Is School Uniform A Good Idea

Is school uniform a good idea? What is it good for? These questions are asked time and time again by pupils. In this essay I plan to explore the issue and discuss whether or not it’s a good or bad idea. Teens often complain and criticize about how uncomfortable school uniforms are and how they do not live up to their fashion standards. On the other hand, teachers argue that school uniform keeps students looking smart and the uniform helps identify any unknown person from entering the school, Furthermore students argue that everyone looks the same and the uniform is tedious and boring.

A reason why school uniform is a good idea is it saves your clothes: but you’d like to show off your dear clothes. In my opinion I rather waste a two dollar primark top than 178 prada shirt, but obviously some people feel they would be bulled for not wearing dear clothes this is because in the society we now live in has a high demanad on having the “perfect” fashion look.

On school outings teachers say that it’s easier to identify their students if they are wearing school uniforms, but this takes away the students creativeness, and they are unable to cnver their own style and wear what they feel comfortable in. Although some pupils will try and change their uniform to make them look more unique but teachers quickly catch on to this and demand that we wear what they call the “appropiate uniform”. Teens like to be different and have their own style but by schools demanding that everyone obeys the dress code, students will all look the same.

An argument for school uniform is that if students were to wear what they like the less fortunate pupils would stand out and they would be bullied because they cannot afford the newest clothes, this would cause the bullying rate to go up and lower pupils self esteem and make them feel as if they cannot be themselves in scoiety. But I do think that if pupil were allowed to wear non-uniform the worry to have the latest fashion would in stages, fade away because everyone would get used to wearing normal clothes and then it wouldn’t be such a big thing not to wear uniform. Schools indubitably love uniform; in contrast to this view, students absolutely hate them!

School s think uniform looks smart likewise so do most parents. In addition pupils sometimes do not follow the schools dress code and this makes teachers irate, and sometimes this leads up to pupils getting sent home. In recent years some schools have relaxed and accepted some different styles on the other hand some schools have strict rules that include girls only to wear skirts. I feel that making this demand some girls are being discriminated against because they might not want to wear a skirt because of their religion or they have a medical issue (skin problem). A reason for school uniform is that it makes the school look smart and represents the community.

The usual uniform complies of a shirt, tie and trousers and also a sweatshirt for some people this is very uncomfortable: but this is a major improvement since the 1930’s when the uniform was restricted to a plain blazer and a shirt touched your ankles, and for p.e pupils were reduced to wearing underwear and basic sand shoes. Another good advantage of school uniform is that the big shop competitors like Asda and Tesco etc. Are competing with each other to provide good value uniforms for a better price this is also putting on pressur for the top range shops to reduce their prices to keep up with the cheaper ones.

One disadvantage of school uniform is sometimes after the period of going back to school, the shops discontinue stocking the uniform and it makes it hard for the parents to buy a bigger size that there child has grown too, therefore a lot of pupils come into school not wearing uniform because it doesn’t fit them anymore. Sources say that a student in school uniform is more likely to take school seriously.

Putting on school uniform signals that he/she wants to learn and that they are complying of the rules which you must undertake when you go to work. However some students don’t want to follow rules, forcing them to wear a uniform this only makes them more determined to be rebillious and wear what they want. In conclusion I think school uniform is a bad idea because it has no effect of the outcome at the end of the pupils school years however school uniform makes the school appear more pleasant and also makes the pupils look smart.

The idea of dance

The idea of dance has always been interesting and a mystery to me. When I was younger, I used to participate in Indian dance performances for birthday parties, weddings and/or anniversaries. I was fairly decent and I remember that it gave me a sense of freedom. I loved to dance. It was a way of expressing my uniqueness. However, things changed, life moved on and the stress of it all hid those feelings for another lifetime. They remained hidden for the past four years here at UCR until now, my senior year. Now was the only time in my college career that I had time for anything other than major related, science-y courses. I was excited to take a class that didn’t involve four hour laboratory times or quizzes every week. I wanted to take a class that made me feel free. That’s when I remembered how dance made me feel when I was younger and Dance 005 seemed like the perfect fit.

In the short time that I have been able to take this course, I have learned quite a lot about my body’s capabilities. Usually, when I do something physical, whether it be sports or working out at the gym, I push myself hard. With dance, I felt as if I needed to take my time, and let my gracefullness take the lead. I wanted to accomplish a different side of me. I wanted to allow myself to do something that I wasn’t necessarily used to. I felt as if my strengths were mainly the numbered combinations that we learned in class. I do well with order, direction and a planned out routine. However, on the other hand, when we would practice improvisation, I found harder to relax and “go with the flow.” I realized that I don’t work well with spontaneous, no rule moments. I still struggle with that part of the class and I believe it isn’t something that can be taken care of with one course. I also enrolled in a dance of Mexico course and I enjoy noticing the differences between modern dance and cultural dance.

Viewing the live performance by Paradigm put many things in perspective. My view on dance expanded with every dance performed that night. It was interesting to see the different outlooks on the idea of dance as a whole. It can be theatrical, comedic, sad, happy, etc. It all depends on how the emotions are absorbed by the audience as a result of the performers. Writing the reflection paper on the performance helped me understand the real meaning of it all. It made me take the time to recall reactions and go into depth about how the idea of modern dance came about. Dance, to me, meant structure but walking out of the theater that night shook that assumption to its core. I learned that the modern dance movement based works upon experience, using their bodies to express emotions using many gestures. It seemed like each dance was a type of impulse control. Each performer was allowed to express any feeling that came to them within boundaries. And the boundaries were what made up the show and made it enjoyable for the audience.

One idea of dance that stuck with me was when we performed our pathway dances. I think that was also my favorite part of this class so far. I enjoyed watching each dance with and without music. The music made each dance come alive in some way. I also liked the fact that the musician matched the dance with a separate tone that allowed for comedic relief during what could have possibly been a boring, simple routine. The way he described music adding to dance as a sort of parallel was also quite interesting. I don’t think I have ever heard music and art spoken in that way. This class gives an insight into a different, calmer than my usual workload, form of expression.

Another idea of dance that I can take away from this course is whenever we added pedestrian movements into our dances. I loved that we could incorporate anything and everything we do in life to dance. For instance, I just recently started going to the cardio kickboxing class at the rec center. And I remember I added some of the moves I learned from that class into this class by adding a little flare and art value to them. It just goes to show that anything can be art by tweaking something just a smidge.

I thoroughly enjoyed taking this class. To be brief, it was entertaining, interesting, and I can actually say I know something about the art of dance and not just how to dance. I think it’s important to have knowledge about everything in this world. No need to be an expert on the matter but a little taste of different culture never hurt anyone. And I believe that this class gives a small slice of a worldwide tradition of dance.

My Reasons Why Homework Isn’t a Good Idea

Go to school for seven hours, go to practice for two hours, go home and do homework until you fall asleep. That is the life of most high school students. We are all so busy with schoolwork, clubs and not to mention our outside of school life. Homework is just a source of stress and anxiety for a lot of busy students and takes a lot time out of busy schedules. I think this is a worry that could be eliminated.

Student athletes everywhere know what I mean when I say that when you have away games, you do not want to think about coming home to do homework on an already late night. It is tough enough to finish all of the homework that teachers assign when all you have is a regular practice. As you get older and take harder classes, the homework load and the amount of tests and quizzes also increase. Studying for these also take time and most of the time you just feel rushed to get through everything you have to do that night. Therefore you don’t retain all of the information that you tried to cram into your head. I know of some people who really can’t finish all of their homework at night either because they have so much to do or they prioritize between studying for a big test or getting a good grade on a homework assignment. Homework is an added on stress to young people who participate in sports, clubs, and band and that stress can be taken out in destructive ways.

Another reason I think that students shouldn’t have as much homework as we do is because we already go to school five out of seven days of a week for seven hours a day. We go to school for a reason and that reason is to learn but we shouldn’t have to bring schoolwork home when we already have been to school that day. Also, most of the information we learn will never be applied in our lives or be helpful to us. I can understand the occasional paper to write or story to read and definitely studying for tests, but I think we just need to learn what we will actually use in life rather than extra information. It’s impractical for teachers to assign homework about things that I will never hear of or use again. It seems like a waste of everyone’s time.

My last argument is that most students don’t get enough sleep because they are so busy all the time. The students that participate in something where they have practices or obligations that they have to attend to are usually the ones that actually do all of their homework and studying, therefore get less sleep than they are supposed to. Adults always say you should get eight hours of sleep if not more every night but that is all but impossible when you have so much to do. I know personally I’m lucky to get seven hours of sleep on a good night and I always wake up exhausted. Lack of sleep is a very serious problem for people my age. Also, if you would be able to get to more sleep at night then they most likely wouldn’t fall asleep in class or have such a hard time staying awake. If you are more alert in class you will also get more out of the lesson and understand the material better.

There are so many reasons that homework isn’t a good or effective idea. Students don’t get as much sleep and have a hard time staying awake in and out of class. They won’t get as much studying time for major tests and won’t retain as much information when all they are trying to do is get everything that they need to do that night done. Finally, we already go to school for large amounts of time and do a lot of work there and then they try to make us do even more outside of class. School is basically like a full time job for students and if you participate in extracurriculars than it just seems like everything gets so clustered in your life. I believe homework is an unnecessary stress that can be eliminated for the young people today.

Your idea of a happy life

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100) (a) Social Impact of Black Money
(b) Women Combat Forces
(c) Internet as Virtual Library
(d) Fashion Boom in India
(e) Are we Aggressive and Rude People?
2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language (5 x 15 = 75) There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another.

There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding. It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience.

Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that ‘Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,’ (a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions? (b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West? (c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization? (d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies? (e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel ‘facile generalization’? 3. Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. Clearly state the number of words in the precis at the end. (75)

We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one’s behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use.

Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say.

They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals. With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people ‘on and off’ if done at the appropriate time.

Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone’s behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak.

The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them.

Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener’s gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705) 4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10) (i) Neither percept nor dscipline are so forceful as example. (ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood. (iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?

(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet. (v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them, (vi) On entering the hail, the humber of visitors surprised me (vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words. (viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly. (ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.

(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.

(b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences: (5) (i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod. (ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance. (iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits. (iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks. (v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.

(c) Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences: (5) (i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take. (A) knows (B) is known
(C) has been known (D) has known

(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken
(C) broke (D) has broken

(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed. (A) had answered (B) would have answered
(C) would answer (D) has broken

(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department. (A) to have given (B) having given
(C) have given (D) to give

(v) Please don’t ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open
(C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door
(d) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (5) (i) He said, “I will not approve of such a behaviour in future.” (ii) He said on the telephone, “We kept on doing our work till late night.” (iii) She said, “As your mother is ill, you must go home at once.” (iv) Ram said to Sita, “Do you intend to come with me to the forest?” (v) The child said to the Sherpa, “Why didn’t you choose to climb to the Moon?” 5. (a) Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences: (10) For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days. (i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work. (ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk. (iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people. (iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan. (v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years. (vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir. (vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs. (viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________. (ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility. (x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold. (b) Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning: 10 (i) Pitch (as noun and verb)

(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)
(iii) Humble (as adjective and verb)
(iv) In (as adverb and preposition)

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5) (i) bell the cat
(ii) thank one’s stars
(iii) be on tenterhooks
(iv) true to one’s salt colours
(v) come ant with flying

Analysis of Central Idea in Helena Maria Viramontes’ “The Moths”

The short story “The Moths” by Helena Maria ViraMontes is the story of a Latina granddaughter reminiscing about her relationships between herself and family, most specifically with her grandmother, when the narrator was a teenage girl. The narrator speaks about the indifference she felt among her sisters because she feels she was not pretty enough and could not “do the girl things they could do” (ViraMontes 1118.) Furthermore she expresses that she is always in trouble and she is used to getting punished for her disruptiveness. She spends her time watching over her grandmother since her grandmother has always watched over her. Throughout the story, the grandmother progressively becomes more and more ill with cancer, while the grandaughter becomes more and more emotionally, and productively responsible.

Finally the cancer kills the grandmother, and the granddaughter continues to take care of her, undressing her and washing her in the tub, as she holds her and rocks her back and forth. At this point, moths are released from the grandmother; the moths which the grandmother told the granddaughter “lay within the soul and slowly eat the spirit up” (ViraMontes 1121.) The granddaughter cries and sobs in the tub with her grandmother until her sadness transformed into relief. Later the granddaughter talks about the sun and how it cannot shine forever. It must disappear in order to reappear for the next day. She also notices that “endings are inevitable” (ViraMontes 1121) and it is necessary to be reborn. After the grandmother has passed, on the granddaughter who felt so distant from her mother, now longs to be with her, to establish a new relationship was born from the death of an old one. Therefore during emotionally challenging times, we must all be able to let our guard down, be vulnerable, and allow our emotions to own us in order to obtain peace in one’s life.

How do Larkin and Abse present the idea of disappointment and loss?

Both Larkin and Abse write poems about disappointment and loss but both having a different idea to how it is presented In ‘Home is so sad,’ by Philip Larkin, the idea of disappointment and loss is presented through a home. The form and structure gives off spontaneous thoughts and written in two quintains and each stanza containing 5 lines. Each line contains ten syllables with a basic iambic metre and containing internal full stops. The poem has a basic rhyme scheme of A,B,A,B,A and contains enjambermont in points throughout. The title in the poem is a bit ironic because ‘home’ is associated with a warm, safe, pleasant place and shouldn’t be associated with sadness. In the first quintain, Larkin writes about when a family leaves the house to go out, “Instead, bereft of anyone to please,” meaning the house feels lost and has nobody to please and “Having no heart to put aside the theft.” The noun ‘theft’ associates with robbery. This metaphor is that the house has been robbed of people, and not robbed in literal. In the second quintain the poet writes “long fallen wide,” this suggests hopelessness, the term “shot” is an attempt to make things how they ought to be.

Through this poem we can see that Larkin doesn’t associate loss and disappointment with serious matters like family and relationships but a house and objects. However, Abse writes his poems to do with disappointment and loss about serious matters. In ‘A Winter Visit,’ by Dannie Abse, the poet writes about his mum who has now died. The rhyme scheme in the poem goes A,B,A which creates disharmony and is made up of five tursets with three lines. In the first stanza the poet says “neighbouring lights come on before it’s dark” which is a preparation for nightime when it goes dark which would mean a preparation for his mother’s death. In the third stanza the poet starts off with “I would die” which suggests loss and possibility which is then followed by “This winter I’m half dead, son” which signals to us that she is aware death is near. The fourth stanza is then started with a modal verb ‘Yet’ which suggest certainty that the poet can’t cry at the situation and then continued with parenthesis “(although only Nothing keeps)” which shows that everything changes. These show disappointment and loss because Abse is aware of his mother’s death and understands that his mother has come to terms with it but wants to stay strong for her sake.

Which then goes on to describe “white coat not a black” the poet has deliberately stated ‘not a black’ because black is the colour associated with death and would be the ideal colour under these circumstances but the poet is wearing white because he is a doctor but he isn’t behaving like he’s at a funeral. The poet then goes on to finish the fourth stanza with “even here – and am not qualified to weep” meaning Abse is qualified as a doctor but isn’t qualified to cry in this situation, which a doctor is a job associated with death every day. In the last stanza we get the sense of disappointment when Abse writes “approximate things” which is something that is not specific when you’re talking generally, but meaning he doesn’t know how long she has left so he is avoiding the issue. Through this one poem we can see that unlike Larkin, Abse writes his poems with the themes of disappointment and loss about serious matters to do with family and beloved members to him which actually have a point.

However, in ‘Reference Back,’ by Philip Larkin, he starts to use the theme of disappointment and loss but writes about a serious point, his mother. But to no surprise, we get the negative view as usual through his poems and his negative style of writing in his poems. The form and structure of the poem are made up of 3 stanzas; a sestet, 9 lines and 7 lines. The fact this poem has no usual symmetry creates a sense of disharmony which is unsatisfactory. The rhyme scheme is A,A,B,B which is made up of rhyming couplets and some half rhymes which brings regularity to the poem, and filled with enjambermont “you / looked so much forward to”. In the first stanza we get the repetition of the term “unsatisfactory” which is not positive as visiting his mum is becoming a bit of a chore to him and he doesn’t enjoy it. This is then followed by “Played record after record” which is almost like a routine and does this instead of communicating with his mum but does it “idly” meaning he put no effort in.

The adverbial of place “Wasting my time at home” is juxtaposition and “you looked so much forward to” meaning his mum looked forward to it. This presents the idea of disappointment because Larkin isn’t entirely happy about having to go and spend time with his mum before she dies which any normal person would be happy about spending time with family and having memories whereas Larkin feels as though it is a chore and has no choice that he is ‘wasting his time.’ In the second stanza at the end, we get an oxymoron “unsatisfactory prime” which means he is unhappy ‘unsatisfactory’ but prime means positive. However, in the last, third stanza, we get the sense of disappointment mainly about memories for the future and in the past. Larkin starts off with “our element is time” meaning you can’t escape time no matter what and they are “not suited to the long perspectives /open at each instant of our lives.” This shows a point of view and that the poet is not comfortable for them to look too far ahead because he knows his mother will pass away and doesn’t want to look back on memories due to a broken home and being full of disappointments.

We get the sense of loss in the last few lines through the plural noun ‘losses showing he had a boring life and the adverb ‘blindingly’ meaning you don’t see reality. Larkin then goes on to end the poem with “By acting differently we could have kept it so” which tells us that you can never keep the same no matter what you do. Through these three poems we can clearly see that both poets use the themes disappointment and loss in different ways and both with different views.

Article Review On “Evidence Based Management(EBM), The Very Idea”

Introduction

There has been a recent trend in commending evidence-based approaches for management and policy making decision in the public sector. Evidence based management(EBM) is an aspect that has been heavily developed and relied on in certain practices such as evidence-based policy and evidence-based medicine.  These forms of approaches utilize recent best evidence in decision making and management. Evidence based management(EBM) involves  managerial based decisions and organizational practices that are informed by the best and available scientific evidence with the best evidence in this case being the norms of natural sciences. Evidence based approaches have gained fame over the years. The same has not been without its ups and down.

This has seen evidence based management generate debate with writers such as Learmouth & Harding (2007) opposing the very idea of utilizing the widely acclaimed evidence based approach in fields such as health care. The document reviews the(Learmouth & Harding (2007) article with a look at the evidence provided by the two in support of their opposition to the use of evidence based management (EBM) in health care. The positives and negatives of their arguments will be reviewed. Evidence of the same will be based on the Learmouth & Harding (2007) article as well as literature from related articles.

Discussion

The evidence based management as analyzed by Learmouth & Harding (2007) article presents a strong case that shows that there is reason to believe and support the research bothwriters  have accomplished to discredit the use of this approach especially in health care. Both Learmouth & Harding (2007) raise a good debate on the development of evidence based approaches to management and organization. The researchers clearly raise the issues they feel plague the use of evidence based management(EBM) in health care and in any other setting.

To Learmouth & Harding (2007), this is an approach that is a misguided aspect with the unpredictable nature of evidence in the management discipline. Also, Learmouth & Hardin (2007) have the take that evidence based management is not there to help the public service and will not at the end contribute anything meaningful to the effectiveness in organizations (Axelsson, 1998).  This is in spite of other systems such as evidence based medicine beinghailed as the best method of reducing uncertainty in clinical practice.

Learmouth & Harding (2007) opposition to the use of evidence based management(EBM) in organizational setting raises and opens the reader’s eyes to a major issue in their debate-arriving at an agreement on evidence. One is made to agree with Learmouth & Harding (2007) debate that it is one thing to reach a consensus in medicine and other fields and another in reaching the same in social sciences so as to flag the appropriateness of the use of evidence based management(EBM) in health care. Such techniques as the use of the evidence based medicine has worked well but this should not be the assumption in all the cases as highlighted by Learmouth & Harding (2007). The fact that the two researchers also disapprove of generalizations in the different approaches is a positive aspect in the research.

The reasons the two give is valid in that the cause and effect connections that are there in organizational research are not in any way readily subject to controlled experiments such as those in medicine. However, there is an oversight and thus a disadvantage in Learmouth & Harding (2007) debate.

One can counter their opposition to the generalization point on the use of evidence based management(EBM)in that where the presence of clear necessitates the establishment of decision making rules which the scientific community is able to endorse. Learmouth & Harding (2007) would want their readers to believe that a solution to finding a cause and effect connection in organizational settings does not exist but this is not the case (Parker, 2001).This is a side that is missing in their debate in that over the years, there has been the establishment of consensus around the use of constructive reviews and meta-analysis in order to identify the convergent findings in the organizational research and the boundary conditions.

Learmouth & Harding (2007) do not leave any option to the reader to see a chance in the establishment of a movement towards evidence based management which would even be capable of fostering great attention to the convergent findings and their implications to practice and science. One feels that Learmouth & Harding (2007) are advocating and supporting the continued fragmentation and novelty in the current organizational research. By focusing on the high consensus areas, there will be a chance for EBM (evidence based management) to have efforts directed towards accounting for divergence and inconsistency in the areas of limited convergence in organizational research(Linstead & Grafton-Small, 1992).

Managerialism is also another major issue that Learmouth & Harding (2007) raise with the use of Evidence Based Management (EBM).  The researchers support the opposition to the use of the same in such systems as organizations. According to Learmouth & Harding (2007), the use of EBM supports and reinforces Managerialism. The evidence based approaches are used to reinforce the managerial power with some forms of legitimized forms of evidence while they obscure non-managerial ways of understanding organizational life.

One can associate with such an argument in that the evidence given by Learmouth & Harding (2007) is that there have been long standing workplace ethnographies which have stood to benefit organizations by such acts as exposing power, inequality and conflicts in the organizations (Kovner et al., 2000).  Thus elements such as Managerialism have no chance of prospering in such an environment. This greatly benefits the organization.

However, there is a downside to the evaluation of only one side of the effect of EBM as far as Managerialism is concerned. The evidence by Learmouth & Harding (2007) is hinged on bias on whether there has been enough inquiry to the effective ways of organizing and managing based on less non-traditional and hierarchical view of workers, governance and employment (Ferlie et al., 2001). It is not justifiable to brush off EBM on managerialism basis since the same would serve as a counterforce to the self- serving and arbitrariness bias observed in the form firms are managed and organized nowadays (Parker, 2001). Any innovation can be affected in that it can be misused. Evidence of such is the presence of a regulation in the use of evidence based medicine in the UK National Health Service. However, the use of EBM can act as the basis to develop effective organizational and professional competencies (Harris, 1998).

Learmouth & Harding (2007) are wary of the role that EBM may come to acquire in terms of power. The two are skeptic of the fact that EBM may become an avenue that serves interests. This shows how Learmouth & Harding (2007) have put a great deal of effort into all the aspects that may hinder the smooth operation of such programs as EBM in health care.

As researchers, they have succeeded in evaluating all the angles of a research issue. Learmouth & Harding (2007) show that it would be naïve to not think of politics as the same are pervasive and real. Such an aspect as the development and implementation of EBM to organization and management can affect such issues as how legitimacy, funding  and influence is allocated to such groups as practitioners, teachers and scholars. Management is free of such aspects such as social and political interests as well as moral considerations.  However, true as this may be and a correct inference by Learmouth & Harding (2007), power and politics cannot be avoided.

The real problem that Learmouth & Harding (2007) seem to be wary of is that qualitative research may not be able to meet the evidentiary standards that EBM may incorporate and employ (Linstead & Grafton-Small, 1992).   Also, Learmouth & Harding (2007) seem to be wary that qualitative research may be devalued which will result in the decline of legitimacy as well as its funding. Evidence cannot be said to be of particular measure or method social science uses.

As opposed to Learmouth & Harding (2007) hesitation with unobstructed power in the use of EBM, this may not be the case as qualitative research is a sure way of identifying the areas in science that are not clear. Qualitative research is capable of being put into practice to identify the meanings underlying the observed patterns and also in helping to translate the evidence into practice through exploration of the politics, subjectivity and the conflicts that are involved in the changes to organizational practice (Carter, 2000).

Conclusion

The implementation and the design of the EBM is not an aspect that should be generalized and opposed without full evaluation. The implementation as well as the design of EBM should be subject to critical inquiry. The critique by Learmouth & Harding (2007) evades some aspects and in doing so mislead the audience. There is no denying that EBM may affect all the management aspects but the same should not be a reason to abandon the approach. There should and will be movements towards EBM which involve many of the community that are interested in the design of the same. There will be development, implementation, learning and redesign over time. Fear of loss should not hinder the focus for the opportunity on constructive change.

References

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Ferlie , E . , J . Gabbay , L . Fitzgerald , et al . 2001 . ‘ Evidence-based Medicine and     Organisational Change: an Overview of Some Recent Qualitative Research ’ , in L .        Ashburner ( ed .), Organisational Behaviour and Organisational Studies in Health Care:       Refl ections on the Future . Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, pp . 18 – 42 .

Carter , J . 2000 . ‘ New Public Management and Equal Opportunities in the NHS ’ , Critical     Social Policy , 20 , 61 – 83 .

Harrison , S . 1998 . ‘ The Politics of Evidence-based Medicine ’ , Policy and Politics , 26 , 15 –            31 .

Kovner , A . R . , J . J . Elton and J . Billings . 2000 . ‘ Evidence-based Management ’ , Frontiers          of Health Services Management , 16 , 3 – 24 .

Linstead , S . and R . Grafton-Small . 1992 . ‘ On Reading Organizational Culture ’ ,      Organization Studies , 13 , 331 – 55 .

Parker , M . 2002 . Against Management: Organization in the Age of Managerialism .     Cambridge : Polity Press

Learmouth, M., & Harding, N. (April 01, 2007). Evidence-based management: The very            idea. Sage Public Administration Abstracts, 34, 1.)