Management Theory

The classical management theory is a school of management thought in which theorists delved into how to find the best possible way for workers to perform their tasks. The classical management theory is divided into two branches, the classical scientific and the classical administrative. The classical scientific branch comes from the scientific mindset of attempting to increase productivity. During the height of the classical scientific theory, theorists would use almost mechanical methods towards labor and organization to achieve goals of productivity and efficiency.

Some of the basic techniques of the classical scientific theory include creating standardized methods for a task and dividing work between employees equally. On the other hand, the classical administrative theory focuses on how management can be organized to achieve productivity. Henri Fayol, a leading figure in management theory, devised several management theories geared towards efficiency, such as creating a unified direction among managers, centralization, and discipline. Other management theories focused on building team confidence, such as establishing teamwork, using initiative, and equity. Strengths of Classical Management Theory

Current management organization and structure can find much of its roots from the classical management theory. One of the main advantages of the classical management theory was to devise a methodology for how management should operate. Management principles devised during this period can be seen as a foundation for current management behavior today, such as serving as a force of authority and responsibility. In addition, another benefit of the classical management theory is the focus on division of labor. By dividing labor, tasks could be completed more quickly and efficiently, thus allowing productivity to increase. Division of labor can be seen in many applications today, ranging from fast food restaurants to large production facilities. In addition, the classical management theory also gave rise to an autocratic leadership style, allowing employees to take direction and command from their managers. Flaws of Classical Management Theory

The main weakness of the classical management theory arose from its tough, rigid structure. One of the main principles of the classical management theory is to increase productivity and efficiency; however, achieving these goals often came at the expense of creativity and human relations. Oftentimes, employers and theorists would focus on scientific, almost mechanical ways of increasing productivity. For example, managers would use assembly line methods and project management theories that focused on efficient division of tasks. However, employers ignored the relational aspect in employees, in the process of trying to predict and control human behavior. In fact, the human relations movement arose in response to the classical management theory, as a way to understand the role of human motivation in productivity. Additional flaws of the classical management theory include a heavy reliance on prior experience.

The theorists of this time only tested their assumptions with certain industries, such as manufacturing and other high production companies. However, in today’s environment, the rigid structure of classical management theory would not translate well in most companies. Many businesses realize the importance of improving employee motivation and behavior, and implement departments devoted solely to improving human relations. Advantages and Benefits of the Classical Management Theory

by Julianne Russ, Demand Media
Classical management theory was introduced in the late 19th century. It became widespread in the first half of the 20th century, as organizations tried to address issues of industrial management, including specialization, efficiency, higher quality, cost reduction and management-worker relationships. While other management theories have evolved since then, classical management approaches are still used today by many small-business owners to build their companies and to succeed. Ads by Google

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Hierarchical Structure
One of the advantages of the classical management structure is a clear organizational hierarchy with three distinct management levels. Each management group has its own objectives and responsibilities. The top management is usually the board of directors or the chief executives who are responsible for the long-term goals of the organization. Middle management oversees the supervisors, setting department goals according to the approved budget. At the lowest level are the supervisors who oversee day-to-day activities, address employee issues and provide employee training. The levels of leadership and responsibilities are clear and well defined. While the three-level structure may not be suitable for all small businesses, it can benefit those that are expanding. Division of Labor

One of the advantages of classical management approach is the division of labor. Projects are broken down into smaller tasks that are easy to complete. Employees’ responsibilities and expectations are clearly defined. This approach allows workers to narrow their field of expertise and to specialize in one area. The division of labor approach leads to increased productivity and higher efficiency, as workers are not expected to multitask. Small-businesses owners can benefit from taking this approach if they are looking to increase production with minimal expense. Monetary Incentive

According to classical management theory, employees should be motivated by monetary rewards. In other words, they will work harder and become more productive if they have an incentive to look forward to. This gives management easier control over the workforce. Employees feel appreciated when being rewarded for hard work. A small-business owner can take this approach to motivate the employees to achieve production goals. Autocratic Leadership

The autocratic leadership approach is the central part of classical management theory. It states that an organization should have a single leader to make decisions, to organize and direct the employees. All decisions are made at the top level and communicated down. The autocratic leadership approach is beneficial in instances when small-business decisions need to be made quickly by a leader, without having to consult with a large group of people, such a board of directors. Small businesses, especially sole proprietorships, can have an advantage in taking this approach, as they
need a strong leader to grow. Sponsored Links

Classical Management Theory

Early Management Theories
Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, where organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational application was, since workers behave predictably (as machines do rarely deviate from the norm), management knows what to expect, and workers operating outside expectations are replaced.

Classical Management Theories
There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol?s Administrative Theory, Weber?s Theory of Bureaucracy. Although these schools, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas have not replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new school has tended to complement or coexist with previous ones.

Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, U.S.A

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) ?The Father of Scientific Management?. Scientific Management theory arose from the need to increase productivity in the U.S.A. especially, where skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers.

Taylor devised four principles for scientific management theory, which were: 1. The development of a true science of management,
2. The scientific selection and training of workers,
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
1. Small Business >
2. Managing Employees >
3. Managers

Advantages and Benefits of the Classical Management Theory
by Julianne Russ, Demand Media Classical management theory was introduced in the late 19th century. It became widespread in the first half of the 20th century, as organizations tried to address issues of industrial management, including specialization, efficiency, higher quality, cost reduction and management-worker relationships. While other management theories have evolved since then, classical management approaches are still used today by many small-business owners to build their companies and to succeed. Ads by Google

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Hierarchical Structure

One of the advantages of the classical management structure is a clear organizational hierarchy with three distinct management levels. Each management group has its own objectives and responsibilities. The top management is usually the board of directors or the chief executives who are responsible for the long-term goals of the organization. Middle management oversees the supervisors, setting department goals according to the approved budget. At the lowest level are the supervisors who oversee day-to-day activities, address employee issues and provide employee training. The levels of leadership and responsibilities are clear and well defined. While the three-level structure may not be suitable for all small businesses, it can benefit those that are expanding. Division of Labor

One of the advantages of classical management approach is the division of labor. Projects are broken down into smaller tasks that are easy to complete. Employees’ responsibilities and expectations are clearly defined. This approach allows workers to narrow their field of expertise and to specialize in one area. The division of labor approach leads to increased productivity and higher efficiency, as workers are not expected to multitask. Small-businesses owners can benefit from taking this approach if they are looking to increase production with minimal expense. Monetary Incentive

According to classical management theory, employees should be motivated by monetary rewards. In other words, they will work harder and become more productive if they have an incentive to look forward to. This gives management easier control over the workforce. Employees feel appreciated when being rewarded for hard work. A small-business owner can take this approach to motivate the employees to achieve production goals. Autocratic Leadership

The autocratic leadership approach is the central part of classical management theory. It states that an organization should have a single leader to make decisions, to organize and direct the employees. All decisions are made at the top level and communicated down. The autocratic leadership approach is beneficial in instances when small-business decisions need to be made quickly by a leader, without having to consult with a large group of people, such a board of directors. Small businesses, especially sole proprietorships, can have an advantage in taking this approach, as they need a strong leader to grow. Sponsored Links

Great Gatsby Study Guide through Chapter 6

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The Great Gatsby Study Guide
A Progeny Press Study Guide
by Calvin Roso
with Andrew Clausen, Michael Gilleland
Copyright © 1998 Progeny Press
All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work
beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the
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Table of Contents
Note to Instructor ………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Synopsis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 Background Information ………………………………………………………………………………6 About the Author …………………………………………………………………………………………7 Ideas for Pre-reading Activities ……………………………………………………………………….8 Chapter 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………10 Chapter 2
…………………………………………………………………………………………………19 Chapter 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………27 Chapter 4 …………………………………………………………………………………………………33 Chapter 5 …………………………………………………………………………………………………39 Chapter 6 …………………………………………………………………………………………………45 Chapter 7 …………………………………………………………………………………………………51 Chapter 8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………57 Chapter 9 …………………………………………………………………………………………………61 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………….66 Essays ………………………………………………………………………………………………………70 Additional Resources ………………………………………………………………………………….71 Answer Key ……………………………………………………………………………………………….72

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Note to Instructor
How to Use Progeny Press Study Guides. Progeny Press study guides are designed to help students better understand and enjoy literature by getting them to notice and understand how authors craft their stories and to show them how to think through the themes and ideas introduced in the stories. To properly work through a Progeny Press study guide, students should have easy access to a good dictionary, a thesaurus, a Bible (we use NIV translation, but that is up to your preference; just be aware of some differences in language), and sometimes a topical Bible or concordance. Supervised access to the Internet also can be helpful at times, as can a good set of encyclopedias.

Most middle grades and high school study guides take from eight to ten weeks to complete, generally working on one section per week. Over the years, we have found that it works best if the students completely read the novel the first week, while also working on a prereading activity chosen by the parent or teacher. Starting the second week, most parents and teachers have found it works best to work on one study guide page per day until the chapter sections are completed. Students should be allowed to complete questions by referring to the book; many questions require some cross-reference between elements of the stories.

Most study guides contain an Overview section that can be used as a final test, or it can be completed in the same way the chapter sections were completed. If you wish to perform a final test but your particular study guide does not have an Overview section, we suggest picking a couple of questions from each section of the study guide and using them as your final test.

Most study guides also have a final section of essays and postreading activities. These may be assigned at the parents’ or teachers’ discretion, but we suggest that students engage in several writing or other extra activities during the study of the novel to complement their reading and strengthen their writing skills. As for high school credits, most Christian high schools with whom we have spoken have assigned a value of one-fourth credit to each study guide, and this also seems to be acceptable to colleges assessing homeschool transcripts. Internet References

All websites listed in this study guide were checked for appropriateness at the time of publication. However, due to the changing nature of the Internet, we cannot guarantee that the URLs listed will remain appropriate or viable. Therefore, we urge parents and teachers to take care in and exercise careful oversight of their children’s use of the Internet. 4

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Synopsis
“Yet when I surveyed all that my hands had done and what I had toiled to achieve, everything was meaningless, a chasing after the wind; nothing was gained under the sun. . . . And I saw that all labor and all achievement spring from man’s envy of his neighbor. This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.”

—Ecclesiastes 2:11, 4:4
Having recently returned from military duty overseas during the Great War, Nick Carraway is restless and tired of his provincial life in the Midwest. He moves East to get into the bond market and soon finds himself living among the wealthy on Long Island.

Nick reacquaints himself with his cousin Daisy Buchanan and her husband Tom, and through them he meets the “incurably dishonest” Jordan Baker, for whom he begins to develop a romantic interest. Nick soon learns of Daisy’s deep unhappiness and Tom’s affair with Myrtle Wilson, a married woman. Before long, Nick is drawn inextricably into their lives.

Nick’s next-door neighbor is the extravagantly wealthy, but mysterious, Jay Gatsby. Even at his own lavish parties, Gatsby is the subject of rumors and speculation. Nick learns that Gatsby’s single dream, for which he has amassed all his wealth and possessions, is to win back the love of Daisy Buchanan, with whom he had a relationship some years earlier. Gatsby enlists Nick’s help in reuniting with Daisy, but Gatsby’s single-mindedness becomes his undoing as he seeks to relive the past. The Great Gatsby is considered a masterpiece of American literature, filled with symbolism and beautiful, well-crafted passages. Through it we are given a glimpse into the characters’ moral emptiness, selfishness, and narcissism.

© 1998 Progeny Press

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Background Information
World War I made many Americans question the validity of traditional ideals. Literature and art denied the foundations of the past and strove to express the ideas of a new age. These new ideas were expressed during the “Jazz Age,” through a new philosophy called “modernism.”

The Jazz Age
During the Jazz Age, or the “Roaring Twenties,” the standard of living increased for most Americans. America experienced a general abandoning of the small-town, rural past in exchange for an urban, cosmopolitan lifestyle. The United States experienced enormous economic growth as Americans sought to forget the troubles of the war. The way many chose to do this was by simply enjoying life. Many enjoyed life through frivolous spending, illegal liquor, and immorality. Although the 18th Amendment to the Constitution prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, thousands turned to bootlegged liquor. Mob activity in the United States increased to supply the demand for what was once legal. The literature, art, and music of this time period reflected the nation’s changing values. Many authors attacked traditional values, while others, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sherwood Anderson, and Ezra Pound, moved to Paris for some time, becoming labeled as “the lost generation,” or “expatriates.”

Modernism
Modernism is an artistic trend that sought to find new ways to communicate in a world where past traditions, values, and ideals no longer applied. Modernist writers often sought to strip away descriptions of characters and setting while avoiding direct statements of theme and resolutions. This
“fragmented” style of writing theoretically enabled the reader to choose meaning for himself, while understanding that life itself was fragmented and without meaning.

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About the Author
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was born in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1896. He grew up with middle-class parents who constantly overextended themselves financially. In high school, Fitzgerald published fiction in the school magazine. While attending Princeton University, he also published fiction, and in addition, wrote amateur musical comedies. After Princeton, Scott left to join the Army. During his time in the Service, he wrote and published his first short story. It was also during this time that he fell in love with Zelda Sayre, a young southern belle who refused to marry him until he could prove that he could support her financially.

It was the success of his first novel, This Side of Paradise (1920), which portrayed undergraduate life at Princeton, that convinced Zelda that he could be successful. The subject and success of this novel also established Fitzgerald as the “golden boy” of the Jazz Age, whose writing epitomized the spirit of the time. The Fitzgeralds became a part of the wealthy, extravagant society that characterized the Roaring 20s. Spending time living in both New York and Europe, the glamorous couple mingled with famous celebrities, attending countless parties and spending money recklessly.

The decline of Fitzgerald’s personal and artistic life coincided with the end of the 1920s. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s reputation as a writer declined by the end of the 1920s and he was often forced to write “hack work” to make the money necessary to support the couple’s extravagant lifestyle. During this time, his addiction to alcohol also increased. In addition, rumors surfaced of Zelda’s having an affair in Europe. Later, Zelda suffered several nervous breakdowns and was eventually institutionalized with schizophrenia. She died in a fire in the hospital in 1938. After several attempts to regain his voice in literature through short stories, novels, and film writing, Fitzgerald died of a heart attack at age 44.

F. Scott Fitzgerald is best known as the leading writer of the Jazz Age, a man who was remarkably able to both live the life of the Roaring Twenties, yet write as a detached observer of it. His works include: This Side of Paradise, The Great Gatsby, The Beautiful and the Damned, Tender is the Night, and The Last Tycoon (unfinished). In addition, he published four volumes of short stories and a selection of autobiographical pieces. © 1998 Progeny Press

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Ideas for Pre-reading Activities
1. Art work: Research clothing styles in 1920s America. Draw pictures or make a collage of clippings illustrating what men and women from the “Jazz Age” dressed and looked like.

2. The Lost Generation: Research American authors and artists from the postWWI era who were considered part of “the lost generation.” Write a one-page paper discussing who these artists were, why they left America, and what they believed regarding life, literature, and art.

3. Prohibition: Write a one-page informative essay regarding prohibition in the 1920s.
4. The American Dream: Write a one-page paper defining “the American Dream.” Discuss how the idea of the American Dream has changed through time. Conclude by discussing whether or not you think the American Dream is still possible to achieve, or whether it exists at all.

5. Materialism: Write a three- to five-paragraph personal essay about how you see materialism influencing society. How does the desire for money and possessions affect the way people think and plan? Do you find materialism influencing your own plans for college or your career?

6. As you read this novel, pay particular attention to the relationships between the people. Note how they treat each other, how they speak to each other, or how they seem to think about each other. On what are these relationships based? How do these relationships turn out?

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7. The Great Gatsby is known for its lavish descriptive passages. With just a few choice words Fitzgerald turns a small decrepit village into a metaphor for decay and death, or turns a small afternoon party into a near nightmare of smoke, babble, and motion. Look up the terms personification, metaphor, and simile, and see how Fitzgerald uses these literary devices throughout the novel.

© 1998 Progeny Press

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Chapter 1
“Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it was what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and short-winded elations of men.”

Vocabulary:
Explain the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary.

1.
Frequently I have feigned sleep, preoccupation, or a hostile levity when I realized by some unmistakable sign that an intimate revelation was quivering on the horizon. . .

feigned:

levity:

2. Now he was a sturdy straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner.

3. There was a touch of paternal contempt in it, even toward the people he liked—and there were men at New Haven who had hated his guts.

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4. The other girl, Daisy, made an attempt to rise—she leaned slightly forward with a conscientious expression—then she laughed. . .

5. Slenderly, languidly, their hands set lightly on their hips, the two young women preceded us out onto a rosy-colored porch. . .

6. Sometimes she and Miss Baker talked at once, unobtrusively and with a bantering inconsequence that was never quite chatter . . . . . unobtrusively:

bantering:

7. “This idea is that we’re Nordics. I am, you are, and you are, and—” After an infinitesimal hesitation he included Daisy with a slight nod, and she winked at me again.

8. Something was making him nibble at the edge of stale ideas as if his sturdy physical egotism no longer nourished his peremptory heart.

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Character Study:
We learn about characters through what they say, what they do, what others say about them, and how others react to them. We also learn about characters through the tone of the author and the narrator. In order to grasp the text, your goal should be to understand the main characters: their strengths, weaknesses, growth, etc. For each of the passages below, write down in one or two sentences what the passage reveals or suggests about the character listed.

1. Nick Carraway:
. . . I’m inclined to reserve all judgments, a habit that has opened up many curious natures to me and also made me the victim of not a few veteran bores. . . . Reserving judgments is a matter of infinite hope. I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that . . . a sense of fundamental decencies is parceled out unequally at birth.

2. Nick Carraway:
. . . after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit. Conduct may be founded on the hard rock or the wet marshes but after a certain point I don’t care what it’s founded on. When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart.

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3. Jay Gatsby:
No—Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it is what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and shortwinded elations of men.

4. Jay Gatsby:
. . . he gave a sudden intimation that he was content to be alone— he stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and far as I was from him I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seaward—and distinguished nothing

except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been at the end of the dock.

5. Tom Buchanan:
. . . [Tom was] one of those men who reach such an acute limited excellence at twenty-one that everything afterward savors of anticlimax. . . . Now he was a sturdy straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggressively forward. . . . [His] was a body capable of enormous leverage—a cruel body.

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6. Daisy Buchanan:
. . . her low, thrilling voice. It was the kind of voice that the ear follows up and down as if each speech is an arrangement of notes that will never be played again. Her face was sad and lovely with bright things in it, bright eyes and a bright passionate mouth— but there was an excitement in her voice that men who had cared for her found difficult to forget: a singing compulsion, a whispered, “Listen,” a promise that she had done gay, exciting things just a while since and that there were gay, exciting things hovering in the next hour.

7. Jordan Baker:
The younger of the two [Jordan] was a stranger to me. She was extended full length at her end of the divan, completely motionless and with her chin raised a little as if she were balancing something on it which was quite likely to fall. If she saw me out of the corner of her eyes she gave no hint of it—indeed, I was almost surprised into murmuring an apology for having disturbed her by coming in.

Questions:
1. In the opening lines of the novel, Nick, the narrator, recalls advice that his father gave him. What was this advice?

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2. Describe West Egg, where Nick lives. How does West Egg differ from East Egg? Which of the book’s characters live in each?

3. How is Nick related to Tom and Daisy Buchanan?

4. What does Nick learn about Tom, Daisy, and Jordan during the dinner party?

5. When Nick first sees Gatsby, where is Gatsby, and what is he doing?

Analysis:
6. What does Nick mean when he says that tolerance has a limit?

7. What does Nick say “preyed” on Gatsby? What do you think Nick means by this?

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8. What words or phrases suggest that Nick is initially optimistic about going East?

9. Personification is a common technique Fitzgerald uses in The Great Gatsby. Personification is the giving of human attributes to nonhuman things. For example, the sentence “The sun smiled down on the children at play” paints an image of the sun smiling—a human characteristic.

Nick’s description of the Buchanan’s lawn when he first arrives at their home is a perfect example of personification. Reread this description in the novel. What words or phrases give the lawn a sense of life and motion?

10. Note the imagery Fitzgerald uses to describe Daisy and Jordan when Nick first sees them:
The only stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an anchored balloon. They were both in white, and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house. . . . Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind died

out about the room, and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to the floor.
What do you think Fitzgerald is suggesting about these two women through this
imagery? What other evidence is given in the chapter to support your idea?

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11. What ideas about race does Tom express? What does this reveal about Tom’s character?

12. How well do you think Nick fits in with those around him? Explain your answer.

13. How does Jordan respond to the idea of Tom’s affair? What does this say about her attitude toward marriage?

14. With what you have seen in the first chapter, how significant of a role do you think Tom and Daisy’s daughter plays in their lives? Why do you think Fitzgerald chose to give this couple a child?

Dig Deeper:
15. When Daisy and Nick are alone in the porch, Daisy explains her view of life: “You see I think everything’s terrible anyhow. . . . Everybody thinks so—the most advanced people. And I know. I’ve been everywhere and seen everything and done everything.”

© 1998 Progeny Press

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Read Ecclesiastes 2:1–2, 10–11. How does Daisy’s statement compare with the statement in these verses? Why do you think the pursuit of pleasure might
have this effect on people?

Optional Exercises:
• An allusion is a reference to an historical or literary person, place, or event with which the reader is assumed to be familiar. In Nick’s discussion of his journey East, he makes an allusion to “the shining secrets that only Midas and Morgan and Maecenas knew.” Research who these characters were and what their “secrets” were. What do these characters have to do with Nick’s career possibilities?

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Chapter 2
But above the grey land and the spasms of bleak dust which drift endlessly over it, you perceive, after a moment, the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg. The eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg are blue and gigantic—their retinas are one yard high. . . . his eyes, dimmed a little by many paintless days under sun and rain, brood on over the solemn dumping ground.

Vocabulary:
Choose the correct meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary. 1. . . . ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who moved dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air.

In the context of this passage, transcendent means:
a. extreme
b. performed
c. beyond comprehension
d. confusing
2. The only building in sight was a small block of yellow brick sitting on the edge of the waste land, a sort of compact Main Street ministering to it and contiguous to absolutely nothing. In the context of this passage, contiguous means:

a. indicative
b. adjacent
c. opposing
d. compared
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3. It had occurred to me that this shadow of a garage must be a blind and that sumptuous and romantic apartments were concealed overhead . . . In the context of this passage, blind means:
a. window shade
b. obstruction
c. decoy
d. darkness
4. . . . a tin of large hard dog biscuits—one of which decomposed apathetically in the saucer of milk all afternoon.
In the context of this passage, apathetically means:
a. impassively
b. endlessly
c. disgustingly
d. loosely
5. She came in with such a proprietary haste and looked around so possessively at the furniture that I wondered if she lived here.
In the context of this passage, proprietary means:
a. uninterested
b. aggressive
c. planned
d. owned or managed
6. The intense vitality that had been so remarkable in the garage was converted into impressive hauteur.
In the context of this passage, hauteur means:
a. performance
b. arrogance
c. frivolity
d. intensity

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7. “My dear,” she told her sister in a high mincing shout, “most of these fellas will cheat you every time.”
In the context of this passage, mincing means:
a. dainty or delicate
b. irritating/annoying
c. concise or pithy
d. youthful/childish
8. “Crazy about him!” cried Myrtle incredulously. “Who said I was crazy about him? I never was any more crazy about him than I was about that man there.” In the context of this passage, incredulously means:

a. nervously
b. amazingly
c. ironically
d. skeptically

Questions:
1. List some of the descriptive words and phrases used to describe the setting in the first two paragraphs of Chapter 2.

2. Who, or what, is “Doctor T.J. Eckleburg”? Where is he seen? What does Doctor T.J. Eckleburg stare over?

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3. What is the proximity between the Wilsons’ home and the “valley of ashes,” or the “waste land?” What do you think this relationship says about their lives?

4. What does Myrtle’s sister tell Nick about Gatsby? What impression of Gatsby does this give you?

5. Why does Tom break Myrtle’s nose?

Analysis:
6. A symbol is something physical that represents something abstract. We identify symbols in literature through the author’s emphasis and the author’s use of repetition. We understand what symbols mean through the author’s tone and imagery.

In the beginning of Chapter 2, considerable time is spent describing the “valley of ashes.” What ideas or concepts does one generally associate with ashes? What do you think the “valley of ashes” between West Egg and New York symbolizes?

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7. Many analyses of The Great Gatsby suggest that the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg are a symbol for God. What evidence in Chapter 2 is there to support this idea? If this is “God” in the novel, what do you think Fitzgerald is saying by depicting God as a man-made advertisement overlooking a valley of ashes?

8. Twice Nick mentions the photograph on the wall of Myrtle’s apartment. How does he characterize or personify the photograph? How is the photograph similar to the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg?

9. The exterior of Myrtle’s apartment is described as “one slice in a long white cake of apartment houses.” What does this positive imagery imply? How does the outward appearance differ from the relationships within? Compare this idea with Christ’s imagery of the Pharisees as “whitewashed tombs” (Matthew 23:27, 28). What was Jesus implying through this comparison? How is Myrtle’s apartment, and Tom and Myrtle’s affair, like a “whitewashed tomb”?

10. What books and magazines does Nick find at Myrtle’s apartment? What might the titles of these books and magazines suggest?

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11. Dramatic irony is when the reader sees a character’s mistakes which the character is unable to see himself. What is ironic about Myrtle’s negative attitudes toward the “lower classes”?

12. An author’s tone is the way he presents his subject matter to readers. Through his use of language, the author can influence the way readers view certain characters or events in a novel. Examine the tone with which Fitzgerald writes about George Wilson. How does he present George Wilson to the reader? Do you think Fitzgerald wishes for readers to sympathize with

George Wilson? Explain your answer with examples from the book.

Dig Deeper:
13. Read Matthew 6:25–34. What do these verses tell us about where our priorities should be in our careers, possessions, and relationships?

14. Three times during Chapter 2 Nick finds himself unable to leave the company of Tom and Myrtle. First, when the train stops on the way to New York, then in the taxicab on the way to the apartment, and finally during the party. How is Nick unable to leave in each case?

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15. How do these three attempts to leave show a progression toward Nick becoming a willing participant in the clandestine meeting?

16. Read 1 Corinthians 5. Do you think that by remaining with Tom and Myrtle throughout the chapter Nick is showing his approval of the affair? Explain your answer.

17. Using evidence from the novel, analyze the relationship between Tom and Myrtle. Why are Tom and Myrtle having an affair? What do you think they are hoping to gain from it? Do you think it has made them happier?

18. Near the end of Chapter 2, Nick comments to the reader, “I was within [the apartment] and without, simultaneously enchanted and repelled by the inexhaustible variety of life.” How does this statement compare with Paul’s statement in Romans 7:14–25. Have you ever found yourself being both “enchanted and repelled” by what you know is wrong? How did you deal with it? What is promised in Romans 8:1–11, 26–39 for those who struggle?

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Optional Exercises:
• Read and discuss excerpts from T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922).

• Draw a picture portraying the imagery of the ash heaps and Doctor T.J. Eckleburg.

• Search out scripture passages dealing with marriage and discuss the Biblical view of marriage. Some good starting points are Proverbs 5, Malachi 2:13–16, Ephesians 5:22–33, and Hebrews 13:4.

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Chapter 3
It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in your life. It faced—or seemed to face—the whole external world for an instance, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. It understood you just as far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself, and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to convey.

Vocabulary:
Explain the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary. 1. On buffet tables, garnished with glistening hors d’oeuvre, spiced baked hams crowded against salads of harlequin designs and pastry pigs and turkeys bewitched to a dark gold.

2. The bar is in full swing and floating rounds of cocktails permeate the garden outside until the air is alive with chatter and laughter and casual innuendo and introductions forgotten on the spot and enthusiastic meetings between women who never knew each other’s names.

permeate

innuendo

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3. Laughter is easier, minute by minute, spilled with prodigality, tipped out at a cheerful word.

4. A momentary hush; the orchestra leader varies his rhythm obligingly for her and there is a burst of chatter as the erroneous news goes around that she is Gilda Gray’s understudy from the “Follies.”

obligingly

erroneous

5. . . . wandered around rather ill at ease among swirls and eddies of people I didn’t know . . .

6. Instead of rambling this party had preserved a dignified homogeneity, and assumed to itself the function of representing the staid nobility of the countryside—East Egg condescending to West Egg, and carefully on guard against its spectroscopic gayety.

homogeneity

staid

spectroscopic

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7. I had expected that Mr. Gatsby would be a florid and corpulent person in his middle years.
florid

corpulent

8. The hall was at present occupied by two deplorably sober men and their highly indignant wives.

Questions:
1. What rumors do people at the party tell about Gatsby?

2. Why do you think that the man with the “owl-eyed spectacles” is so surprised to find real books in Gatsby’s library?

3. What was the story involving a golf tournament that Nick had heard about Jordan? What does Nick say about Jordan’s honesty?

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Analysis:
4. In the fourth paragraph of Chapter 3, Fitzgerald abruptly changes his grammatical style, writes differently for three paragraphs, and then abruptly changes back to his previous style. Identify the change that takes place in these paragraphs. Give several examples that demonstrate this grammatical change.

5. Generally, a grammatical change like this is considered a mistake and poor writing, but Fitzgerald obviously did it on purpose and for a very specific effect. Why did Fitzgerald change his grammatical style?

6. The party sequence in Chapter 3 is really made up of a series of vignettes, short scenes, connected only by Nick’s wandering around the party. What mood does this give the chapter? Compare this to the scenes in the last page or two of the previous chapter. What connection might there be?

7. How have all the rumors and stories about him developed the character of Gatsby? Why do you think an author would keep his title character a mystery?

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8. A paradox is a statement that seems contradictory, but actually presents a truth. What might be the truth in Jordan’s paradox: “I like large parties. They’re so intimate”? How can large parties be intimate?

9. In the following passage, what might Fitzgerald be saying about the significance of the gathering and the lives of those there?

We were sitting at a table with a man of about my age and a

rowdy little girl who gave way upon the slightest provocation to uncontrollable laughter. I was enjoying myself now. I had taken two finger bowls of champagne and the scene had changed before my eyes into something significant, elemental and profound.

10. Nick says that the three parties central to the first three chapters of the novel were “merely casual events in a crowded summer,” and that they “absorbed me infinitely less than my personal affairs.” Nevertheless, what is suggested about the novel’s plot by focusing the action of the story on these parties? Why do you think Fitzgerald chose to structure the first three chapters in this way?

11. If no one seems to appreciate Gatsby for his parties and Gatsby doesn’t seem to know most of the people attending or participate much, why do you think he holds such huge, lavish gatherings?

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Dig Deeper:
12. Read Proverbs 10:18, 19 and Proverbs 23:29–35. What do these verses say about drunkenness and foolishness? How do the verses apply to the characters in the novel?

13. At the end of Chapter 3, Nick says, “Every one suspects himself of at least one of the cardinal virtues, and this is mine: I am one of the few honest people that I have ever known.” What are “cardinal virtues”? What is ironic about Nick’s use of the word “suspects” when talking about virtue?

14. How does Nick’s statement about his rare honesty affect your opinion of him? Why do you feel this way?

For Discussion:
15. How does society generally view the party scene (such as that depicted in The Great Gatsby)? Does society depict it as an attractive lifestyle? If so, why do you think this lifestyle would be attractive to people? With what tone does the author write of the parties in The Great Gatsby? How does he communicate this tone?

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Chapter 4
On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along shore the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.

Vocabulary:
Choose the word that most closely defines the underlined word in each sentence below.
1. ___ This quality was continually breaking through his punctilious manner in the shape of restlessness.
a. traditional

b. conventional

c. uneasy

2. ___ “. . . and when the infantry came up at last they found the insignia of three German divisions among the piles of dead.”
a. sign

b. uniform

c. emblem

3. ___ Over the great bridge, . . . with the city rising up across the river in white heaps and sugar lumps all built with a wish out of non-olfactory money. a. dirty

b. unscented

c. new

4. ___ Gatsby took an arm of each of us . . . whereupon Mr. Wolfsheim swallowed a new sentence he was starting and lapsed into a somnambulatory abstraction. a. hypnotized

b. drowsed

c. sleep-walking

5. ___ “This is one of his sentimental days. He’s quite a character around New York—a denizen of Broadway.”
a. alien
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Questions:
1. List words and phrases used to describe Gatsby’s car. What do you think Gatsby’s car expresses about him?

2. Paraphrase Gatsby’s story about his life.

3. What parts of Gatsby’s story sound false to Nick? What does Gatsby show Nick that causes Nick to believe his story—at least in part?

4. List two things associating Meyer Wolfshiem with crime.

5. Summarize Jordan’s story about Gatsby and Daisy.

6. Why, according to Jordan, did Gatsby buy his particular house?

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7. After hearing Jordan’s story, Nick says that Gatsby “came alive to me, delivered suddenly from the womb of his purposeless splendor.” What does Nick recognize as the purpose for Gatsby’s fine mansion and all his parties?

Analysis:
8. What is suggested or implied when the author writes, “On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along shore the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house”?

9. About the names on the timetable, Nick says,
. . . I can still read the gray names, and they will give you a better impression than my generalities of those who accepted Gatsby’s hospitality and paid him the subtle tribute of knowing nothing whatever about him.

What is Nick saying, sarcastically, about those who attended Gatsby’s parties?

10. Look at the list of names on the timetable from the first few pages of Chapter 4. What impression of these people are you given? What about the list influences your impressions?

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11. Juxtaposition is the placing of two ideas side by side so that their closeness suggests a new meaning. For example, following the end of Chapter 1 (Gatsby reaching hopefully toward the green light) with descriptions of the “valley of ashes” at the beginning of Chapter 2 suggests that Gatsby’s dream is somehow connected to or will result in ruin.

What might Fitzgerald be suggesting by the juxtaposition of “Gatsby’s splendid car” being passed by “a dead man . . . in a hearse heaped with blooms”?

12. The dead man in the hearse is followed by “more cheerful carriages for friends,” and Nick says he is “glad that the sight of Gatsby’s splendid car was included in their somber holiday.” Do you see any symbolism or foreshadowing in this scene?

13. When Jordan tells Nick the story of Daisy and Gatsby, Nick relates that Jordan was “sitting up very straight on a straight chair.” Considering that Jordan is earlier characterized by phrases like “lying on the sofa,” “languid,” “sauntering” what might this suggest about the validity of her story?

14. Compare Gatsby’s story about himself with Jordan’s story. How well do they fit together? Describe elements of the stories that do or do not fit well.

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15. Given the very romantic stories Gatsby and Jordan tell, and the implied incongruities between them, what does the juxtaposition of the scene with Meyer Wolfshiem imply about Gatsby? How does this scene make you feel about Wolfshiem?

16. How does Nick’s view of Gatsby change over the course of Chapter 4? How has your view of Gatsby been affected or changed by this chapter?

Dig Deeper:
17. Read Ecclesiastes 4:9–12; Acts 2:44–47; Romans 15:1, 2; and 1 Corinthians 13:4–7. According to these verses, what is the purpose of fellowship and friendship? What characteristics of a true friend are listed in these verses? Who in the novel, if anyone, exhibits these characteristics?

18. Read Proverbs 6:16–19; Proverbs 14: 7–9; 1 Corinthians 15:33, 34; and 2 Peter 2:17–19. How do many of the people we’ve met so far in the novel compare to these verses?

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19. Think about your friends and acquaintances. Are they more like those described in the first group of verses above, or the second? Do they try to build each other up, or do they more often lie and cause dissension? Why do you think someone would choose to associate with a group like Gatsby’s instead of one that fits the first set of verses?

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Chapter 5
There must have been some moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams—not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. . . . No amount of fire or freshness can challenge what a man will store up in his ghostly heart.

Vocabulary:
Explain the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary. 1. Two o’clock and the whole corner of the peninsula was blazing with light which fell unreal on the shrubbery and made thin elongating glints upon the roadside wires.

2. At first I thought it was another party, a wild rout that had resolved itself into “hide-and-go-seek” or “sardines-in-the-box” with all the house thrown open to the game.

3. . . . the sound of a motor turning into my lane. We both jumped up and, a little harrowed myself, I went into the yard.

4. His head leaned back so far that it rested against the face of a defunct mantelpiece clock . . .

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5. They were sitting at either end of the couch looking at each other as if
some question had been asked or was in the air, and every vestige of embarrassment was gone.

Questions:
1. How and why does Gatsby offer to “help” Nick? Why does Nick say that “under different circumstances that conversation might have been one of the crises of my life”?

2. What weaknesses regarding Gatsby’s story about his life are suggested in this chapter?

3. How does Daisy act when she meets Gatsby at Nick’s house? How does Gatsby act?

4. How does Daisy act at Gatsby’s mansion?

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5. How, according to Nick, does Gatsby revalue “everything in his house.”

6. What three “states” does Gatsby goes through while he is with Daisy?

Analysis:
7. What is the history behind Gatsby’s mansion and its former owners? What might be symbolic about Gatsby purchasing a house with a black wreath on its door?

8. Read the passages below.
Sometimes, too, he stared around his possessions in a dazed way as though in her actual and astonishing presence none of it was any longer real.

Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed very near to her, almost touching her. It had seemed close as a star to the moon. Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one.

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How have Gatsby’s possessions—all that he has built in order to attain his dream—been changed by the reentry of Daisy into his life?

9. When Gatsby takes Daisy on a tour of the many rooms of his mansion, why do you think Fitzgerald ended the tour in Gatsby’s personal living quarters?

10. Read the following passage:
He took out a pile of shirts and began throwing them one by one before us, shirts of sheer linen and thick silk and fine flannel . . . . the soft rich heap mounted higher—shirts with stripes and scrolls and plaids in coral and apple green and lavender and faint orange with monograms of Indian blue.

As the final event of the “tour,” what do you think this display of his shirts says about Gatsby?

11. Nick says “there must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of [Gatsby’s] dreams—not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion.” What is Nick saying about Gatsby’s dreams in this passage?

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12. Do you think Nick’s admiration for Gatsby has grown stronger or weaker in this chapter? Explain your answer.

Dig Deeper:
13. In this chapter, Fitzgerald implies that one’s dreams are often bigger than can be reasonably, or even possibly fulfilled. Do you agree or disagree? Explain your answer.

14. Read Psalm 37: 4–11; Matthew 6:24–34; and Ephesians 3:17–21. What do these verses have to say about the pursuing of one’s dreams?

15. For what purpose did Gatsby ask Nick to invite Daisy to Nick’s house? Why did Nick invite Daisy? How does this act square with Nick’s earlier assertion that he is “one of the few honest people that I have ever known”?

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Optional Exercises:
• Define “success.” Write a brief essay explaining how success or the desire for success influences and applies to your daily life. Discuss how and when you will know if you have lived a successful life.

• In Chapter 5, Nick says he stared at Gatsby’s house “like Kant at his church steeple.” To help understand this allusion, research information regarding Immanuel Kant. Write a one-page essay summarizing Kant’s philosophies and discussing how they might differ from the modernism depicted in The Great Gatsby.

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Chapter 6
The truth was that Jay Gatsby of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself. He was a son of God—a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that—and he must be about His Father’s Business, the service of a vast, vulgar and meretricious beauty.

Vocabulary:
Explain the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary. 1. He had changed [his name] at the age of seventeen . . . when he saw Dan Cody’s yacht drop anchor over the most insidious flat on Lake Superior.

2. The truth was that Jay Gatsby of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself.

3. He knew women early, and since they spoiled him he became contemptuous of them . . .

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4. A universe of ineffable gaudiness spun itself out in his brain while the clock ticked on the wash-stand and the moon soaked with wet light his tangled clothes upon the floor.
ineffable:
gaudiness:
5. Each night he added to the pattern of his fancies until drowsiness closed
down upon some vivid scene with an oblivious embrace.

6. For a while these reveries provided an outlet for his imagination . . .

7. The none too savory ramifications by which Ella Kaye, the newspaper woman, played Madame de Maintenon to his weakness . . .
savory:
ramifications:
8. . . . for Dan Cody sober knew what lavish doings Dan Cody drunk might soon be about and he provided for such contingencies by reposing more and more trust in Gatsby.
lavish:
contingencies:
reposing:

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9. I remember the portrait of him up in Gatsby’s bedroom, a grey, florid man with a hard empty face—the pioneer debauchee, who during one phase of American life brought back to the eastern seaboard the savage violence of the frontier brothel and saloon.

florid:
debauchee:
10. [Gatsby] was left with his singularly appropriate education; the vague contour of Jay Gatsby had filled out to the substantiality of man.
contour:
substantiality:

Questions:
1. Summarize the story of James Gatz.

2. Who was Dan Cody?

3. What does Gatsby want Daisy to do? What would this accomplish? How realistic, or fair, do you think it is for Gatsby to require this?

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4. How does Gatsby respond when Nick tells him “You can’t repeat the past”?

Analysis:
5. Read the passage and answer the questions.
His parents were shiftless and unsuccessful farm people—his imagination had never really accepted them as his parents at all. The truth was that Jay Gatsby of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself. He was a son of God—a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that—and he must be about His Father’s Business, the service of a vast, vulgar and meretricious beauty. So he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen year old boy would be likely to invent, and to this conception he was faithful to the end.

What does Nick mean by Gatsby’s “Platonic conception” of himself, and by calling Gatsby “a son of God”? What does the last sentence imply about Gatsby’s maturity as an adult?

6. Does learning the truth about Gatsby’s childhood change your impression of him? Explain your answer.

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7. What is ironic about Gatsby inheriting his “education” from Cody?

8. What is significant about the placement of Gatsby’s true story in Chapter 6, directly following his attaining Daisy in Chapter 5? Why do you think Fitzgerald waited to tell readers this story until after Gatsby reunited with Daisy?

9. What is ironic about Tom’s statement that “women run around too much these days.” What does this statement reveal about Tom’s character?

10. Nick tells us that, five years earlier, Gatsby knew if he kissed Daisy, “and forever wed his unutterable visions to her perishable breath, his mind would never romp again like the mind of God.” Why do you think Fitzgerald used this particular imagery? What does the idea of “never romping again like the mind of God” remind you of ?

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Dig Deeper:
11. A number of the characters in The Great Gatsby seem to believe they are better than other people or for some reason deserve to be privileged. In this chapter we find that Gatsby has imagined himself to be better than his parents, and, in fact, almost perfect.

Read Deuteronomy 8:17–19; Romans 12:3; 1 Corinthians 4:6, 7; and Philippians 2:3, 4. Where do these verses say our worth and wealth come from? What do they say about how we should view ourselves?

12. What does it mean to be naive? Is Gatsby naive? As Christians, what things, if anything, do you think we should be naive about? How do Romans 16:17–19 and 1 Corinthians 14:20 relate to this question?

13. How is Gatsby trying to “repeat the past”? Do you think it’s possible to repeat the past? Why or why not?

14. Read Isaiah 43:18, 19 and Philippians 3:7–14. What do these verses suggest about living in the past?

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Chapter 7
But with every word she was drawing further and further into herself, so he gave that up and only the dead dream fought on as the afternoon slipped away, trying to touch what was no longer tangible, struggling unhappily, undespairingly, toward that lost voice across the room.

Vocabulary:
Explain the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below based on how that word is used in the sentence. You may need to use a dictionary. 1. “I wanted somebody who wouldn’t gossip. Daisy comes over quite often—in the afternoons.”

So the whole caravansary had fallen in like a card house at the disapproval in her eyes.

2. He was calling up at Daisy’s request—would I come to lunch at her house tomorrow? . . . . And yet I couldn’t believe that they would choose this occasion for a scene—especially for the rather harrowing scene that Gatsby had outlined in the garden.

3. Jordan and Tom and I got into the front seat of Gatsby’s car, Tom pushed the unfamiliar gears tentatively and we shot off into the oppressive heat leaving them out of sight behind.

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4. He paused. The immediate contingency overtook him, pulled him back from the edge of the theoretical abyss.

5. Angry as I was, as we all were, I was tempted to laugh whenever he opened his mouth. The transition from libertine to prig was so complete. libertine:
prig:
6. “She does [love me], though. The trouble is that sometimes she gets foolish ideas in her head and doesn’t know what she’s doing.” He nodded sagely.

7. I was thirty. Before me stretched the portentous menacing road of a new decade.

8. As we passed over the dark bridge her wan face fell lazily against my coat’s shoulder and the formidable stroke of thirty died away with the reassuring pressure of her hand. wan:
formidable:
9. The circle closed up again with a running murmur of expostulation; it was a minute before I could see anything at all.

10. Only the Negro and I were near enough to hear what [Tom] said but the policeman caught something in the tone and looked over with truculent eyes.

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Questions:
1. Who is Pammy? How does Gatsby react when he sees her? How does her existence complicate Gatsby’s dream?

2. How does Tom suddenly come to realize that Daisy loves Gatsby? How does he react?

3. What important discovery does Wilson make in this chapter? How does he react?

4. What things has Tom discovered about Gatsby’s business dealings?

5. Why was Myrtle running towards Gatsby’s car? Who was driving the car that hit Myrtle Wilson? Who does Tom think was driving?

6. How does the accident seem to affect Jordan?

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Analysis:
7. What has changed about Gatsby’s house? What might this change symbolize or foreshadow?

8. What does the author mean when he writes that Tom looked at Daisy “as if he had just recognized her as someone he knew a long time ago.”

9. Why do you think Fitzgerald refers to Daisy as “the golden girl”? What does Gatsby say Daisy’s voice is “full of ”? What does this comparison suggest about what really attracts men to her?

10. How has Gatsby’s dream died in this chapter? How has everyone else suffered loss in this chapter?

11. After the confrontational scene in the hotel room, why do you think Fitzgerald has Nick report that he has turned thirty that day? What is ironic about Nick turning thirty in this particular chapter?

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12. In this chapter, Gatsby’s car is described as the “death car.” If his car symbolizes materialism, how does this add meaning to that symbolism? Identify other “deaths” found in Chapter 7.

13. Why is Nick disgusted with Jordan in the end of the chapter? What has she done or said that irritates him?

14. Chapter 7 parallels Chapter 1 in many ways. One example is the initial setting at the Buchanans’; a second example is the heat. Identify at least three other similarities. What might be Fitzgerald’s purpose for this parallelism?

15. How are Tom Buchanan and George Wilson alike? What might Fitzgerald be suggesting through these similarities?

16. How how does Fitzgerald draw comparisons between Tom and Gatsby? What might he be suggesting through these similarities?

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17. Compare and contrast the following two images. Identify where each occurs in the story and discuss the meaning behind the similarities and differences. He put his hands in his coat pockets and turned back eagerly to his scrutiny of the house, as though my presence marred the sacredness of the vigil. So I walked away and left him standing there in the moonlight—watching over nothing.

But I didn’t call to him, for he gave a sudden intimation that he was content to be alone—he stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and, far as I was from him, I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seaward— and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and faraway, that might have been the end of a dock.

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Chapter 8
No telephone message arrived . . . . I have an idea that Gatsby himself didn’t believe it would come and perhaps he no longer cared. If that was true he must have felt that he had lost the old warm world, paid a high price for living too long with a single dream.

Questions:
1. Summarize Gatsby’s story about his early romance with Daisy. What other story did Gatsby tell Nick during this night?

2. By the end of the chapter, what has happened to both Gatsby and Wilson?

Analysis:
3. Gothic imagery creates a picture of darkness, gloomy castles, mazes, mystery, nightmares and death. Identify the Gothic imagery found in the first few paragraphs of Chapter 8. Why do you think Fitzgerald uses Gothic imagery to describe Gatsby’s mansion?

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4. The author writes that Gatsby had committed himself to “the following of a grail.” What is the author suggesting about Gatsby’s quest through the use of this image?

5. The last thing Nick said to Gatsby was, “They’re a rotten crowd. You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together.” Why do you think he said this when he admits that he disapproved of Gatsby “from beginning to end”?

6. Read the following passage:
Wilson’s glazed eyes turned out to the ashheaps, where small grey clouds took on fantastic shape and scurried here and there in the faint dawn wind.

“I spoke to her,” he muttered, after a long silence. “I told her she might fool me but she couldn’t fool God. I took her to the window—” With an effort he got up and walked to the rear window and leaned with his face pressed against it, “—and I said ‘God knows what you’ve been doing, everything you’ve been doing. You may fool me but you can’t fool God!’”

Standing behind him Michaelis saw with a shock that he
was looking at the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg, which had just emerged, pale and enormous from the dissolving night.
“God sees everything,” repeated Wilson.
“That’s an advertisement,” Michaelis assured him.
What do you think Fitzgerald is saying about God in this passage?

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7. At the end of the chapter, Nick says Gatsby “must have felt that he had lost the old warm world, paid a high price for living too long with a single dream.” What was this price? What do you think Fitzgerald is saying about holding on to a single dream?

8. Do you think Gatsby believed in his dream to the end? Give examples from the chapter to support your answer.

9. The last line of Chapter 8 says “the holocaust was complete.” Define the word holocaust. Why do you think the author uses the term “holocaust” at this point? (Remember that this novel was written prior to World War II.) How does the use of the term “holocaust” relate to the earlier idea that Gatsby was “a son of God”?

Dig Deeper:
10. Read Romans 5:1–5, Hebrews 11:7–40, and 1 Peter 1:3–9. What do these passages suggest as an appropriate goal in life? According to these verses, what is the likely price of this pursuit? Do you think this price is too high? Explain your answer.

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11. The author writes that “Wilson had no friend: there was not even enough of him for his wife.” Nevertheless, how does Michaelis demonstrate friendship toward George Wilson? How does this compare with the story of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:29–37)?

12. Read 1 Corinthians 3, 4. List some ways you can comfort someone who is going through a difficult time of trial or sorrow.

13. In Mark 8:36, Jesus says “What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?” How does Gatsby’s life reflect the truth in this statement?

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Chapter 9
. . . as I sat there brooding on the old unknown world, I thought of Gatsby’s wonder when he first picked out the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock. He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night.

Questions:
1. What is concluded about Wilson’s motive for killing Gatsby?

2. What happened in the “missing hours” of George Wilson’s journey to Gatsby’s house?

3. Why wasn’t Nick able to contact the Buchanans about Gatsby’s death?

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4. According to Nick, how were he, Tom, Daisy, Jordan, and Gatsby all alike?

Analysis:
5. While searching for people to come to the funeral, Nick addresses Gatsby: “I’ll get somebody for you, Gatsby. Don’t worry. Just trust me and I’ll get somebody for you—”
Later, Nick imagines Gatsby pleading with him, “Look here, old sport, you’ve got to get somebody for me. You’ve got to try hard. I can’t go through this alone.”
What do these passages indicate about Gatsby’s character, and the character of Gatsby’s associates.

6. Why do you think Henry Gatz took such great pride in his son?

7. Nick comments that the worn photo of Gatsby’s house “seemed more real to [Mr. Gatz] now than the house itself.” Compare this statement with Nick’s comment about “the colossal vitality of [Gatsby’s] illusion” near the end of Chapter 5 and the passage about Gatsby’s “Platonic conception” of himself at the beginning of Chapter 6. What do these things tell us about the extent to which Gatsby and his father are able to dream and how they view reality?

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8. Mr. Gatz produces a list of Gatsby’s resolves from his boyhood. “It just shows you, don’t it?” Gatz tells Nick. What does this list “show” about Gatsby?

9. What does the idea that Wolfshiem, a Jew, working in an office labeled “The Swastika Holding Company,” and whistling “the Rosary” suggest about his character? (Keep in mind that this novel was written and published prior to World War II and the Jewish Holocaust. However, by the novel’s publication in 1925, the German Nazi Party was gaining influence with its ideas of racial superiority, anti-Semitism, and German strength.)

10. Why might it be significant that “Owl-eyes” was the only person from all of Gatsby’s many parties to attend the funeral?

11. What might be symbolized by Nick’s fantastic dream:
. . . a night scene by El Greco: a hundred houses, at once conventional and grotesque, crouching under a sullen, overhanging sky and a lustreless moon. In the foreground four solemn men in dress suits are walking along the sidewalk with a stretcher on which lies a drunken woman in a white evening dress. Her hand, which dangles over the side, sparkles cold with jewels. Gravely the men turn in at a house—the wrong house. But no one knows the woman’s name, and no one cares.

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12. Jordan tells Nick:
“You said a bad driver was only safe until she met another bad driver? Well, I met another bad driver, didn’t I? I mean it was careless of me to make such a wrong guess. I thought you were an honest, straightforward person. I thought it was your secret pride.” How, according to Jordan, was Nick a “bad driver,” and, in essence, dishonest? Consider their conversation outside the Buchanans’ house after Myrtle’s death (near the end of Chapter 7) and their telephone conversation the next day (middle of Chapter 8). What does Jordan seem to be asking of Nick in these two scenes that might reveal Nick to be
dishonest in some way?

13. What does Nick mean when he says that Tom and Daisy were “careless”?

14. Look at the last four paragraphs of the novel. What dream do you think Nick is talking about? What is Nick saying about the ability to achieve one’s dreams?

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Dig Deeper:
15. What are your dreams for your life? Make a brief list of some of them. Consider the spiritual, physical, relational, educational, vocational, and financial areas of your life. Be specific and reasonable. Then, for each dream or goal, write a sentence explaining how you hope to attain it.

16. Nick suggests at the end of the novel that it may be impossible to achieve our dreams. What types of dreams might be difficult or impossible to attain? What interferes with reaching your dreams?

17. Read Romans 5:1–5, 1 Timothy 6:17–19, and Hebrews 10:23, 11:1. What is the “hope” described in these verses? Why should we have this hope? How is the hope described in these verses different from worldly hopes and dreams?

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Summary
Questions:
Title:
1. Explain the significance of the book’s title: The Great Gatsby. Was Gatsby “great”? If so, how? If not, what does the title mean?

Plot:
2. Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces that acts as the basis of the plot in most literature. Conflict can take five forms:
• Man vs. Man: characters struggle against each other
• Man vs. Nature: characters struggle against the natural world • Man vs. God (or Fate): characters struggle against the supernatural or destiny
• Man vs. Society: characters struggle against the laws or constrictions of their social environments
• Man vs. Himself: characters undergo an internal struggle between their opposing tendencies (temptations to do wrong, for example) Rarely is only one conflict evident in a work of literature. Considering these five forms, how would you characterize the conflict(s) Nick faces in the novel?

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3. How would you characterize Gatsby’s conflict(s)?

4. Within the first few pages of the novel, what problem or question is presented to readers that drives the story forward?

5. The climax of a novel is the turning point of the action. It is the point of the story where interest and intensity peak. Where is the climax in this novel?

6. The resolution of a novel follows the climax. In the resolution plot complications are drawn to a close, problems are usually resolved, and
questions are generally answered. What is resolved in the resolution of The Great Gatsby?

Characters:
7. In Chapter 1, Nick tells us that after his experiences out East, he “wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart.” Discuss what “glimpses” Nick experienced. What, if anything, did Nick discover about the human heart?

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8. 1 Timothy 6:10 says that the “love” of money is the root of all evil. Do you think any of the characters “love” money? If not, what do you think that they do love? In addition, do you think that Fitzgerald agrees with the idea that the love of money is the root of all evil? Why or why not? What things do you think Fitzgerald sees as evil?

9. Has Nick changed or grown in this novel? Explain your answer.

10. How does Gatsby differ from the rest of the characters in the novel, particularly the other “Westerners”?

11. In literature, a character’s tragic flaw is a defect of character that ultimately brings about his downfall. (Recall Nick’s statement that he and the other “Westerners” possessed some “deficiency” which made them “unadaptable to Eastern life.”) Slightly different from the tragic flaw is a character’s hamartia. Hamartia, the Greek word for error or failure, refers to a person’s fatal mistake or false step that leads him to ruin.

Was Gatsby’s tragic end caused by a fatal mistake—or hamartia—or did he have some tragic flaw that caused him to meet his end? Explain your answer with
examples from the novel.

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12. Who do you think the novel is about: Nick Carraway or Jay Gatsby? Explain.

Symbolism:
13. In the context of the novel. what might each of the following characters or things symbolize? Explain each response.
a. The green light at the end of Daisy’s dock

b. The eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg

c. Jay Gatsby

d. Gatsby’s possessions (particularly his car, his house, or his shirts)

Themes:
14. The theme of a story is the main idea or message communicated by a story. Themes often reflect an author’s perceptions of life or the human condition. What theme (or themes) do you see present in The Great Gatsby? Give examples to show how that theme is communicated through the story.

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Essays
Select any two of the following topics and write a one- to two-page essay
discussing each subject.
1. Some analyses of The Great Gatsby view it as a novel about the pursuit of the American Dream. If it is, what does Fitzgerald conclude about the American Dream in this novel? Use examples from the text to back up your conclusions. 2. Many people believe the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg represent God or the eyes of God. If this is so, what do you think Fitzgerald is saying about God and His relationship to the characters of the novel?

3. The Great Gatsby is full of descriptive passages that make use of color. Examine Fitzgerald’s use of color as he associates it with one of the characters or one of the scenes (for example, Daisy as the “golden girl,” or the long “white cake” of apartment houses). How does he use color to affect your impressions, or to create subtle associations.

4. Read 2 Timothy 3:1–9 and Isaiah 5:11–17. Compare these verses with the characters and events in The Great Gatsby. Why do you think God speaks so harshly in these verses? Why are these things displeasing to God?

5. Have any of the characters in The Great Gatsby changed for the better by the end of the novel? Discuss why you believe the characters have or have not learned and benefitted or grown from their experiences.

6. Trace your reactions and feelings about one or two of the following characters through the novel. Discuss points in the story that illustrate or change your impressions of the characters.
Nick Carraway
Jay Gatsby

Jordan Baker
Tom Baker

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Article Review Format Guide

The article discusses whether the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the subsequence laws were the correct solution for the problems that arose from the Enron and WorldCom bankruptcies. The article illustrates how the different rules and legislature affect different size business, and the ramifications that resulted for companies that must follow the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The authors of the article also conducted a study on whether or not fraud of the financial statements was in direct correlation of businesses filing bankruptcy (Nogler & Inwon, 2011, p. 68) like in the cases of Enron and WorldCom. The results found that the larger the company that filed bankruptcy the more likely that securities fraud litigation and general overstatement of the revenue and assets of the company occurred (Nogler & Inwon, 2011).

LEGAL ISSUE

Legal issues were rampant in the article. For instance, with the issuance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, companies chose to “go dark” to “no longer trade publically,” (Nogler & Inwon, 2011, p. 67) in order to not have to comply fully with SOX. The article also address whether it is fair or just
to make smaller companies follow the same exact rules and fines of such articles as Article 404 of the SOX Act.

MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE

Fraud is a real threat to the financial stability of a corporation and even the country. The legal issues presented in the article show how damaging fraud truly is. Of the over 1,200 companies that filed for bankruptcy in the study, 77.8% had some sort of fraud (Nogler & Inwon, 2011). These numbers show that laws like Sarbanes-Oxley are justified in trying to stop the illegal actions within the finances of a corporation by making people responsible for their actions and the actions of those around us. The creative reporting methods that people use in ponzi schemes and recording of financial information needs to be highly monitored to prevent losses for stakeholders. Realistic solutions include more laws for the betterment of the corporate world. Laws that protect individual employees like auditors and Certified Public Accountants, because as it stands now all liability falls to only a few people like the CFO or CEO, when in fact there are instances when they too need protection. Small businesses that wish to go public should have similar laws designed for their size and not just an umbrella law that might prevent the company from growth.

Reference:

Nogler, G., & Inwon, J. (2011, May/June). Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Was the ’one-size-fits-all’ approach justified? Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance (Wiley), 22(4), 65-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcaf.20691

Study guide for mid term exam Child , family and community

1.What is the name given a child that exhibits ‘’good developmental outcomes despite high-risk status, sustained competence under stress, and recovery from trauma’’

Resilient Children

2 Carter and McGoldrick emphasized the importance of the family life cycle in order to best understand families. According to their theory which stage is called ‘’

Pressure cooker’’? Families with young children

3.For Vygotsky, the ZPD is the mechanism by which development occurs. ZPD Means: Zone of proximal development According to Vigotsky the mechanism by which human Development occurs.

4 .Which are the three elements of the child care trilemma?

Compensate caregivers, fairly Quality child care, Care affordable for families.

5. Which organization has developed a code of ethical conduct for early childhood professionals? National Association for the Education of Young Children

6According to Bronfenbrenner Biological Theory there are five systems? : Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chonosystem

7. Grandparents styles?

Formal
Fun Seeker
Surrogate Parent.
Reservoir of family
Wisdom Distant

8. What is the definition of cohesion’’?
How close they are the member of family (as well as the amount and kind of time they spend together.

9. What is the definition of ‘’flexibility?

This refers to the ability of family members to change roles

10. What is the most important roles a person can perform? Mother Father Parenting.

11. TANF means:
Temporary Assistance for Needy families.

12. It is expected that parenting skills will come:
Naturally

13. Which parenting style avoid confrontation, more responsive than demanding, lenient, do not require mature behavior. Indulgent Parents

14. Spiritually, in its various forms, is seem as the responsibility of parents 15.-Children whose parents use this parenting style , are anxious, have poor communication skills, fail to initiate activities and some over aggressive. Authoritarian Parents

16.-Wha factors support family strengths?
1. Loving nurturing relationships

Financial stability
Positive connections to people and organizations in communities

17. Parents with this parenting style, have low in both control and warmth; little time or energy given to parenting; low commitment to children. Uninvolved Parents

18.-Diana Baumrind has established four types of parenting:
Authoritarian Authoritative Indulgent Uninvolved

19.-Two examples of the concept that cultures borrow and share rules are: Wedding rituals and food and music.

20.-Effective communication between teachers Parents is:
Imperative in the provision of quality care and education for youngest children. 21.-Which factors determine how involved fathers are in their children’s lives? Fathers relationships with their own parents

Fathers belief systems about the roles of mothers and fathers Attitudes of the mother
Marital relationships
Timing of fatherhood
Family employment patterns
Work quality

22.-Inclusiveness, in early childhood educations means:
An educational approach that is welcoming to all children and families

23. Define vertical stressors and give two examples: is the events we can changes like Family patterns, authoritarian parent and secrets like don tell. Is the stressors we can change like family patterns authoritarian and secrets like don tell

24. Write five different ways to became parents besides sexual intercourse: Donor insemination, Egg donation, Blended families, Adoption, Foster parents,

25. Define horizontal stressors and give two examples: is the stressor we can not change The nature of these stressor make more difficult to cope with them and to resolve Unemployment

Chronic Illness
Death

26.-Write three different ways in which families are different: Language, Gender roles ethnicity culture

27. What NAEYC means: National Association for the education of young children

28.-Two examples of the concept that culture is learned. Is not biological Table manners, and ways they demonstrating respect.

29.-There are other variables more important for children’s welfare than whether or not the mother is working outside the home, these variables are: Variations in home life, effects from the specific work environment, and the availability of quality child care.

30.-Nuclear family; extended family, family of orientation; family of procreation. Nuclear family: Any 2 or more persons of the same or adjoining generation related by blood marriage or adoption sharing common residence. Extended family: A family in which 2 or more generations of the same kin living together (extension beyond the nuclear family). Family of orientation: The nuclear family into which one was born and reared (consists of self, siblings, and parents) Family of procreation: The nuclear family formed by marriage (consists of self, spouse, and children.

Curriculum Guide

The learner demonstrates communicative competence (and multiliteracies) through his/ her understanding of literature and other texts types for a deeper appreciation of Philippine Culture and | |those of other countries. | |GRADE LEVEL STANDARD: The learner demonstrates communicative competence (and multiliteracies) through his/ her understanding of Afro-Asian Literature and other texts types for a deeper appreciation of Afro-Asian | |Culture and those of other countries. | |DOMAINS OF LITERACY |CONTENT STANDARD |PERFORMANCE STANDARD |LEARNING COMPETENCIES | |Listening Comprehension |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner accurately produces a |Recognize prosodic features: stress, intonation and pauses serving as carriers of meaning that | | |prosodic features and non-verbal cues that |schematic diagram to note and give |may aid or interfere in the delivery of the message in stories and informative texts | | |serve as carriers of meaning when listening to|an account of the important details |Note prosodic features (stress, intonation, pauses) and rate of speech as carriers of meaning | | |informative texts and longer narratives to |in long narratives or descriptions | | | |note significant details. |listened to. |Recognize changes in meaning signaled by stress, intonation and pauses | | | | | | |
| | |Listen to points the speaker emphasizes as signaled by contrastive sentence stress determine how | | | | |stress, intonation, phrasing, pacing, tone and non-verbal cues serve as carriers of meaning that| | | | |may aid or interfere in the message of the text listened to | | | | | | | | | | | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding on how |

The learner creates an audio – video|Employ appropriate listening skills when listening to descriptive and long narrative texts | | |employing projective listening strategies to |presentation highlighting the core |(e. g. making predictions, noting the dramatic effect of sudden twists, etc.) | | |descriptive and longer narrative audio texts, |message of a text listened to. | | | |helps him/her to validate information, | |Employ projective listening strategies with longer stories | | |opinion, or assumption to participate well in | | | | |specific communicative context . | |Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television | | | | | | |
|The learner demonstrates understanding of | |Listen for clues to determine pictorial representations of what is talked about in a listening | | |adjusting listening strategies (marginal, | |text | | |selective, attentive, critical) in relation to| | | | |the main purpose of listening, one’s | | | | |familiarity with the topic and difficulty of | | | | |the text describing a process and narrating | | | | |longer stories to suit the listening text and | | | | |task. | | | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding in |The learner proficiently writes an |Determine the persons being addressed in an informative talk, the objective/s of the speaker and| | |validating information, opinions, or |editorial article concerning an |his/her attitude on the issues | | |assumptions made by a speaker to arrive at |issue raised by the speaker in a |Use attentive listening strategies with informative texts | | |sound decisions on critical issues. |text listened to. |
| | | | |Note clues and links to show the speaker’s stand and assumptions | | | | |Listen for clues and links to show the speaker’s train of thoughts | | | | |Determine the stand of the speaker on a given issue | | | | |Listen to get the different sides of social, moral, and economic issues affecting a community | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner creatively renders a |Process speech delivered at different rates by making inferences from what was listened to | | |the orchestration of harmony, unison, rhythm |choric interpretation of a text | | | |and the structure of narratives and other |listened to |Use syntactic and lexical clues to supply items not listened to | | |text types enable him or her to appreciate | | | | |their richness. | |Anticipate what is to follow in a text listened to considering the function/s of the statements | | | | |made | | | | | | | | | | | | || |

Express appreciation for texts orally interpreted noting harmony, unison, and rhythm. | | | | | | | | | |Listen to appreciate the tune and the narrative structure of ballads | | | | | | | | | |Listen to appreciate harmony, unison, and rhythm in choric interpretations. | |Oral Language and Fluency |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner actively participates in|Use appropriate registers to suit the intended audience, and variation in intonation and stress | | |to speak in clear, correct English appropriate|a conversational dialogue about |for emphasis and contrast | | |for a certain situation, purpose and audience.|school/environmental issues or any |Express feelings and attitudes by utilizing contrastive stress and variations of tone and tempo | | | |current social concerns. | | | | | |Use stress, intonation, and juncture to signal changes in meaning | | | | | | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2
|Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner joins actively in a |Ask for and give information, and express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes explicitly | | |various means on how figurative and academic |panel discussion on a current issue |and implicitly in an informative talk | | |language can be used in various communication |or concern. |Formulate responses to questions noting the types of questions raised (yes-no, wh-questions, | | |settings. | |alternative, modals, embedded) | | | | | | | | | |Make inquiries | | | | | | | | | |Give information obtained from mass media: newspapers, radio, television | | | | | | | | | |Highlight important points in an informative talk using multi-media resources | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner proficiently conducts a |Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic development, topic shift, | | |using turn-taking strategies in extended |formal, structured interview of a |turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversations | | |conversations to effectively convey |specific subject. |Interview persons to get opinions about certain issues | | |information. | |Respond orally to ideas and needs expressed in face-to-face interviews in accordance with the | | | | |intended meaning of the speaker | | | | |Use communication strategies (e.g. paraphrase, translations, and circumlocution) to repair | | | | |breakdown in communication | | | | | | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | | | |Arrive at a consensus on community issues by assessing statements made | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner competently delivers an | | | |speech functions and forms as indicators of |informative speech using multi-media|React to information obtained from talks | | |meaning. |resources to highlight important | | | | |points. |

Interview persons
to get their opinions about social issues affecting the community | | | | | | | | | |Agree/Disagree with statements, observations and responses made when issues affecting the | | | | |community | | | | | | | | | |Infer the function/s of utterances and respond accordingly taking into account the context of the| | | | |situation and the tone used | | | | | | |Vocabulary Enhancement |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner creatively produces an |Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures and discourse | |(Subsumed in all domains) |strategies for coping with the unknown words |e-portfolio of vocabulary | | | |and ambiguous sentence structures and |illustrating the use of varied |Differentiate between shades of meaning by arranging words in a cline | | |discourse to arrive at meaning. |strategies. | | | | | |Guess the meaning of idiomatic expressions by noting keywords in expressions, context clues, | | | | |collocations, clusters, etc. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by deleting expansions to | | | | |come up with kernel sentences | | | | | | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner creatively prepares a |Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures and discourse | | |strategies for coping with the unknown words |comparative log of academic and | | | |and ambiguous sentence structures and |figurative language reflected in |Identify the derivation of words | | |discourse to arrive at meaning. |documents with the same themes. | | | | | |Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, suffixes) | | | | | | | | | |Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary | | | | | | | | | |Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by separating kernel | | | | |sentences from modification structures and expansions | | | | | | | | | | | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner creatively produces a |Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures and discourse | | |strategies for coping with the unknown words |frequency word list. |Identify the derivation of words | | |and ambiguous sentence structures and | | | | |discourse to arrive at meaning. | |Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, suffixes | | | | | | | | | |Use collocations of
difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary | | | | | | | | | |Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by separating kernel | | | | |sentences from modification structures and expansions. | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |

The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner proficiently produces a |Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures and discourse | | |strategies for coping with the unknown words |glossary of words related to | | | |and ambiguous sentence structures and |specific disciplines. |Identify the derivation of words | | |discourse to arrive at meaning. | | | | | | |Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, suffixes) | | | | | | | | | |Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | |Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by separating kernel | | | | |sentences from modification structures and expansions | |Reading and |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | |Comprehension |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner produces a Reading Log |Adjust reading speed based on one’s purpose for reading and the type of materials read | | |different reading styles to suit the text and |showing various entries like the |Use different reading styles to suit the text and one’s purpose for reading | | |one’s purpose for reading. |choice of reading materials, the |Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis for determining the rhetorical | | | |type of reading employed, etc. |organization of texts | | | | |Skim to determine the author’s key ideas and purpose by answering questions raised after | | | | |surveying the text | | | | |Read closely to select appropriate details from a selection for specific purposes | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner proficiently uses |Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing selection using a | | |textual relationships using non-linear forms |advanced organizers/ illustrations |set of criteria developed in consultation (with peers and the teacher) | | |and graphics to obtain information from linear|showing textual relationships. | | | |and non-linear texts. | |Explain visual-verbal relationships illustrated in tables, graphs, information maps commonly used| | | | |in content area texts | | | | | | | | | |Transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice-versa | | | | | | | | | |Explain illustrations from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Organize information illustrated in tables, graphs and maps | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner creatively produces a
|Utilize varied reading strategies to process information in a text | | |varied reading approaches to make sense and |digital chart of various text types |Recognize the propaganda strategies used in advertisements and consider these in formulating | | |develop appreciation for the different text |with clickable features. |hypotheses | | |types. | |Distinguish between facts from opinions | | | | |Use expressions that signal opinions (e.g. seems, as I see it) | | | | |Note the function of statements made as the text unfolds and use it as a basis for predicting | | | | |what is to follow | | | | |Express emotional reactions to what was asserted or expressed in a text | | | | |Employ approaches best suited to a text | | | | | | | | | |Note the functions of statements as they unfold and consider the data that might | | | | |confirm/disconfirm hypothesis | | | | | | || | |Examine for bias | | | | | | | | | |

Determine the validity and adequacy of proof statements to support assertions | | | | | | | | | |React critically to the devices employed by a writer to achieve his/her purpose | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner prepares an abstract of |Utilize knowledge of the differences among text types (instructional, explanatory, recount, | | |to abstract information presented in |a text read. |persuasive, informational and literary) as an aid in processing information in the selection read| | |different text types and to note explicit and | |or viewed | | |implicit signals used by the writer. | | | | |
| |Assess the content and function of each statement in a text with a view of determining the | | | | |information structure of the text | | | | |Abstract information from the different text types by noting explicit and implicit signals used | | | | |by the writer | | | | |Interpret instructions, directions, notices, rules and regulations | | | | | | | | | |Locate and synthesize essential information found in any text | | | | | | | | | |Distinguish the statement of facts from beliefs. | | | | |Evaluate the accuracy of the information. | | | | |Draw conclusions from the set of details. | | | | |Point out relationships between statements. | | | | |Distinguish
between general and specific statements. | |Literature |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Discover literature as a means of understanding the human being and the forces he/she to contend| | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner creatively and |with | | |different genres through the types contributed|proficiently performs in a choral |Discover through literature the symbiotic relationship between man and his environment and the | | |by Afro-Asian countries to express |reading of a chosen Afro-Asian poem.|need of the former to protect the latter | | |appreciation for Afro-Asian heritage. | | | | | | |Demonstrate a heightened sensitivity to the needs of others for a better understanding of man | | | | | | | | | |Discover through literature the links between one’s life and the lives of people throughout the | | | | |world | | | | | | | | | |Highlight the need for a more just and equitable distribution of resources | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The
learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner creatively compiles |Show understanding and appreciation for the different genres with emphasis on types contributed | | |significant human experiences are best |Afro-Asian literary pieces as |by Asian countries (i.e. Haiku, Tanka, etc.) | | |captured in various literary forms that |accounts of experiential learning. | | | |inspire humans to bring out the best in them. | |Point out the elements of plays and playlets | | | | | | | | | |Determine the macro discourse patterns of essays and the macro discourse signals used to | | | | |establish meaning relationships in the essay | | | | |Determine the author’s tone and purpose for writing the essay | | | | |Point out how the choice of title, space allotment, imagery, choice of words, figurative | | | | |language, etc. contribute to the theme | | | | | | | | | |Explain figurative language used | | | | |Express appreciation for sensory images in literary forms

| | | | |Show understanding of the text by paraphrasing passages | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner produces a critical |Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding experiences and outlook and| | |different genres to heighten literary |review of articles with the same |enhancing worthwhile universal human values | | |competence. |themes but different genres. |Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian traditions and the values they represent | | | | | | | | | |Assess the Asian identity as presented in Asian literature and oneself in the light of what makes| | | | |one an Asian | | | | | | | | | |Identify oneself with other people through literature taking note of cultural differences so as | | | | |to get to the heart of problems arising from them | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner produces an e-literary |Point out the role of literature in enabling one to grow in personhood | | |literature mirrors the realities of life and |folio which captures significant |Discriminate between what is worthwhile and what is not through literature | | |depicts human aspirations. |human experiences. |Distinguish as positive values humility, resourcefulness, self-reliance and the ability to look | | | | |into oneself, and accept one’s strengths and weaknessess | |Viewing Comprehension |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Organize information extracted from a program viewed | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner produces program | | | |different text types and genres of programs |portfolio that monitors his/her |Compare and contrast basic genres of programs viewed | | |viewed to effectively derive information and |progress as a viewer (in terms of | | | |find meaning in them |interest, preference, and |Narrate events logically | | | |reflections on individual viewing | | | | |behaviors). |Validate mental images of the information conveyed by a program viewed | | | | | | | | | |Respond to questions raised in a program viewed | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2
| | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner effectively writes |Discern positive and negative messages conveyed by a program viewed | | |different text types and genres of programs |reactions to movies viewed. (movie | | | |viewed to effectively derive information and |review) |React appropriately and provide suggestions based on an established fact | | |find meaning in them. | | | | | |The learner presents a review of a |Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis | | | |program viewed. | | | | | |Follow task- based directions shown after viewing | | | | | | | | | |Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by the facial expressions of interlocutors | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner produces a reaction |Analyze the elements that make up reality and fantasy from a program viewed | | |various analytical and evaluative techniques |paper to a program viewed. | | | |employed in critical viewing. |
|Compare and contrast one’s own television-viewing behavior with other viewers’ viewing behavior | | | | | | | | | |Organize an independent and systematic approach in critiquing various reading or viewing | | | | |selection | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner puts up a model |Recognize the principles of lay outing in viewing a material | | |viewing conventions affect the way viewers |television production incorporating | | | |grasp, interpret, and evaluate the meaning of |viewing conventions. |Explore how colors appeal to viewer’s emotions | | |a program viewed. | | | | | | |Identify basic camera angles | | | | | | | | | |Ascertain how balance created by symmetry affects visual response to a program viewed | | | | | | | |
| |Differentiate between vantage points and viewing | | | | | | |Writing |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner proficiently prepares a |Accomplish forms and prepare notices | | |giving valuable personal information and |brochure on the dangers of | | | |information on social events and issues by |smoking/drugs and other social |Write the information asked for in the following forms: | | |accomplishing different forms to effectively |issues and concerns. |School forms | | |function in school and in community. . | |Bank forms | | | |

The learner writes a personal |Order slips | | | |narratives. |Evaluation forms | | | | |Survey forms | | | |The learner creates a blog on the |Bills, telecom, etc. | | | |internet commenting on | | | | |social/economic issues and concerns.|Write notices (e.g. posters, slogans, advertisements that relate to social events | | | | | | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner conducts an opinion |Use non-linear texts and outlines to show relationships between ideas | | |power of language structures and forms in |poll, interprets, and presents the | | | |shaping people’s reactions, perceptions, |findings having a local-based or |Transcode ideas from texts to concept maps | | |points of view, and beliefs in local, national|national issue as reference. | | | |and global communities. | |Make a write-up of ideas presented in concept maps | | | | | | | | | |Use three-step words, phrasal and sentence outlines to organize ideas | | | | | | | | | |Transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa | | | | |Employ concept mapping (circle, bubble, linear, etc.) as aids in taking down notes and organizing| | | | |ideas | | | | | | | | | |Use outlines to sum up ideas taken from texts | | | | | | | | | |Use non-linear text outlines and notes as aids in the preparation of a research paper | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner produces an e-journal of|Use specific cohesive and literary devices to construct integrative literary and expository | | |to have a good command and facility of the |poetry & prose entries with emphasis|reviews, critiques, research reports, and scripts for broadcast communication texts, including | | |English Language necessary to produce writing |on content and writing style. |screenplays | | |in different genres and modes. | | | | | | |Produce different text types and sub-types | | | | | | | | | |

Expand ideas in well-constructed paragraphs observing cohesion, coherence and appropriate modes | |
| | |of paragraph development | | | | | | | | | |Give and respond to feedback on one’s paper in the revision process | | | | |Use grammatical structure and vocabulary needed to effectively emphasize particular points | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Use appropriate modes of paragraph development to express one’s ideas, needs, feelings and | | | | |attitudes | | | | | | | | | |Use a variety of cohesive devices to make the flow of thoughts from one sentence to another | | | | |smoothly and effortlessly | | | | | | | | | |Write short personal narratives to support an assertion
| | | | | | | | | |Organize information gathered from primary and secondary sources using a graphic organizer and a | | | | |simple topic outline | | | | | | | | | |Do self and peer editing using a set of criteria | | | | | | | | | |Revise a piece of short personal writing in terms of content, style, and mechanics | | | | |collaboratively and independently. | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner makes a write-up of an |Organize one’s thoughts and adopt the appropriate writing style in letters, resumes, critiques, | | |to have a good command and facility of the |interview. |etc. using appropriate styles (formal and formal)and audience in mind | | |English Language necessary to produce writing | | | | |in different genres and modes. | |Employ interactional functions of language in different genres and modes of
writing (pen-pal | | | | |letters, letters of invitation, a “yes” and “no” letters, book reviews, interview write-ups, | | | | |journal entries, etc.) | | | | | | | | | |Write reflections on learning experiences in diary and journal entries | | | | | | | | | |Write summaries of books read | | | | | | | | | |Employ varied strategies (condensing, deleting, combining, embedding) when summarizing materials | | | | |read | | | | | | | | | |Write reactions to books read | | | | | | | | | |Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made
| | | | | | | | | |Acknowledge citations by indicating in a bibliography sources used | | | | | | | | | |Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of resources | | | | | | | | | |Use quotation marks or hanging indentations for direct quotes | | | | | | | | | |Use in-text citation | | | | | | | | | |Arrange bibliographic entries of text cited from books and periodicals | | | | | | | | | | | |Grammar |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | |
|The learner demonstrates understanding of |The learner effectively writes a |Uses: | | |well-constructed paragraphs using appropriate |personal narrative or informative |varied adjective complementation | | |modes of development and language structures |text. |appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expression | | |to express one’s ideas, needs, feelings and | |coordinators | | |attitudes |The learner proficiently writes a |subordinators | | | |description of a process. |other appropriate devices for emphasis | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how | |Formulates: | | |language is instrumental in communicating | |correct complex and compound-complex sentences | | |thoughts, and feelings. | |correct conditional statements | | | | |appropriate parenthetical expressions | | | | | | | | | |meaningful expanded sentence (following balance, parallelism, and modification) | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | |
|The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner composes a meaningful |Uses: | | |grammatically correct sentences ensure an |and grammatically correct |varied adjective complementation | | |effective discourse. |composition. |appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expression | | | | |coordinators | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner writes a progress/ |subordinators | | |the knowledge of grammar enables one to |interim report of a program or | | | |successfully deliver information. |advocacy |other appropriate devices for emphasis | | | | |formulates: | | | | |correct complex and compound-complex sentences | | | | |correct conditional statements | | | | |appropriate parenthetical expression | | | | | | | | | |meaningful expanded sentence (following balance, parallelism, and modification) | |
|Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how | |Uses: | | |the use of Standard English conventions |The learner creatively produces a |varied adjective complementation | | |facilitates interaction and transaction. |tourist guide brochure |appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expression | | | | |coordinators | | | | |subordinators | | | | | | | | | |other appropriate devices for emphasis | | | | |formulates: | | | | |correct complex and compound-complex sentences | | | | |correct conditional statements | | | | |appropriate parenthetical expressions | | | | |
| | | | |meaningful expanded sentence (following balance, parallelism, and modification) | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of the |The learner innovatively presents an|Uses: | | |set of structural rules that govern various |Ad promoting a government bill or a |varied adjective complementation | | |communication situations. |city ordinance. |appropriate idioms, collocations, and fixed expression | | | | |coordinators | | | | |subordinators | | | | | | | | | |other appropriate devices for emphasis | | | | |formulates: | | | | |correct complex and compound-complex sentences | | | | |correct conditional statements | | | |
|appropriate parenthetical expressions | | | | | | | | | |meaningful expanded sentence (following balance, parallelism, and modification) | |Attitude towards language, |Quarter 1 | | | |literacy and literature |Ask sensible questions on his/her initiative | | | |(Subsumed in all domains) | | | | | |Quarter 2 | | | | |Express a different opinion without being | | | | |difficult | | | | |Quarter 3 | | | | |Give credence to well-though out ideas | | | | |Quarter 4 | | | | |Set new goals for learning on the basis of | | | | |self- assessment made | | | |Study Strategies
|Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 |Quarter 1 | |(Subsumed in Reading, |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |The learner creatively writes an |Gather data using library and electronic resources consisting of general references: atlas, | |Literature, and Writing) |to gather data using library and electronic |interesting Cultural Report. |periodical index, periodicals and internet sources/ other websites to locate information | | |resources to locate information that bring | |Use periodical index to locate information in periodicals | | |about diversity and/or harmony among Afro – | |Gather data using the general references: encyclopedia, dictionary | | |Asians through the study of their traditions | |Get and assess current information from newspaper and other print and non-print media | | |and beliefs. | | | | |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 |Quarter 2 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how |

The learner produces research |Acknowledge citations by preparing the bibliography of the various sources used | | |proper citations of references and materials |appendices following the correct |Observe correct format in bibliographical entries | | |used establish the credibility of a report or |citation entries and format |Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of sources | | |a research paper. | | | | |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3 |Quarter 3
| | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how|The learner produces a clip report |Derive information from various text types and sources using the card catalog, vertical file, | | |information gathering skills and data |on the various sources of data |index, microfiche (microfilm) CD ROM, internet etc. | | |collection strategies ensure quality research|collected |Use locational skills to gather and synthesize information from general and first-hand sources | | | | |of information | | | | |Get vital information from various websites | | | | |Extract accurately the required information from sources read and viewed to reject irrelevant | | | | |details | | |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 |Quarter 4 | | |The learner demonstrates understanding of how|The learner produces a research |Use multi step word and phrasal outlines to organize ideas | | |the employment of study strategies coupled |paper based on school/ community |Engage in systematic conduct of a research by going through series of processes | | |with research skills lead to a well-written |problem. |Organize logically information gathered | | |paper | |Apply the correct treatment of data and the soundness of research conclusion.

Geology Study Guide

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?|1)|

A)physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past

B)physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past

C)historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface

D)none of the above – physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same

2)|________ was the highly influential, ancient Greek philosopher noted for his writings and teachings|2)| |on natural philosophy and on the workings of Earth.|||||A) Pappagapolis|B) Aristotle|C) Nero|D) Odysseus||3)|Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents|3)| |of catastrophism envision the Earth’s age?||||A)

They believed it to be about the same as current estimates, give or take a few million years. B)They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates C)They believed Earth to be much older than currentestimates D)None of the above — they didn’t really address the age of Earth

4) Which one of the following observations and inferences is consistent with the idea of|4)| uniformitarianism?||A)

lava flows on the seafloor precipitated from seawaterB)sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream C)erupting volcanoes overlie burning, subterranean, coal beds D)all of the above

5)|________ was an important 18th century English geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism.|5)| |A) Isaac Newton|B) James Hutton|C) Charles Lyell|D) James Ussher|| 6)|The currently accepted age of Earth is ________ years.|||6)| |A) 4.6 billion|B) 6.4 million|C) 6.4 trillion|D) 4.6 thousand|| 7)|Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?|7)| A)

older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale B)any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers

C)strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils

D)older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata

8)|The ________ division of the geologic time scale is an era of the Phanerozoic eon.|8)| |A) Paleozoic|B) Permian|C) Proterozoic|D) Paleocene||9)|The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.||9)| |A) asthenosphere|B) eosphere|C) astrosphere|D) lithosphere||

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10)|A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific|10)| |observations.||||||A) generalization|B) law|C) hypothesis|D) theory||11)|All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.|11)| A)

the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts B)development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses C)assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation D)the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

12)|________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.||12)| |A) Indigenous|B) Primary|C) Igneous|D) Sedimentary||13)|________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.||13)| |A) Secondary|B) Sedimentary|C) Metamorphic|D) Igneous||14)|During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, direct observations showed that a glacier|14)| |in Switzerland flowed forward in the downhill direction while its snout (terminus) was retreating|| |higher up the valley? Which of the following explains these observations in a rational, scientific|| |way?|||||

A)

cooler temperatures meant slower forward glacier flow resulting in snout retreat B)the glacial hypothesis was finally accepted as a scientific theory

C)the melting rate of ice in the glacier exceeded the rate at which new snow and ice were added to the glacier

D)rocky debris in the valley downhill from the snout was deposited by Noah’s flood

15)|In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?||15)| |A) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere|B) inner core, outer core,mantle, crust|| |C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere|D) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust|| 16)|The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.||16)| |A) biosphere|B) atmosphere|C) hydrosphere|D) asthenosphere|| 17)|A ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves|17)| |the system.|||||

|A) equilibrated|B) feedback|C) closed|D) open||18)|________ is often paraphrased as “the present is the key to the past.”||18)| |A) Aristotelian logic||B) Biblical prophecy||||C) Catastrophism||D) Uniformitarianism|||19)|________, a popular natural philosophy of the 17th and early 18th centuries, was based on a firm|19)| |belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.|||||A) Exoschism||B) Uniformitarianism||||C) Ecospherism||D) Catastrophism|||20)|The ________ proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from|20)| |a rotating cloud of gases and dust.|||||A) Big Band theory||B) Heliocentric theory||||C) Nebular hypothesis||D) Plate Tectonics theory|||

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21)|The ________ is not a part of the Earth’s physical environment.||21)| |A) solid Earth|B) atmosphere|C) hydrosphere|D) astrosphere|| 22)|________ is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments.|22)| |A) Lithification|B) Metamorphism|C) Weathering|D) Subduction|| 23)|Which one of the following statements is not correct?|||23)| A)

magmas crystallize to form igneous rocksB)sedimentary rocks may weather to igneous rocksC)igneous rocks can undergo metamorphismD)metamorphic rocks may melt to magma

24)|The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ________.||24)| |A)peridotite||B) granite||||C) basalt||D) solid iron-nickel alloy|||25)|The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the Earth.||25)| |A) mantle|B) outer core|C) inner core|D) crust||26)|The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth’s interior.||26)| |A) inner core|B) lithosphere|C) outer core|D) mantle||27)|The ________ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.|||27)||A) mantle|B) outer core|C) inner core|D) crust||28)|All of the following provide evidence or clues to the composition of Earth’s interior except for|28)| |________.|||||A)

slivers of crustal and mantle rocks now exposed at Earth’s surface B)diamond-bearing rocksC)cometsD)meteorites

29)|The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a ________.|29)| |A) shield|B) craton|C) belt|D) platform|30)|Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.|30)| A)

along only the eastern margins of continents

B)scattered throughout continentsC)along the margins of continentsD)in the interior regions of continents

31) The continental shelf is located ________.|31)|A)

between the continental rise and the abyssal plainsB)landward of the continental slopeC)between the continental slope and continental rise

D)seaward of the continental slope

32) The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the ________.|32)| A) deep-ocean trenches|B) seamounts||C) oceanic ridges|D) lava plateaus||

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33) In sedimentary rocks, lithification includes ________.33)

A) crystallization and coolingB) cementation and weathering C) compaction and cementationD) compaction and transportation

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

34) a. hypothesis|b. theory|c. fact|d. observation|34)|35) a. hydrosphere|b. biosphere|c. atmosphere|d. solid Earth|35)| 36) a. protosun|b. Oort cloud|c. protoplanets|d. meteorites|36)| 37) a. crust|b. mantle|c. lithosphere|d. core|37)|38) a. mountain belt|b. shield|c. craton|d. stable platform|38)| 39) a. abyssal plain|b. seamount|c. oceanic ridge|d. continental slope|39)| 40) a. pressure|b. foliation|c. hydrothermal fluids|d. melting|40)|

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

41)|Aristotle and other prominent Greek philosophers were the first ones to promote the doctrine of|41)| |uniformitarianism. F||42)|Internally, the Earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities. T|42)| 43)|The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere. F|43)| 44)|The doctrineof uniformitarianism implies that the current forces and processes shaping the Earth|44)| |have been operating for a very long time. T||

45)|The law of superposition applies primarily to sedimentary rocks and lava flows. T|45)| 46)|The currently accepted age of Earth is approximately 4.5 million years. F|46)| 47)|A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific|47)| |observations. F||

48)|Oceans cover slightly less than half of the Earth’s surface. F|48)| 49)|In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system. T|49)| 50)|According to the nebular hypothesis, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud|50)| |of gases and dust about 5 billion years ago. F||

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51)The lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mesosphere are all layers of Earth defined by their composition. T

52)Much of our modeling of Earth’s interior comes from the study of seismic or earthquake waves. T

53)Continental shields and stable platforms are part of the interior region known as a craton. T

54)According to the rock cycle, any type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) may be transformed into another type of rock, given enough time. T

55)Igneous rocks are produced largely by the deposition and consolidation of surface materials like sand and mud. F

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

56)|List the two, broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study. Physical, Historical|56)| 57)|The statement “the present is the key to the past,” describes what basic geologic concept or|57)| |doctrine? Uniformitarianism||

58)|The ________ states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and|58)| |determinable order. Principle of fossil succession||59)|In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called…Positive feedback|59)| 60)|The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the Crust|60)| 61)|The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust|61)| |and upper mantle. Lithosphere||

62)|The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core. Mantle|62)| 63)|The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earth’s|63)| |magnetic field. Outer core||

64)|Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin may|64)| |include the continental shelf________, _slope_______, and the ___rise_____.|| 65)|What type of rock comprises most of the exposed surface of Earth (roughly 75%)?Sedimentary| 65)|

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statementor answers the question.

66) Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?|66)|

A)a mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern

B)a rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles

C)in a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains

D)a rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks

67)|Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?||67)| |A) neutron|B) protons|C) electron|D) selectron||68)|Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ________.|68)| |A) electrons in the valence bond level|B) electrons in the nucleus|| |C) protons in the nucleus||D) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell|| 69)|Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?||69)|

A)nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons

B)atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges

C)atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons

D)nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds

70) Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?|70)| A)

the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons B)the atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons C)the atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons D)the atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

71)|What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?||71)| |A) muscovite|B) silicate|C) diamond|D) native gold||72)|Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible|72)| |bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?|||||A) calcite|B) dolomite|C) quartz|D) plagioclase||73)|Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (Si02)?|||73)| |A) diamond|B) quartz|C) olivine|D) calcite||74)|Which of the following minerals is a silicate?|||74)||A) calcite|B) halite|C) hematite|D) muscovite||

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75)|A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This|75)| |indicates that ________.||||||A) gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz||||B) gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine||| |C) olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold||| |D) gold and olivine are silicates, quartz is elemental silicon||| 76)|Which one of the following is a sodium and calcium feldspar with twinning striations?|76)||A) microcline|B) orthoclase|C) plagioclase|D) sanidine||

77)|Which of the following minerals is a ferromagnesian silicate?||77)| |A) muscovite|B) quartz|C) hornblende|D) orthoclase||78)|Which of the following minerals is in the mineral group known as mica?||78)| |A) augite|B) muscovite|C) olivine|D) orthoclase||79)|Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?||79)| A)

they contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green B)they are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium C)they are black to dark-green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium D)they contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters

80)|Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?|80)| |A) clays|B) feldspars|C) carbonates|D) pyroxenes||81)|Which one of the following is a typical product of weathering?||81)| |A) clays||B) feldspars||||C) micasmicas||D) ferromagnesians|||82)|The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by ________.||82)| |A) 4 oxygen ions|B) 4 sodium ions|C) 6 oxygen ions|D) 6 sodium ions|| 83)|Which one of the following describes a mineral’s response to mechanical impact?|83)| |A) crystal form|B) luster|C) streak|D) cleavage||

84)|Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite are different mineralogical forms of what industrial|84)| |commodity?||||||A) Portland cement||B) gemstones||||C) asbestos||D) metallic sulfide ores|||85)|Which of the following diseases has been linked directly to prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust?|85)| |A) diabetes||B) lung cancer||||C) glaucoma||D) muscular dystrophy|||86)|Which of the following is the unit of weight used for measuring diamonds (about 0.2 grams)?|86)| |A) carat|B) Troy ounce|C) kilo|D) point||87)|Which of the following denotes the purity of gold used in jewelry?||87)||A) carette|B) carlot|C) carnot|D) karat||

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88)|Ruby and sapphire are red and blue forms of the mineral ________.||88)| |A) diamond|B) corundum|C) emerald|D) turquoise||89)|All silicate minerals contain which two elements?|||89)| |A) iron, silicon|B) silicon, oxygen|C) oxygen, carbon|D) silicon, sodium|| 90)|Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?||90)| |A) halite|B) diamond|C) talc|D) olivine||

91)|What element is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust by weight?||91)| |A) chlorine|B) carbon|C) oxygen|D) sodium||92)|The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as|92)| |________.||||||A) cracking luster|B) cleavage|C) crystal form|D) streak||93)|What in the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?|93)| |A) isotope|B) ion|C) molecule|D) nucleon||94)|An atom’s mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?|94)| |A) 13|B) 7|C) 6|D) 19||95)|Which one of the following is not true for minerals?|||95)| A)

they have a specific, predictable chemical compositionB)they have a specific, internal, crystalline structureC)they can be a liquid, solid, or glassD)they can be identified by characteristic physical properties

96)|In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?|96)| |A) isotopic|B) subatomic|C) covalent|D) ionic||97)|How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?||97)| A)

they are tightly bound to certain atoms and cannot readily move B)they move to adjacent negative ions, forming positive ions C)they react with protons to make neutrons in the outer valence shells D)they can move relatively easily from atom to atom inside the mineral

98)|Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth’s crust?|98)| |A) chlorides|B) silicates|C) carbonates|D) sulfides|99)|Which the following denotes the massive, positively charged, nuclear particles?|99)| |A) neutrons|B) protons|C) isotrons|D) electrons|100)|What are the lightest or least massive of the basic atomic particles?|100)| |A) electrons|B) uranium nuclei|C) protons|D) neutrons|101)|Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?|101)| |A) gold|B) quartz|C) wood|D) water|

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102)|Which of the following will react readily with acids such as hydrochloric?||102)| |A) calcite|B) diamond|C) talc|D) quartz||103)|Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?|103)| |A) fluorescence||B) virtual absorption||||C) color streak||D) luster|||104)|What is the name of dark-colored mica?|||104)||A) biotite|B) quartz|C) calcite|D) olivine||105)|Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure?||105)| |A) sheet||B) double chains||||C) 3-D framework||D) metallic|||

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

106) a. electron|b. atom|c. proton|d. neutron|106)|107) a. hardness|b. streak|c. luster|d. cleavage|107)|108) a. quartz|b. olivine|c. feldspar|d. calcite|108)|109) a. olivine|b. quartz|c. amphibole|d. pyroxene|109)|110) a. galena|b. calcite|c. gypsum|d. halite|110)|

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

111)Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals. T

112)Graphite and diamond have the same chemical compositions and different crystalline structures. T

113)Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals. T

114)Mineral luster is broadly classified as either being metallic or opaque. F

115)Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons. T

116)Rock-forming silicate minerals have higher specific gravities than water. T

117)In a silicon-oxygen structural unit, silicon atoms occupy corners of a tetrahedron. F

118)Calcite and halite react with dilute acids to evolve carbon dioxide. F

119)All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number. F

120)Orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars have quite different forms of cleavage. F

121)Diamond and quartz are both minerals composed of a single element. F

122)The micas, biotite and muscovite, both exhibit one direction of cleavage. T

123)Nonmetallic minerals like quartz and gypsum have no industrial uses. F

124)Ferromagnesian silicate minerals contain some magnesium and/or iron. T

125)Positive ions are atoms that have gained electrons during a chemical reaction. F

126)Isotopes of the same element have the same mass number. F

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

127)|Moh’s hardness scale is a relative measure of which physical property of minerals? Hardness|127)| 128)|What physical property denotes the color of apowdered mineral? Streak|128)| 129)|The physical property denoting a mineral’s tendency to crack along parallel, planar|129)| |surfaces is known as what? Cleavage||

130)|What is the hardest mineral known? Diamond|130)|131)|What is the chemical composition of graphite and diamond? Carbon|131)| 132)|In atoms, which electrons are involved in chemical bonding? The valence electrons/outer shell|132)| 133)|A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what? Elements|133)| 134)|What is the dominant form of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold,|134)| |native copper and copper-rich sulfides? Metallic||

135)|What two major characteristics differentiate minerals from natural glasses? highly viscous; cools quickly|135)| 136)|Most glasses and some minerals exhibit a type of fracture characterized by nested and|136)| |curved, crack surfaces. What term describes this property? conchoidal fracture|| 137)|Parallel, straight, linear imperfections visible on the cleavage surfaces of plagioclase|137)| |feldspar are called what? Striations||

138)|What is the smallest particle of matter that exhibits and defines the distinctive chemical|138)| |characteristics of the individual elements? Atoms||139)|What ferromagnesian silicate mineral is named for its green color? Olivine|139)|

140) What mineral group forms by the breakdown and weathering of rock-forming silicate|140)| minerals and are important constituents of soils? Clay||

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

141) Label the various parts of an atom in the diagram below.

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Teacher’s Guide to Oryx & Crake

Synopsis:
1. Oryx and Crake is a novel of human catastrophe and potential. At the center of the story is Snowman/Jimmy, who finds himself wearing nothing more than a bed sheet, sleeping in a tree, and facing starvation. The question is why? What events have caused Jimmy to become the Snowman and to find himself in such devastating circumstances? In a narrative that shifts in time, Atwood unravels Jimmy’s life before and after the moment we meet him, and in doing so creates a world that is an uncanny vision of what could be weirdly feasible and perhaps all too possible. The Building Blocks/Structure:

Setting:
1. Oryx and Crake is set sometime in the near future. Geographically, the story takes place somewhere along the shoreline of the northeast coast of the United States. The ordinary (people) live in the Pleeblands while the chosen or the extraordinary inhabit extravagant Compounds designed to meet every conceivable human need. In Oryx and Crake is geography of any real significance? What indication is there that it matters where the story occurs? Does it matter where the Compounds actually are? 2. What does Atwood do to demonstrate that time is very consequential to the events? How far into the future do you think this story is taking place? Plot/Narrative:

1. Oryx and Crake is structured on two parallel narratives which inevitably collide at one climactic point. One narrative begins with Jimmy’s early life and his first encounter with Crake, and the second begins with Jimmy’s metamorphosis into the Snowman. Trace the two story lines (Jimmy forward and Snowman backward) and highlight the intersection or climax of the two story lines. 2. Does Atwood’s framework of two intersecting narratives work, or does the reader find the short sections and constant change confusing and/or distracting? Explain why or why not you like the construction of the novel? Character(s):

3. As the story distills and sets in, it becomes evident that there are three players in Oryx and Crake: Jimmy/Snowman, Oryx and Crake. In order of
importance describe each of the characters using language which will demonstrate each individual’s purpose and role in the narrative. Indicate if you think any of the three are archetypes or if they represent some kind of caricature. 4. In your opinion, which character is the most evolved and why? What human limitations do Jimmy, Crake, and Oryx each demonstrate? 5. When Jimmy is finally employed, why is he considered the “lowest of the low” in the Compound social hierarchy? What does Jimmy value above all else that puts him at odds with the rest of population of the Compounds? Language/Voice:

1. Margaret Atwood has an unending love affair with words and plays with them constantly. She has not only created a new vocabulary for her vision of the future, but has also incorporated double meanings into many of the words she has created. Expand on the double takes in the following words: PARADICE, PLEEBLANDS, CorpSeCorps, NOOSKINS. How can her word creations be regarded as private jokes? 2. Jimmy/Snowman has an unwavering attachment to words that have been deemed archaic and that lack a meaningful application (e.g. Lodestone). Find three of these words, define them and tell whether you would agree with the assessment of their usefulness. 3. One of Margaret Atwood’s favorite devices in her writing is to satirize various aspects of current society. In Oryx and Crake, she takes direct aim at our current fascination with technology and genetic manipulation. Give some specific examples of her attitude towards what humans are able to accomplish by current scientific activity. Author/POV:

1. Margaret Atwood is one of Canada’s most acclaimed and accomplished novelists, with more than 30 works to her credit. She has won numerous awards both nationally and internationally. Do you think Oryx and Crake is a prizewinning novel? Explain why or why not. 2. Oryx and Crake is categorized as speculative fiction. Discuss and speculate on why you think Margaret Atwood has chosen to tell such an apocalyptic story. After you have provided your response, go to www.oryxandcrake.com (Essay) and see if your hunch tallies with the author’s stated reason for writing the book. Comment on what she has revealed. Contemporary Relevance/Importance:

1. Olivia Chow, a Toronto city councilor and an immigrant to Canada, has selected Oryx and Crake to champion. She is the second politician on CANADA READS to choose a futuristic novel by Margaret Atwood. What reasons might politicians have in common for proposing Atwood’s speculative fiction as the book they want all Canadians to read? 2. Oryx and Crake contains many historical references as well as contemporary details about life in the late 20 th century. How did this wealth of reference points render the book difficult (or not) to read? If you found the references difficult, what would make the book easier for you to understand? 3. Atwood pokes fun at or takes a swipe at many facets of our own society in Oryx and Crake. One example is Jimmy’s choice of term paper for his Applied Rhetoric Course: “Self-Help Books for the 20th Century: Exploiting Help and Fear”.

Final Exam Study Guide

1. The Final Exam is “open book, open notes.” The maximum time you can spend in the exam is 3 hours, 30 minutes. If you have not clicked the Submit for Grading button by then, you will be automatically exited from the exam. In the Final Exam environment, the Windows clipboard is disabled so you will not be able to copy exam questions or answers to or from other applications.

2. You should click the “Save Answers” button in the exam frequently. This helps prevent connection timeouts that might occur with certain Internet service providers and also minimizes lost answers in the event of connection problems. If your Internet connection does break, when you reconnect, you will normally be able to get back into your Final Exam without any trouble. Remember, though, that the exam timer continues to run while students are disconnected, so students should try to log in again as quickly as possible. The Help Desk cannot grant any student additional time on the exam.

3. See Syllabus “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information.

4. Reminders

You will only be able to enter your online Final Exam one time. Click the “Save Answers” button often.
If you lose your Internet connection during your Final Exam, log on again and try to access your Final Exam. If you are unable to enter the Final Exam, first contact the Help Desk and then your instructor. You will always be able to see the time remaining in the Final Exam at the top right of the page.

5. Assessments With Multiple Pages
Make sure you click the “Save Answers” button before advancing to the next page. (We also suggest clicking on “Save Answers” while you are working.) Complete all of the pages before submitting your Final Exam for instructor review. Do NOT use your browser’s “Back” and “Forward” buttons during the Final Exam. Please use the provided links for navigation.

6. Submitting Your Final Exam
When you are finished with the Final Exam, click on the “Submit for Grading”
button. Please note: Once you click the “Submit for Grading” button, you will NOT be able to edit or change any of your answers.

7. Exam Questions
There are 11 randomly selected multiple-choice questions each worth 5 points for a total of 55 points. There are seven randomly selected essay questions each worth 35 points for a total of 245 points. The Final Exam covers all course TCOs and Weeks 1–7.

The Final Exam contains two pages, which can be completed in any order. You may go back and forth between the pages. The Final Exam questions are pooled. This means that not everyone will have the same questions. Even if you do have some of the same questions, they may not be in the same order. These questions are distributed amongst the TCOs. The entire exam is worth 300 points. On the essay questions, your answers should be succinct, fully address each part of the question, and demonstrate your knowledge and understanding in a concise but complete answer. Most essay questions require answers that are a couple of paragraphs (not a couple of sentences) that directly speak to each part of the question. Some students opt to work on the essay questions first due to their higher point value and length of time needed to adequately address each question, but this is entirely your choice. Remember to always use proper citation when quoting other sources.

This means that ANY borrowed material (even a short phrase) should be placed in quotation marks with the source (URL, author/date/page #) immediately following the end of the passage (the end quote). Changing a few words in a passage does NOT constitute putting it in your own words, and proper citation is still required. Borrowed material should NOT dominate a student’s work but should only be used sparingly to support your own thoughts, ideas, and examples. Heavy usage of borrowed material (even if properly cited) can jeopardize the points for that question. Uncited material can jeopardize a passing grade on the exam. As a part of our commitment to academic integrity, your work may be submitted to turnitin.com, an online plagiarism checking service. So please be VERY mindful of proper citation.

Essay questions: The essay questions included in this test focus on the key questions the network designer will face. For example, a question might ask you which of several different ways to solve a problem you would select and why. A question might ask why a network design is done in a certain way. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the design? Finally, a question might ask you to apply some part of a commonly used design methodology, such as the top-down network design method. 8. Some of the key study areas are below. While these are key areas, remember that the exam is comprehensive for all of the assigned course content, and this study guide may not be all inclusive. 9. Areas that were discussed in the threads will be prime targets. 10. Assignments will also be prime targets for revisiting. 11. Reviewing the TCOs, which I have listed below for your convenience, will also be a great preparation for the Final Exam. 1

Given a set of requirements for a modern enterprise business organization, diagram and simulate network solutions consisting of functional modules and hierarchical layers with respect to intelligent network services, protocols, and topologies using a network design and simulation tool such as NetCracker or OPNET. 2

Given a team situation and top-down network design tools, analyze and document customer organizational and technical goals, policies, requirements, and constraints as inputs to the network design process. 3

Given a team situation and a set of network design requirements for a modern enterprise business organization, design and connect the hierarchical and enterprise composite network models into specific topologies that meet customer requirements using a network design and simulation tool such as NetCracker or OPNET. 4

Given a team situation and a set of network design requirements for a modern enterprise business organization, select and design enterprise campus network topologies consisting of multi-layered-modularity, geographical borders, existing traffic flows, and planned application traffic flows using a network design and simulation tool such as NetCracker or OPNET. 5

Given a team situation and a set of network design requirements for a modern enterprise business organization, select remote user and redundant service access technologies that meet project design requirements. 6

Given a team situation and a business case for an enterprise business organization, select a voice over IP (VoIP), IP telephony, or multimedia solution appropriate for a converged network design that meets project goals. 7

Given a team situation and a set of network design requirements for a modern enterprise business organization, assess legal compliance; disaster recovery; and security risks, threats, and vulnerabilities within each modular block of the enterprise composite network model.

Finally, if you have any questions for me, please post them to our Q & A or e-mail me. Good luck on the exam!

Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

Socialization:
give and take within the play (e.g. sharing, deciding rules of the game, winning and losing) give and take outside the play (e.g. deciding what game to play, what the rules will be) sex roles actions allowed and not allowed by adults (e.g. rough play, dangerous play, war play, or other restrictions on play, no running, no toys at school) values perception reflective of the adult world (e.g. “I am good at baseball”)

Mt. San Antonio College
CHLD 10 Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

Self-Awareness:
physical limitations
preferences
self-regulation, control of temper
skill comparison to others
persistence in the face of failure
empathy (aware of how my actions affect others)

Therapeutic Value
release of tension and stress
expression of emotions
release of anger in a socially accepted way
test fear
mastery of roles
Moral Value
adherence to rules
fair teams
including and excluding people
running up the score
criticizing and hurtful words

Mt. San Antonio College
CHLD 10 Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

ASSIGNMENT SUMMARY
Use the data collected in your observations to answer the following questions:

1) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s physical development?

2) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s cognitive development?

3) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s social and emotional development?

4) Speculate on a microsystem influence on this child’s play

5) Speculate on a macrosystem influence on this child’s play

6) Articulate how a future illness, Injury, or disability might affect this child’s ability to participate in the play you observed

Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6

Concept 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells 1. The study of cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at dead cells from an oak tree. His contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, crafted lenses and with the improvements in optical aids, a new world was opened. Magnification and resolving power limit what can be seen. Explain the difference. Magnification is the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size. Resolution is a measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points. 2. The development of electron microscopes has further opened our window on the cell and its organelles. What is considered a major disadvantage of electron microscopes? The methods used to prepare the specimen kill the cells. 3. Study the electron micrographs in your text. Describe the different types of images obtained from: scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Answers may vary, but should describe the 3-D component of the specimen image. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Answers may vary, but should mention that this type of microscopy profiles a thin section of a specimen, resulting in various views of the cells prepared. 4. In cell fractionation, whole cells are broken up in a blender, and this slurry is centrifuged several times. Each time, smaller and smaller cell parts are isolated. This will isolate different organelles and allow study of their biochemical activities. Which organelles are the smallest ones isolated in this procedure? Ribosomes Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 5. Which two domains consist of prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and Archaea 6. A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of their DNA. Describe this difference.

In a eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane. In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed, called a nucleoid. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. -1-

7.

On the sketch of a prokaryotic cell, label each of these features and give its function or description. See page 98 in your text for the labeled figure. cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm bacterial chromosome: carries genes in the form of DNA nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) cytoplasm: interior of cell flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria

8.

Why are cells so small? Explain the relationship of surface area to volume. Cells are small because a high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the exchange of materials between a cell and its environment. As a cell (or any other object) increases in size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area. (Area is proportional to a linear dimension cubed.) Thus, a smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to volume.

9.

What are microvilli? How do these structures relate to the function of intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in volume. A sufficiently high ratio of surface area to volume is especially important in cells that exchange a lot of materials with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells.

Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 10. In the following figure, label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and pore complex. See page 103 of your text for the labeled figure. 11. Describe the nuclear envelope. How many layers is it? What connects the layers? The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is
a double membrane, meaning that there are two lipid bilayers. The nuclear lamina, a netlike array of protein filaments, connects the layers of the nuclear envelope. 12. What is the nuclear lamina? Nuclear matrix? The nuclear lamina is the netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope. The nuclear matrix is a framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior. The nuclear matrix and nuclear lamina may help organize the genetic material so it functions efficiently. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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13.

Found within the nucleus are the chromosomes. They are made of chromatin. What are the two components of chromatin? When do the thin chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes? Chromatin is composed of proteins and DNA. Chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide.

14.

When are the nucleoli visible? What are assembled here? Nucleoli are visible in a nondividing nucleus and in cells active in protein synthesis. Within the nucleoli, proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of ribosomes.

15.

What is the function of ribosomes? What are their two components? Ribosomes are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. Their two components are a large subunit and a small subunit.

16.

Ribosomes in any type of organism are all the same, but we distinguish between two types of ribosomes based on where they are found and the destination of the protein product made. Complete this chart to demonstrate this concept. Location Suspended in the cytosol Product

Type of Ribosome Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes

Proteins that function within the cytosol Attached to the outside of the Proteins for insertion into endoplasmic reticulum or membranes nuclear envelope

Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 17. List all the structures of the endomembrane system.

Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vesicles Vacuoles Plasma membrane 18. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makes up more than half the total membrane system in many eukaryotic cells. Use this sketch to explain the lumen, transport vesicles, and the difference between smooth and rough ER. See page 104 of your text for the labeled figure.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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The ER lumen is the cavity, or cisternal space. Because the ER membrane is continuous within the nuclear envelope, the space between the two membranes of the envelope is continuous with the lumen of the ER. Transport vesicles bud off from a region of the rough ER called transitional ER and travel to the Golgi apparatus and other destinations. Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks ribosomes. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane and thus appears rough through the electron microscope. 19. 1. 2. 3. 20. List and describe three major functions of the smooth ER. Synthesis of lipids: Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids.
Detoxification of drugs and poisons: Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to flush from the body. Storage of calcium ions: In muscle cells, the smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ER lumen. Why does alcohol abuse increase tolerance to other drugs such as barbiturates? Barbiturates, alcohol, and many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of detoxification. This, in turn, increases the tolerance to drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. 21. The rough ER is studded with ribosomes. As proteins are synthesized, they are threaded into the lumen of the rough ER. Some of these proteins have carbohydrates attached to them in the ER to form glycoproteins. What does the ER then do with these secretory proteins? After secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane keeps them separate from proteins that are produced by free ribosomes and that will remain in the cytosol. Secretory proteins depart from the ER wrapped in the membranes of vesicles that bud like bubbles from a specialized region called transitional ER. 22. Besides packaging secretory proteins into transport vesicles, what is another major function of the rough ER? The rough ER grows membrane proteins and phospholipids for the cell by adding them to its own membrane. The ER membrane expands, and portions of it are transferred in the form of transport vesicles to other components of the endomembrane system. 23. The transport vesicles formed from the rough ER fuse with the Golgi apparatus. Use this sketch to label the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, and its cis and trans faces. Describe what happens to a transport vesicle and its contents when it arrives at the Golgi apparatus. See page 106 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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24.

What is a lysosome? What do they contain? What is the pH range inside a lysosome? A lysosome is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules. The pH range inside a
lysosome is acidic.

25. One function of lysosomes is intracellular digestion of particles engulfed by phagocytosis. Describe this process of digestion. What human cells carry out phagocytosis? Amoebas and many other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles, a process called phagocytosis. The food vacuole formed in this way then fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food. Digestion products, including simple sugars, amino acids, and other monomers, pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell. Some of the human cells that carry out phagocytosis are macrophages, a type of white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders. 26. A second function of lysosomes is to recycle cellular components in a process called autophagy. Describe this process. During autophagy, a damaged organelle or small amount of cytosol becomes surrounded by a double membrane, and a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of this vesicle. The lysosomal enzymes dismantle the enclosed material, and the organic monomers are returned to the cytosol for reuse. With the help of the lysosomes, the cell community renews itself. A human liver cell, for example, recycles half of its macromolecules each week. 27. What happens in Tay-Sachs disease? Explain the role of the lysosomes in Tay-Sachs. In Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive, and the brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells. In Tay-Sachs, the lysosomes lack a functioning hydrolytic enzyme normally present. 28. There are many types of vacuoles. Briefly describe: food vacuoles: Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis. contractile vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell. central vacuoles in plants: Central vacuoles in plants develop by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, contained in mature plant cells. Solution inside the central vacuole, called cell sap, is the plant cell’s main repository of inorganic ions, including potassium and chloride. The central vacuole plays a major role in the growth of plant cells, which enlarge as the vacuole absorbs water, enabling the cell to become larger with a minimal investment in new cytoplasm. (give at least three functions/materials stored here)

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29. Use this figure to explain how the elements of the endomembrane system function together to secrete a protein and to digest a cellular component. Label as you explain. See page 108 in your text for the labeled figure. Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER. Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus pinches off transport vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and vacuoles. Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion. Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for secretion. Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell. Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 30. What is an endosymbiont? An endosymbiont is a cell living within another cell. 31. What is the endosymbiont theory? Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts. Three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis: 1. Rather than being bound by a single membrane, like organelles of the endomembrane system, mitochondria and typical chloroplasts have two membranes surrounding them. 2. Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes, as well as circular DNA molecules attached to their inner membranes. 3. Also consistent with their probable evolutionary origins as cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce within cells. 32. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system, although they are enclosed by membranes. Sketch a mitochondrion here and label its
outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, cristae, matrix, and ribosomes. See page 110 of your text for the labeled figure. 33. Now sketch a chloroplast and label its outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, thylakoids, granum, and stroma. Notice that the mitochondrion has two membrane compartments, while the chloroplast has three compartments. See page 111 of your text for the labeled figure.

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34.

What is the function of the mitochondria? Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.

35.

What is the function of the chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are sites of photosynthesis. These organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water.

36.

Recall the relationship of structure to function. Why is the inner membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? What role do all the individual thylakoid membranes serve? (Notice that you will have the same answer for both questions.) As highly folded surfaces, the cristae give the inner mitochondrial membrane a large surface area, thus enhancing the productivity of cellular respiration. As in mitochondria, thylakoid membranes serve to increase the surface area and thus the function of the chloroplasts.

37. Explain the important role played by peroxisomes. Peroxisomes contain
enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from various substrates and transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. SUMMARY On these diagrams of plant and animal cells, label each organelle and give a brief statement of its function. See pages 100–101 of your text for the labeled figures and a brief statement of each organelle’s function. Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell 38. What is the cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. 39. What are the three roles of the cytoskeleton? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Mechanical support 3. Cell motility (movement) both of the cell as a whole and more limited movement of parts of the cell 40. There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton. Name them. Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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41. Microtubules are hollow rods made of a globular protein called tubulin. Each tubulin protein is a dimer made of two subunits. These are easily assembled and disassembled. What are four functions of microtubules? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Cell motility 3. Chromosome movement in cell division 4. Organelle movement 42. Animal cells have a centrosome that contains a pair of centrioles. Plant cells do not have centrioles. What is another name for centrosomes? What is believed to be the role of centrioles? Another name for centrosome is “microtubule-organizing center.” The centrioles function as compression-resisting girders of the cytoskeleton. 43. Describe the organization of microtubules in a centriole. Make a sketch here that shows this arrangement in cross section. See page 114 of your text for the labeled figure. The two centrioles are at right angles to each other, and each is made up of nine sets of three microtubules. 44. Cilia and flagella are also composed of microtubules. The arrangement of microtubules is said to be “9 + 2.” Make a cross-sectional sketch of a cilium here. (See Figure 6.24b in your text.) See page 115 of your text for the labeled figure. 45. Compare and contrast cilia and flagella. Cilia and flagella are both microtubule-containing extensions that project from some cells. Cilia
and flagella share a common structure, each having a group of microtubules sheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane. Flagella and cilia differ in their beating patterns. A flagellum has an undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as the flagellum’s axis, like the tail of a fish. In contrast, cilia work more like oars, with alternating power and recovery strokes generating force in a direction perpendicular to the cilium’s axis. 46. How do motor proteins called dyneins cause movement of cilia? What is the role of ATP in this movement? This figure might help you explain. See page 116 of your text for the labeled figure. Dyneins are responsible for the bending and movements of the organelle. A dynein molecule performs a complex cycle of movements caused by changes in the shape of the protein, with ATP providing the energy for these changes. 47. Microfilaments are solid, and they are built from a double chain of actin. Study Figure 6.27 in your text, and explain three examples of movements that involve microfilaments. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1. Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction: The “walking” of myosin projections (the so-called heads) drives the parallel myosin and actin filaments past each other so that the actin filaments approach each other in the middle. This shortens the muscle cell. Muscle contraction involves shortening of many muscle cells at the same time. See also Figure 6.27a on page 117. 2. Amoeboid movement: Interaction of actin filaments with myosin causes contraction of the cell, pulling the cell’s trailing end forward. See also Figure 6.27b on page 117. 3. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: A layer of cytoplasm cycles around the cell, moving over a carpet of parallel actin filaments. Myosin motors attached to organelles in the fluid cytosol may drive the streaming by interacting with the actin. See also Figure 6.27c on page 117. 48. What are the motor proteins that move the microfilaments? Myosin 49. Intermediate filaments are bigger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. They are more permanent fixtures of cells. Give two functions of intermediate filaments. Possible answers include: 1. Maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements) 2. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles 3. Formation of nuclear lamina Concept 6.7
Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 50. What are three functions of the cell wall? 1. Protects the plant cell 2. Maintains its shape 3. Prevents excessive uptake of water 51. What is the composition of the cell wall? Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are synthesized by an enzyme called cellulose synthase and secreted to the extracellular space, where they become embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins. 52. What is the relatively thin and flexible wall secreted first by a plant cell? Primary cell wall 53. What is the middle lamella? Where is it found? What material is it made of? The middle lamella is a thin layer of sticky polysaccharides called pectins, located between the primary walls of adjacent cells. 54. Explain the deposition of a secondary cell wall.

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The secondary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support. 55. On this sketch, label the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, middle lamella, plasma membrane, central vacuole, and plasmodesmata. See page 119 of your text for the labeled figure. 56. Animal cells do not have cell walls, but they do have an extracellular matrix (ECM). On this figure, label the elements indicated, and give the role of each. See page 120 of your text for the labeled figure. 57. What are the intercellular junctions between plant cells? What can pass through them? Plasmodesmata are the intercellular junctions between plant cells. Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and joins the internal chemical environments of adjacent cells. 58. Animals cells do not have plasmodesmata. This figure shows the three types of intercellular junctions seen in animal cells. Label each type and summarize its role. See page 121 of your text for the labeled figure. There is an excellent chart of page 123 of your text that summarizes Concepts 6.3–6.5. Be sure study it, and answer the three questions there. Testing Your Understanding Answers Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. e 5. a 6. d 7. c cytosol,

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End of Poverty Guide

Jeffrey Sachs was a professor of Economics at Harvard for 38 years and was a major consultant for many nations. He now heads the Earth Institute. His views on the causes of poverty are very different than what is normally thought or presented. His book has 18 chapters which are broken down as follows: • Chapters 1-4 present an overview of the problem and overall solutions to poverty. • Chapters 5-10 details Sachs’ experience in working with Bolivia, Poland, Russia, China, India, and Africa, solving major economic problems. • Chapter 11 deals with the Millennium Development Goals and 9/11 • Chapter 12 deals with on-the-ground solutions, which in reality is a high priced CHE. • Chapters 13-18 map out the details of his solutions.

Sachs throws out the normal ways of thinking about the causes of poverty in countries, for instance that people are lazy or stupid, or the countries are not democratic, and that corruption is wide-spread. Fifty percent of the world’s population exists on less than one dollar per day. He believes that much of the problem is structural, which can only be dealt with through the help of the rich countries.

Sachs believes, first of all, that all current debt owed by the poor countries should be cancelled. Secondly, if the rich countries would increase their development aid from .2% to .7% there would be enough money available to increase the economic growth so that all countries would no longer be extremely poor.

If MAI is to become known as an agency which teaches a new way of dealing with poverty, then we need to become aware of this book and Sachs understanding and approach to poverty. Chapter Twelve really speaks to CHE.

I have tried to review what has appeared to me to be the most salient points, chapter by chapter. All chapters are not treated equally. I primarily do
this exercise for myself to help me understand the key points from the book. If they are of any help to others, then that is a plus.

I have gone into more detail in the other synopsis I have done because of the possible guidance this book can give us for a new paradigm for dealing with poverty individually, locally, nationally and globally (which in reality we are already on the road in doing). Some things are both structural and governmental issues and I am not suggesting that we get involved in these, but change must begin at the village level and then we can scale up our strengths from there.

Chapter One–A Global Family Portrait
Sachs sets the stage for his thesis and book using examples of Malawi, Bangladesh, India, and China to show different levels of poverty. He talks abut the ascending ladder of economic development for countries. • Lowest are those who are too ill, hungry, or destitute to get even a foot on the bottom rung of the development ladder. They make up the bottom 1/6 of the world’s population, or one billion people. They are the poorest of the poor and live on less than $1 a day. • A few rungs up the ladder at the upper end of the low-income countries are another 1.5 billion people. They live just above the subsistence level. These two groups make up 40% of the world’s population. CHE targets both of these groups, and especially with the first group. • Another 2.5 billion include the IT workers of India. Most of them live in the cities and are moderately poor. • One billion or one-sixth of the world come from the rich developed countries.

Sachs says the greatest tragedy of our time is that one-sixth of the world’s population is not even on the first rung of the ladder. A large number of the extremely poor in level one are caught in the poverty trap and cannot escape it. They are trapped by disease, physical isolation, climate stress, environmental degradation, and extreme poverty itself.

He breaks poverty into three levels:
• Extreme poverty means households cannot meet basic needs for survival. This only occurs in developing countries. World Bank says their income is
less than $1 a day. • Moderate poverty is where needs are generally just barely met. World Bank says this represents countries where their income falls between $1 and $2 per day. • Relative poverty generally describes household income level at being below a given percentage of the average national income. You find this in developed countries.

He then presents the Challenge of our Generation which includes: • Helping the poorest of the poor escape the misery of extreme poverty and help them begin their climb up the ladder of economic development. • Ensuring all who are the world’s poor, including moderately poor, have a chance to climb higher in economic development.

He believes that the following can be done:
• Meet the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
• End extreme poverty by 2025.
• To ensure well before 2025, that all of the world’s poor countries can make reliable progress up the ladder of economic development. • To accomplish this with modest financial help from the riches countries, which will be more than is now provided per capita.

Chapter Two–The Spread of Economic Prosperity
Sachs uses several graphs in this chapter. I will not go into detail on these, but I will point out some salient points: • All regions of the world were poor in 1820.
• All regions experienced economic progress, though some much more than others. • Today’s richest regions experienced by far the greatest economic progress. As an example, Africa has only grown at .7% a year while the USA at 1.7%. This may not seem much, but when compounded year-by-year, it results in the great differences between the two. • The key fact today is not the transfer of income from one region to another, but rather that the overall increase in the world’s income is happening at different rates in different regions.

Until the 1700’s, the world was remarkably poor by today’s standards. A major change was the industrial revolution coming to certain regions and not to
others. The steam engine was a decisive turning point because it mobilized the vast store of primary energy which unlocked the mass production of goods and services. Modern energy fueled every aspect of the economic takeoff.

As coal fueled industry, industry fueled political power. Britain’s industrial breakthrough created a huge military and financial advantage. But Britain also had existing individual initiative and social mobility than most other countries of the world. They also had a strengthening of institution and liberty. Britain also had a major geographical advantage–one of isolation and protection of the sea, in addition to access to the oceans for worldwide transportation for their goods and importation of other countries’ goods.

Sachs then goes on to outline what has fostered major economic growth: • Modern economic growth is accompanied by people moving to the cities, or urbanization. This means fewer and fewer people produce the food that is required for the country. Hopefully, food price per farmer decreases as larger plots are farmed more productively. This also means sparsely populated land makes good sense when many farms are needed to grow the crops, but sparse land makes little sense when more and more people are engaged in manufacturing in the cities. • Modern economic growth fostered a revolution in social mobility which affected social ranking of people. A fixed social order depends on status quo and agrarian population. • There is a change in gender roles with economic development. This affects living conditions as well as family structure. The desired number of children decreases. • The division of labor increases. By specializing in one activity instead of many, productivity increases.

The diffusion of economic growth occurred in three main forms: • From Britain to its colonies in North America, Australia and New Zealand. (It was therefore relatively straight-forth to transfer British technologies, food crops and even legal institutions.) • A second diffusion took place within Europe that ran from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, and from Northern Europe to Southern Europe. • The third wave of diffusion was from Europe to Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

Sachs believes that the single most important reason for prosperity spread is the transmission of technology and the ideas underlying it. The technological advances came at different times. • The first wave revolved around the invention of the steam engine which led to factory-producing goods. • The second wave in the 19th century was led by the introduction of the rail and telegraph. It also included the introduction of steam ships instead of sailing ones, and the construction of the Suez Canal. • The third wave was initiated by electrification of industry and urban society. Along with this came the development of the internal combustion engine. • The fourth wave came in the 20th century with the globalization of the world due to new methods of communication starting in Europe. • There came a time of a great rupture which took place with the start of World War I, and sidetracked economic development for awhile. This led to the Great Depression which led to World War II. • A fifth wave took place right after World War II, and in 1991. It began with the massive efforts of reconstruction of Europe and Japan right after World War II. Trade barriers began to come down.

There were three worlds: the first was the developed West, the second was comprised of Socialist countries, and the third was made up of undeveloped countries (which were made up of the old colony countries). The world therefore progressed on three tracks. The problem was that the second and third worlds did not share in economic growth and actually went backward. By closing their economies, they closed themselves off from economic development.

So what did this mean to the poorest of the poor countries?
• They did not begin their economic growth until decades later. • They faced geographical barriers of being land-locked • They faced the brutal exploitation of the colonial powers. • They made disastrously bad choices in their national policies.

Chapter Three–Why Some Countries Fail
In this chapter, Sachs looks at the cause of poverty and possible solutions.
He first deals with, how a family’s per-capita income might increase: • The first way is through savings– either in cash or similar assets like animals, etc. • The second way is shifting to crops that bring a higher yield per hectare, and then adding value to the crop (which is what we teach in our PAD training). • The third way is adopting new technology, which improves their productivity. • The fourth way is resource boom, which means to move to a much larger and more fertile farm.

The flip side of increasing their economic growth is by decreasing their per capita income which is more than just the opposite of the above factors: • Lack of savings is of course one way to reduce per capita income. • Lack of trade, meaning that a household hears of the new crop but cannot take advantage of it and stays with what they have. • Technological reversal is when something like HIV hits an area and children lose their parents etc. • Natural resource decline is where the land becomes less and less fertile producing less and less crops. • Adverse Productivity Shock is where a natural disaster hits like a drought, tsunami, earthquake, typhoon, etc. • Population growth lessens per capita income where the father has two hectares of land and it is divided among his five sons at his death.

Now Sachs begins to get into the true heart of poverty on a country level: • The poverty trap itself is where poverty is so extreme that the poor do not have the ability by themselves to get out of the mess. • Physical geography plays a major role where countries are land-locked with poor or no roads, a lack of navigable rivers, or situated in mountain ranges or deserts with an extremely high transportation cost. The low productivity of the land is another factor in the geography. • The fiscal trap is where the government lacks the resources to pay for the necessary infrastructure on which economic growth depends. • Government failure happens when the government is not concentrating on high priority infrastructure and social service projects. • Cultural or religious barriers especially as it relates to gender inequality play a significant role in dampening economic growth. • Geopolitics such as trade barriers can impede economic growth. • Lack of innovation and technology plays a role if people cannot try
new things because they cannot risk failure, or because they do not have funds to do so. Sachs believes that over the span of two centuries, the lack of using new technology is why the richest and poorest countries have diverged. • He shows a scatter-gram graph showing there is a demographic trap as well. The higher the fertility rate, the lower rate of economic growth there is in a country. When they have too many children, they cannot invest in education, nutrition, or health, except maybe for the oldest male. One of the best ways to lower the number of children per family is through the education of the girls.

Sachs then goes into detail in putting countries into different classes. He points out that none of the rich countries in North American, Western Europe or East Asia have failed to grow economically. All the problems lie in the developing world where 45 of these countries had a fall in GDP. Not all of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. He also points out that the oil-exporting and ex-Soviet countries, all high income countries, did not increase their economic growth evenly, primarily because of their authoritarian political structure.

He also points out that the most important factor is agriculture. Those countries that used high yield cereals per hectare and that used high levels of fertilizers are the poor countries that tended to experience economic growth. In Africa, the land is much less densely populated but they use neither high yield cereals nor fertilizers and they had falling food production per capita. But they also have far less roads for transporting extra crops to markets and they depend on rainfall which is generally more erratic than high-producing agricultural countries.

He also goes on to point out the following:
• Economic growth is rarely uniformly distributed across a country. • Governments also fail in their role in allowing growth that might enrich the rich households, while the poorest living in the same area seldom seem to benefit. • Another detriment to growth can be culture especially as it relates to women inequality.

Chapter Four–Clinical Economics (CE)
Sachs compares clinical economics to clinical medicine. He lays out five parameters for Clinical Economics: • CE is made up of complex systems. The failure in one system can lead to cascades of failures in other parts of the economy. You therefore need to deal with very broad and multiple issues. • CE practitioners need to learn the art of clinical diagnosis. The CE practitioner must hone-in on the key underlying causes of economic distress and prescribe appropriate remedies that are tailor-made to each country’s condition. • Treatment needs to be viewed in family terms, not individual terms. The entire world is part of each country’s family. If countries work together they can have far more impact than working in isolation. • Good CE practice requires monitoring and evaluation. More than just asking if the goals are being achieved, but also asking “why?” and “why not?” • The development community lacks the requisite ethical and professional standards. Economic development does not take its work with the sense of responsibility that the task requires. It demands that honest advice be given.

He points out where economic development practice has gone wrong: • The rich countries say, “Poverty is your own fault. Be like us, have a free market, be entrepreneurial, fiscally responsible and your problems will be gone”. • The IMF period of structural adjustment which supposedly dealt with the four maladies of poor governance, excessive government intervention in the markets, excessive government spending, and too much state ownership were not solved by the IMF prescription of belt tightening, privatization, liberalization, and good governance. • The responsibility for poverty reduction was assumed to lie entirely with poor countries themselves.

He then lays out his differential diagnosis for poverty reduction. He believes the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) goes a long way in reducing poverty. Once the diagnosis is completed, a proper treatment regime must be carried out. In doing differential diagnosis, questions must be asked in each one of the following areas: • Identify and map the extent of extreme poverty– from the household level all the way up through the community to the country to the state– in all areas of life. • The
second set of questions deals with the economic policy framework. • The third set deals with the fiscal framework.

• Fourth deals with physical geography and human ecology. • Fifth, the questions deal with the patterns of governance. History has shown that democracy is not a prerequisite for economic development. • Sixth are questions which deal with cultural barriers that hinder economic development. • The last are questions that are related to geopolitics which involves a country’s security and relationship with the rest of the world.

The next six chapters, five through ten, deal with specific countries that have gone through this process, and their results. His results are quite impressive. I will not deal much with each country, but an individual chapter might be of interest to the RC involved if he is interested in such things.

Chapter Five–Bolivia’s High Rate of Inflation
Problem:
A hyperinflation rate of 3000% (30 times) between July 1984 and July 1985 with a longer term hyperinflation rate of 24,000%.

Lessons Learned:
• Stabilization is a complex process. Ending a large budget deficit may be the first step but controlling the underlying forces that cause the budget deficit is much more complex. • Macroeconomics tools are limited in their power.

• Successful change requires a combination of technocratic knowledge, bold political leadership, and broad social participation. • Success requires not only bold reforms at home, but also financial help from abroad. • Poor countries must demand their due.

Chapter Six–Poland’s Return to Europe
Problem:
By the end of 1989, Poland had partially suspended its international debt payments. The economy was suffering from high rate of rising inflation and there was a deepening political crisis.

Sachs’ approach in Poland, as in other countries, was built on five pillars: • Stabilization–ending the high rate of inflation, establishing stability and convertible currency. • Liberalization–allowing markets to function by legalizing private economic activity (ending price controls and establishing necessary laws). • Privatization– identifying private owners for assets currently held by the state. • Social net–pensions and other benefits for the elderly and poor were established. • Institutional Harmonization–adopting, step-by-step, the economic laws, procedures, and institutions.

Lessons Learned:
• He learned how a country’s fate is crucially determined by its specific linkages to the rest of the world. • Again the importance of the basic guidance concept for broad-based economic transformation, not to stand alone with separate solutions. • Saw again the practical possibilities of large-scale thinking • He learned not to take “no” for an answer, press on with your guidance. • By the time a country has fallen into deep crisis, it requires some external help to get back on track. • This help may be in the form of getting the basics right which includes debt cancellation and help to bolster confidence in the reforms.

Chapter Seven–Russia’s Struggle for Normalcy
Problem:
The Soviet Union relied almost entirely on its oil and gas exports to earn foreign exchange, and on its use of oil and gas to run its industrial economy. In the mid- 1980’s, the price of oil and gas plummeted and the Soviet Union’s oil production began to fall.

Sachs suggested three actions of the West (but generally they were ignored by the West): • A stabilization fund for the ruble.
• Immediate suspension of debt repayment followed by cancellation of
their debts. • A new aid program for transformation focusing on the most vulnerable sectors of the Russian economy.

Lesson Learned:
• Despite much turmoil and rejection much went right so that eventually Russia became a lopsided market economy, still focused on oil and gas. • Russia has a gigantic land mass which causes it to have few linkages with other nations of the world. • Their population densities are low and agrarian and food production per hectare remains low. Over history, 90% of the population has been rural, with cities few and far between. This hinders economic growth. • Without adequate aid, the political consensus around the reforms was deeply undermined, thereby compromising the reform process.

Chapter Eight–China Catching Up after a Half Millennium Being Isolated Problem:
China lost its economic and cultural lead that it had in its early history. Sachs points out five dates which caused this: • 1434 China had been the technological superpower. This year Emperor Ming closed China to the rest of the world and stopped their advanced ship fleets from going out to the world. • 1839 China finally ended its economic isolation.

• 1898 Several young reformers tried to gain power and were stopped. • 1911 Ching Dynasty collapsed and by 1916 China was falling into civil unrest. Their military took control of the empire. • 1949 the rise of the Maoist Movement.

He then compares China to Russia:
• The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had massive foreign debt while China did not. • China has a large coastline that supported its export growth, while Russia and Eastern Europe do not. • China had the benefit of large off-shore Chinese business communities which acted as foreign investors, while Russia and Eastern Europe did not. • The Soviet was experiencing a drastic decline on their main export product, oil and gas. • The Soviet Union had gone further down the industrialization road than
China.

Chapter Nine–India Market Reform Which Was the Triumph of Hope Over Fear Problem:
India was controlled by a business, British East India Company, which was driven by greed, and it did everything to maximize profit for the company at the expense of the country. Though India’s population throughout history has been Hindu, vast numbers of Muslims and Christians lived in and sometimes dominated the land. India had poor political and social structures because the land was broken into many small kingdoms governed by many different leaders. In addition, India has the caste-system of stratification of peoples.

With independence from the British in 1947, Nehru looked for a path to self- sufficiency and democratic socialism. The Green Revolution had a major impact on the country as high yield crops were introduced. By 1994, India now faced four major challenges: • Reforms needed to be extended especially in liberalization and the development of new and better systems. • India needed to invest heavily in infrastructure

• India needed to invest more in health and education of its people, especially the lower castes. • India needed to figure out how to pay for the needed infrastructure.

Lessons Learned:
• The 21st century is likely to be the era when this poor country’s economic development is substantially reversed. • The country has announced electricity for all as well as essential health services and drinking water for everyone. These are achievable goals and the basis for much-needed investment. • The Hindus did not stifle growth. The Green Revolution and then market reforms overrode the rigidness of the caste-system and the slow growth of the 1950’s and 1960’s. • India has become increasingly urbanized, thereby further weakening the caste-system. • Democracy is wearing away age-old social hierarchies. • India has grabbed the potential of the internet and IT and is leading the way for
developing nations in this regard. • India’s varied geography and its miles and miles of shoreline fosters its market position for the manufacture of products.

Chapter Ten–Africa and the Dying
Problem:
Three centuries of slave trade were followed by a century of colonial rule which left Africa bereft of educated citizens and leaders, basic infrastructure, and public health facilities. The borders followed arbitrary lines, not historic tribal lines which now divided former empires, ethnic groups, ecosystems, watersheds, and resource deposits.

The West was not willing to invest in African economic development. Corruption was not the central cause for their economic failure as he showed. In the 1980’s, HIV became the worse killer of mankind. In 2001, life expectancy stood at 47 years, while East Asia stood at 69 years, and developed countries at 78 years.

Sachs spends time looking at the major diseases of malaria, TB, diarrhea, and HIV. He says poverty causes disease and disease causes poverty.

Lessons Learned:
• Good governance and market reform alone are not sufficient to generate growth if a country is in a poverty trap. • Geography has conspired with economics to give Africa a particularly weak hand. Africa lacks navigable rivers with access to the ocean for easy transport and trade. • Africa lacks irrigation and depends on rainfall for their crops. • Farmers lack access roads, markets, and fertilizers, while soils have been long depleted of their nutrients.

Chapter Eleven–The Millennium, 9/11, and the United Nations. The beginning part of this chapter deals with the Millennium Development Goals. Sachs says that the goals and commitment to reach them by 2015 convey the hope that extreme poverty, disease, and environmental degradation could be alleviated with the wealth, the new technologies, and global awareness with which we
entered the 21st century. He says the first seven goals call for sharp cuts in poverty, disease, and environmental degradation, while the eighth goal is essentially a commitment to global partnership. Because you have all seen them, I am not including them here.

Regarding 9/11, he says we need to keep it in perspective. On 9/11, 3000 people died for once and for all, but 10,000 people die each day from diseases that are preventable.

He believes we need to address the deeper roots of terrorism of which extreme poverty is an important element. The rich world needs to turn its efforts to a much greater extent from military strategies to economic development. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt spoke of freedoms we were fighting for in WWII and for which we still should be attempting to accomplish: • Freedom of speech and expression everywhere in the world. • Freedom for every person to worship God in his own way everywhere in the world. • Freedom from want which translates into economic development. • Freedom from fear which translates into a worldwide reduction in armament, a reduction to such a point that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor.

One major thing he is suggesting is that the rich countries elevate their giving to .7% of their GNP from the average of .2% it is today. The rest of the chapter is about President Bush and the USA policies and actions.

Chapter Twelve–On-The-Ground Solutions for Ending Poverty
This chapter is really talking about CHE, but Sachs does not realize it. He says that the world’s challenge is not to overcome laziness and corruption but rather to take on geographic isolation, disease, vulnerability to climate shocks, etc. with new systems of political responsibility that can get the job done.

He talks about a village of less than 1,000 in western Kenya, in a Sauri sub-location (in Siaya district in Nyanza province) that he visited, which opened his eyes. He found what we find place after place– that they are
impoverished, but they are capable and resourceful. Though struggling to survive, presently they are not dispirited but determined to improve their situation. He then goes on to describe the needs of a rural African community, the same type of community that we deal with every day, as shown in the abundance of applications we receive for CHE. A major problem, he feels, is that the farmers do not have the money to buy fertilizer that would impact their crop productivity drastically. Also they have no school or clinic.

He then begins to calculate what it would cost per person to bring a school and teachers, simple clinic and staff, medicines, agriculture inputs such as seed and fertilizer, safe drinking water and simple sanitation, and power transport and communication services. The total cost for Sauri is about $350,000 a year, which converts to $70 a person per year, which could revolutionize the community. If he did CHE, the total cost and per person cost would be greatly reduced. He then goes ahead and extrapolates this up for the country of Kenya to $1.5 billion.

At the same time he points out that Kenya’s debt service is $600 million a year and that it needs to be cancelled. But one problem that donors talk about is corruption needing to be eliminated. If countries do not eliminate corruption, they would not be eligible for relief. Also, a budget and management system need to be designed that will reach the villages and be monitorable, governable, and scalable–a set of interventions to ensure good governance on such a historic project. The key to this is to empower village-based community organizations to oversee village services.

Most of what he says in this chapter sounds like CHE to me, but we can do it at even a lower cost and we have the experience to implement it. That is why I said earlier that we need to talk to Sachs about CHE.

He then goes on with this theme but changes the venue from rural to urban in Mumbai, India in a slum community built smack up against the railroad tracks, one-house deep. He points out the outstanding needs are not latrines, running water, nor safety from trains, but empowerment so they can
negotiate with the government. He then mentions that several groups have been found and empowered to do this in this community. Again sounds like CHE for urban poor.

Sachs says what this community needs is investments in the individual and basic infra-structure that can empower people to be healthier, better educated, and more productive in the work force. CHE deals with the individual side of the equation.

He ends this chapter by discussing the problem of scale. He says everything must start with the basic village. The key is connecting these basic units together into a global network that reaches from impoverished communities to the very centers of power and back again. This, too, is what we are talking about when we describe scaling-up and creating a movement and then forming it into councils and collaborative groups.

He believes the rich world would readily provide the missing finances but they will wonder how to ensure that the money made available would really reach the poor and that there would be results. He says we need a strategy for scaling up the investments that will end poverty, including governance that empowers the poor while holding them accountable. I believe CHE fits his prescription.

Chapter Thirteen–Making the Investments Needed to End Poverty Sachs says the extreme poor lack six kinds of capital:
• Human Capital: health, nutrition, and skills needed for each person to be productive. • Business Capital: the machinery, facilities, and motorized transport used in agriculture, industry and services. • Infrastructure Capital: water and sanitation, airports and sea ports, and telecommunications systems that are critical inputs for business productivity. • Natural Capital: arable land, healthy soils, biodiversity, and well- functioning ecosystems that provide the environmental services need by human society. • Public Institutional Capital: commercial law, judicial systems, government services, and policing, that underpin the peaceful and prosperous division of labor. •
Knowledge Capital: the scientific and technological know-how that raises productivity in business output and the promotion of physical and natural capital.

He spends several pages on charts showing income flow. He also uses the example of child survival and how it applies to the six kinds of capital. He makes the point that even in the poorest societies, primary education alone is no longer sufficient. He says all youth should have a minimum of 9 years of education. He says technical capacity must be in the whole of society from the bottom up. He talks about trained community health workers and the role they can play. Villages around the world should be helped in adult education involving life and death issues such as HIV.

The main challenges now is NOT to show what works in small villages or districts but rather to scale up what works to encompass a whole country, even the world. Again sounds like CHE and where we are going.

He goes through several examples where major diseases are being dealt with such as malaria, river blindness, and polio, as well as spread of family planning. He also briefly talks about the cell phone revolution by the poor in Bangladesh and how East Asia has established Export Processing Zones, all of which are improving the life of the poorest of poor nations.

Chapter Fourteen–A Global Compact to End Poverty
He says the poorest countries themselves must take seriously the problem of ending poverty and need to devote a greater share of their national resources to accomplish this. Many poor countries pretend to reform while rich countries pretend to help them. The chronic lack of donor financing robs the poor countries of their poverty-fighting zeal. We are stuck in a show play that is not real.

There are two sides in a compact. In this compact, there should be the commitment in the rich countries to help all poor countries where the collective will to be responsible partners in the endeavor is present. For the other poor countries where authoritarian or corrupt regimes hold sway,
the consequences for the population are likely to be tragic but the rich countries have their limits also.

He spends time looking at several countries that have Poverty Reduction Strategies where some are working and some not. Ghana is a star in his book.

He says a true MDG-based poverty reduction strategy would have five parts: • A Differential Diagnosis which includes identifying policies and investments that the country needs to achieve the MDGs. • An Investment Plan which shows the size, timing and costs of the required investments. • A Financial Plan to fund the Investment Plan, including the calculation of the MDG financing gap, the portion of the financial needs that donors will have to fill. • A Donor Plan which gives multi-year commitments from donors for meeting the MDGs. • A Public Management Plan that outlines the mechanisms of governance and public administration that will help implement the expanded public investment plan.

During the 1980’s and 1990’s, the IMF forced Structural Readjustment on the poor countries which did not work. The poor were asked to pay all the expenses for new services. They then moved to a compromise called Social Marketing where the poor were asked to pay a portion of the expense. But neither plan worked because the poor did not have enough even to eat, much less pay for electricity.

He says a sound management plan should include the following: • Decentralize. Investments are needed in all the villages and the details for what is needed needs to be established at the village level through local committees, not the national capitol or Washington DC. • Training. The public sector lacks the talent to oversee the scaling up process. Training programs for capacity building should be part of the strategy. • Information Technology. The use of information technology–computers, e-mail and mobile phones– needs to increase drastically because of the dramatic increase of knowledge that needs to be transmitted. • Measurable Benchmarks. Every MDG based poverty reduction strategy should be supported by quantitative benchmarks tailored to national conditions, needs, and data
availability. • Audits. No country should receive greater funding unless the money can be audited. • Monitoring and Evaluation. Each country must prepare to have investments monitored and evaluated.

He then goes through the following Global Policies for Poverty Reduction: • The Debt Crisis. The poorest countries are unable to repay their debt, let alone carry the interest. Therefore, for each country that agrees to the guidelines noted previously, their debt must be cancelled if there is to be true poverty reduction. • Global trade Policy. Poor countries need to increase their exports to the rich countries and thereby earn foreign exchange in order to import capital goods from the rich countries. Yet trade is not enough. The policy must include both aid and trade. The end of agriculture subsidies is not enough for this to happen. • Science for Development. The poor are likely to be ignored by the international scientific community unless special effort is made to include things that help the poor. It is more critical to identify the priority needs for scientific research in relation to the poor than to mobilize the donor community to spur that research forward. That would include research in tropical agriculture, energy systems, climate forecasting, water management, and sustainable management of ecosystems. • Environmental stewardship. The poorest of poor nations are generally innocent victims of major long-term ecosystem degradation. The rich countries must live up to the ecology agreements they have signed. The rich countries will have to give added financial assistance to the poor countries to enable them to deal with the ecosystem problems. The rich countries will have to invest more in climate research.

Chapter Fifteen–Can The Rich Afford to Help the Poor?
He asks the question “Can the rich countries help the poor?”, and his answer is “Can they afford not to do so?” He gives five reasons that show that the current effort is so modest. • The numbers of extremely poor have declined close to 50% two generations ago to 33% a generation ago to 20% today. • The goal is to end extreme poverty, not all poverty, and to close the gap between the rich and the poor. • Success in ending the poverty trap will be much easier than it appears. Too little has been done
to identify specific, proven, low-cost interventions that can make a difference in living standards and economic growth (CHE does this). • The rich world is vastly rich. What seemed out of reach a generation or two ago is now such a small fraction of the vastly expanded income of the rich world. • Our tools are more powerful than ever, including computers, internet, mobile phones, etc.

He then spends time in doing calculations to show how this can be accomplished. First he starts with the World Bank. They estimate that meeting basic needs requires $1.08 per person per day. Currently, the average income of the extremely poor is 77 cents per day, creating a shortfall of 31 cents per day or $113 per person per year. He then shows that this represents only .6% of a nation’s GNP. The MDG target which many countries have agreed to is .7% of their GNP. Later on, he shows that the USA is only spending .15% for aid to the world.

Sachs then spends time on a six-step process to do a needs assessment to come up with the real number needed: • Identify the package of basic needs.
• Identify for each country the current unmet needs of the population. • Calculate the costs of meeting the unmet needs through investments, taking into account future population growth. • Calculate the part of the investments that can’t be financed by the country itself. • Calculate the MDG financing gap that must be covered by donors. • Assess the size of the donor contribution relative to donor income.

He proposes that interventions are required to meet the following basic needs: • Primary education for all children with a designated target ratio of pupils to teachers. • Nutrition program for all vulnerable populations.

• Universal access to anti-malarial bed nets for all households in regions of malaria transmission. • Access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
• One-half kilometer of paved roads for every thousand population. • Access to modern cooking fuels and improved cooking stoves to decrease
indoor air pollution.

He states extreme poverty (a lack of access to basic needs) is very different from relative poverty (occupying a place at the bottom of the ladder of income distribution) within rich countries, and goes through a more detailed approach of implementing the six steps.

He points out that not all donor assistance is for development. Much is used for emergency relief, care for resettlement of refugees, geopolitical support of particular governments, and help for middle-income countries that have largely ended extreme poverty in their country. Also, only a small portion of development aid actually helps to finance the intervention package. Much of it goes for technical assistance which is not part of the MDG numbers.

He spends time on the question, “Can the USA afford the .7% of their GNP?” He responds with a deafening “Yes!” He does this in multiple ways, one of which is to show that the increase is only .55%, which would be hardly noticed in the US’s average 1.9% increase year-by-year of its GNP.

Chapter Sixteen–Myths and Magic Bullets
This is an interesting chapter because Sachs shoots down commonly held beliefs concerning the causes and solutions for poverty. He uses Africa as his case to do so:. • Contrary to popular conception, Africa has not received great amounts of aid. They receive $30 per person per year but only $12 of that actually went to be used in development in Africa. $5 went to consultants of donor countries, $3 went to food and emergency relief, $4 for servicing Africa’s debt and $5 for debt relief. In reality, in 2002, only six cents per person went to development. • Corruption is the problem which leads to poor governance. By any standard of measure Africa’s governance is low, but not due to corruption. African countries’ governance is no different than other poor countries in the rest of the world. Governance improves as the people become more literate and more affluent. Secondly, a more affluent country can afford to invest more in governance. • There is a democracy deficit. This is also not true. In 2003, 11
countries in Africa were considered free, with 20 more partially free, and 16 not free. This is the same as is found in other regions of the world. Democracy does not translate into faster economic growth. • Lack of modern values. Again, this is also false. Virtually every society that was once poor has been castigated for being unworthy until its citizens became rich and then their new wealth was explained by their industriousness. He traces this trend in multiple countries.

One major factor that does cause change is the change in women’s position in society as their economic situation improves, which accelerates the growth. • The need for economic freedom is not fully true. Generally market societies out perform centrally planned economies. This leads to the thought that all is needed is that the people must have the will to liberalize and privatize which is too simplistic. He shows that there is no correlation between the Economic Freedom Index and annual growth rate of GDP. • The single idea of Mystery of Capital put forth by Hernando de Soto which relates to the security of private property including the ability to borrow against it is also incorrect. Most poor hold their assets such as housing and land. • There is a shortfall of morals which is thought to be the main cause of HIV in Africa. A study shows that Africa men are no different in the average number of sexual partners they have than any other part of the world. • Saving children only to become hungry adults leads to population explosion. Actually it has been shown that the best way to reduce the fertility rate is to increase the economic status. In all parts of the world (except the Middle East) where the fertility rate is over 5 children, those countries are the poorest ones. As children survive, the parents feel less of a need to have more children which is a result of improved economic conditions. • A rising tide lifts all boats. This means extreme poverty will take care of itself because economic development will pull all countries along to improvement. A rising improvement does not reach the hinder lands or mountain tops. • Nature red in tooth and claw means that economic improvement is based on survival of the fittest and those who cannot compete fall behind. This is a Darwin thought which seems to still prevail throughout the world. Competition and struggle are but one side of the coin which has the other side of trust, cooperation, and collective action.

He rejects the doomsayers who saying that ending poverty is impossible. He believes he has identified specific interventions that are needed as well as found ways to plan and implement them at an affordable rate.

Chapter Seventeen–Why We Should Do It
There are several fallacies which affect the USA’s giving: • The American public greatly overestimates the amount of federal funds spent on foreign aid. The US public believes that the government is providing massive amounts of aid. A 2001 survey by the University of Maryland showed that people felt that US aid accounted for 20% of the federal budget versus the actual of .15%. That is 24 times smaller than the actual figure. • The American public believes that the US military can achieve security for Americans in the absence of a stable world. This has been proven untrue especially with 9/11. • There is a fallacy in belief that there is a war of cultures. For many, this relates to Biblical prophesy of Armageddon and end times.

The problem in the US is not opposition to increased foreign aid but a lack of political leadership to inform the public how little the US does supply, and then asking the US public to supply more.

Hard evidence has established a strong linkage between extreme poverty abroad and threats to national security. As a general proposition, economic failure (an economy stuck in a poverty trap, banking crisis, debt default or hyper-inflation) often leads to a state failure. A CIA Task force looked at state failures between 1954 and 1994 and found that the following three factors were most significant in state failure: • Very high infant mortality rate suggested that overall low levels of material well-being are a significant factor in state failure. • Openness of the economy showed the more economic linkages a country had with the rest of the world, the lower chance of state failure. • Democratic countries showed fewer propensities to state failure than authoritarian regimes.

He then reviews what the US government has committed to since 9/11: • Provide resources to aid countries that have met national reform. • Improve effectiveness of the World Bank and other development banks in
raising living standards. • Insist on measurable results to ensure that development assistance is actually making a difference in the lives of the world’s poor. • Increase the amount of development assistance that is provided in the form of grants, not loans. • Since trade and investment are the real engines of economic growth, open societies to commerce and investment. • Secure public health.

• Emphasize education.
• Continue to aid agricultural development.

In reality, little progress has been done by the US to the accomplishment of these goals. But he does spend time discussing where plans were established and that funds were flowing where massive amounts of aid were provided by the USA: • End of World War II with the Marshall Plan which revitalized Europe and Japan. • Jubilee 2000 Drop the Debt Campaign started slow but ended up with large amount of national debt being cancelled in the poorest of countries. • The Emergency Plan for HIV is providing $15 billion to fight this pandemic.

The bottom line of this chapter is, “OK, USA and other rich countries, you are saying good things, now step-up to the plate and do what you have agreed to do.”

Chapter Eighteen–Our Generation’s Challenge
Our generation is heir to two and a half centuries of economic progress. We can realistically envision a world without extreme poverty by the year 2025 because of technological progress which enables us to meet basic needs on a global scale. We can also achieve a margin above basic needs unprecedented in history. Until the Industrial Revolution, humanity had known only unending struggles against famine, pandemic disease, and extreme poverty–all compounded by cycles of war, and political despotism.

At the same time, Enlightenment thinkers began to envision the possibility of sustained social progress in which science and technology could be harnessed to achieve sustained improvements in the organization of social, political,
and economic life. He proposes four thinkers which led this movement: • Thomas Jefferson and other founders of the American Republic led the thought that political institutions could be fashioned consciously to meet the needs of society through a human-made political system. • Adam Smith believed that the economic system could similarly be shaped to meet human need and his economic design runs parallel to Jefferson’s political designs. • Immanuel Kant called for an appropriate global system of governance to end the age-old scourge of war. • Science and technology, fueled by human reason can be a sustained force for social improvement and human betterment led by Francis Bacon and Marie-Jean-Antoine Condorcet. Condorcet put much emphasis on public education to accomplish the goals.

One of the most abiding commitments of the Enlightenment was the idea that social progress should be universal and not restricted to a corner of Western Europe. He said now it is our generation’s turn to help foster the following: • Political systems that promote human well-being

• Economic systems that spread the benefits of science, technology, and division of labor to all parts of the world. • International cooperation in order to secure a perpetual peace. • Science and technology, grounded in human rationality, to fuel the continued prospects for improving the human condition.

He then spends three or four pages discussing the good and bad points of the Anti-globalization Movement which is taking place. He also spends time discussing three movements which made these kind of changes in the world in their time: • The end of Slavery

• The end of Colonization
• The Civil Rights and Anti-Apartheid Movement

He closes with discussing the next steps which are:
• Commit to ending poverty
• Adopt a plan of action built around the Millennium Development Goals • Raise the voice of the poor
• Redeem the role of the United States in the world
• Rescue the IMF and World Bank
• Strengthen the United Nations
• Harness global science
• Promote sustainable development
• Make a personal commitment to become involved

Summary
This is an interesting book with new perspectives for me, and which is beginning to be taken seriously by the world. I believe, as stated earlier, that MAI’s role is on-the-ground solutions for ending poverty through CHE which is spelled out in Chapter 12. But, as also noted, we can do it at a far lower cost than he estimates because of our commitment to empowering people to do things on their own and primarily with their own funds.

A clinical guide for nurse practitioners

Reflection is a method used in clinical practice, where one expresses the experiences from a given situation, thus helping to learn and improve skills by applying the knowledge gained for future practice (Cottrell, 2011 and Schon, 1984). It is my intention to use Driscoll (2007) model of reflection to present my understanding of the issues I faced during a recent presentation to the medical centre. This case study involves a reflective account of a patient that I provided care for following blunt trauma, eye injury, sustained during exercise.

Description of events
A 23 year old male soldier presented to the medical centre complaining that he could not see out of his right eye, following being hit in the face with a blunt object. He was clearly agitated and distressed, as he was repeatedly asking if he would be permanently blind. Therefore prior to commencement of any physical examination I felt it was important to create a good rapport with the patient, in oder to gain his trust in my ability (Platt et al, 2001). Good communication skills are vital in building a therapeutic relationship with the patient. Hence I offered reassurance and advised the patient what examination and tests I was going to perform, in order to effectively assess his condition.

Through the physical examination I was able to detect minor fractures in his zygomatic bone that where causing him pain. As the patient was concerned about losing his sight, I had to maintain a supportive environment while explaining the need for an Xray and further hospital input, without causing him undue stress. I assured him that he would regain sight in his eye and that the trauma had caused temporary blindness only due to the impact.

Analysis of events
It is important to take time to listen to the patient and understand how they are feeling following such injury (Barnes, 2003). However, due to the patient’s distress I was unable to begin a physical examination until I had calmed him down and reassured him that he was in good hands. Consequently, I found it difficult to deal with the patients’ behaviour initially as I was more concerned in ascertaining the extend of his injury. Although I soon realised that in order to gain his cooperation with the physical assessment I first needed to encourage the patient to relax and discuss his concerns. I feel I communicated well with the patient through the application of a well structured consultation and was able to gain an adequate history, to assist with the diagnosis of the patient’s injury (Seidel et al, 2010).

Action following events
Maintaining a therapeutic relationship with good rapport can be difficult in situations where the patient is uncooperative and/or distressed. Therefore, in order to find solutions for patients I treat it is imperative to learn many problem solving techniques, including effective communication skills (Egan, 1998).

This situation taught me that building a rapport with your patient is just as important as developing physical examination competence. As offering encouragement to the patient ultimately led to a more productive consultation and improved patient/practitioner relationship.

I intend to utilise the skills learned throughout this module to enable me to adequately adapt to stressful situations and communicate effectively with my patients.

References
BARNES, K. (2003) Paediatrics: a clinical guide for nurse practitioners. Edinburgh: Butterworth- Heinemann. COTTRELL, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. (Palgrave Study Skills): Palgrave Macmillan. DRISCOLL, J. (2007) Practising clinical supervision: A reflective approach for healthcare professionals. London: Bailliere Tindall. EGAN, G. (1998) The skilled helper: a problem-management approach to helping. London: Brooks/Cole. SCHON, D. (1984) The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. SEIDAL, H.M., BALL, J.W., DAINS, J, E., AND BENEDICT, G, W. (2010) Mosby’s guide to physical examination. Philadelphia: Elsevier.

Guide for Ema

Guidance notes
The three texts below provide information about the business environment for the Facebook company in May 2012. For this task, imagine you work for Facebook, and you have been tasked with carrying out a SWOT analysis on the company to determine whether this is the right time for the company to grow. Your job is to write a SWOT analysis and a report based on this analysis. You are writing this analysis and report for the senior management team. Your analysis should provide the team with a complete overview of the situation and should end with suggestions for what the company should do based on your analysis. This task requires you to demonstrate your skill in selecting and organising information to produce a company analysis. You should include a SWOT table or grid in your analysis and organise the document according to the SWOT framework. You should focus on the interaction between the Facebook’s internal environment (strengths and weaknesses) on the one hand, and its external environment (opportunities and threats) on the other.

Your SWOT analysis should form the basis of the suggestions you make about the company’s future actions. To accomplish this task you will need to draw on the case study analysis skills covered in Book 1 of the module and the report-writing skills covered in Book 3. Remember to use the referencing conventions that have been taught in the module when you refer to the sources of information that you use. You may benefit from writing one or more drafts before you produce a final version of your report. The Influential Document Checklist will be a useful reference in this process (see the Appendix to Book 3). Your answer for Task 2 should be about 1000 words in length. Please note that all tables and diagrams included count towards your word limit. Your reference list does not count, however.

Text 1
Facebook (Facebook IPO, May 2012)
Facebook is the world’s largest social network, with 845 million active users around the world, and roughly 200 million in the United States, or two-thirds of the population. Created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg in his dorm room at Harvard, Facebook grew from being a quirky site for college students into a popular platform that is used to sell cars and movies, win over voters in presidential elections and organize protest movements. It offers advertisers a global platform, with the exception of China, where Facebook does not operate. Facebook took its first step toward becoming a publicly traded company in February 2012, when it filed to sell shares on the stock market. The service is on track to be the largest Internet initial public offering ever — trumping Google’s in 2004 or Netscape’s nearly a decade before that. In its filing, Facebook said it was seeking to raise $5 billion.

On May 3, Facebook set the estimated price for its I.P.O. at $28 to $35 a share, according to a revised prospectus. At the midpoint of the range, the social networking company is on track to raise $10.6 billion, in a debut that could value the company at $86 billion. Investors have been eagerly awaiting the Facebook offering, lured by the prospect of strong growth: in the first quarter, Facebook’s daily active users, a measure of engagement, increased by 41 per cent, to 526 million. Still, Facebook is experiencing the growing pains typical of a technology start-up. While revenue continues to rise, profit sputtered in the first three months of the year, falling 12 per cent, to $205 million, as expenses jumped significantly. Seeking to Offer More Disclosure to Users

Facebook, unlike any other site, has come to define the social era of the Web. More than a portal, its value lies in its dynamic network of social connections and the massive amount of information shared by its users. Facebook, in many ways, is a data processor, archiving and analyzing every shred of information, from our interests, to our locations, to every article and link that we ‘like’. The collection of data is a potential goldmine for advertisers. On the other hand, all that information raises questions about Facebook’s privacy practices. Over the years it has faced intense scrutiny from privacy advocates and regulators worldwide over how it handles the data it collects from its 845 million users. As it prepares to go public, it has been seeking to offer more disclosure to users. In April 2012, it announced it was expanding its downloadable archive feature, called Download Your Information, to provide greater transparency on the types of data on individuals that the company stores. More Advertising, More Dollars

Facebook’s hundreds of millions of users could soon be faced with a lot more advertising — in their newsfeed, on their mobile devices and even when they log off. In early March 2012, the company announced a new suite of advertising products intended to insert more ads into Facebook’s traditionally clean interface and to take more advantage of mobile ads, where the company has struggled. The announcement was made at the company’s first marketing conference, held at the American Museum of Natural History in Manhattan. For users, the announcement could mean many more ads on Facebook. For advertisers, the effort offers a chance to reach more users in more places. Despite aggressively courting Madison Avenue for the last few years, Facebook has been an anomaly in the world of digital advertising. The ad units offered less creative options for advertisers who want to, say, take over the site’s home page or add moving text to an ad.

Rather, the value in Facebook’s ads was in their data and personalization. The potential for more ad dollars was reflected in the company’s first filing for a public offering in February. At the time, analysts said the company was expected to be valued at $75 billion to $100 billion. But according to the filing, Facebook made only $3.7 billion in revenue last year, the bulk of that from advertising. Until now, advertisers were largely limited to a variety of ad spaces that were positioned on the right side of the Facebook home page, in addition to creating their own Facebook pages. The company said a new set of ‘premium ads’ will run at different points in the site, with a special emphasis on ads running throughout a user’s mobile feed. Facebook’s Biggest Stumbling Block: Privacy Practices

Facebook’s biggest stumbling block has been its privacy practices. As the world’s largest social network, Facebook has been under intense scrutiny from consumers, courts and regulators worldwide over how it handles the data it collects from its 845 million users. But as a company preparing to go public, it is under pressure to find new ways to turn that data into profit. The company has repeatedly alienated users over privacy — as in the case of the 2007 controversy over Beacon, a tool that automatically posted on Facebook what its users did or bought on other sites. It has also faced lawsuits over the use of its members’ ‘like’ endorsements in ads and drawn scrutiny for a facial recognition feature. The scrutiny is at its most intense in Europe, where Facebook’s data collection practices have tested the boundaries of stringent privacy laws. In the United States, Facebook faces government audits for the next 20 years about how it collects and shares data, along with an assortment of lawsuits that accuse the company of tracking users across the Web.

In November 2011, the company announced a settlement agreement with the Federal Trade Commission, which accused Facebook of having deceived its customers about privacy settings. After the F.T.C. order, Mark Zuckerberg conceded in a blog post that the company had made ‘a bunch of mistakes’, but he said it had already fixed several of the issues cited by the commission. In August 2011, Facebook made changes that it said were aimed at helping users get a grip on what they shared. When users added pictures, comments or other content to their profile pages, they could specify who could see it: all of their Facebook friends, a specific group of friends or everyone who has access to the Internet. Revamping Its Profile Design

In December 2011, Facebook rolled out a revamped profile design called Timeline, which makes a user’s entire history of photos, links and other things shared on the site much more accessible with a single click. That could be when many of Facebook’s 800 million members realized just how many digital breadcrumbs they had been leaving on the site — and on the Web in general. The old Facebook profile page showed the most recent items a user posted, along with things like photos of them posted by others. But Timeline creates a scrapbook-like montage, assembling photos, links and updates for each month and year since they signed up for Facebook.

For better or worse, the new format is likely to bring back old memories. Going forward, it could also make it harder to shed past identities — something that people growing up with Facebook might struggle with as they transition from high school to college, and from there to the working world. Analysts said Timeline was a significant evolutionary shift for Facebook. For starters, linking Facebook more closely to memories could make it harder for people to abandon the service for rivals. Buying Instagram for $1 Billion

In early April 2012, Facebook said it had agreed to buy Instagram, the popular mobile-centric photo-sharing service, for $1 billion in cash and stock, giving it a stronger foothold in the market for mobile apps. It would be Facebook’s largest acquisition to date by far. Instagram is a social network built around cellphone photos. It lets people add quirky filters and effects to their snapshots and share them with friends, who can ‘like’ and comment on them. The service has been something of a rising star in the start-up world. Barely two years old, it has attracted close to 30 million users, even though it worked only on iPhones until early April, when it released an Android version of its app.

Text 2
Facebook Cites Google+ With Mobile Shift Among Potential Risks By Brian Womack on February 08, 2012
Feb. 2 (Bloomberg) – Facebook Inc., the social network that filed for an initial public offering yesterday, listed rivalry with Google Inc., regulatory scrutiny, hacker attacks and the shift to mobile technology among the risks it faces. Facebook’s competition with Google, Twitter Inc. and other social-networking providers could impede growth, the company said in the risk-factors section of its filing. Facebook also said it would face competition in China if it manages to gain access to that market, where it’s currently restricted. ‘Certain competitors, including Google, could use strong or dominant positions in one or more markets to gain competitive advantage against us in areas where we operate,’ Facebook said. Their tactics may include ‘integrating competing social-networking platforms or features into products they control,’ the company said. Facebook, the world’s biggest social-networking service, has attracted more rivals as its popularity among users and advertisers soars.

The company said it faces ‘significant competition’ in almost every aspect of its business. The company also cited concerns about its mobile strategy. Almost all of its revenue comes from ads delivered to computers, not phones and tablets. Facebook’s mobile software currently generates no ‘meaningful revenue,’ the Menlo Park, California-based company said. Facebook further cautioned that key mobile devices, such as Apple Inc.’s iOS products and gadgets running Google’s Android software, may not feature Facebook in the future. If either of these companies gives preference to another social network – say, if Google promotes its own Google+ more aggressively – Facebook’s growth could be jeopardized. Unforeseen Threats

Bigger pitfalls could yet emerge, said Kevin Landis, the portfolio manager for the Firsthand Technology Value Fund, which holds Facebook shares. Google, for instance, couldn’t have foreseen the emergence of Facebook in 2004, when it went public. ‘Let me put it this way: If you go back to Google’s S-1 in their risk factors, there’s no mention of Facebook,’ Landis said. Facebook was founded in 2004. Facebook also has considered entering China, which would bring its own challenges. The country has censorship laws that have kept Facebook and other social-media companies, including Twitter Inc. and Google’s YouTube, from operating there. ‘We continue to evaluate entering China,’ Facebook said. ‘China is a large potential market for Facebook, but users are generally restricted from accessing Facebook from China. We do not know if we will be able to find an approach to managing content and information that will be acceptable to us and to the Chinese government.’ Dependent on Zynga

Another risk: Facebook relies on Zynga Inc. for 12 percent of its revenue, according to the filing. San Francisco-based Zynga is the biggest developer of Facebook games, including ‘CityVille’ and ‘Texas HoldEm’. The revenue comes from Zynga’s sales of virtual goods and from direct advertising purchased by Zynga. In addition, Zynga produces a ‘significant number’ of pages on which Facebook displays ads. The dependence goes both ways. Zynga gets more than 90 per cent of its revenue from the social network. ‘If we are unable to successfully maintain this relationship, our financial results could be harmed,’ Facebook said of Zynga. Facebook also said it faces pressure from governmental bodies. It’s possible that a regulatory inquiry might lead to changes to policies or practices, the company said. Regulatory Constraints

‘Violation of existing or future regulatory orders or consent decrees could subject us to substantial monetary fines and other penalties that could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations,’ according to the filing.

Text 3
As Privacy Concerns Grow, More Social Media Users Are ‘Unfriending’ FEBRUARY 24, 2012 AT 7:00 AM PT
by Lauren Goode
As concerns about online privacy grow, users of social media sites are increasingly looking to unfriend other users and ‘prune’ their personal profiles, according to a new report out today from Pew Research Center. More than 60 per cent of social media users said last year that they deleted people from their friends lists, up from 56 per cent in 2009; and 26 per cent of users who keep their profiles private say they apply additional privacy settings to limit what some friends can see. Profile ‘pruning’ – deleting comments friends leave and untagging photos – is also on the rise, the report says. Women are significantly more likely to keep their profiles private, and are more likely to unfriend people than men are, with 67 per cent of women saying they’ve removed friends, compared with 58 per cent of men. Young people are more likely to manage their social media presences by deleting comments and untagging photos. The report comes just as the White House has moved to create a privacy bill of rights aimed at governing online data tracking.

One of the issues at hand is a ‘do not track’ tool which Web companies like Google have just agreed to support. Last week, Google was reported to be using deceptive practices to track Web users in certain browsers. As The Wall Street Journal notes, though, a ‘do not track’ button would allow for some Web data collection – such as the data gathered through Facebook’s ‘Like’ button. Pew is careful not to point to Facebook directly throughout the report, but notes that Facebook is by far the most popular U.S. social network (in its recent S-1 filing, Facebook showed that its user base has ballooned to more than 845 million). Pew’s report says that the term ‘privacy settings’ – as well as ‘unfriend’ – is part and parcel of the Facebook experience. The Pew survey on Internet usages was conducted between April and May of last year, and sampled more than 2,200 U.S. adults 18 and older.

The survey found that two-thirds of U.S. Internet users had profiles on social networking sites, up from just 20 per cent in 2006. In terms of who was more likely to post things on social networks that they later admitted they regretted, males were almost twice as likely to do so, with 15 per cent copping to it, than were females, at 8 per cent. Young adults, age 18 to 29, were also more likely to post content that they’d later regret on
social networks.

Part 3
Task
Write a reflective piece on your experience of participating on this module. Consider the questions that follow to guide you with your writing. * What was your overall experience of studying on LB160?

* What were the most useful skills you learned on this module? Why? * If you engaged with the online activities on the module, what was your experience of using the Tutor Group Forum (TGF)? What were the strengths and weaknesses of the TGF you participated in? How would you evaluate the process of working collaboratively with other students? What did you learn from them? What skills did you develop through your online participation? * If you did not participate in the online activities, how did you find working on your own on the module? Do you think you would have benefited if you had been able to participate online? How? * Guidance notes

* Your reflective piece should not be written in a question and answer format but as continuous text. Be sure to use examples as evidence to support your claims. * For this task we advise you to organise your text as Problem–Solution. Here, Problem implies a ‘gap’ in someone’s skills. You need to demonstrate in your text how such a ‘gap’ (if any) was addressed by LB160. You may also like to see your reflective piece as Claim–Evidence because generally you make a claim that certain skills were improved by presenting some evidence. If you like, you may want to use sub-headings too but they are not essential. * It is important to be honest in your evaluation.

Negative experiences of the module are as valid as positive ones and you will not be penalised for reporting negative experiences. For the same reason, you will be assessed on the way you reflect on your learning, not on whether or not you were involved in the online activities. So feel free to use this opportunity to feed back to the module team on what the module experience was like for you. * Your reflective piece for Task 3 should be about 500 words in length.

End of Poverty Guide

Sachs throws out the normal ways of thinking about the causes of poverty in countries, for instance that people are lazy or stupid, or the countries are not democratic, and that corruption is wide-spread. Fifty percent of the world’s population exists on less than one dollar per day. He believes that much of the problem is structural, which can only be dealt with through the help of the rich countries.

Sachs believes, first of all, that all current debt owed by the poor countries should be cancelled. Secondly, if the rich countries would increase their development aid from .2% to .7% there would be enough money available to increase the economic growth so that all countries would no longer be extremely poor.

If MAI is to become known as an agency which teaches a new way of dealing with poverty, then we need to become aware of this book and Sachs understanding and approach to poverty. Chapter Twelve really speaks to CHE.

I have tried to review what has appeared to me to be the most salient points, chapter by chapter. All chapters are not treated equally. I primarily do
this exercise for myself to help me understand the key points from the book. If they are of any help to others, then that is a plus.

I have gone into more detail in the other synopsis I have done because of the possible guidance this book can give us for a new paradigm for dealing with poverty individually, locally, nationally and globally (which in reality we are already on the road in doing). Some things are both structural and governmental issues and I am not suggesting that we get involved in these, but change must begin at the village level and then we can scale up our strengths from there.

Chapter One–A Global Family Portrait
Sachs sets the stage for his thesis and book using examples of Malawi, Bangladesh, India, and China to show different levels of poverty. He talks abut the ascending ladder of economic development for countries. • Lowest are those who are too ill, hungry, or destitute to get even a foot on the bottom rung of the development ladder. They make up the bottom 1/6 of the world’s population, or one billion people. They are the poorest of the poor and live on less than $1 a day. • A few rungs up the ladder at the upper end of the low-income countries are another 1.5 billion people. They live just above the subsistence level. These two groups make up 40% of the world’s population. CHE targets both of these groups, and especially with the first group. • Another 2.5 billion include the IT workers of India. Most of them live in the cities and are moderately poor. • One billion or one-sixth of the world come from the rich developed countries.

Sachs says the greatest tragedy of our time is that one-sixth of the world’s population is not even on the first rung of the ladder. A large number of the extremely poor in level one are caught in the poverty trap and cannot escape it. They are trapped by disease, physical isolation, climate stress, environmental degradation, and extreme poverty itself.

He breaks poverty into three levels:
• Extreme poverty means households cannot meet basic needs for survival. This only occurs in developing countries. World Bank says their income is
less than $1 a day. • Moderate poverty is where needs are generally just barely met. World Bank says this represents countries where their income falls between $1 and $2 per day. • Relative poverty generally describes household income level at being below a given percentage of the average national income. You find this in developed countries.

He then presents the Challenge of our Generation which includes: • Helping the poorest of the poor escape the misery of extreme poverty and help them begin their climb up the ladder of economic development. • Ensuring all who are the world’s poor, including moderately poor, have a chance to climb higher in economic development.

He believes that the following can be done:
• Meet the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
• End extreme poverty by 2025.
• To ensure well before 2025, that all of the world’s poor countries can make reliable progress up the ladder of economic development. • To accomplish this with modest financial help from the riches countries, which will be more than is now provided per capita.

Chapter Two–The Spread of Economic Prosperity
Sachs uses several graphs in this chapter. I will not go into detail on these, but I will point out some salient points: • All regions of the world were poor in 1820.
• All regions experienced economic progress, though some much more than others. • Today’s richest regions experienced by far the greatest economic progress. As an example, Africa has only grown at .7% a year while the USA at 1.7%. This may not seem much, but when compounded year-by-year, it results in the great differences between the two. • The key fact today is not the transfer of income from one region to another, but rather that the overall increase in the world’s income is happening at different rates in different regions.

Until the 1700’s, the world was remarkably poor by today’s standards. A major change was the industrial revolution coming to certain regions and not to
others. The steam engine was a decisive turning point because it mobilized the vast store of primary energy which unlocked the mass production of goods and services. Modern energy fueled every aspect of the economic takeoff.

As coal fueled industry, industry fueled political power. Britain’s industrial breakthrough created a huge military and financial advantage. But Britain also had existing individual initiative and social mobility than most other countries of the world. They also had a strengthening of institution and liberty. Britain also had a major geographical advantage–one of isolation and protection of the sea, in addition to access to the oceans for worldwide transportation for their goods and importation of other countries’ goods.

Sachs then goes on to outline what has fostered major economic growth: • Modern economic growth is accompanied by people moving to the cities, or urbanization. This means fewer and fewer people produce the food that is required for the country. Hopefully, food price per farmer decreases as larger plots are farmed more productively. This also means sparsely populated land makes good sense when many farms are needed to grow the crops, but sparse land makes little sense when more and more people are engaged in manufacturing in the cities. • Modern economic growth fostered a revolution in social mobility which affected social ranking of people. A fixed social order depends on status quo and agrarian population. • There is a change in gender roles with economic development. This affects living conditions as well as family structure. The desired number of children decreases. • The division of labor increases. By specializing in one activity instead of many, productivity increases.

The diffusion of economic growth occurred in three main forms: • From Britain to its colonies in North America, Australia and New Zealand. (It was therefore relatively straight-forth to transfer British technologies, food crops and even legal institutions.) • A second diffusion took place within Europe that ran from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, and from Northern Europe to Southern Europe. • The third wave of diffusion was from Europe to Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

Sachs believes that the single most important reason for prosperity spread is the transmission of technology and the ideas underlying it. The technological advances came at different times. • The first wave revolved around the invention of the steam engine which led to factory-producing goods. • The second wave in the 19th century was led by the introduction of the rail and telegraph. It also included the introduction of steam ships instead of sailing ones, and the construction of the Suez Canal. • The third wave was initiated by electrification of industry and urban society. Along with this came the development of the internal combustion engine. • The fourth wave came in the 20th century with the globalization of the world due to new methods of communication starting in Europe. • There came a time of a great rupture which took place with the start of World War I, and sidetracked economic development for awhile. This led to the Great Depression which led to World War II. • A fifth wave took place right after World War II, and in 1991. It began with the massive efforts of reconstruction of Europe and Japan right after World War II. Trade barriers began to come down.

There were three worlds: the first was the developed West, the second was comprised of Socialist countries, and the third was made up of undeveloped countries (which were made up of the old colony countries). The world therefore progressed on three tracks. The problem was that the second and third worlds did not share in economic growth and actually went backward. By closing their economies, they closed themselves off from economic development.

So what did this mean to the poorest of the poor countries?
• They did not begin their economic growth until decades later. • They faced geographical barriers of being land-locked • They faced the brutal exploitation of the colonial powers. • They made disastrously bad choices in their national policies.

Chapter Three–Why Some Countries Fail
In this chapter, Sachs looks at the cause of poverty and possible solutions.
He first deals with, how a family’s per-capita income might increase: • The first way is through savings– either in cash or similar assets like animals, etc. • The second way is shifting to crops that bring a higher yield per hectare, and then adding value to the crop (which is what we teach in our PAD training). • The third way is adopting new technology, which improves their productivity. • The fourth way is resource boom, which means to move to a much larger and more fertile farm.

The flip side of increasing their economic growth is by decreasing their per capita income which is more than just the opposite of the above factors: • Lack of savings is of course one way to reduce per capita income. • Lack of trade, meaning that a household hears of the new crop but cannot take advantage of it and stays with what they have. • Technological reversal is when something like HIV hits an area and children lose their parents etc. • Natural resource decline is where the land becomes less and less fertile producing less and less crops. • Adverse Productivity Shock is where a natural disaster hits like a drought, tsunami, earthquake, typhoon, etc. • Population growth lessens per capita income where the father has two hectares of land and it is divided among his five sons at his death.

Now Sachs begins to get into the true heart of poverty on a country level: • The poverty trap itself is where poverty is so extreme that the poor do not have the ability by themselves to get out of the mess. • Physical geography plays a major role where countries are land-locked with poor or no roads, a lack of navigable rivers, or situated in mountain ranges or deserts with an extremely high transportation cost. The low productivity of the land is another factor in the geography. • The fiscal trap is where the government lacks the resources to pay for the necessary infrastructure on which economic growth depends. • Government failure happens when the government is not concentrating on high priority infrastructure and social service projects. • Cultural or religious barriers especially as it relates to gender inequality play a significant role in dampening economic growth. • Geopolitics such as trade barriers can impede economic growth. • Lack of innovation and technology plays a role if people cannot try
new things because they cannot risk failure, or because they do not have funds to do so. Sachs believes that over the span of two centuries, the lack of using new technology is why the richest and poorest countries have diverged. • He shows a scatter-gram graph showing there is a demographic trap as well. The higher the fertility rate, the lower rate of economic growth there is in a country. When they have too many children, they cannot invest in education, nutrition, or health, except maybe for the oldest male. One of the best ways to lower the number of children per family is through the education of the girls.

Sachs then goes into detail in putting countries into different classes. He points out that none of the rich countries in North American, Western Europe or East Asia have failed to grow economically. All the problems lie in the developing world where 45 of these countries had a fall in GDP. Not all of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. He also points out that the oil-exporting and ex-Soviet countries, all high income countries, did not increase their economic growth evenly, primarily because of their authoritarian political structure.

He also points out that the most important factor is agriculture. Those countries that used high yield cereals per hectare and that used high levels of fertilizers are the poor countries that tended to experience economic growth. In Africa, the land is much less densely populated but they use neither high yield cereals nor fertilizers and they had falling food production per capita. But they also have far less roads for transporting extra crops to markets and they depend on rainfall which is generally more erratic than high-producing agricultural countries.

He also goes on to point out the following:
• Economic growth is rarely uniformly distributed across a country. • Governments also fail in their role in allowing growth that might enrich the rich households, while the poorest living in the same area seldom seem to benefit. • Another detriment to growth can be culture especially as it relates to women inequality.

Chapter Four–Clinical Economics (CE)
Sachs compares clinical economics to clinical medicine. He lays out five parameters for Clinical Economics: • CE is made up of complex systems. The failure in one system can lead to cascades of failures in other parts of the economy. You therefore need to deal with very broad and multiple issues. • CE practitioners need to learn the art of clinical diagnosis. The CE practitioner must hone-in on the key underlying causes of economic distress and prescribe appropriate remedies that are tailor-made to each country’s condition. • Treatment needs to be viewed in family terms, not individual terms. The entire world is part of each country’s family. If countries work together they can have far more impact than working in isolation. • Good CE practice requires monitoring and evaluation. More than just asking if the goals are being achieved, but also asking “why?” and “why not?” • The development community lacks the requisite ethical and professional standards. Economic development does not take its work with the sense of responsibility that the task requires. It demands that honest advice be given.

He points out where economic development practice has gone wrong: • The rich countries say, “Poverty is your own fault. Be like us, have a free market, be entrepreneurial, fiscally responsible and your problems will be gone”. • The IMF period of structural adjustment which supposedly dealt with the four maladies of poor governance, excessive government intervention in the markets, excessive government spending, and too much state ownership were not solved by the IMF prescription of belt tightening, privatization, liberalization, and good governance. • The responsibility for poverty reduction was assumed to lie entirely with poor countries themselves.

He then lays out his differential diagnosis for poverty reduction. He believes the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) goes a long way in reducing poverty. Once the diagnosis is completed, a proper treatment regime must be carried out. In doing differential diagnosis, questions must be asked in each one of the following areas: • Identify and map the extent of extreme poverty– from the household level all the way up through the community to the country to the state– in all areas of life. • The
second set of questions deals with the economic policy framework. • The third set deals with the fiscal framework.

• Fourth deals with physical geography and human ecology. • Fifth, the questions deal with the patterns of governance. History has shown that democracy is not a prerequisite for economic development. • Sixth are questions which deal with cultural barriers that hinder economic development. • The last are questions that are related to geopolitics which involves a country’s security and relationship with the rest of the world.

The next six chapters, five through ten, deal with specific countries that have gone through this process, and their results. His results are quite impressive. I will not deal much with each country, but an individual chapter might be of interest to the RC involved if he is interested in such things.

Chapter Five–Bolivia’s High Rate of Inflation
Problem:
A hyperinflation rate of 3000% (30 times) between July 1984 and July 1985 with a longer term hyperinflation rate of 24,000%.

Lessons Learned:
• Stabilization is a complex process. Ending a large budget deficit may be the first step but controlling the underlying forces that cause the budget deficit is much more complex. • Macroeconomics tools are limited in their power.

• Successful change requires a combination of technocratic knowledge, bold political leadership, and broad social participation. • Success requires not only bold reforms at home, but also financial help from abroad. • Poor countries must demand their due.

Chapter Six–Poland’s Return to Europe
Problem:
By the end of 1989, Poland had partially suspended its international debt payments. The economy was suffering from high rate of rising inflation and there was a deepening political crisis.

Sachs’ approach in Poland, as in other countries, was built on five pillars: • Stabilization–ending the high rate of inflation, establishing stability and convertible currency. • Liberalization–allowing markets to function by legalizing private economic activity (ending price controls and establishing necessary laws). • Privatization– identifying private owners for assets currently held by the state. • Social net–pensions and other benefits for the elderly and poor were established. • Institutional Harmonization–adopting, step-by-step, the economic laws, procedures, and institutions.

Lessons Learned:
• He learned how a country’s fate is crucially determined by its specific linkages to the rest of the world. • Again the importance of the basic guidance concept for broad-based economic transformation, not to stand alone with separate solutions. • Saw again the practical possibilities of large-scale thinking • He learned not to take “no” for an answer, press on with your guidance. • By the time a country has fallen into deep crisis, it requires some external help to get back on track. • This help may be in the form of getting the basics right which includes debt cancellation and help to bolster confidence in the reforms.

Chapter Seven–Russia’s Struggle for Normalcy
Problem:
The Soviet Union relied almost entirely on its oil and gas exports to earn foreign exchange, and on its use of oil and gas to run its industrial economy. In the mid- 1980’s, the price of oil and gas plummeted and the Soviet Union’s oil production began to fall.

Sachs suggested three actions of the West (but generally they were ignored by the West): • A stabilization fund for the ruble.
• Immediate suspension of debt repayment followed by cancellation of
their debts. • A new aid program for transformation focusing on the most vulnerable sectors of the Russian economy.

Lesson Learned:
• Despite much turmoil and rejection much went right so that eventually Russia became a lopsided market economy, still focused on oil and gas. • Russia has a gigantic land mass which causes it to have few linkages with other nations of the world. • Their population densities are low and agrarian and food production per hectare remains low. Over history, 90% of the population has been rural, with cities few and far between. This hinders economic growth. • Without adequate aid, the political consensus around the reforms was deeply undermined, thereby compromising the reform process.

Chapter Eight–China Catching Up after a Half Millennium Being Isolated Problem:
China lost its economic and cultural lead that it had in its early history. Sachs points out five dates which caused this: • 1434 China had been the technological superpower. This year Emperor Ming closed China to the rest of the world and stopped their advanced ship fleets from going out to the world. • 1839 China finally ended its economic isolation.

• 1898 Several young reformers tried to gain power and were stopped. • 1911 Ching Dynasty collapsed and by 1916 China was falling into civil unrest. Their military took control of the empire. • 1949 the rise of the Maoist Movement.

He then compares China to Russia:
• The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had massive foreign debt while China did not. • China has a large coastline that supported its export growth, while Russia and Eastern Europe do not. • China had the benefit of large off-shore Chinese business communities which acted as foreign investors, while Russia and Eastern Europe did not. • The Soviet was experiencing a drastic decline on their main export product, oil and gas. • The Soviet Union had gone further down the industrialization road than
China.

Chapter Nine–India Market Reform Which Was the Triumph of Hope Over Fear Problem:
India was controlled by a business, British East India Company, which was driven by greed, and it did everything to maximize profit for the company at the expense of the country. Though India’s population throughout history has been Hindu, vast numbers of Muslims and Christians lived in and sometimes dominated the land. India had poor political and social structures because the land was broken into many small kingdoms governed by many different leaders. In addition, India has the caste-system of stratification of peoples.

With independence from the British in 1947, Nehru looked for a path to self- sufficiency and democratic socialism. The Green Revolution had a major impact on the country as high yield crops were introduced. By 1994, India now faced four major challenges: • Reforms needed to be extended especially in liberalization and the development of new and better systems. • India needed to invest heavily in infrastructure

• India needed to invest more in health and education of its people, especially the lower castes. • India needed to figure out how to pay for the needed infrastructure.

Lessons Learned:
• The 21st century is likely to be the era when this poor country’s economic development is substantially reversed. • The country has announced electricity for all as well as essential health services and drinking water for everyone. These are achievable goals and the basis for much-needed investment. • The Hindus did not stifle growth. The Green Revolution and then market reforms overrode the rigidness of the caste-system and the slow growth of the 1950’s and 1960’s. • India has become increasingly urbanized, thereby further weakening the caste-system. • Democracy is wearing away age-old social hierarchies. • India has grabbed the potential of the internet and IT and is leading the way for
developing nations in this regard. • India’s varied geography and its miles and miles of shoreline fosters its market position for the manufacture of products.

Chapter Ten–Africa and the Dying
Problem:
Three centuries of slave trade were followed by a century of colonial rule which left Africa bereft of educated citizens and leaders, basic infrastructure, and public health facilities. The borders followed arbitrary lines, not historic tribal lines which now divided former empires, ethnic groups, ecosystems, watersheds, and resource deposits.

The West was not willing to invest in African economic development. Corruption was not the central cause for their economic failure as he showed. In the 1980’s, HIV became the worse killer of mankind. In 2001, life expectancy stood at 47 years, while East Asia stood at 69 years, and developed countries at 78 years.

Sachs spends time looking at the major diseases of malaria, TB, diarrhea, and HIV. He says poverty causes disease and disease causes poverty.

Lessons Learned:
• Good governance and market reform alone are not sufficient to generate growth if a country is in a poverty trap. • Geography has conspired with economics to give Africa a particularly weak hand. Africa lacks navigable rivers with access to the ocean for easy transport and trade. • Africa lacks irrigation and depends on rainfall for their crops. • Farmers lack access roads, markets, and fertilizers, while soils have been long depleted of their nutrients.

Chapter Eleven–The Millennium, 9/11, and the United Nations. The beginning part of this chapter deals with the Millennium Development Goals. Sachs says that the goals and commitment to reach them by 2015 convey the hope that extreme poverty, disease, and environmental degradation could be alleviated with the wealth, the new technologies, and global awareness with which we
entered the 21st century. He says the first seven goals call for sharp cuts in poverty, disease, and environmental degradation, while the eighth goal is essentially a commitment to global partnership. Because you have all seen them, I am not including them here.

Regarding 9/11, he says we need to keep it in perspective. On 9/11, 3000 people died for once and for all, but 10,000 people die each day from diseases that are preventable.

He believes we need to address the deeper roots of terrorism of which extreme poverty is an important element. The rich world needs to turn its efforts to a much greater extent from military strategies to economic development. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt spoke of freedoms we were fighting for in WWII and for which we still should be attempting to accomplish: • Freedom of speech and expression everywhere in the world. • Freedom for every person to worship God in his own way everywhere in the world. • Freedom from want which translates into economic development. • Freedom from fear which translates into a worldwide reduction in armament, a reduction to such a point that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor.

One major thing he is suggesting is that the rich countries elevate their giving to .7% of their GNP from the average of .2% it is today. The rest of the chapter is about President Bush and the USA policies and actions.

Chapter Twelve–On-The-Ground Solutions for Ending Poverty
This chapter is really talking about CHE, but Sachs does not realize it. He says that the world’s challenge is not to overcome laziness and corruption but rather to take on geographic isolation, disease, vulnerability to climate shocks, etc. with new systems of political responsibility that can get the job done.

He talks about a village of less than 1,000 in western Kenya, in a Sauri sub-location (in Siaya district in Nyanza province) that he visited, which opened his eyes. He found what we find place after place– that they are
impoverished, but they are capable and resourceful. Though struggling to survive, presently they are not dispirited but determined to improve their situation. He then goes on to describe the needs of a rural African community, the same type of community that we deal with every day, as shown in the abundance of applications we receive for CHE. A major problem, he feels, is that the farmers do not have the money to buy fertilizer that would impact their crop productivity drastically. Also they have no school or clinic.

He then begins to calculate what it would cost per person to bring a school and teachers, simple clinic and staff, medicines, agriculture inputs such as seed and fertilizer, safe drinking water and simple sanitation, and power transport and communication services. The total cost for Sauri is about $350,000 a year, which converts to $70 a person per year, which could revolutionize the community. If he did CHE, the total cost and per person cost would be greatly reduced. He then goes ahead and extrapolates this up for the country of Kenya to $1.5 billion.

At the same time he points out that Kenya’s debt service is $600 million a year and that it needs to be cancelled. But one problem that donors talk about is corruption needing to be eliminated. If countries do not eliminate corruption, they would not be eligible for relief. Also, a budget and management system need to be designed that will reach the villages and be monitorable, governable, and scalable–a set of interventions to ensure good governance on such a historic project. The key to this is to empower village-based community organizations to oversee village services.

Most of what he says in this chapter sounds like CHE to me, but we can do it at even a lower cost and we have the experience to implement it. That is why I said earlier that we need to talk to Sachs about CHE.

He then goes on with this theme but changes the venue from rural to urban in Mumbai, India in a slum community built smack up against the railroad tracks, one-house deep. He points out the outstanding needs are not latrines, running water, nor safety from trains, but empowerment so they can
negotiate with the government. He then mentions that several groups have been found and empowered to do this in this community. Again sounds like CHE for urban poor.

Sachs says what this community needs is investments in the individual and basic infra-structure that can empower people to be healthier, better educated, and more productive in the work force. CHE deals with the individual side of the equation.

He ends this chapter by discussing the problem of scale. He says everything must start with the basic village. The key is connecting these basic units together into a global network that reaches from impoverished communities to the very centers of power and back again. This, too, is what we are talking about when we describe scaling-up and creating a movement and then forming it into councils and collaborative groups.

He believes the rich world would readily provide the missing finances but they will wonder how to ensure that the money made available would really reach the poor and that there would be results. He says we need a strategy for scaling up the investments that will end poverty, including governance that empowers the poor while holding them accountable. I believe CHE fits his prescription.

Chapter Thirteen–Making the Investments Needed to End Poverty Sachs says the extreme poor lack six kinds of capital:
• Human Capital: health, nutrition, and skills needed for each person to be productive. • Business Capital: the machinery, facilities, and motorized transport used in agriculture, industry and services. • Infrastructure Capital: water and sanitation, airports and sea ports, and telecommunications systems that are critical inputs for business productivity. • Natural Capital: arable land, healthy soils, biodiversity, and well- functioning ecosystems that provide the environmental services need by human society. • Public Institutional Capital: commercial law, judicial systems, government services, and policing, that underpin the peaceful and prosperous division of labor. •
Knowledge Capital: the scientific and technological know-how that raises productivity in business output and the promotion of physical and natural capital.

He spends several pages on charts showing income flow. He also uses the example of child survival and how it applies to the six kinds of capital. He makes the point that even in the poorest societies, primary education alone is no longer sufficient. He says all youth should have a minimum of 9 years of education. He says technical capacity must be in the whole of society from the bottom up. He talks about trained community health workers and the role they can play. Villages around the world should be helped in adult education involving life and death issues such as HIV.

The main challenges now is NOT to show what works in small villages or districts but rather to scale up what works to encompass a whole country, even the world. Again sounds like CHE and where we are going.

He goes through several examples where major diseases are being dealt with such as malaria, river blindness, and polio, as well as spread of family planning. He also briefly talks about the cell phone revolution by the poor in Bangladesh and how East Asia has established Export Processing Zones, all of which are improving the life of the poorest of poor nations.

Chapter Fourteen–A Global Compact to End Poverty
He says the poorest countries themselves must take seriously the problem of ending poverty and need to devote a greater share of their national resources to accomplish this. Many poor countries pretend to reform while rich countries pretend to help them. The chronic lack of donor financing robs the poor countries of their poverty-fighting zeal. We are stuck in a show play that is not real.

There are two sides in a compact. In this compact, there should be the commitment in the rich countries to help all poor countries where the collective will to be responsible partners in the endeavor is present. For the other poor countries where authoritarian or corrupt regimes hold sway,
the consequences for the population are likely to be tragic but the rich countries have their limits also.

He spends time looking at several countries that have Poverty Reduction Strategies where some are working and some not. Ghana is a star in his book.

He says a true MDG-based poverty reduction strategy would have five parts: • A Differential Diagnosis which includes identifying policies and investments that the country needs to achieve the MDGs. • An Investment Plan which shows the size, timing and costs of the required investments. • A Financial Plan to fund the Investment Plan, including the calculation of the MDG financing gap, the portion of the financial needs that donors will have to fill. • A Donor Plan which gives multi-year commitments from donors for meeting the MDGs. • A Public Management Plan that outlines the mechanisms of governance and public administration that will help implement the expanded public investment plan.

During the 1980’s and 1990’s, the IMF forced Structural Readjustment on the poor countries which did not work. The poor were asked to pay all the expenses for new services. They then moved to a compromise called Social Marketing where the poor were asked to pay a portion of the expense. But neither plan worked because the poor did not have enough even to eat, much less pay for electricity.

He says a sound management plan should include the following: • Decentralize. Investments are needed in all the villages and the details for what is needed needs to be established at the village level through local committees, not the national capitol or Washington DC. • Training. The public sector lacks the talent to oversee the scaling up process. Training programs for capacity building should be part of the strategy. • Information Technology. The use of information technology–computers, e-mail and mobile phones– needs to increase drastically because of the dramatic increase of knowledge that needs to be transmitted. • Measurable Benchmarks. Every MDG based poverty reduction strategy should be supported by quantitative benchmarks tailored to national conditions, needs, and data
availability. • Audits. No country should receive greater funding unless the money can be audited. • Monitoring and Evaluation. Each country must prepare to have investments monitored and evaluated.

He then goes through the following Global Policies for Poverty Reduction: • The Debt Crisis. The poorest countries are unable to repay their debt, let alone carry the interest. Therefore, for each country that agrees to the guidelines noted previously, their debt must be cancelled if there is to be true poverty reduction. • Global trade Policy. Poor countries need to increase their exports to the rich countries and thereby earn foreign exchange in order to import capital goods from the rich countries. Yet trade is not enough. The policy must include both aid and trade. The end of agriculture subsidies is not enough for this to happen. • Science for Development. The poor are likely to be ignored by the international scientific community unless special effort is made to include things that help the poor. It is more critical to identify the priority needs for scientific research in relation to the poor than to mobilize the donor community to spur that research forward. That would include research in tropical agriculture, energy systems, climate forecasting, water management, and sustainable management of ecosystems. • Environmental stewardship. The poorest of poor nations are generally innocent victims of major long-term ecosystem degradation. The rich countries must live up to the ecology agreements they have signed. The rich countries will have to give added financial assistance to the poor countries to enable them to deal with the ecosystem problems. The rich countries will have to invest more in climate research.

Chapter Fifteen–Can The Rich Afford to Help the Poor?
He asks the question “Can the rich countries help the poor?”, and his answer is “Can they afford not to do so?” He gives five reasons that show that the current effort is so modest. • The numbers of extremely poor have declined close to 50% two generations ago to 33% a generation ago to 20% today. • The goal is to end extreme poverty, not all poverty, and to close the gap between the rich and the poor. • Success in ending the poverty trap will be much easier than it appears. Too little has been done
to identify specific, proven, low-cost interventions that can make a difference in living standards and economic growth (CHE does this). • The rich world is vastly rich. What seemed out of reach a generation or two ago is now such a small fraction of the vastly expanded income of the rich world. • Our tools are more powerful than ever, including computers, internet, mobile phones, etc.

He then spends time in doing calculations to show how this can be accomplished. First he starts with the World Bank. They estimate that meeting basic needs requires $1.08 per person per day. Currently, the average income of the extremely poor is 77 cents per day, creating a shortfall of 31 cents per day or $113 per person per year. He then shows that this represents only .6% of a nation’s GNP. The MDG target which many countries have agreed to is .7% of their GNP. Later on, he shows that the USA is only spending .15% for aid to the world.

Sachs then spends time on a six-step process to do a needs assessment to come up with the real number needed: • Identify the package of basic needs.
• Identify for each country the current unmet needs of the population. • Calculate the costs of meeting the unmet needs through investments, taking into account future population growth. • Calculate the part of the investments that can’t be financed by the country itself. • Calculate the MDG financing gap that must be covered by donors. • Assess the size of the donor contribution relative to donor income.

He proposes that interventions are required to meet the following basic needs: • Primary education for all children with a designated target ratio of pupils to teachers. • Nutrition program for all vulnerable populations.

• Universal access to anti-malarial bed nets for all households in regions of malaria transmission. • Access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
• One-half kilometer of paved roads for every thousand population. • Access to modern cooking fuels and improved cooking stoves to decrease
indoor air pollution.

He states extreme poverty (a lack of access to basic needs) is very different from relative poverty (occupying a place at the bottom of the ladder of income distribution) within rich countries, and goes through a more detailed approach of implementing the six steps.

He points out that not all donor assistance is for development. Much is used for emergency relief, care for resettlement of refugees, geopolitical support of particular governments, and help for middle-income countries that have largely ended extreme poverty in their country. Also, only a small portion of development aid actually helps to finance the intervention package. Much of it goes for technical assistance which is not part of the MDG numbers.

He spends time on the question, “Can the USA afford the .7% of their GNP?” He responds with a deafening “Yes!” He does this in multiple ways, one of which is to show that the increase is only .55%, which would be hardly noticed in the US’s average 1.9% increase year-by-year of its GNP.

Chapter Sixteen–Myths and Magic Bullets
This is an interesting chapter because Sachs shoots down commonly held beliefs concerning the causes and solutions for poverty. He uses Africa as his case to do so:. • Contrary to popular conception, Africa has not received great amounts of aid. They receive $30 per person per year but only $12 of that actually went to be used in development in Africa. $5 went to consultants of donor countries, $3 went to food and emergency relief, $4 for servicing Africa’s debt and $5 for debt relief. In reality, in 2002, only six cents per person went to development. • Corruption is the problem which leads to poor governance. By any standard of measure Africa’s governance is low, but not due to corruption. African countries’ governance is no different than other poor countries in the rest of the world. Governance improves as the people become more literate and more affluent. Secondly, a more affluent country can afford to invest more in governance. • There is a democracy deficit. This is also not true. In 2003, 11 countries in Africa were considered free, with 20 more partially free, and 16 not free. This is the same as is found in other regions of the world. Democracy does not translate into faster economic growth. • Lack of modern values. Again, this is also false. Virtually every society that was once poor has been castigated for being unworthy until its citizens became rich and then their new wealth was explained by their industriousness.

He traces this trend in multiple countries. One major factor that does cause change is the change in women’s position in society as their economic situation improves, which accelerates the growth. • The need for economic freedom is not fully true. Generally market societies out perform centrally planned economies. This leads to the thought that all is needed is that the people must have the will to liberalize and privatize which is too simplistic. He shows that there is no correlation between the Economic Freedom Index and annual growth rate of GDP. • The single idea of Mystery of Capital put forth by Hernando de Soto which relates to the security of private property including the ability to borrow against it is also incorrect. Most poor hold their assets such as housing and land. • There is a shortfall of morals which is thought to be the main cause of HIV in Africa. A study shows that Africa men are no different in the average number of sexual partners they have than any other part of the world. • Saving children only to become hungry adults leads to population explosion. Actually it has been shown that the best way to reduce the fertility rate is to increase the economic status. In all parts of the world (except the Middle East) where the fertility rate is over 5 children, those countries are the poorest ones. As children survive, the parents feel less of a need to have more children which is a result of improved economic conditions. • A rising tide lifts all boats. This means extreme poverty will take care of itself because economic development will pull all countries along to improvement. A rising improvement does not reach the hinder lands or mountain tops. • Nature red in tooth and claw means that economic improvement is based on survival of the fittest and those who cannot compete fall behind. This is a Darwin thought which seems to still prevail throughout the world. Competition and struggle are but one side of the coin which has the other side of trust, cooperation, and collective action.

He rejects the doomsayers who saying that ending poverty is impossible. He believes he has identified specific interventions that are needed as well as found ways to plan and implement them at an affordable rate.

Chapter Seventeen–Why We Should Do It
There are several fallacies which affect the USA’s giving: • The American public greatly overestimates the amount of federal funds spent on foreign aid. The US public believes that the government is providing massive amounts of aid. A 2001 survey by the University of Maryland showed that people felt that US aid accounted for 20% of the federal budget versus the actual of .15%. That is 24 times smaller than the actual figure. • The American public believes that the US military can achieve security for Americans in the absence of a stable world. This has been proven untrue especially with 9/11. • There is a fallacy in belief that there is a war of cultures. For many, this relates to Biblical prophesy of Armageddon and end times.

The problem in the US is not opposition to increased foreign aid but a lack of political leadership to inform the public how little the US does supply, and then asking the US public to supply more.

Hard evidence has established a strong linkage between extreme poverty abroad and threats to national security. As a general proposition, economic failure (an economy stuck in a poverty trap, banking crisis, debt default or hyper-inflation) often leads to a state failure. A CIA Task force looked at state failures between 1954 and 1994 and found that the following three factors were most significant in state failure: • Very high infant mortality rate suggested that overall low levels of material well-being are a significant factor in state failure. • Openness of the economy showed the more economic linkages a country had with the rest of the world, the lower chance of state failure. • Democratic countries showed fewer propensities to state failure than authoritarian regimes.

He then reviews what the US government has committed to since 9/11: • Provide resources to aid countries that have met national reform. • Improve effectiveness of the World Bank and other development banks in
raising living standards. • Insist on measurable results to ensure that development assistance is actually making a difference in the lives of the world’s poor. • Increase the amount of development assistance that is provided in the form of grants, not loans. • Since trade and investment are the real engines of economic growth, open societies to commerce and investment. • Secure public health.

• Emphasize education.
• Continue to aid agricultural development.

In reality, little progress has been done by the US to the accomplishment of these goals. But he does spend time discussing where plans were established and that funds were flowing where massive amounts of aid were provided by the USA: • End of World War II with the Marshall Plan which revitalized Europe and Japan. • Jubilee 2000 Drop the Debt Campaign started slow but ended up with large amount of national debt being cancelled in the poorest of countries. • The Emergency Plan for HIV is providing $15 billion to fight this pandemic.

The bottom line of this chapter is, “OK, USA and other rich countries, you are saying good things, now step-up to the plate and do what you have agreed to do.”

Chapter Eighteen–Our Generation’s Challenge
Our generation is heir to two and a half centuries of economic progress. We can realistically envision a world without extreme poverty by the year 2025 because of technological progress which enables us to meet basic needs on a global scale. We can also achieve a margin above basic needs unprecedented in history. Until the Industrial Revolution, humanity had known only unending struggles against famine, pandemic disease, and extreme poverty–all compounded by cycles of war, and political despotism.

At the same time, Enlightenment thinkers began to envision the possibility of sustained social progress in which science and technology could be harnessed to achieve sustained improvements in the organization of social, political,
and economic life. He proposes four thinkers which led this movement: • Thomas Jefferson and other founders of the American Republic led the thought that political institutions could be fashioned consciously to meet the needs of society through a human-made political system. • Adam Smith believed that the economic system could similarly be shaped to meet human need and his economic design runs parallel to Jefferson’s political designs. • Immanuel Kant called for an appropriate global system of governance to end the age-old scourge of war. • Science and technology, fueled by human reason can be a sustained force for social improvement and human betterment led by Francis Bacon and Marie-Jean-Antoine Condorcet. Condorcet put much emphasis on public education to accomplish the goals.

One of the most abiding commitments of the Enlightenment was the idea that social progress should be universal and not restricted to a corner of Western Europe. He said now it is our generation’s turn to help foster the following: • Political systems that promote human well-being

• Economic systems that spread the benefits of science, technology, and division of labor to all parts of the world. • International cooperation in order to secure a perpetual peace. • Science and technology, grounded in human rationality, to fuel the continued prospects for improving the human condition.

He then spends three or four pages discussing the good and bad points of the Anti-globalization Movement which is taking place. He also spends time discussing three movements which made these kind of changes in the world in their time: • The end of Slavery

• The end of Colonization
• The Civil Rights and Anti-Apartheid Movement

He closes with discussing the next steps which are:
• Commit to ending poverty
• Adopt a plan of action built around the Millennium Development Goals • Raise the voice of the poor
• Redeem the role of the United States in the world
• Rescue the IMF and World Bank
• Strengthen the United Nations
• Harness global science
• Promote sustainable development
• Make a personal commitment to become involved

Summary
This is an interesting book with new perspectives for me, and which is beginning to be taken seriously by the world. I believe, as stated earlier, that MAI’s role is on-the-ground solutions for ending poverty through CHE which is spelled out in Chapter 12. But, as also noted, we can do it at a far lower cost than he estimates because of our commitment to empowering people to do things on their own and primarily with their own funds.

Apush Chapter 9 Study Guide

Lindsay Adams
Mrs. Wilkinson
APUSH Pd. 5
12 September 2013
Chapter 9 Study Guide
1. How did the revolutionary American ideas of natural human rights, equality & freedom from the governmental tyranny affect developments in the immediate post-Revolutionary period? (1783-1789) Revolutionary American ideas from government tyranny affected development in the post-Revolutionary period by making it impossible for a strong federal government to be created. Since the colonies fought to get out of a federal government, they did not want to create another one, so, congress was forced to make a weak federal government called the Articles of Confederation. It gave no power to the government, but gave all power to the central governments of the colonies. 2. What significant change to the new United States resulted from the revolutionary war? Freedom from England was the primary change of the new United States.

The colonies, now called states, were officially independent from Great Britain when the Treaty of Paris was signed in France in 1783. Other alterations included the lack of an executive branch of government, more rights, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and several others. 3. Describe the powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation created a one-house legislature as the Confederation’s main institution, making the government a unicameral system of government. In addition, Congress could settle conflicts among the states, issue coins, borrow money, and make treaties with other countries and with Native Americans. Congress could also ask the states for money and soldiers. 4. What were the major weaknesses and strengths of the Articles of Confederation government? Why do some historians call it the “Critical Period”? The Articles of Confederation was drafted during the years 1776 and 1777, while the colonists were still fighting for independence, it created a weak national government with most of the governmental powers retained by the states. The Articles provided no separation of branches. There was no president or any other independent executive, nor was there a federal judicial branch. Congress, the legislature, was the only branch of government. Members elected to congress did not vote as individuals, but as states. While congress did have some powers, it could not enforce its laws on the states or the people. States were permitted to coin their own money.

There was no regulation of commerce between the states and states could even enter into treaties with foreign nations and declare war, with the consent of Congress. Congress could not tax the states or the people; it could only request funds to run the government. Since the Revolution created an enormous debt, and there was no way to tax the colonies with such a weak government, the need for a federal government was great. 5. What motivated the “founding fathers” to call for a convention to modify the Articles? What was the significance of Shay’s Rebellion? The Founding Fathers wanted a new constitution because the current government of the Articles of Confederation was not working due to the balance of powers between state/federal governments and Shay’s rebellion. The document gave state governments too much power and left the federal government helpless in both defending and caring for American interests which led to almost no unification of the states. The federal government was powerless to stop Shay’s rebellion and Congress had little power. The Articles of Confederation had no chief executive, Congress had no power to tax citizens directly, no power to draft an army, had no national court system, no power to settle arguments among states, and many more. Shays Rebellion was a rebellion against the Articles of Confederation in 1787.

There were many unfair “laws” that the working class couldn’t fight, there were polling taxes and that made it hard for the working class to vote, there was no common currency so the working class would sometimes be cheated out of money, and it was really hard for them to set prices on their goods. 6. Explain the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey Plan, and the Connecticut Compromise. The NJ plan was an attempt to make the country vote by equal representation where each state would send the same amount of delegates to represent them. The Virginia plan was an attempt to start representation by population where the states would send more or less delegates depending on how big the state was. The CT Compromise/Great Compromise benefitted both large and small states. There was representation in the House based on population and equal representation in the Senate. 7. Explain the 3/5th Compromise.

States ideally wanted to have more representation in the House of Representatives, in order to have more voice in the federal government. However, southern states, which refused to give Blacks the slightest of rights (due to the already entrenched ideals of slavery) wanted to make the most of their black populations to achieve greater representation. It was eventually decided (in part because of Southern threats to not join the new nation) that each slave would count as “3/5 of a person” for representation purposes. 8. Explain the first three articles of the Constitution. Which body of the government was described in each article and how did federal powers under the new Constitution contrast with federal powers under the Articles? The first three articles of the Constitution established all three branches of government and their powers. The first article defines the Legislative Branch, its powers, members, and workings. The second Article of the Constitution that defines the Executive Branch, its powers, duties, and means of removal. The Article of the Constitution that sets up the Judicial Branch and defines treason is the third article.

The constitution possessed more federalist ideas, giving more power to the national government rather than the states. 9. Who were the Anti-Federalists, what was their major objection to the Constitution, and why did they lose their struggle to the Federalists? The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the Constitution. They argued that it gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments. These were the people of a high class. Because the majority of the states supported the Constitution and anti-federalists wished to remain a union, they accepted the document which was also issued with a bill of rights. 10. Which of the social changes brought about by the Revolution was the most significant? Could the Revolution have gone further toward the principle that “all men are created equal” by ending slavery or granting women’s rights? Women became more politically involved throughout the revolution although no women’s rights were officially established until later on. Native American relationships with the Americans improved as well. Small opposition against slavery initiated in Pennsylvania.

The biggest change was that people felt like they had a voice in their government instead of having birthrights determine who was in charge. Yes; if slavery was abolished and women’s rights were established, that statement could have been more valid. Big Question: Should the Constitution be seen as a conservative reaction to the Revolution, an enshrinement of revolutionary principles or both? The Constitution should be seen both as a conservative reaction to the Revolution and an enshrinement of revolutionary principles because it reflected conservative principles but also promoted the idea of a strong republicanism. The wealthy were still in power; most of those in Congress were wealthy. The rights of certain people were still limited under the Constitution like women and slaves. However, the government was still based on the consent of the people and government’s power was limited. The system of check and balance is the most original aspect of the Constitution. There were three branches, the legislative, executive, and judicial and each had its own power as well as an opportunity to check the other branched to assure that no branch abused its power.

Key Terms & People:
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom Shay’s Rebellion
Articles of Confederation Daniel Shays
Old Northwest Patrick Henry
Northwest Ordinance Great Compromise
Land Ordinance of 1785 The Federalist