The Importance of Speaking Truthfully and Being Virtuous

Writing Assignment #3: The Importance of Speaking Truthfully and Being Virtuous

California Baptist University


The paper evaluations the significance of speaking honestly and being virtuous when creating and presenting a speech.

Keywords: talking truthfully, being virtuous , presenting a speech.

Writing Assignment #3:The Importance of Speaking Truthfully and Being VirtuousIn order to be as credible as possible, we must say the reality. As a human, we are receiving a number of pieces of information and message telling us what to do, which may be very complicated and even terrifying.

Being virtuous and speaking honestly are important tools of communication that each works on daily life and whereas developing a speech.

What it really means?

Speaking in truth is talking with the guts, honesty, and compassion. In the word honestly there could be the word: fact, which is the frequent thread to observe for this kind of speech.

Being virtuous is expressing the characteristics of the 4 cardinal virtues (Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance). Indeed, this is linked to morality with the standard of doing what is correct and avoiding what’s wrong.


Applying these ideas shouldn’t be an issue for the speakers on the time to talk in front of everybody. There are just a few key points necessary to respect after we are making ready and speaking.

According to The New Times: “Truthfulness is the best and most necessary of all human virtues.” (The New Times, p.1) Indeed, I instantly consider a prime quality that distinguishes the person who acts for a great of the person.

Truthfulness is a superb virtue, and that is important for the speaker to talk with love so as to convince the audience. Moreover, the speaker needs to be open-mind in order to remove any doubt. In reality, once we are talking truthfully and being virtuous, we ourselves imagine in what we are saying, which permits us to be much more convincing.


Deliver a truthful and virtuous speech is just like a moral speech. Therefore, we now have to be objective, avoiding dangerous opinion whereas saying the reality. According to The New Times: ” Moral of the story: Truthfulness brings its own reward.” (The New Times, p.7)


Jaffe, C. I. (2017). Public speaking, concepts and expertise for a diverse society, 8th Edition Boston.

The News Times (2017), Why it’s necessary to be truthful,

Manchester United conceded a draw at Wolverhampton on Monday (1-1). If Anthony Martial opened the scoring, Paul Pogba missed the penalty of the win.

After their resounding success against Chelsea on the primary day of the Premier League (4-0), Manchester United failed to carry on to the Wolverhampton area on Monday (1-1). The Red Devils had the sport in hand however gave on a jewel of Ruben Neves. Paul Pogba missed the penalty for the victory.

The jewel of Neves, the failure of Pogba

Aspects of comedy present in pages 1-10 of ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’

Numerous elements of comedy may be present in pages one to ten of ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’.
The facet of servants and masters is one that presents itself immediately in the play, by way of the relationship that exists between Algernon, the ‘master’, and Lane, the servant. The very first thing that is spoken about between these two characters, is Algernon’s piano enjoying. Upon being asked “Did you hear what I was enjoying, Lane?” Lane replies, “I didn’t assume it well mannered to pay attention, sir.

” This is comedian for a few causes.

Firstly, it might be interpreted that Lane is, subtly, scolding Algernon for even thinking that a servant would take heed to his master taking part in the piano, which is funny correctly Algernon doing the scolding, as master. Secondly, Lane might merely be poking enjoyable on the Victorian social system; ridiculing it at the fact that Lane shouldn’t even be allowed to take heed to Algernon play, which may seem ridiculous to his character, and perhaps the viewers also, particularly within the present day.

Another aspect of comedy offered within the first ten pages of ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ is Bathos. Bathos is when a topic falls from something sublime and essential, to one thing mundane and trivial. This occurs when Algernon is talking to Lane about afternoon tea, “Speaking of the science of Life, have you ever received the cucumber sandwiches reduce for Lady Bracknell?”.

This is comic as ‘cucumber sandwiches’ are , obviously, totally unrelated to ‘the science of Life’, and in normal society would not be thought of as neither necessary nor significantly fascinating, something which either Algernon or Lady Bracknell would clearly be inclined to disagree with.

This reference to cucumber sandwiches, and there importance, also pokes enjoyable at Victorian high society; the issues important of their lives would seem trivial and insignificant to the relaxation of society, and by no means ‘high’ in importance.

Marriage, also, is offered in this scene, once once more via Algernon. After Jack informs Algernon that he wishes to suggest to Gwendolen, Algernon replies “I thought you had come up right here for pleasure? … I name that business”. Here, Algernon undermines the idea of marriage and proposal,saying that he sees it as business, and afterward saying that he finds by no means romantic. Cynicism is applied here, and is used comically by Wilde to, once once more, spotlight the odd way that things of great significance are treated by Algernon, and perhaps by the rest of the upper-classes too.

Town vs. country is one other aspect that’s introduced on this section of the play, this time via Jack, or Ernest. “When one is in town one amuses oneself, when one is in the country one amuses others. It is excessively boring.”, is what Jack tells Algernon when questioned by him why he was within the country.

This line is a poignant one, as it highlights both what people thought of ‘the country’ as opposed to ‘the town’ in Victorian society, and likewise the double identity of Jack, which is the principle recurring theme throughout the relaxation of the play. It also reveals not only the fictitious feelings created by Jack, for his alter ego Ernest, but in addition maybe, the true emotions of Jack himself, hinting at why he visits London so often.

There are also minor slapstick influences on this a half of ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’, for example when Jack ‘puts out his hand to take a sandwich’ and ‘Algernon directly interferes’, however this depends totally upon how the director interprets the stage directions, and will most probably vary from production to production. Although, slapstick might be used to make this part of the play extra comedian, for instance if Algernon were to very obviously slap Jack’s hand away, and seem offended.

These are only a few examples of a few of the aspects of comedy that may be discovered from the primary scene of ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’.

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An Assessment on the Importance of Public Personnel Management as a Field of Study

Public Personnel Management as a field of study has undergone considerable growth prior to now forty years. Personnel professionals now have obtainable a variety of methods which they can apply toward the efficient acquisition, allocation, and improvement of human sources – human resource planning, job evaluation, choice, appraisal, coaching, and labour administration relations.

The subject of personnel management is rising in significance as organizations of every kind increasingly focuses on the role of staff in organizational culture and efficiency. Competent workers are important to the introduction and retention of quality goods and companies, customer satisfaction, and long term organizational viability.

Graduates of personnel management are employed as human useful resource specialists, generalists, profit directors, analysts, trainers, as a outcome of they have been taught on compensation, industrial relation, recruitment, efficiency evaluation, planning and improvement to enable them acquire the mandatory skills and information to successfully help organizations in altering employee values, norms and behaviours in maintaining with emerging or new organizational dynamics.

If one analyses the term public personnel administration, it’s clear that the concept encompass the following three integrated parts: i) Public: This refers to the locus of the sub-discipline, that is, the terrain or area in which it’s practiced, particularly the basic public sector typically (including commercialized public firms, statutory our bodies and native authorities), and the public service in particular (consisting of the central, state, departments and the provisional administration).

ii) Personnel: This denotes the human sources – labour, workers, personnel, etc – who are employed in the public and private sectors and who’re concerned in service supply within the society.

iii) Management: This refers to those practices, activities and processes associated to the marshalling of the human sources of a company in order to contribute effectively and effectively to the optimum achievement of predetermined organizational objectives.

Public Personnel Management can therefore be define as ‘the art and science of policy-making, planning, choice making, organizing, controlling, and motivating human resources for securing, maintaining, growing, integrating, involving, compensating in addition to enriching human environment for the blooming of human abilities and capacities in a government owned organizations, so as to secure organizational and social goals in addition to employees’ satisfaction’.

The origins of Personnel management could be traced to the priority about exploitation of people working in factories during and after industrial revolution and was launched by way of regulation of the land in most of the countries to take care of points pertaining to grievances and welfare of the workmen. As the dynamics in relations between commerce unions and administration modified, the personnel management obligations consequently grew beyond welfare to different areas similar to making certain amicable industrial relations and effective personnel administration. During this period the emphasis was on formulating and monitoring conformance to rules and procedures.

The world in the Nineteen Seventies, saw adjustments within the competitive human assets surroundings led to by rising competitors, which resulted in availability of extensive selection for customers and that in flip, gave a model new dimension to market – customers’ preference, which in effect drives companies to constantly innovate and provide the type of worth to buyer that competition can’t match.

With this shift in business dynamics, the conclusion dawned on firms that individuals and their information is the only supply of sustainable competitive advantage, as other sources associated to supplies, tools, technology, funds and so forth have proved quick lived in the absence of human capital capable of deploying these sources successfully and effectively. Companies now bank on people’s area knowledge mixed with their awareness of markets (customers’ expectations & competitors’ moves in particular) for developing innovative new products & providers and thus creating enhanced worth proposition for purchasers. This marked change in perspective of managements saw the emergence of concept of Public Personnel Management which characterizes implementation of personnel policies to maximise objectives of organizational integrity, employee commitment, flexibility and high quality.

IThe recognition of the function and importance of public personnel management within the office has lead to a requirement for graduates who’re skilled and certified in public personnel management who can advise organizations on this space, and the highest improvement of a career construction through which such an workers may rise to the best ranges of the organization.

The importance of public personnel management as a subject of research particularly within the twenty first century can’t be overemphasized as a end result of the effectiveness of any group in general is a direct operate of the qualitative individuals (employees) who make up that group. The data, expertise, skills, and commitment of the members of the group collectively constitute the most critical factor within the growth and implementation of labor plans and the supply of services without which the group can’t accomplish its objectives. Consequently, the attraction, recruitment, organization, placement, development and motivation of certified manpower (the personnel perform of management) is a central accountability of all levels of management, from the chief government to the primary line supervisor.

Secondly, Public Personnel Management as a course of examine exposes college students to the tutorial disciplines that underlie the efficient management of human sources, and goes on to discover each theory and apply of human management actions. Such actions vary from initial manpower planning, which reflects the broad long run aims of the group along with its technological and labour market content, through resorting and then onto the training and growth of people and groups, which is able to enhance their performance. How successfully an company accomplishes its mission is heavily determined by the ability, dedication, and morale of its workers therefore public personnel administration as a subject of research avails a possibility for future managers and directors to be higher outfitted with managerial expertise and capacities with which to effectively and effectively administer in the future.

Thirdly, public personnel management as a subject of examine is important as a outcome of it’s a science that is concerned with the examine of administrative process, authorities actions and unbiased variables. It is basically the study of assorted processes and specific practical actions by the institutions that should function inside a particular environment to enhance the final welfare of society by providing products and services to it.

Fourthly, public personnel administration is essential as it focuses on the applying of management practices and strategies in the public sector, that is, the administration of personnel in public organization therefore it includes an understanding of the actual political and authorities environment in which selections and actions relating to the management of public workers happen.

Amusement in Moral Decay in “The Importance of Being Earnest”

Queen Victoria revolutionised many elements of everyday life for employees, center and aristocratic classes. Victorians strived for the patriarchal construction of a family, showcasing the perfect wealth and relationships, faking their correct behaviour, morality and values, when truly they were hiding and distorting their true selves. Oscar Wild rebels towards the prim and correct behaviour of upper-class society, „business“ marriages, dishonesty and mocks the whole Victorian interval and the era’s followers. Using satire, he makes enjoyable of human shortcomings and a society in which seems, and wealth are extra valued than sincerity or realness.

Characters of the play bend their truths and drain honesty so much that the only factor left on their fancy towels are lies and pretending. What follows is an interpretation of Oscar Wilde’s characters who mistook ethical for dandiness and wealth in the play The Importance of Being Earnest.

Lady Augusta Bracknell is the primary embodiment of upper-class Victorian snob. She is the driving force and the decision maker behind each love plot within the story.

Bracknell takes management of every thing as if she is one thing greater than a tyrant and Oscar uses that to critique the false sense of self-worth and artificial earnestness. To criticize Bracknell’s follies Wilde makes use of irony and reveals us that although she had no wealth in the time of marrying, “When I married Lord Bracknell I had no fortune of any sort. But I by no means dreamed for a moment of allowing that to face in my way.” (Wilde, 79), she nonetheless taps into every decision her daughter desires to make contemplating her love life and does not let her marry anyone else beside the lads on her listing.

Having money and energy, and no solidarity she enforces social discrimination and proves the contempt Wilde has for Victorian social requirements as he mocks it via her.

Tyraning over her daughter Gwendolen Fairfax, Lady Bracknell is attempting to hold up their wealth standing and as a Victorian aristocrat fears moral decay. Gwendolen is raised to self-improve however is definitely simply drowning in her hypocritical ideals. She prefers type over truth and sincerity and accepts every excuse and lie if she manages to get something out of it.

In issues of grave significance, type, not sincerity is the very important factor. Mr. Worthing, what explanation are you able to provide to me for pretending to have a brother? Was it so that you may need a possibility of coming up to town to see me as usually as possible? (Wilde 124)

Love is an issue for Gwendolen. She solely has one situation beneath which she is going to marry somebody. It is that her future husband have to be named Earnest and Cecily needs the same for herself too. “GWENDOLEN and CECILY [Speaking together.] Your Christian names are nonetheless an insuperable barrier. That is all!” (Wilde 126) With the truth that both of them want to marry an Earnest however do not want their Earnests to truly be sincere, and each of the lads are keen to change their names just to marry, Wilde makes a comedy out of love and the characters to mock the shortage of humanity and extra of vanity and shallowness.

The males they wish to marry, Algernon and Jack, continuously disrespect and tease each other, as if they already know that Jack is Algernon’s older brother. Paralleling their actions, similar as he did with Cecily and Gwendolen, Wilde introduces stock characters. Male leads both have a second identity, and each are in love with a younger lady and the only factor that different them is their handle. They each are figures which assist Wilde show us that they, together with their companions, make enjoyable of the establishment of marriage and love. They are very beneficiant in making up and building up their poor lives a lot they handle to idiot everyone, including their partners.

Jack and Algernon, Gwendolen, Cecily and Lady Bracknell all have a desire for social improvement, without being conscious of that that with their lies, requirements and mocking they’re burying themselves even deeper than they already have been. Wilde sees no potential hope for this society and accentuates the way that girls in that time have been solemnly in search of things and different people to make them look even better than they thought-about themselves to be. Also, fortune and family background have a major role on this play and Oscar Wilde paints the image of a rotting Victorian society disliking both the methods and the technique of that era. He wishes to reveal all the filth and morbidity in a satiric matter and succeeds at it and provides us a look of how deceptional were the higher courses of Victorianism.

Importance Of Prayer In Life vs Government Resolution

A dialogue of the part prayer plays in today’s world

Does prayer play an necessary role in our lives today? The minority would say no and that prayer shouldn’t ever have performed an necessary position in our society. But, the straightforward truth of the matter is that for lots of of years, prayer in school has been encouraged by both society and government. In latest years, it has been established that prayer in colleges has led to a steady ethical decline.

Morals must be taught, in class and at residence, they usually cannot be correctly taught with out faith as a much wanted stepping stone. Our authorities was primarily based upon spiritual beliefs from the very starting. The Declaration of Independence says: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that every one men are created equal, that they are endowed by God with sure unalienable rights. . .” Certainly, it talks about God, creations, God-given ethical rights, the providence of God, and the final Day of Judgment-all of which are spiritual teachings.

And college prayer has been an important a part of our religious expertise from the very beginning. Our very First Amendment didn’t separate God and authorities but really encouraged religion. It reads: “Congress shall make no law respecting the institution of religion, nor prohibit the free exercise thereof,” (Encarta 96). The first half simply says that the federal authorities cannot establish one religion for the entire folks. The simple thought of everyone in our nation being restricted to a minimal of one type of religion is inconceivable.

The second part insists that the government ought to do nothing to discourage faith. But forbidding prayer in faculties discourages faith, doesn’t it? Early congressional actions inspired faith in public schools. For example, the Northwest Treaty (1787 and 1789) declared: “Religion, morality, and data being essential for good authorities and the happiness of mankind, faculties, and the means of studying shall endlessly be encouraged” (Encarta 96). By seeing this, religion, which includes prayer, was deemed to be necessary. Congress has prayed on the opening of every session for the reason that very beginning. By acknowledging these details we ask the simple question, ” If the federal government can pray in their classes, why can’t the ruled pray of their (school) sessions? Public colleges had prayer for practically 200 years before the Supreme Court dominated that state-mandated class prayers have been unconstitutional in Engel vs. Vitale in 1962 (Buckley 70). How may this path have such a huge impact on our nation and ultimately alter how we understand our constitution?

The proven truth that prayer was practiced for nearly 200 years alone establishes it by instance as a legitimate and very important practice in our faculty system. And with the emergence of private schools turning into extra visible and fairly popular, does the state of affairs change due to the up-and-coming number of private faculties in our communities today? Seeing that privately owned schools obviously have the proper to teach sure beliefs and have certain rules to abide by with out questioning different authorities, why shouldn’t public faculties be allowed the same quantity of leeway? These personal schools are exactly what they are saying, private, due to this fact choosing and selecting students primarily based upon revenue and beliefs. Private schools wouldn’t have to accept an atheist or Christian, but they select the type of child that can slot in to their faculty extra adequately. Seeing as how non-public schools are funded privately, on the opposite hand, public faculties are funded by the government via taxes.

This would lead us to consider that the government could be different from the state right? Right, in many ways, the church and state nonetheless coincide with each other and many people recognize this and do not like it, thus causing the controversy of prayer in class. Why do we not simply simplify the matter and impose a “voluntary” prayer amendment to make everyone pleased. This modification would allow kids who want to pray to have the ability to pray and people who don’t wish to pray wouldn’t be compelled into doing so, wouldn’t this be an excellent idea? There are several the purpose why “voluntary” prayer modification would have the power to set up itself as a lasting regulation in our nation.

The first would be because it might implement the First Amendment’s assure against authorities established religion. If a “voluntary” prayer modification was handed then college prayer supporters would finally attempt to apply this rule by encouraging organized, every day classroom shows of faith and finally prayer in schools. By making this right into a law it might merely be an act to help solidify our forefather’s constitution that has successfully led us where we are today with merely, precise tips. America is called the land of the free and home to tens of millions of people. These people have many different cultures and traditions that assist to make our nation the nice nati

Alfieri Tells the Audience “Justice Is Very Important Here’. How Does Arthur Miller Show the Importance of Justice within the Play?

After Eddie hits Rodolfo the audience gets the sensation that he feels this is justice for Rodolfo main Catherine away from the life Eddie wanted her to have. This is emphasised by Eddie’s use of the word ‘Danish’ to explain Rodolfo. By utilizing this as a nickname Miller is attempting to entry the purpose that Eddie is attempting to isolate Rodolfo from the Italian neighborhood and also their family. The true sense of justice on this scene however, comes from Marco who ‘raises the chair over his head’.

This is a transparent sense of warning implied by Marco, which is clearly registered by Eddie, ‘Eddies grin vanished. ’ This, to Marco, is a sense of justice coming to Eddie for attempting to make either him of his brother really feel like they don’t belong. While additionally foreshadowing what’s going to happen on the end of Act 2. Miller highlights justice as one of the most necessary things in Eddie’s life. However, he leads the audience to investigate whether or not Eddie’s wishes are actually ‘just’.

What Eddie needs is his honour and his name but additionally Catherine. ‘Marcos got my name. He also wants his respect back from Marco, which he has fully lost by the actions his inappropriate feelings for Catherine have brought on him to take. In the structure of a Greek tragedy that Miller is attempting to create Eddie performs the protagonist. It is his conflict between his good quality’s and the progressively rise of his dangerous ones that pressure the drama forwards with each Eddie and Marcos need for justice.

The importance of justice proven within the play involves a drama crammed end with Marco finally getting the justice he believes he deserves.

The end of this play was foreshadowed when Marco said, ‘all the legislation is not in a book. ’ By saying this Miller has implied to the viewers that Marco believes it is his duty to convey Eddie’s life to an finish, ‘in my country he could be lifeless by now. ’ He additionally brings within the claim felt by Marco of natural justice and the way by disregarding the respect Marco feels for Rodolfo, ‘my brother, my blood,’ Eddie has lead himself in to the state of affairs the place he is nothing greater than an ‘animal’ who deserves to die.

In conclusion, throughout the play Miller implies the theme of justice as the most distinguished and essential theme of the play. It is doubtless one of the only things Marco and Eddie have in common, in the greatest way that they each search for it and ultimately it completed with Eddie useless and Marco being sent again to Italy. In the final scene Miller reveals the viewers that though you may achieve the justice you sought out for like Marco, ‘Eddie falls to his knees before Marco,’ it may be the thing that results in a characters downfall, in which it did with both Eddie and Marco at the end of this play.

A Woman of No Importance by Oscar Wilde

Wilde makes use of many dramatic results all through the play to shock and amuse the viewers and lots of of them may be seen in this ultimate scene. The fact that this conversation between Mrs Arbuthnot and Lord Illingworth takes place in Mrs Arbuthnot’s home, her private house and territory places her better off and it shows that Lord Illingworth is surrendering his ordinary control over his conditions By Lord Illingworth referring to Mrs Arbuthnot as ‘Rachel’ we’re again made aware that we’re listening to 2 people who have a powerful past relationship.

She calls him ‘George Harford’ whereas he makes use of her name far less often that within the persuasive Act 2. During this scene, Lord Illingworth speaks with consciousness of the authorized situation, he knows he can never make Gerald legitimate however he is prepared to leave him property “What more can a gentleman need in this world? ” and Mrs Arbuthnot’s response of “Nothing extra, I am quite sure” turns this in to a category confrontation.

When Mrs Arbuthnot says “I advised you I was not interested, and I beg you to go.” this can be a risk to conventional society and the audience would have been shocked by this.

She treats Lord Illingworth as he as soon as treated her, in purely monetary terms and she tells him that Gerald no longer needs his cash, “You come too late. My son has no need of you. You usually are not necessary.” She then goes on to explain to him that Gerald and Hester are in love and so they don’t want his money because Hester already has cash of her own.

Lord Illingworth asks where they may go and Mrs Arbuthnot’s reply “We is not going to let you know, and should you discover us we will not know you. You seem shocked.

What welcome would you get from the girl whose lips you tried to soil, from the boy whose life you’ve shamed, from the mother who dishonor comes from you? ” could be very melodramatic and it also relives the fact that Lord Illingworth tried to kiss Hester and that is when Gerald came upon that he was his father, “Lord Illingworth you may have insulted the purest factor on Gods earth”. This leaves Lord Illingworth to admit that he desires Gerald, “Rachel, I want my son. ” Wilde uses many props in this scene, the primary one being the letter Gerald has written to Lord Illingworth imploring him to marry his mom.

The audience know what is written in the letter before Lord Illingworth does and this provides drama and pressure as a end result of the audience are ready for the large reveal and to see what occurs. This letter additionally links back to the letter that Lord Illingworth sees in Act 2 and says “What a curious handwriting! It reminds me of the handwriting of a lady I used to know years in the past.” and his dismissal of it so simply. The stage direction of ‘Mrs Arbuthnot watches him all the time’ is essential as a outcome of she desires to see his reaction.

Ironically his proposal of marriage after studying Gerald’s letter uses similar language to Mrs Arbuthnot’s when explaining to Gerald why she would refuse him, for her marriage could be a ‘sacrifice’ and for Lord Illingworth it might be a ‘surrender’. For Mrs Arbuthnot to say this at this point within the play would have been very unusual for the time as a end result of the viewers would be expecting a contented ending, for the fallen women to marry the father of her youngster or for it to finish like a melodrama, in tragedy.

For the primary time, Mrs Arbuthnot is triumphant in opposition to Lord Illingworth with the repetition of his personal words when she says, “Children start by loving their parents. After a time they decide them. Rarely if ever do they forgive them. ” Lord Illingworth is clearly shocked at this response and then resorts to cruelty. His parting speech creates an thrilling climax as the censorship of the time wouldn’t enable anybody to say the word ‘bastard’ on the stage.

Wilde’s stage path of Mrs Arbuthnot’s use of the glove “Mrs Arbuthnot snatches up glove and strikes Lord Illingworth across the face with it” is an excellent use of a prop as a result of within the time this play was written a glove was a really masculine merchandise and being hit with one was a sign of violence and confrontation. The viewers is allowed a shock, due to the word about to be spoken after which they get a relief because the taboo is maintained by Mrs Arbuthnot chopping Lord Illingworth off earlier than he can end his sentence because she is not going to let him say the word as a outcome of she doesn’t need to hear him say this about her beloved son.

The villain is punished and Mrs Arbuthnot’s respectability is ma intained. All of that is typical of a melodrama and we the audience now really feel something has been achieved. Wilde’s use of stage directions are very properly positioned and are very dramatic, particularly the last few traces of this scene when Mrs Arbuthnot ‘falls sobbing on the sofa’ and it reinforces that this play is a melodrama as a outcome of individuals are not usually this dramatic in regular everyday life.

Gerald and Hester now return to Mrs Arbuthnot and we now have the image of ‘a man and a girl in a garden’ which has been mentioned beforehand all through the play and is an indication of sex and fertility and in this scene it shows the audience the picture of a new household rising. Due to Hester having modified her views from believing that women who’ve children outdoors of the laws of marriage ought to be punished, “A woman who has sinned must be punished, shouldn’t she? ” And that the youngsters must also carry this shame, “Yes, it is right that the sins of the dad and mom should be visited on the kids.

It is a just regulation. It is God’s law. ” to her now saying “I was mistaken. Gods legislation is just love.” Because she is in love with Gerald and has managed to pay attention and understand all the issues that Mrs Arbuthnot has had to face to bring up Gerald alone. At the tip of the play when Gerald sees the glove mendacity on the ground Mrs Arbuthnot picks up and changes the title line of the play and once again mirrors Lord Illingworth’s statement about seeing the letter from Mrs Arbuthnot, “Oh! o one. No one in particular. A Man of no importance. ” Unmarried and defiant she enters right into a recent and higher world although the 19th century attitudes to marriage are still upheld in a method as a outcome of despite the actual fact that she has won in opposition to Lord Illingworth and she or he has managed to keep Gerald and now has the love and respect of Hester the viewers are nonetheless left with the image of them being exiled to America, where they have much less strict views on illegitimacy and have more freedom.

A Reaction Paper on Importance of Minerals

Henry “Hal” McVey wrote a complete article on the importance of industrial minerals in a typical first-world person’s life. I say first-world because not each single person in the entire world may relate to what he calls “a regular working day”. A working particular person within the Philippines may probably identify with some however not in all the routines. Nevertheless, McVey was profitable in placing into light the many uses of non-metallic minerals in our on a daily basis lives.

He succeeded in providing a “broad insight into the significance of commercial minerals in our everyday life.

He did a fantastic job in emphasizing “how much our lives would be altered with out prepared and economical access to those fundamental constituents. ” Indirectly, Mr. McVey is saying that mining is essential as a result of our lives rely a lot on minerals. In addition to what he has cited, could I add that pregnant ladies must have an ample provide of minerals similar to iron, calcium, and magnesium to ensure the optimum progress of their babies.

Only, these minerals can solely be accessed by way of meals. The sorts of minerals which he cited in his paper can only be collected via mining.

Yes, I agree with Mr. McVey. Mining is essential and necessary. There is not any other activity recognized to man that may allow him to extract precious minerals from the earth’s core. It is as indispensable because the minerals themselves. However, every mining activity has its costs. Most typically than not, the environmental price outweighs the benefits. These are the costs which Mr.

McVey failed to include in his paper if he needed to current a balance picture of mining. Countless scenarios have been cited to create a picture of the evils of mining.

There is water pollution, habitat destruction, loss of biodiversity, human displacement, and other adverse environmental influence. In the Philippines, there are non-governmental teams which clamor for a moratorium on all mining actions within the nation. According to the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), a mining moratorium would enable the federal government to evaluation the insurance policies on mining and at the identical time, enable the environment to recover from destruction.

CBCP talked about further that “the current national policy favors overseas corporations prioritizing the uncontrolled entry of funding, undermining the setting and the rights and well-being of the affected communities. ” What the CBCP is saying is that mining does not present direct development to the community individuals, somewhat it brings environmental destruction. It is an issue that should not fall into deaf ears. Since we can’t do without the minerals in our lives, mining corporations should be accountable sufficient within the conduct of mineral extraction.

As a lot as potential, they need to mine with the least attainable environmental destruction. Moreover, a selected area must not be saturated with mining operations. Reforestation must be done as quickly as potential. It is hypocrisy to say that we get rid of mining. A compromise must be reached among the many affected communities, the mining firms, and the federal government. There should be a strict implementation of the tenets of the mining regulation. Mining is right here to stay but old harmful methods methods should be deserted and changed with methods which would possibly be more environment-friendly, if there are such issues.

Demat and its importance

In India, shares and securities are held electronically in a Dematerialized (or “Demat”) account, instead of the investor taking physical possession of certificates. A Dematerialized account is opened by the investor while registering with an investment broker (or sub-broker). The Dematerialized account number is quoted for all transactions to enable electronic settlements of trades to take place. Every shareholder will have a Dematerialized account for the purpose of transacting shares. Access to the Dematerialized account requires an internet password and a transaction password. Transfers or purchases of securities can then be initiated. Purchases and sales of securities on the Dematerialized account are automatically made once transactions are confirmed and completed. IMPORTANCE:

A demat account also helps avoid problems typically associated with physical share certificates, for example: delivery failures caused by signature mismatch, postal delays and loss of certificate during transit. Further, it eliminates the risks associated with forgery and due to damaged stock certificates. Demat account holders also avoid stamp duty (as against 0.5 per cent payable on physical shares) and filling up of transfer deeds. Goal of Demats System

India adopted the Demat System for electronic storing, wherein shares and securities are represented and maintained electronically, thus eliminating the troubles associated with paper shares. After the introduction of the depository system by the Depository Act of 1996, the process for sales, purchases and transfers of shares became significantly easier and most of the risks associated with paper certificates were mitigated Demat benefits

The benefits of demat are enumerate as follows:
Easy and convenient way to hold securities
Immediate transfer of securities
No stamp duty on transfer of securities
Safer than paper-shares (earlier risks associated with physical certificates
such as bad delivery, fake securities, delays, thefts etc. are mostly eliminated) Reduced paperwork for transfer of securities

Reduced transaction cost
No “odd lot” problem: even one share can be sold

Change in address recorded with a DP gets registered with all companies in which investor holds securities eliminating the need to correspond with each of them separately. Transmission of securities is done by DP, eliminating the need for notifying companies. Automatic credit into demat account for shares arising out of bonus/split, consolidation/merger, etc. A single demat account can hold investments in both equity and debt instruments. Traders can work from anywhere (e.g. even from home).

Benefit to the company The depository system helps in reducing the cost of new issues due to lower printing and distribution costs. It increases the efficiency of the registrars and transfer agents and the secretarial department of a company. It provides better facilities for communication and timely service to shareholders and investors. Benefit to the investor

The depository system reduces risks involved in holding physical certificates, e.g., loss, theft, mutilation, forgery, etc. It ensures transfer settlements and reduces delay in registration of shares. It ensures faster communication to investors. It helps avoid bad delivery problems due to signature differences, etc. It ensures faster payment on sale of shares. No stamp duty is paid on transfer of shares. It provides more acceptability and liquidity of securities. Benefits to brokers

It reduces risks of delayed settlement. It ensures greater profit due to increase in volume of trading. It eliminates chances of forgery or bad delivery. It increases overall trading and profitability. It increases confidence in their investors.

Demat conversion
Converting physical records of investments into electronic records is called “dematerialising” of securities. In order to dematerialise physical securities, investors must fill in a Demat Request Form (DRF), which is available with the DP and submit the same along with physical certificates. Every security has an ISIN (International Securities Identification Number). A separate DRF must be filled for each ISIN. The complete process of dematerialisation is outlined below: The investor surrenders the certificates for dematerialisation to the DP. DP updates the account of the investor.

Demat options
There are many hundreds of Depository Participants (DPs) offering the Demat account facility in India as of September 2011. A comparison of the fees charged by different DPs is detailed below. There are a few distinct advantages of having a bank as a DP. Having a Demat account with a bank DP, usually provides quick processing, accessibility, convenience, and online transaction capability to the investor. Generally, banks credit the Demat account with shares in case of purchase, or credit a savings account with the proceeds of a sale, on the third day. Banks are also advantageous because of the number of branches they have. Some banks give the option of opening a demat account in any branch, while others restrict themselves to a select set of branches. Some private banks also provide online access to the demat account. Hence, the investors can conveniently check online details of their holdings, transactions and status of requests through their bank’s net-banking facility. A broker who acts as a DP may not be able to provide these services. Fees involved

There are four major charges usually levied on a demat account: account opening fee, annual maintenance fee, custodian fee and transaction fee. Charges for all fees vary from DP to DP. Account-opening fee Depending on the DP, there may or may not be an opening account fee. Private banks, such as HDFC Bank and AXIS Bank, do not have one. However, players such as Kotak Securities,[1]Sushil Finance, ICICI Bank, Globe Capital, Karvy Consultants and Bajaj Capital Limited do impose an opening fee.

State Bank of India does not charge any account opening charge while other maintenance and transaction charges apply. Most players levy this when re-opening a demat account. However, the Stock Holding Corporation offers a lifetime account opening fee, which allows the investor to hold on to his/her demat account for a long period. The fee is also refundable. Annual maintenance fee

This is also known as folio maintenance charges, and is generally levied in advance. as Custodian fee This fee is charged monthly and depends on the number of securities (i.e. ISINs) held in the account. It generally ranges between Rs 0.5 to Rs 1 per ISIN per month. DPs will not charge a custody fee for an ISIN on which the companies have paid one-time custody charges to the depository. Transaction fee

The transaction fee is charged for crediting/debiting securities to and from the account on a monthly basis. While some DPs, such as SBI, charge a flat fee per transaction, HDFC Bank and ICICI Bank peg the fee to the transaction value, which is subject to a minimum amount. The fee also differs based on the kind of transaction (buying or selling). Some DPs charge only for debiting the securities, while others charge for both. Some DPs also charge the investor even if the instruction to buy/sell fails or is rejected. In addition, service tax is also charged by the DPs.

In addition to the other fees, the DP also charges a fee for converting the shares from the physical to the electronic form or vice-versa. This fee varies for both demat (physical-to-electronic) and remat (electronic-to-physical) requests. For demat transactions, some DPs charge a flat fee per request in addition to the variable fee per certificate, while others charge only the variable fee. For instance, Stock Holding Corporation has charged Rs 25 as the request fee and Rs 3 per certificate as the variable fee. However, SBI has charged only the variable fee, as Rs 3 per certificate. Remat requests also have charges akin to that of demat.

However, variable charges for remat are generally higher than demat. Some of the additional features (usually offered by banks) are as follows. Some DPs offer a frequent-trader account, where they charge frequent traders at lower rates than the standard charges. Demat account holders are generally required to pay the DP an advance fee for each account that will be adjusted against the various service charges. The account holder needs to raise the balance when it falls below a certain amount prescribed by the DP.

However, if the holders also hold a savings account with the DP, they can provide a debit authorisation to the DP for paying this charge. Finally, once choosing a DP, it would be prudent to keep all accounts with that DP, so that tracking of capital gains liability is easier. This is because when calculating capital gains tax, the period of holding will be determined by the DP, and different DPs follow different methods. For instance, ICICI Bank uses the first in first out (FIFO) method to compute the period of holding. The proof of the cost of acquisition will be the contract note.

The computation of capital gains is done account-wise. Indian Banking System First, an investor has to approach a DP and fill up an account opening form. The account opening form must be supported by copies of any one of the approved documents to serve as proof of identity (POI) and proof of address (POA) as specified by SEBI. An investor must have his/her PAN card in original at the time of opening of the account (mandate effective from April 1, 2006). All applicants should carry original documents for verification by an authorized official of the depository participant, under his signature. Further, the investor has to sign an agreement with the DP in a depository prescribed standard format, which details rights and duties of investor and DP.

DP should provide the investor with a copy of the agreement and schedule of charges for their future reference. The DP will open the account in the system and give an account number, which is also called BOID (Beneficiary Owner Identification number). The DP may revise the charges by giving 30 days notice in advance. SEBI has rationalised the cost structure for dematerialisation by removing account-opening charges, transaction charges for credit of securities, and custody chargesvide circular dated January 28, 2005.

Further, SEBI has vide circular dated November 9, 2005 advised that with effect from January 9, 2006, no charges shall be levied by a depository on DP and consequently, by a DP on a Beneficiary Owner (BO) when a BO transfers all the securities lying in his account to another branch of the same DP or to another DP of the same depository or another depository, provided the BO Account(s) at transferee DP and at transferor DP are one and the same, i.e. identical in all respects.[2] In case the BO Account at transferor DP is a joint account,
the BO Account at transferee DP should also be a joint account in the same sequence of ownership.

Disadvantages of Demat
Trading in securities may become uncontrolled in case of dematerialized securities. It is incumbent upon the capital market regulator to keep a close watch on the trading in dematerialized securities and see to it that trading does not act as a detriment to investors. For dematerialized securities, the role of key market players such as stock-brokers needs to be supervised as they have the capability of manipulating the market. Multiple regulatory frameworks have to be conformed to, including the Depositories Act, Regulations and the various Bye-Laws of various depositories. Agreements are entered at various levels in the process of dematerialization. These may cause worries to the investor desirous of simplicity.

There is no provision to close a demat account, which is having illiquid shares. The investor cannot close the account and he and his successors have to go on paying the charges to the participant, like annual folio charges etc. Most of the Indian investors are laymen and do not know the seriousness of not closing the dp account, after liquidating the holdings. Many DPs are going on charging dp charges to such dp accounts with nil holdings. For US persons, a demat account is subject to FBAR reporting Transfer of Shares between DPs

To transfer shares, an investor has to fill one of two kinds of Depository Instruction Slip (DIS). The first check made is whether both Demat accounts are at the same depository. There are two depositories: (CDSL (Central Depository Securities Limited) and NSDL (National Securities Depository Limited)). If both demat accounts are not at the same depository, then an Inter Depository Slip (Inter DIS) has to be filled and submitted. Otherwise, an Intra Depository Slip (Intra DIS) has to be filled and submitted. For example:

If there is one Demat account with CDSL and the other Demat account with NSDL, then an Inter-DIS is needed. (In case the investor needs an Intra-DIS, the investor should check with the broker, since brokers usually issue an Intra-DIS). Now that the correct DIS has been determined, information pertaining to the transfer transaction has to be entered: scrip name, INE number, quantity in words and figures. Finally, the investor should submit that DIS to the broker with signatures. The transfer broker shall accept that DIS in duplicate and acknowledge receipt of DIS on duplicate copy. The investor should submit the DIS when the market is open. Accordingly, date of submission of DIS and date of execution of DIS can be same or a difference of one day is also acceptable. The investor also has to pay the broker some charges for the transfer. Security recommendations

A Depository Instruction (DIS) is almost like a cheque book, so it can be misused if issued blank. Hence, an investor should exercise sufficient caution while issuing a DIS slip. For example: an investor should deposit only a completely filled-in slip to the broker. Unfilled rows should be cancelled out so that they cannot be tampered with.

hat is demat account ?

Demat refers to a dematerialised account. Demat account is just like a bank account where actual money is replaced by shares. A Demat Account is required to buy or sell stocks. A Demat Account holds portfolio of shares in electronic form and obviates the need to hold shares in physical form.In India, the government has mandated two entities –National Securities Depository, or NSDL, and Central Depository Services (India), or CDSL – to be the custodian of dematerialized securities.As of April 2006, it became mandatory that any person holding a demat account should posses a permanent Account number (PAN) .

Procedure for getting Demat account:-

1.Fill demat request form (DRF) (obtained from a depository participant or DP with whom your depository account is opened). 2.Deface the share certificate(s) you want to dematerialise by writing across Surrendered for dematerialisation.

3.Submit the DRF & share certificate(s) to DP. DP would forward them to the issuer / their R&T Agent .

4.After dematerialisation, your depository account with your DP, would be credited with the dematerialised securities. ADVANTAGES OF DEMAT ACCOUNT
A Demat Account offers a secure and convenient way to keep track of shares .

It provides the immediate transfer of securities.

On transfer of security there is no stamp duty .

Cost reduction on transcation .

Nomination facility is available .

Reduction in paperwork involved in transfer of securities .

Elimination of risks associated with physical certificates such as bad delivery, fake securities, delays, thefts etc.

Any change in address recorded with DP gets registered electronically with all companies in which investor holds securities eliminating the need to correspond with each of them separately.

Transmission of securities is done by DP eliminating correspondence with companies

Automatic credit into demat account of shares, arising out of bonus/split/consolidation/merger etc.

Holding investments in equity and debt instruments in a single account . You will receive the statement of account of your transactions/holdings periodicaly .

What is Demat Account ?
Demat account is mandatory for trading and investing of shares. Demat refers to dematerialized account. Demat Account is a safe secure and convenient way where you can buy and sell the shares without any paper work and all the things will be taken care by the DP (Depository Participants).If you have demat account you need not to show any kind of physical certificate that you have these shares. They held automatically in your account. DP will also provide you monthly statement of your transaction just like a bank statement

How to Open a Demat account?
To open a Demat account you have to approach DP and he will be guided you the official procedure to open an account. To see who the register DP is, you can visit NSDL and CDSL website .You can choose the DP of your own choice. On opening a demat account, a unique BOID (Beneficial Owner Identification) Number is allotted, which should be quoted in all future transactions. You can open a Demat account with no balance of shares, there is no minimum balance is required Documents required for opening a Demat Account? ?

1) To open a demat account you have to fill demat request form 2) One Passport size photograph, proof of address like Voter ID card, electricity bill or Ration Card, Employee ID Card, Bank attestation and Latest IT Return 3) Submit the DRF & share certificate(s) to DP. DP would forward them to the issuer / their R&T Agent. 4) Deface the share certificate(s) you want to dematerialize by writing across Surrendered for dematerialization 5) After dematerialization, your depository account with your DP would be credited with the dematerialized securities. 6) You have to Submit the PAN Card as a proof of identity .As of April 2006 it ismandatory, if any person want to open a demat account should have a PAN CARD (Permanent Account number) . Without a PAN CARD you are not be eligible to open a Demat account

Benefits of Demat Account
Nomination facility is available in Demat account
You can purchase ,hold and sell shares in electronic form
You can save a transaction cost with quick transfer

Shares are credit automatically in Demat account ,no paper work is required It is quick, easy, safe and secure, it reduces time taken during trading and
avoiding the problem like signature mismatch and loss of certificates and the risk due to fire and theft Demat account holders need not pay stamp duty posted.

You can even sold one share as per your choice
You can open as many account ,there is no limit on that, and you can open your account before you buy your first security You can open a multiple demat account, which can be operated by multiple holders Demat Account Opening fees

Few banks will not charge you the demat account opening fees, but there is some annual maintenance charges as well as transaction charges on Demat account

Custodian fee
Custodian fees depends on the number of securities and this fees is charged monthly (international securities identification numbers — ISIN) held in the account. It generally ranges between Rs 0.5 to Rs 1 per ISIN per month.

DPs will not charge custody fee for ISIN on which the companies have paid one-time custody charges to the depository.

Transaction fee
On a monthly basis transaction fees is charges for crediting/debiting securities from the account. The fee also based on the kind of transaction (buying or selling). Some DPs charge only for debiting the securities while others charge for both. The DPs also charge if your instruction to buy/sell fails or is rejected. In addition, service tax is also charged by the DPs.

Demat of Securities

Demat of securities -> It converts securities into electronic form from physical shares held by you To Demat your physical holding of shares, you need to open a demat account which is called “Beneficiary Account”. You need to fill up the Demat Request Form(DRF),which are serially numbered. In case of joint holding all the joint holders need to sign the form. Holding in only those securities that are admitted for dematerialization by NSDL or CDSL, which can be dematerialized. Only those holdings that are registered in the name of the account holder can be dematerialized. Names of holders as appearing on the securities should match with the name/s given in for opening of the demat account.

If the same set of joint holders held securities in different sequence of names, these joint holders by using ‘Transposition cum Demat facility’ can dematerialize the securities in the same account even though share certificates are in different sequence of names. A client may, in the normal course, receive demat confirmation in about 30 days from the date of submission of demat request to the DP. There are special processes for securities issued by Government of India and simultaneous transmission and Demat.

ransfer of securities

Transfer of Security from one account to other account can be carried out smoothly by means filling and submitting the Delivery Instruction Slips. Go through the guidelines,which are elaborative.

Guidelines:”Do’s & Don’ts”:
Instruction slip, which is known as DIS, is nothing else but another form of cheque. But it differs in certain characteristics like a. cheque is being reported in terms of Rupees whereas DIS it is being reported as ISIN and no, of shares/units, b. In case of cheque, if joint account operated by E (Either) or S(Survivor), any one can sign but in case of DIS of Demat Account, all the client have to sign jointly, i.e., no E or S is applicable.

Ensure that instruction slips are properly filled in and signed by ALL the joint-holders of the account, submitted to DP against acknowledgement on the client€™s copy. Ensure that instruction slips are submitted well within the time for timely execution. (i) Market transactions to be submitted before 4.00 p.m. on the day prior to Pay-in (ii) In case of on market transaction received after 4.00 p.m. for next day pay-in., it will be accepted and processed at client€™s risk & responsibility. (iii) In case of off market
transaction, ensure the execution date is of the next day of submission. (iv) If you desire to submit the off-market transaction with same date of execution, as per extant guidelines, instructions are to be carried out at client’s risk & responsibility. In case of off market transfers, please arrange to fill up the reason for such transfer and the consideration. Ensure blank column are cancelled.

Please do not keep DIS sign blank and leave with your DP or any other entity including broker. It means, keep the same under safe custody. In case of lost / stolen / misplaced of DIS booklet, inform DP in writing duly signed by all the joint-holders to stop transfer. In case you need a fresh / new booklet, please submit request in the form provided in the existing booklet duly signed by joint-holders Inter-Depository Transfer:

It is basically transfer of securities between two demat accounts held across depositories, i.e., from NSDL to CDSL & vice-versa.

Pledge securities

You can avail loan against your Shares which are in yourDemat Account. A BO can, not only pledge his demat securities, but, may also be able to obtain higher loan amounts, with reduced margins & lower rate of interest. Moreover, procedure for pledging securities in demat form is very convenient for both pledger and pledgee. Pledge of securities in NSDL depository requires that both the borrower (pledger) and the lender (pledgee) should have account in NSDL depository. Transactions go through the following procedures:

Create Pledge/hypothecation Confirm the creation of Pledge/hypothecation Close the Pledge/hypothecation Confirm the closure of Pledge/hypothecation Invoke the Pledge/hypothecation Confirm the invocation of hypothecation Unilateral closure of Pledge/hypothecation

Freezing/De-freezing Securities

You can avail this facility when you desire that your account should either be debited or credited or both for a certain stipulated time frame. You can do so by simlpy filling up the form meant for the purpose. No transaction will take place during the prescribed period. Similarly you can also request for defreeze of account when you desire to do so.

ransmission of Securities

In the event of the death of any one or more of the joint holder(s), the surviving joint holder(s) can get the name(s) of the deceased deleted from the physical certificate(s) and simultaneously get the securities dematerialized by following the procedure mentioned below: The surviving joint holder(s) shall open an account in the same order and pattern as appearing on the certificates (except the name of the deceased).e.g:In case of joint holdings of Mr. A,Mr. B & Mr. C,in the event of death of Mr. A,the account should be opened in the name of Mr. B as the first holder and Mr. C as the second holder. The dematerialization request in the prescribed form along with the security certificates as per the usual procedure.

As a client, you will submit a “Form for transmission along with dematerialization”. The depository participant shall execute the dematerialization request in the account of the survivor(s) and forward the dematerialization request form, security certificates, a copy of the form for transmission along with dematerialization and a copy of death certificate, duly notarized to the issuer or its R&T Agent. On being satisfied with the document received, the issuer or its R&T Agent shall carry out the name deletion and then process the dematerialization request, as per the prescribed procedure.


Rematerialisation is the process by which a client can get his electronic holdings converted into physical certificates. A client can rematerialise his dematerialised holdings at any point of time. The rematerialisation process is completed within 30 days.

The securities sent for rematerialisation cannot be traded.


In India, a demat account, is similar to banking account which transfers paper based physical shares into electronic form (dematerialized). This dematerialized account is used to avoid holding physical shares. It is safe, secure and convenient way to hold securities. Demat account is just like your savings or current Bank A/c. At SIHL, we provide demat accounts through two central facilities. NSDL (National Securities Depository Ltd) and CSDL (Central Depository Services (India) Limited). We are members of both the depositories.

Financial Institutions, banks, custodians and stockbrokers complying with the requirements prescribed by Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) can be registered as a Depository Participant (DP).

A safe and convenient way to hold securities in electronic form. Demat Holding Facility through Online and Phone.
Immediate transfer of securities
No stamp duty on transfer of securities
Elimination of risks associated with physical certificates such as bad delivery, fake securities, delays, thefts etc Reduction in paperwork involved in transfer of securities
Reduction in transaction cost
No odd lot problem, even one share can be sold
Nomination facility
Change in address recorded with DP gets registered with all companies in which investor holds securities electronically eliminating the need to correspondence with each of them separately Transmission of securities is
done by DP eliminating correspondence with companies Automatic credit into demat account of shares, arising out of bonus /split / consolidation / merger etc. Holding investments in equity and debt instruments in a single account Remat Facility will allow you to convert your electronic shares in to Physical Shares

The Importance of Early Formal Education

Early formal education refers to the education that children obtain during early stages of their childhood. Early childhood is a crucial time period for the development of the mental functions of children. This development, including the emergence of the abilities and skills in areas such as language, motor skills, psychosocial cognitive, and learning, is now known to be greatly influenced by exogenous factors, including the nature of the educational environment to which the child is exposed during the first eight years of life. The benefits of early childhood education have long been disputed. For many years it was believed that children who receive early formal education have an advantage over those who start school at age five or six. Today, some educators challenge that view. They speculate that intellectual and emotional harm can result from putting very young children into structured learning situations. It is hard to deny the opponents opinion that children have always grown up to be intelligent and reliable young adults without the benefits of early childhood education.

However, in my opinion, I feel like children who receive early formal education will have advantages over those who start school at age five or six because early formal education can provide a good foundation for real learning for young children, encourage the children to organize their thoughts, communicate and social with other people, and develop children’s cognition and know the importance of friendship. First, providing a good start for real learning for young children in the future is one of the reasons that I think children should attend early formal education before first grade. Children can attend early formal education, such as preschool or kindergarten before they begin elementary schools. All human beings learn to speak a language that they hear. The language children hear in their early years is the language they will reproduce, whether that would be English, Spanish, Swahili, Arabic, French, Vietnamese, or whatever. “In a country like ours, although English is the language spoken by the majority immigration has always brought us substantial groups who speak languages other than English.

In addition, regional differences and educational levels present a variety of English-language dialects as models to children, so that there may or may not be homogeneity of language spoken in kindergarten classes in many parts of the country” (Cohen 58). Number of immigrants into the United States is increasing in recent years. Therefore, it is bringing different languages and affecting homogeneity of language in the preschool and kindergarten. “Granting, however, that every language serves the purposes of its users, we must also concede that schools, the press, and the government in our country all use Standard English. There is therefore a unifying value in every citizen’s ability to relate to and to use Standard English, but not because it is better. Standard English is likely to be the first language for school for most children in the United States” (Cohen 59). For instance, we are living in the United States, and of course we should know how to speak English.

Also, children who grow up here should learn how to speak English fluently to get higher education and get a good job in the future. Especially, children who speak another language at home have to learn English as a second language. For example, my cousin, Nhung, was born in Vietnam. She had come to the U.S. when she was one year old. She spoke Vietnamese at home and did not speak English at all. Because Nhung’s parents did not know to speak English, they could not teach Nhung how to spell, read, or write in English. Finally, when she was four years old, her parents decided to let Nhung go to preschool. They wanted Nhung to have a foundation to begin with English in higher levels. From preschool, Nhung had learned a lot of things. After few months, she knew how to spell her own name, her parents’ name, read letters in ABC, or read a short story in a book. Her parents were surprised when their daughter could learn English fast in preschool like that. Day by day, Nhung has developed like other children in the United States. She had the foundation for English on time from preschool.

Now, she can speak English perfectly and fluently. As a result, I think that children who speak another language at home also benefit a great deal from early formal education, as they are the most prepared to learn English when they are very young before beginning elementary schools. Also, “educators often refer to the pre-reading and pre-math skills that a child will learn through play in preschool or kindergarten. These are the foundations on which a child will build competency in reading and math” (Borden 113). Children need abstract thinking in order to make the intellectual leap that words on a page represent ideas. “As a child learns to express herself/himself through art projects, telling stories, participating in dramatic play, she begins to understand that expressing ideas can be done in a variety of mediums, including the words on a page” (Borden 113). Many children enter preschool able to count to 10, 20, or even 100.

However, “counting by rote is not the same thing as understanding that numerals are symbols for numbers. As a preschooler helping to prepare snack for his class puts out one napkin for each student, he begins to make the connection between the numbers he can rattle off and the concrete numbers that correspond to napkins” (Borden 113). There is an educational component to the myriad of activities in the classroom. Day by day, the children are gaining knowledge each day while they are in the program with preschool or kindergarten. Children in early formal education can learn a lot of things before they go up for elementary schools. In fact, early formal education provide a good foundation in reading, writing, or pre-math for real learning for young children in the future. Next, an early formal education will encourage the children to organize their thoughts, communicate and social with other people. “As children grow and develop, they are more capable of independent, abstract, and complex thinking.

How they approach the subject, what they learn, and how they can use the information will change as they grow older” (Borden 171). “Children learn most effectively when they interact with people and materials in an environment that is carefully organized to facilitate. Children develop foundation skills and concepts through play, learning, creative development, and relationships within their environment. Knowledge of child development enables teacher to integrate learning across a curriculum. A whole-child environment stresses the importance of the integration of knowledge through the continuity of experiences during a child’s early years” (Cromwell 121). There is an educational component in each part of the normal preschool day.

Whether it is sharing news during circle time, building blocks, reading a short story, or doing easy math, children is learning new skills, refining, and developing others. “As children continue to gain knowledge through experience, they become increasingly interested in and motivated toward their surrounding world. The facts, the attitudes, and the consistent presence of nurturing adults in their lives provide a baseline for a child’s development, identity, and social maturation” (Cromwell 107). When a child feels good about herself/himself and her/his accomplishments, she/he will gradually view learning as a lifelong process. “The time to cultivate a foundation for learning is in the early years of development when children are receptive and responsive to their relationships and experiences” (Cromwell 107). In fact, most of children who are growing up in the United States do not spend a lot of times with friends before they are going to school.

They just stay home and play inside their houses. Actually, they do not communicate with a lot of people. However, children develop the most about their communication, social, and emotion at the age from three to six years old. Going to early formal education, children can develop their communication. They have time to play with their friends who can help them to grow their social maturation and gain knowledge. Children learn to speak in a small group. This can help children learn how to talk, listen, or communicate with other people. Also, they have studied new vocabularies or have told a short story to friends in a group. Children are becoming social, and they are interested in playing with other children, beginning to share and take turns to play with friends. “From ages three to five, children develop increased mastery of language and begin to think symbolically and logically.

These developments allow them to observe, investigate, and engage with the physical and social environment in new ways. Preschool-age children’s development of gross and fine motor skills enables them to move confidently through space; manage finer, more complex task; and take more care of personal needs, such as going to toilet and getting dressed” (“The Preschool Child” 15). Also, one of the major tasks for children in preschool is learning to form independent relationships of trust with adults outside the family. Another importance during the early education is learning how to interact with other children and develop positive social relationship. “These aspects of normal development in the preschool years move children away from the egocentrism typical of infants and toddlers and toward perspective of others. Other important aspects of this development include the ability to cooperate, negotiate, and practice greater give and take in friendship” (“The Preschool Child” 16). Children have learned a lot of important things in the early formal education. Actually, children would learn self-regulation of emotions and behaviors. This means they learn not to act on impulse, especially on aggressive impulse.

In addition, children will learn how to express feelings in socially appropriate ways and develop satisfying social relationships with other children and adults. Children gradually learn how to negotiate social relationships, enter into play with others and take the perspective of others. Early childhood education provides children a means in which to learn to share toys, to communicate thoughts and ideas, and to deal with their emotions. By playing and learning with other children in early formal education, children will learn how to deal with day to day situations. Moreover, early formal education can help children in developing children’s cognition and know the importance of friendship. During the preschool years, children will increase “the ability to represent real objects, people, and events mentally or symbolically.

Through this stage, children can image a desired outcome and work toward it, can use drawings or dramatization to represent to others what they know, and can begin to grasp that written words carry meaning” (Oser 9). “In combination with improved memory, more logical thinking and increased language skills, symbolic representation fuels overall development at this age (Wadsworth 1996)” (“The Preschool Child” 17). Attending early education, children can develop their cognitive abilities, such as “the ability to describe the conversation of matter (e.g., ice melting to water), attempted explanations of cause and effect (e.g., if a plant does not have water, it will die), and observations and questions about natural phenomena (e.g., noticing that there are different types of clouds, wondering why leaves are falling off trees)” (“The Preschool Child” 17). Children can understand more about things that happen around them. Therefore, their knowledge increases before they are actually in the formal education in elementary schools. “Preschool-age children’s cognitive development also results in the capacity to set aside one’s own perspective momentarily and to imagine the perspective of another person.

This ability has profound effects on the social development of children because it enables them to enter into the give and take required in cooperative activities and reciprocal friendships. Engagement in these relationships, in turn, stimulates further language and cognitive development, which then enriches social relationships and play” (“The Preschool child” 17). In addition, children will understand more about relationship with friends, the importance of friendships. “When children work together in small groups, there is spontaneous conversation exchange of ideas, acquaintance with one another’s interest and performance, and the experience of liking others and of being liked. Special friendships or lasting attachments may thus be formed” (Cohen 42).

For example, Andy, just five years old, began kindergarten. “He spent twenty minutes in the class touching different materials on tables and floor, finding himself in the midst of playing, working children because he did not know anyone in class. To his surprise he noticed Bob, a neighborhood friend, in the class. Andy came and said “Hi”, and Bob responded. After that day, Andy got home and talked to his parents “You know what? I saw Bob in the class and I said hi and he said hi back to me” (Cohen 40). He repeated that several times with his parents. “What made the strongest impression on Andy was to see Bob, whom he knew well, perfectly at ease there in the kindergarten—doing things, speaking to people, responding with a “hi” to him. Therefore, kindergarten is a place where children can speak to friends and do what they do.

This concrete premise of being able to maintain or to create relationships was of first importance to Andy, as it is the same to many others” (Cohen 40). Having friends at schools to play with is also one of the reasons that children want to come to school. My cousin, Nhung, was four when she was in preschool. She did not want to go to school because she did not know how to speak English. However, after first day of school, she enjoyed and liked to go to school. She told us about her friends at school. Friendships helped her to love school. If children stay home until five years old to begin education, I feel that they might have a tough time to begin. While other children who had attended preschool and kindergarten will know lot of things, children who did not go to preschool will below that level. Day by day at the early formal education, children will learn more and more things. Children open mind about the friendship and increase in developing children’s cognition as children continue to gain knowledge through experiences when they play with other children.

It is easy to see that an early childhood education is essential for a child’s future. Early formal education will have advantages over those children who start school at age five or six because early formal education can provide a good foundation for real learning for young children, encourage the children to organize their thoughts, communicate and social with other people, and develop children’s cognition and know the importance of friendship. Day by day, the children are gaining knowledge while they are in the program with preschool or kindergarten. In fact, early formal education provide a good foundation in reading, writing, or pre-math for real learning for young children in the future. Also, by playing and learning with other children in early childhood education, it provides children a means in which to learn to share toys, to communicate thoughts and ideas, and to deal with their emotions.

In addition, children will become increasingly interested in and motivated toward their surrounding world because they are gaining more knowledge at early stage in preschool or kindergarten. Moreover, children open their minds in friendship while they are playing with each other day by day at school. However, parents who choose to place their child in education should be cautioned on a few things. Psychologists say that children should only attend part time. This is because it is important that the child spends time with the parents each day; which fosters security in the child. It is also important that the child does not become overwhelmed or too tired during a long day. Even a few days a week in early childhood education will provide a great deal of benefit to children.

Importance of English in today’s world

So what is English? It is nothing but a means of communication via reading/writing or speaking something. It has become so popular these days that it has left behind its counterparts like French and Chinese very much behind. It might not be the most spoken “native language” in the world, but it is the most spoken second language in the entire world. it acts as a lingua franca or what we call a language bridge across nations. People from two different communities, countries, religion or category which might not share the same language always have access to English to converse their views, thoughts, ideas and can come over the burden of different languages.

So why speak English? Well… its a self answered question. If you don’t speak English in today’s competitive world you’ll be left behind in the jobs’ sector and in almost every other scenario of life. You won’t be able to put forth your thoughts anywhere which’ll result in you losing your job as well as your life. Yes English is the link to survival these days. Even if you want to converse with anyone in any part of the world, English is the answer. If you can’t talk, read, write or type in English how’d you be able to put forth your ideas in front of the other person sitting next to you or in other part of world. How’d you be able to build your confidence without conversing your ideas properly.

So now I’ve learnt Engliash, what should I do now? Gain vocabulary and practice to make your English fluent. The more you practice, the better it’ll get. As it is already said, “Hard Work has no substitutes, no shortcuts and no giveups!” For starters stand in front of a mirror and converse something to yourself as if you’re giving a speech on a stage in front of an audience. You’ll be able to invigilate yourself where you stand and what else needs to be done to make it even better.

If you want to do something in life, stop reading these kind of articles, get outside and have some fresh air and start writing your own views just like this one. Then only you can be a successful person in life. If you continuously depend on others points how would you able to define yours personality? How would you ever be a successful person in life? Whats my point of writing all these things? I not only want to share my views on such an important topic but I want the readers to be encouraged after reading this. I’d be glad if i can strike anyone’s mind even for a briefest moment.

So I’d like to conclude by saying that it is never too late to get up and start doing something new. it’ll make you better only and it’ll help to make friends and get along with life

Importance of libraries

The definition of a “good time” is different for everyone, but for me its reading a good book, fiction, non-fiction, biographies, history, religious books, comics anything . When I came to America in July 2013, I was fascinated to see a lot of different things and one of them were libraries, since I have a passion for reading books, I try to read one whenever I have free time, there were a lot of books ranging from the ones for small kids to those for adults. Sometimes I thought about becoming an author and sometimes a librarian. That’s why for my Senior Project, I will be exploring my passion of reading and libraries by showing the importance of libraries. I did not have any knowledge about the libraries in the US and I was very interested in doing it, I did research, surveys and volunteer work. My first objective was to learn the system of the library. In the 18th century, when the people first realized that there should be a way where people can gain knowledge, acquire information about anything they are interested or simply read because they like it that’s when the first library started operating in America.

However, at that time many people donated a lot of money so that the libraries will be build and many donated all of their books so that other people will be able to gain knowledge from them. There was no need for a system back then as there was not much variety of books, but as time passed there were more and more discoveries, inventions and a lot of other knowledge which came, books increased and as the advancement went on and on, people realized there should be books for different age levels and that in order for the library to keep running without any sort of problems like stealing of books, proper organization of books and the supply of books. The need to check and arrange the large varieties of books was fulfilled by a librarian. There are many different systems of classification of books in a library which vary from library to library. Classification serves two main purposes in the library, to arrange books in a logical manner on the library shelves and to group like subjects together, They are classified either by numbering or on the basis of the author’s name alphabetically. The Dewey Decimal Classification System is the most widely used method for classifying books in the library.

This system is a general knowledge organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with knowledge. It is named after Melvil Dewey, an American Librarian who developed it in 1876. This system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of subjects of nonfiction books, and it classifies books by dividing them into 10 main subject groups that are called categories. Each category is represented by figures beginning with 000 and going on to 999. In other words, it is a system of numbers used to mark and arrange mostly non-fiction books. As I started volunteering in Columbia Pike Library, there were different sections for children, teens and adults. Since I mostly work in the children’s section, this is the type of classification I learned about in children’s section. Since children are the ones who are in the process of learning how to read, their books are classified on a deeper level than that of teens and adults. They are classified on the basis of their level of reading like J, JE, JP, the “J” stands for juvenile which are mostly board books.

The next are the “JP” (juvenile picture books) these books which are generally shelved on the basis of the author’s last name then “JE” (juvenile easy readers) these are for beginning readers, JP (juvenile fiction) these books harry potter, the non-fiction books are the juvenile non-fiction and juvenile biographies. The same goes for CDs and DVDs for children as well, they are also arranged as J/CD/DVD. The adult and teens section is comparatively less categorized and simply classified into fiction and non-fiction. The technological and management skills required for running a library are getting higher that’s why it has become necessary to acquire a master’s degree in Library science. From Ferguson’s careers in focus:- “Most acquisition librarian positions require a master’s degree in library science (M.L.S) a master’s degree in information service or a master’s degree in science of information.” Acquisition librarians are responsible for building and maintaining a library’s collection of books and periodicals (e-publications) so they need a master’s degree in science information .

I did a survey on the type of books preferred by teens the most, the options were fiction, nonfiction, history and biography. There were 0% votes for both history and biography non fiction had 33.33% vote and fictional books had 66.67% vote. Fiction got the majority votes. My second objective was to research about developing recommendation of books based on different age groups, The reason I did this objective was to develop a sense of recommendation or to be able to give an opinion to people about any kind of book. My consultant asked me to make lists of books by searching for them in amazon because they have the latest books and they also have a better search engine then the library’s catalog. By doing this objective I learned how to research about books in order to suggest them to someone or to update the library. My consultant asked me to make lists of books for aged 2-3 or any other group by searching from the catalog or sometimes making a list of books for children that were published after 2009 from amazon, and then give it to her so that it can be used to update the library.

The best website to find the ideal book for any age group is amazon, this I learned from experience, after searching the books for hours and not being able to find the desired ones, the easiest method is to use the “advanced search” by putting in the desired requirements, I was able to easily find the books and then searched for them in the library’s catalog to check whether they were there or not. My consultant gave me several projects about making bookmark bibliographies one of them was about creating bookmark bibliographies for kids and teens about other countries and religions since books give children an idea about the other parts of the world, these books were mostly about their culture, food, religion and daily activities. “If we wish to create a lasting peace we must begin with the children.”-Mohandas Gandhi I personally liked this project a lot, because kids and teens should explore other parts and regions of the world by reading books like picture books, religion, food and culture, because I feel that the media and the internet seem to create a very negative influence on people all around the world, about their neighbouring countries and about all the other countries around the world, children should read and know about other cultures of the world so that their would be more peace in the future.

It is better to have an idea about something before believing anything about it which the TV shows. My third objective was reviewing practicality of normal libraries and virtual libraries. Virtual libraries or digital libraries are a great source of information and learning, while many predicted that as digital libraries will begin, that will be the end of the normal libraries and that all the shelves of the public libraries will be sweaped clean, but it did not. While many people who want to save their time and effort prefer digital libraries, there are many people including myself who prefer reading the old fashioned way. In my survey of virtual libraries vs. normal libraries, 13 people responded to the survey, out of which 8 prefered virtual libraries and 5 preferred normal libraries, there was a 38.46% vote for normal libraries and 61.54% vote for virtual libraries.

The results surprised me because I thought people will choose normal libraries, because even though a virtual library sounds good, it is difficult to access virtual library and some require membership too. I researched about the advantages and disadvantages of normal and virtual libraries. My second survey was to find out the biggest advantage and disadvantage of virtual libraries. The advantages included Immediate access to resources, Information updated immediately, No physical boundaries, Support different learning styles, Accessible for the disabled.Information retrieval,Teaching tool for information literacy, Storage of information, Networking capabilities (provides links to other virtual libraries) and Directs students to relevant resources. Out of 12 people, 7 chose Immediate access to information making it 58.33%, 3 people chose information updated immediately which made it 25%, one person chose support different learning styles and one person chose directs students to relevant sources making each of them 8%. These results were very predictable because no doubt the biggest advantage is immediate access to information. The disadvantages included Restricted by copyright law, the requirement for internet access and that skilled professionals are required to organize,maintain and help students.

Out of 12 people 5 chose requires internet access, 4 chose that skilled professionals are required for help and 3 chose restricted by copyright. So in the disadvantages the need for internet access seemed to cause the most problems. So my overall conclusion from my surveys is that even though normal libraries will not end, there are many who prefer digital libraries over normal ones, the biggest advantage is the immediate access to resources as there is no need to go to the library and if it is checked out, there is no need to wait for it the because the virtual libraries gets rid of that long process and the biggest disadvantage is the requirement for internet access, it is no doubt that internet has made the life of people unimaginably easy but not everyone can afford this luxury. My fourth objective was to research about the history of the libraries in the US.

It is due to the founding fathers of America like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson that the system of library began the US. The first public library came in the 18th century after some time, lots of people contributed millions of dollars so that education could be given to all for free. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin and his friends operated library company of Philidelphia. Andrew Carnegie gave millions to bring books and information to the people. From Gail Sakura’s Library of Congress “Thomas Jefferson had retired from the presidency and was living at Monticello, his home in Virginia. He offered to sell his personal book collection to the library of congress as a quick way to quickly replace the library’s losses.”

The library of congress was set on fire on August 24, 1814. Some assume that the British had done it. Due to the efforts of our leaders, today the library of congress is the world largest library. It contains 100 million items, including 29 million books and pamplets, 53 million manuscripts and 4 million maps and atlases which are shelved in three buildings in Washington DC. My fifth objective was to volunteer at Columbia Pike Library. I started doing it in October and I will continue to do it after Senior Project .I worked in the children’s section where putting books back on the shelves, finding books for them and displaying them is the most important thing to do I also painted the walls of the library once and I decorated it by paper cutouts of different animals for the children. Sometimes on the weekends there is a story time in which teachers and students or parents and children come to the library, at that event I come earlier then usual and along with the other volunteers arrange the cookies and tables for the children and after they are done with it. I help to clean up the mess.

My biggest obstacle was finding a job or volunteer work at a library, because since I just came in july and had never done volunteer work before, I was nervous and furustrated. I struggled hard to find a job, sometimes by searching on google and sometimes by going there like I went to Aurora Hills Library since it was close to my house but there was no volunteer work being offered at that time. I was not able to work at the school library, because they had another girl working there whose senior project was also on libraries. I thought about changing my Senior project but finally in October with the help of a friend of mine I was able to contact Barabara Dean the incharge of the Arlington Public Libraries and she asked me to contact Ms.Desiree Fairooz who was the incharge of Columbia Pike Library, she even gave me her e-mail address, and through that I was able to finally start volunteering. My new skills are that I learned about the history of Library system in the US, I got to know about virtual libraries and the qualifications required to become a librarian.

I learned to make bookmark bibliographies and I learned how to do surveys, which I am sure I will need to do later in college and then in my career. I was thinking about printing out copies and then giving them to people but then my teacher told me about an online survey that was very useful, I just sent the link to my friends and I was able to get the results I needed, I am currently working on learning to make pamplets for the library. This project will help me by giving me volunteer hours which will help me get accepted in my desired college, because they require volunteer hours, The new skills I learned like making surveys, pamphlets and bookmark bibliographies will help me in college and later on in my life too, also the way the project is organized in a step wise manner with its deadlines, has shown me that putting everything till the last minute is not the solution, we should make achieve our targets by setting up a timetable and follow it.

Works Cited
” Library and Information Science, Second Edition (Ferguson’s Careers in Focus)” Ferguson. 2nd ed. N.p.: n.p., May 1,2011..
Sakurai, Gail. The Library of Congress. New York: Children’s, 1998. Print.
Null, Kathleen Christopher., and Barb Lorseyedi. How to Write a Research Report. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 1998. Print.
[email protected] “E-mail.” N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. .

Case Study Importance of Accounting Standards

The importance of accounting standards
A PricewaterhouseCoopers
Case Study
PricewaterhouseCoopers was created in July 1998 by the merger of two firms – Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand – each with historical roots going back some 150 years and originating in London. PricewaterhouseCoopers, the world’s largest professional services organization, helps its clients build value, manage risk and improve their performance. Drawing on the talents of more than 140,000 people in 152 countries, it provides a full range of business advisory services to leading global, national and local companies and to public institutions. These services include audit, accounting and tax advice; management, information technology and human resource consulting; financial advisory services including mergers & acquisitions, business recovery, project finance and litigation support; business process outsourcing services; and legal services through a global network of affiliated law firms. Five things you didn’t know about PricewaterhouseCoopers

1. To meet their growth targets they need to hire 1,000 people a week across the world. 2. They will be the largest professional services firm in critically important emerging markets: Russia and the Former Soviet Union, India, China, Singapore, Malaysia and Latin America. 3. The high technology practice will yield revenues in excess of $1 billion with over 2,500 technology clients. 4. Work with Financial Services clients will represent more than 20% of PricewaterhouseCoopers’ international revenues. 5. They are already investing $200 million a year in new technology. A global enterprise

The new, combined organization is the result of the continuing growth in the international economy. Companies are seeking to re-define themselves to thrive in the market-place where mergers and acquisitions are increasingly important and many companies now operate without geographical boundaries. A large-scale global enterprise such as PricewaterhouseCoopers needs a solid infrastructure to meet its clients’ expectations. One element is a powerful database developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers that shares ‘best practice’ information with all its offices around the world. PricewaterhouseCoopers is also harnessing all available technology to ensure any of their advisers can work with their clients anywhere in the world, allowing them to be fully effective in serving the clients’ needs immediately. They offer businesses around the world both a wider range of services and a more integrated service than has ever been possible. This service also provides a solution to business problems of a scale and complexity that are greater than ever before. An integrated team approach

They provide a fully integrated team to tackle a company’s diverse problems. At PricewaterhouseCoopers, there are six service lines or departments which cover different areas of specialization. They are: Assurance & Business Advisory Services

Management Consulting Services
Tax & Legal Services
Financial Advisory Services
Global Human Resource Solutions
Business Process Outsourcing.
PricewaterhouseCoopers may work on one of these areas and find that the client requires help and solutions to issues in other areas. They are able to provide an integrated team of experts to give advice and offer a range of possible solutions. The first and largest of these service lines, the Assurance & Business Advisory Service is now considered in more depth. ABAS – Assurance & Business Advisory Services

At PricewaterhouseCoopers the global practice they call ‘ABAS’ provides a broad range of services which fulfill three core business needs: 1. Assurance – They conduct audits and provide assurance to clients on the financial performance and operations of their businesses. 2. Global Risk Management Solutions – They help clients to manage their business risks and thereby improve financial performance. 3. Transaction Services – They offer advice to clients about their significant transactions such as mergers & acquisitions activity. Some of the most exciting organizations from the world of banking, commerce and government come to them for advice. The client list is dominated by household names, with particular strengths in communications, financial services, retail, energy and manufacturing sectors. Assurance

Assurance is the largest part of the UK practice for PricewaterhouseCoopers and generates income from a combination of audit and business advisory assignments. In addition to an audit, many clients require business advisory services. For example, they may provide advice on joint ventures or mergers, helping companies to ‘float’ their company on the Stock Exchange or assess whether the technology or systems in place provide an accurate means of reporting the financial data. Auditing

In order that shareholders and other interested parties can make informed judgments as to the financial health of a company, it is a legal requirement that all companies have their financial facts and figures checked. This is known as an audit and must be performed by an independent registered firm of auditors. The auditors use guidance from the Accounting Standards Board to state whether in their opinion the financial information presented by the company is a ‘true and fair’ representation of that company’s financial health. The primary reporting responsibility of the auditors is, however, to the shareholders, not to the company’s directors. It is interesting to note the difference between ‘true and fair’ and 100% accurate. It is not the role of the auditors to check every individual transaction performed by a company and therefore the auditors cannot state that the figures are 100% correct, merely that, in their opinion, they are ‘true and fair’. Legislation and regulation of companies

The accounts of a company are designed to show both the performance and its current financial position. All company accounts in this country need to be produced in accordance with: 1. The Companies Act, 1985 for UK, for Pakistan Companies ordinance 1984 and 2. Accounting Standards:

Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAPs)
Financial Reporting Standards (FRSs).

In essence these standards set out:
What information should be included in a company’s accounts How this information should be presented.

The Companies Act / Ordinance, decrees that companies must produce accounts for publication. The Accounting Standards Committee devised SSAPs. In 1991 the Committee was replaced by the Accounting Standards Board, which develops FRSs. The Board is gradually replacing SSAPs with FRSs, which are issued when the Board identifies a need. These two sets of standards encourage greater clarity so that the reader can fully understand the information represented. Accounting standards

FRSs are expected as business becomes more complex. How these different standards are applied varies with the type of business conducted by a company. As for any company the shareholders’ interests must be protected. The following examples of SSAPs and FRSs demonstrate the consideration that must be given in drawing up financial accounts in order that interested individuals, such as financial analysts, can clearly judge a company’s performance and position. Key standards will be considered in this and the following section. SSAP 12 Accounting for depreciation

Companies invest in assets (such as machinery) in order to produce goods or services to sell. These are known as fixed assets. In the case of the gas or oil industry, an oil rig is a fixed asset – the company must own an oil rig to supply oil or gas. All companies have some form of fixed assets although the dependence on these assets varies with the type of business. Another example could be machinery for manufacturing a car, or a building in which employees work. In this example, Global Oil has built an oil rig for £50m. In its balance sheet, cash will be reduced by £50m and fixed assets will increase by £50m. In 20 years time (the ‘economic life’), the company knows that the oil rig will need to be replaced. By the 20th year, the value of the oil rig in the company’s balance sheet will be zero. Thus, the value of the oil rig will reduce each year by a set amount (£2.5m in this example). This is known as depreciation and the annual depreciation figure is shown in the profit and loss account. SSAP 12 states that the economic life of a fixed asset should be reviewed regularly and should be stated in the notes to the accounts, together with how the rate of depreciation was determined. FRS 11 Impairment of fixed assets and goodwill

FRS 11 is a new standard and deals with any loss in value to a fixed asset, for example through damage or downturn in the economy. This is known as impairment. For example, if a pipeline from Global Oil’s oil rig is damaged, the supply of oil or gas is reduced or stopped until repairs are made. Thus the ability of the oil rig to produce oil or gas is less than expected and the fixed asset’s value is reduced. Global Oil must therefore make a general reduction in the value of the asset and charge the loss to the profit and loss account. FRS 11 states that all companies must reassess the value of their fixed assets on a regular basis to establish whether the figure in the balance sheet is a ‘fair value’. FRS 1 Cash flow statements

There are three main statements in a company’s annual report and accounts – the profit and loss account, the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. For example, while Global Oil may be highly profitable, without any cash it will be unable to pay its employees or suppliers. Clearly, when Global Oil sells oil to its customers, it needs to ensure it receives prompt payment. Cash is the lifeblood of a business and it is therefore important for a company to issue a cash flow statement. FRS 1 sets out the format and contents of a company’s cash flow statement. Accounting standards continued…

FRS 3 Reporting financial performance
This is a highly complicated standard. Essentially FRS 3 serves to make sure the information presented in a set of accounts is clear. Companies must issue a report stating the financial performance for review by its shareholders. Consistency and ease of understanding these reports allows the reader to compare the data for similar companies. This would allow a potential investor to compare competing oil or gas companies before deciding which company’s shares to buy. In this example of Global Oil, there are three subsidiaries: International Gas, International Oil and International Petrochemicals. Each of these different companies or subsidiaries must also produce their own set of accounts as should the parent company, Global Oil.

FRS 3 states how a company must set out the financial reports and accounts, the type of information that should be provided and where it should be categorized in the company statement of accounts. FRS 3 Exceptional items

FRS 3 consists of several other sections including a note on ‘exceptional items’. These are one-off situations and may result in either a profit or loss to the company. These are included in a separate section in the profit and loss account. The reasons for incurring an exceptional item are various. Examples include the general costs involved in splitting up or de-merging a utility company, such as telecommunications or gas, into their separate components. In this case study, Global Oil decided to move its head office to Edinburgh. As this move is not expected to happen regularly in the normal course of business, the cost is regarded as an exceptional cost. Although this cost is included in the profit and loss account, it is clearly marked as exceptional so that shareholders realize that a marginal reduction in profit is not a result of a reduction in revenues. FRS 3 also states that exceptional charges must be shown separately in the profit and loss account and detailed in the notes to financial statements. SSAP 25 Segmental reporting

Segmental information gives a breakdown of the different industrial sectors in which a company is involved and allows the reader of the accounts a much better understanding of where the money is made within the different parts of the company. This information may also be provided on a geographical basis if this is relevant. This standard is mostly applicable to the biggest public limited companies or if the company has a banking or insurance division. So for Global Oil, the financial information should detail the amount of business generated in oil refining, gas and petrochemicals. It should also provide information on the different geographic areas in which it operates. SSAP 25 states that the annual report and accounts for a company needs to provide a geographical and industrial breakdown of the following information: Turnover

Operating profit and loss
Net assets.
SSAP 9 Stocks and long-term contracts
Stock is an asset on the balance sheet and is essentially the product that a company will sell. In the case of Global Oil, its stock is oil and gas. SSAP 9 deals with how to value this stock on the balance sheet. Typically the value on the balance sheet would be the cost to produce and refine the oil into a marketable state. However, if the price of oil drops to a value below these production costs, then Global Oil cannot sell the oil at a profit. In these circumstances, the value of the oil stocks on the balance sheet must be reduced to the sale price minus all transaction costs. This is known as the net realizable value. SSAP 9 states that a company must value its stock at whichever is the lower value – the cost to produce versus the net realizable value. Conclusion

The example of Global Oil demonstrates the financial reporting standards that must be considered when preparing a company’s accounts. More standards are expected as the complexities of business transactions grow and accounting practice adapts to keep up with these changes. Such changes already observed in business are the use of derivatives and financial ‘instruments’. At PricewaterhouseCoopers, the ABAS teams are experts in their field of knowledge and exercise their judgment in interpreting how these standards apply to different companies. The implementation of the standards can vary according to the type of industry and even between companies in the same industrial sector. In order to ensure the best possible interpretation, the ABAS teams need to have a good understanding of the client’s business and industry sector.

Importance of Peer Review

A student in a graduate program must conduct research during the course of study. The purpose of this assignment is to discuss how one can determine which references are credible and which are not. Importance of Peer Review

As a scholar-practitioner it is of utmost importance to know that information is obtained from a source which is peer reviewed. When a journal or article has been designated as peer reviewed this means that the information has been submitted to several of the authors peers for content review. The reviewers must agree that the information has been gathered through the use of proper research methods, and that it is accurate and original. Knowing that Articles Retrieved are from Peer-Reviewed Journals The articles I downloaded for this week’s application are peer reviewed. The Walden University library has a search feature which allows one to find only peer reviewed articles quickly and easily. This is the procedure I followed when obtaining my articles. If an article is obtained from a source other than the Walden library, verification of peer review can be done through Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory. Importance of Peer Reviewed Articles

My area of interest is nursing education. It is important that the information I share with students has been peer reviewed. I want to make sure it is accurate and credible.


In summary, it is essential for students in a graduate program to always make sure resources utilized for research are peer reviewed. The information obtained for assignments must be reliable and accurate. References

Cornell University. (April 5, 2011). Cornell University Library. Retrieved from Walden University. (2011). Walden University Library. Retrieved from

Importance of Deductive Reasoning

It is very important to understand what is known prior to making a decision. All facts need to be reviewed, wrote out, and reviewed again. By doing this it will help you in making your decision accurately. For example, the DQ question we had this week, I reviewed all facts, wrote them down, and went to figure out the solution by reviewing the facts step-by-step. After I done this, then I went over everything again, and had the same solution, that there could be more than one advisor. I then submitted my answer. After doing this, I saw that another classmate had a different solution than mine so, I went back to review all the facts again, I could then see that my solution was accurate, and so was my classmates.

This activity was very interesting, because there could several different solutions. If I had reviewed only part of the facts, or not used critical thinking, then I would have definitely made the wrong decision. The role of deductive reasoning in the decision- making process is a very important one. If you do not understand all the information that you are given, or if you just understand part of the information that you are given, than you will more than likely to make the wrong decision. This is why you should make sure that you understand all the information & facts that you are given, and think critically on all information so you can make an accurate decision.

If you take the time to review, understand all of the facts that you are given this will help you in the decision making process. Deductive reasoning, and decision making is both part of the thinking process, when using them to together you this will aid you in making the right decision. Deductive reasoning is a method that helps you in gaining knowledge, which is a very important component in the decision making process. The process of deductive reasoning aids in understanding an argument by helping you to clearly understand all of the facts. When you deductive reason, you are thinking critically which will assist you in understanding the argument, and will also assist in making the right final decision.

When reading the 5 arguments that were given, as I was reading I was critically thinking on each fact or bit of information given. For example, on buying a car if any information was left out, you could see yourself leaning to agree with Sally but, then seeing Mark’s point of view, his old car is fine for now, he hates to go on debt with the knowledge that Sally is pregnant. But, then Sally wants a safe, reliable, dependable vehicle for the children. If the fact that Sally was pregnant were not stated then that would change the whole decision- making process. This is why it is important to have, and understand all facts to help assist you in the decision-making process.

Importance of Following Orders

The importance of following orders is that if one person breaks off and does whatever they want it can leave others weak and vulnerable. Being in that state, others can be subject to extreme conditions and injury. There are reasons why regulations and protocols have been put in the places they have, to prevent chaos. There is usually a good reason that an order is given to a subordinate of lower grade. Although there can be times where an order can be unlawful, there are counter measures in place to prevent such a case. One can sometimes not have the knowledge if an order is just or unlawful. They will think that what they are being told is the right thing and carry them out when they should not have. If orders are not carried out it can lead to inevitable disaster. Being assigned to Lukatina guard desk duty is a great responsibility with incredible risks. You hold the responsibility of protecting the nations secrets and the people there in. the people working inside of the building need to be protected and feel safe with the conditions they are under.

We are here to provide that pivotal security. If one of use falls out of line then the entire system of operation can be thrown out of place. In the case of leaving the desk to acquire food for the day, was it wrong? Yes, and it should not have happened and it will not happen again even if it means to have to go hungry for the whole day until end of shift. That is the sacrifice that needs to be made in order to keep harmony in the circle of work that has been set up and has been up for a great span of time. What kind of a soldier has the right to break that cycle just because they were a little puckish? None, under no circumstances are you to leave your post no matter the situation or time of day unless otherwise told so be your immediate chain of command.

The chain of command is there for a reason and should be followed no matter how much one does not understand it or disagree with it. The chain of command may not always be right, but even then one must follow orders and carry them out to the best of their ability. A problem that can happen is that because of so many different commands that are in place, there can be times that one may not understand something or be unable to carry out one order because it conflicts with another order. When this happens one cannot rely on their own decision alone but need to stay in line and follow whatever order was given or get orders from their closest highest ranking official inside your chain of command even if some full bird comes and tells you to leave your post to do something you will kindly and respectfully replay that you cannot under current circumstances with only two personnel at the desk.

One cannot know if said Colonel was giving the correct order for the assigned desk duty S.O.P. if said Colonel even knew what the S.O.P. was. One would need to contact their closest next chain in the command if they are not present at the time. One could not know if a high ranking official outside of ones chain has the security and well being of them and the people they protect in mind.

Importance of Line or Staff Departments and Methods of Effecting Change

Which type of department (line or staff) is most important to an organization? Why? Could an organization function without either of them? Why or why not?

In every organization, authority is divided in order to make sure the firm is successful. This division ensures that no one department is responsible for everything. As an organization grows, there must be two departments that are given the authority to make decisions to benefit the firm. These are the Line department and the Staff department. While both have management authority, there are certain differences. Line departments “headed by a line manager, are the departments established to meet the objectives of the business and directly influence the success (profitability) of a business.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) These managers are on the frontline, responsible for producing goods, marketing and distribution.

“Line managers who head such departments exercise line authority” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) Staff departments “headed by a staff manager, provide assistance to the line departments and to each other.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) These managers are there for support, giving advice, service and assistance. Examples of staff departments may include: the I.T. department, legal or Human recourses. While not directly contributing to the firm’s objectives, they are there to lend a helping hand.

In my experience, it is the line department that is most important to the success and profitability of the company. While it may be agued that without the staff department one couldn’t market and sell the goods and services produced by the line department. But it is ultimately it is the line department that generates the revenue to sustain the company and there fore is most important. Granted that one cannot function without the other, and it is that synergy that ensures longevity and further success of the organization.

Discuss three (3) different methods of effecting change. Why are most organizations and individuals resistant to change? What can managers do to facilitate change? Use practical examples from your experience or knowledge, and describe your experience in implementing change.

Effecting change in one’s environment can be a daunting task. Many individuals are reluctant to change and react differently when it occurs. “Most will accept the need to learn new skills and update their knowledge, but most resent efforts to change their attitudes” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8) To solve this problem Kurt Lewin developed a three-step approach that consists of three phases, unfreezing, change, and refreezing.

In the first step unfreezing, mangers must identify and discover the source or cause of the deficient behavior. “They confront the individual with the behavior and the problem it causes; they then begin to convince the him or her to change by suggesting methods and offering incentives.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8) This step is the foundation to helping the insubordinate employee open up an discuss why this deficient behavior is occurring. Often time this causes the employee to become emotional and upset.

The second step change, the employee discomfort increases. This will cause the employee to question their reasons for their conduct, it is then that the manager has the chance to provide a role model to foster the preferred behavior. “As the individual adopts that behavior, performance will improve; but the manager must support and reinforce that behavior if it is to last.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8)

In the third step refreezing, new desired behaviors should be rewarded. Frequent praise at first is important for the continuation of preferred behaviors. Also, if any incentive was promised, then it must be honored. Failure to do so will cause a reversion to old deficient behavior and the manager would have to start again.

In my experience, cold calling is a requirement to draw up business. Earlier last year, sales were down. An increase in production was needed to boost our P&L, so management enforced mandatory call nights. Each employee was given a list of clients to set appointments. Many of the veteran employees saw this as a waste of time, and although they attended, did little or no work. Management sat with each of these employees individually to figure out what the cause of the issue was. Management created a reward system in which the employee with the most booked appointments gets a free lunch the next day and the employee with the most booked business from these appointments gets to take off the next two Mondays. This incentive had everyone dialing clients consistently and business increased dramatically. To reinforce these behaviors, a scoreboard was put up and the leading 5 employees numbers were updated weekly. Giving a competitive twist to this approach really helped motivation for production, especially in sales.

Plunkett, R. W., Allen, S. G., & Attner, F. R. (2013). Ch 7 Organizing Principles, Ch 8 Organizational Design, Culture and Change . Management: meeting and exceeding customer expectations (10th ed., ). : Mason, OH :.

1[Add footnotes, if any, on their own page following references. For APA formatting requirements, it’s easy to just type your own footnote references and notes. To format a footnote reference, select the number and then, on the Home tab, in the Styles gallery, click Footnote Reference. The body of a footnote, such as this example, uses the Normal text style. (Note: If you delete this sample footnote, don’t forget to delete its in-text reference as well. That’s at the end of the sample Heading 2 paragraph on the first page of body content in this template.)

BCR Importance of nitrogen

1. Probably they include negatives and, if possible, positive controls. Is your negative control a test plant that is planted in a pot with no legume planted in the pot? Do you have any other negative controls? How about positive controls? Are there some plants which you know will grow well under the conditions that you are specifying? Are you using these as positive controls, while your test plants will be a different type of plant? 2. I suspect they also include a method of checking, periodically, for results “over time,” meaning either daily, weekly, monthly …. 3. Wouldn’t you want all of your test “subjects” exposed to the same environmental conditions, with the exception of the one element for which you are testing.

That means that all get the same amount of light, water and soil and that the light, water and soil are from the same source. So, you will need a way of measuring the amount of light, water and soil. If you are planting in containers, wouldn’t you want all of the containers made of the same substance, instead of having some be of plastic and some of wood? Wouldn’t you want them to all be the same height, width and depth? Wouldn’t you want them all oriented with respect to the sun such that none blocked sunlight from the others? Wouldn’t you want to weed them all frequently and regularly to insure that the presence of weeds did not adversely effect one or the other of your test subjects?

I suspect that your instructor wants you to say in your experimental proposal write up how you will orient the containers and what they will be made of and what are their dimensions and how often you will check for weeds and measure light water and soil… 4. Won’t you need to decide what constitutes a positive result and what constitutes a negative result. 5. Probably your instructor wants you to choose an objective measure for your results and state what that will be.

For example: If you are growing other plants along with the legumes, will you measure the growth of their stems with a ruler? If they are branched, will you only measure the total height, or will you measure all of the branches separately? If they have fruit, will you weight the fruit? If you weigh it, how will you decide that it is time to pick and weigh it? At the end of the experiment, will you remove the whole plant, roots and all and weigh it?

6. Will you plant the legumes at the same time that you plant the test plant? or will you plant the test plant on day 5, 6, 10… after the legumes have been planted? Will you plant only one legume to each box? If you have them growing at the same time, how will you orient your plants so that neither the legume nor the test plant will overshadow the other but that the roots of the legume are close enough to effect the soil for the test plant? Or, if you don’t think that will work, will you plant the legumes and let them grow and die before you plant your test plant?

7. How will you record what you have done? Will you make a spreadsheet and record that, for example, you have gave all the plants a cup of water per day or a quart of water twice a week? Where will you note the growth of the plant? how many weeds you pulled? Will you note the conditions of the leaves of your test plant or the conditions of the legume plants? Where will you note any unforeseen changes? 8. How will you write up your results? Most scientific papers have 5 sections. Does your instructor wish for you to include this in your proposal? 1) Introduction,

2) Materials and Methods
3) Results,
4) Conclusions and Discussion,
5) References

Importance of time

Do to the fact that I could not maintain punctuality in a classroom environment I shall be writing an essay of the importance of punctuality in the United States Military. Now of course it seems like this would be easy to understand however I had managed to forget it and this shall explain it in this essay. Before you can understand how being punctual is important you must understand what being punctual means. Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill a moral duty before or at a specific time.

There is often an understanding that a small amount of lateness is acceptable.. However in some cultures, such as Japanese society, or in the military there basically is no allowance. Some cultures have an unspoken understanding that actual deadlines are different from stated deadlines; for example, it may be understood in a particular culture that people will turn up an hour later than advertised.

In this case, since everyone understands that a 9 A.M. meeting will actually start around 10am, no-one is inconvenienced when everyone turns up at 10am. In cultures which value punctuality, being late is tantamount to showing disrespect for another’s time and may be considered insulting. In such cases, punctuality may be enforced by social penalties, for example by excluding low-status latecomers from meetings entirely. Being at the right place at the right time for any member of the Army is extremely essential to the defense of the entire United States of America.

It’s because of this that being on time is remarkably important. Dependability, accountability, consistency and discipline are all crucially related to being on time. Furthermore, promptness also shows that the individual Soldier aims high and has their priorities straight. However, being where one needs to be at the appointed time will always be one of the most important aspects of being a Soldier.

This is why failure to be on time not only severely hinders mission capability and readiness, but also can without a doubt cost unnecessary loss of life. It is important to realize that it is necessary for those in the Armed Forces are held to a higher standard. Being punctual in the military is important for many reasons, some of which I shall describe, right now.

One of the few reasons for punctuality in the military would be if someone is late for a patrol or convoy that patrol or convoy might have to leave without that person, or maybe wait for them or can’t leave without them and be late to a rally point in which it is possible that it would cost some one there life for you being late being late to a convoy and could lead to dire consequences. Not necessarily to you but to your battle buddies you let down by not showing up.

While they are on patrol, or convoying to another area, something could happen that could either need your expertise and training or they could just need another soldier to keep watch of their area and without you it would take more manpower from less people to do the job that you were supposed to do. Or maybe the patrol you were supposed to be on could be ambushed and your weapon, your eyes and your training could be what makes the difference between your patrol losing soldiers or not.

It is possible that if you had been there your patrol could have seen the ambush with the extra set of eyes watching, or taken out the enemy with the extra soldier carrying a weapon he/she was trained to use. Now being late could be what makes you lose battle buddies that could have survived if you were there to help them in that situation. Even more possible is that your battle buddies are on a convoy and it could have been your eyes that notice the strange object in the road or the slight discoloration, or maybe the disheveled earth of the road ahead of you that could have prevented your convoy from running into an IED.

Or in another situation one might be on their way to meet someone from another country and showing up late would be looked at as a dishonorable and that you didn’t care about them or what they were trying to do. Also being late could also hinder your battle buddies at work. You being late makes your battle buddy who you are supposed to relieve stay later than he/she is supposed to, meaning that said person loses sleep time. Another reason might be because if you were going to relieve someone from duty on a guard duty it will make whoever your relieving have to stay at work.

Therefor making them stay longer which then makes them tired and sluggish. And because they are because they are tired and sluggish, it increases the high chance that whatever work that person does would be under par and not up to standards because of lack of sleep. Which on a guard post they might fall asleep and someone might slip in or pass along some classified information to the enemy without any difficulty.

Although the United States is not the only society that places a high regard on being on time, Americans in particular it would seem have been criticized in the past for being a highly time-oriented people, and some other cultures may not place the same level of importance on being punctual as exists in the United
States today.

This sense of being tied to a clock may strike some observers from other cultures as being downright psychotic, but the fact remains that the importance of being on time is an enormously important part of the American value system and it would be reasonable to suggest that this will not change.

In addition, people who fail to be on time also demonstrate whether intentionally or not what may be considered as a callous disregard for other people and their time. In the United States, then, the importance of punctuality is well established and those who are even a few minutes late for say, a job interview, run the very real risk of losing out to lesser qualified candidates simply because they were unable to find a place to park in time.

Similarly, people who are consistently late will be viewed as unreliable by most employers and also run the risk of losing whatever employment they have managed to secure in the first place. Being on time is one thing, but being early is completely different. When you’re assigned to be at an appointed place at an appointed time then there is no room for tardiness. Not only is it disrespectful to your co-workers in regards to making them stay later and putting them “under the bus” but also it is an integrity check and denotes your lack of responsibility. When you have a trend of being late none of your co-workers will feel as if they can’t rely on you.

The importance of moral education

The importance of moral education is particularly clear at the junior high level (grades 7-9, average age 12-14 years). Fortunately, it is also a stage when most educators and parents are willing to concede time for moral education activities: The “basics” have been taught in some measure, and the pre-college pressure has not yet begun. The field of moral education is, of course, vast. We can here only take up a few issues and make a few practical suggestions. In particular, the focus in the final three sections of this chapter will be on thestudy of moral issues, rather than moral education in general. This narrowing of focus to study activities is because of limitations of space alone, and does not reflect on the importance of the rest of the moral education program of the school.

The “integrative model” of the person and of moral education developed in the present volume is one I endorse: all aspects of the person–thoughts, feelings, behavior–must be attended to in moral education.1 The main theme running through the chapter will be that moral education in the junior high school must be grounded in the life needs of the young adolescent students. Accordingly, we will begin with a brief overview of the situation in which these students find themselves. THE WORLD OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

These young people, at early adolescence, are being given more responsibility for their lives, facing new questions and having new experiences. They are beginning to choose their way of life, whereas before much of it was chosen for them. Junior high students are thinking about what kind of job they want. This is necessary both so they can select suitable school subjects and job training, and to give them a sense of direction and meaning in life. If they can see the necessity of schooling partly in job terms it helps them to go along with its more difficult aspects. To a degree, also, these students are free to choose other elements of their way of life: sports, friendships and group life, movies, TV, music, reading of different kinds, the clothes they wear.

Possibly they can now buy a Walkman or a ten-speed bike with their own money. Perhaps they can give up (or take up) a musical instrument without much adult control. At this age, students are very concerned about their self-image. Rapid changes in bodily size and appearance, together with greater social interest, result in a need to rationalize their changing self and see it as acceptable. Strong feelings, again both internally and externally triggered, lead to questioning about the nature of their personality and the meaning of their life. Health, physical and mental, is also a preoccupation of these young people. Physical and emotional changes make them aware of the possibility of change, and they fear abnormality. They also sense that they may have some control over their health: They are hearing about fitness programs, proper nutrition, dental hygiene, how to overcome stress.

And probably their parents are giving them increasing responsibility in health matters. Friendship patterns are changing. Being accepted by their peers takes on much greater importance, and many of their activities are directed toward that end. Sexual relationships become a distinct possibility, requiring a set of attitudes and verbal responses even if only negative ones for the time being. Thoughts of marriage begin to crop up, even (or perhaps especially) when there is as yet little experience of close heterosexual friendship. Access to alcohol and drugs is now a reality. Although it might be difficult, they could if they wished experience such things; and in many cases it would not even be difficult. This accessibility along with the interest in self- image, group life, and health constitutes a new life situation. Family relationships are of pressing interest to young adolescents.

Most still have strong emotional ties to their family, but potentially competing relationships are developing. There is a growing sense of a need to strike out on their own, perhaps encouraged by their parents. The thought of one day leaving home may be entertained from time to time. And issues of parental authority arise constantly. Because of increased independence and heightened social interest, students of this age are concerned about the community setting: happenings at the local mall, movie theaters nearby, neighborhood youth centers, the local police station, racial, religious, and class conflicts take on a personal meaning, since they may now have to respond on their own initiative (although often with peer group support).

As they build their distinctive interests, personality, and way of life, these young people are developing ideas about life in society, at a local level at least. Perhaps the most urgent concern of young adolescents is to maintain a sense of meaning in life. There is a fear of finding themselves in limbo: not children, not adults, not working, not married, not voting, not dependent, not independent, not achieving anything (except make-work school tasks). What is their place and purpose? Some of their other concerns are heightened and distorted (from an adult point of view) in attempting to gain a sense of meaning or to escape a sense of meaninglessness. THE INTERFACE OF ADOLESCENT AND ADULT WORLDS

In morally educating young adolescents, we adults must recognize the legitimacy of their needs and interests, while at the same time helping them accommodate to our interests as far as is justified and to the many values that should be shared by all members of society. Our task is to help students develop a total value system which, as well as serving their distinctive needs for independence, identity, self-respect and so on, gives room for general moral and societal values such as reliability, honesty, fairness, tolerance, loyalty, participation, cooperation, and sharing. Pursuit of these values, in appropriate ways, benefits both the adolescents themselves and society as a whole. In the past, in moral education programs, we have often given almost exclusive attention to the general needs of society, especially the adult world, and neglected the distinctive needs of adolescents.

We have sometimes even questioned the morality of adolescent desires and aspirations. We have not recognized that the needs of adolescents are in large measure legitimate, and moral requirements must be tailored to meet them.2 A central focus, then, of a moral education program in the junior high school must be the world–including the interests–of the students. The main reason for this has to do with justice: A truly moraleducation must promote the well-being of the young person and other members of society alike. But another, practical reason is that unless we meet students on their own ground we will fail in moral education. We will fail, first, because we will not engage their attention or enthusiasm and, secondly, because we will be going against a fundamental educational principle, namely, that one must start from where people are.

Dewey, of course, told us this long ago, and Piaget and Kohlberg (in the field of moral education) have continued to make the point. Where, specifically, are young adolescents? In the previous section we saw that they are largely absorbed in learning how to run their lives, choosing a way of life (including school subjects, and a possible future job), achieving an identity acceptable to themselves and others, establishing good friendship, family, and neighborhood relationships, working out how to deal with sexual relationships now and in the future, working out how to maintain physical and mental health, establishing attitudes and practices with respect to alcohol and drugs, and trying to maintain a sense of meaning in life.

Most people are in a state of rough balance between concern for themselves and concern for others, especially their family and friends (which is precisely where most adults are). In the world of the young adolescent, as we have seen, there is strong interest in being responsible, doing work, getting on well with one’s family, having good friendships, living a meaningful life. Helping them satisfy their concerns is not giving in to a lesser morality, but helping them achieve legitimate life goals which, of course, are partly self-interested. The position I would recommend we adults adopt is that adolescents are our moral equals. This is not simply the view that they are “of equal moral worth,” which is relatively easy to accept. It is the stronger position that they are “as good at morals” as adults, and their moral thought and behavior is on average as appropriate as that of adults.

Insofar as their morality differs from that of adults it is not due to a lesser capacity but to differences in the life circumstances in which they find themselves and to which their morality is more or less appropriately adapted. Stages of morality may be traced but they are stages of change associated with changing life circumstances, not stages of improvement. One can, of course, always live better as an adolescent. Moral development in the sense of improvement is possible at a particular age. However, it is equally necessary for both adolescents and adults. Adolescents do not stand in greater need of moral improvement. If one grants that adults are not, on average, more moral than adolescents, what place is there for moral education conducted by adult teachers? Normally in education we assume that teachers have greater knowledge and skill than their students, which is why they are teachers. What is the situation in the case of moral education?

To begin with, as we have noted, there is always the possibility of moral development (in the sense of improvement) at a given age. Adolescents, like adults, can become more altruistic, sensitive, thoughtful and wise, and more skillful in giving expression to their morality. Accordingly, the need for moral education certainly exists. In society as it is presently structured, adults are cast in the role of teachers. They have the authority and the professional training and status. They are the ones who are expected to organize educational programs. In most cases, young adolescents who attempted to take on such a role would be rejected, by peers and adults alike, as precocious and presumptuous; and besides they would not be paid for their activities or even given time to perform them.

Adults, then, must engage in formal moral education if it is to take place to a significant degree under present social, political, and economic conditions. While adults are not in general better at morals than adolescents, particular teachers may through training and selection emerge as “moral experts” (just as we have literature, history, and mathematics experts in the school). They may be better at morals than most adolescents and fellow adults, and have a great deal to teach. Besides moral development at a given age, adolescents must eventually go on to a morality appropriate to adulthood. If they are to live well as adults, and fulfill the responsibilities assigned to them, they must take on the way of life of an adult and the corresponding moral behavior.

Now, adults are in a good position to initiate adolescents into the responsibilities and way of life of adulthood, since we are there already. In this area we often have greater knowledge and skill than students. While there is room for moral education by adults, however, we must tread carefully. In many areas, especially those having to do with moral development at an age level, we may have less knowledge and skill than our students, even though custom and politics assign us the role of teacher. Even where we do feel we know more, either because ethics is our teaching field or because we know about the adult way of life, we should adopt an interactive teaching mode since adolescents already have many insights into the adult world and its problems.

We must resist the temptation to push students into the adult mode of conduct just because it suits our interests: Our concern should rather be for the whole, including ourselves. We must as far as possible allow students to enter adulthood in their own way, so that their needs for identity and relative independence are met. We must keep constantly in mind that initiation of young people into an adult mode of life is only one part of the story. The adult way of life must itself be under constant scrutiny to see if it can be improved. In a great many ways adults and adolescents should be exploring precisely the same societal issues. The significance of the adult-adolescent distinction should not be exaggerated. A key principle of moral education is that of “teachers and
students learning together.”

In many cases, we do not “know the answers” beforehand: We must search for them together. Part of the teacher’s role may be to help liberate adolescents, since potentially such a change has enormous advantages for both adolescents and adults: Adolescents could live fuller, more interesting lives and adults could have better relationships with adolescents and also benefit from their aid in societal projects. It is important, however, that we not jeopardize their well-being by pushing too quickly or in the wrong directions.

We could destroy a way of life–adolescence, which for all its problems is at least a way of life–before we have established a satisfactory new way of life–adulthood-at-an-earlier-age. A key principle here, once again, is that teachers and students must work together to ensure that both the speed and the direction of change are appropriate. Eventually, however, it is possible that the moral orientations we now describe as “adult” will become common at a much earlier age, as they were in some communities and eras in the past.3 A CONCEPTION OF MORALITY FOR USE

In what has been said so far a conception of morality for application in moral education programs with junior high students (and others) is starting to emerge. The time has come to spell it out more systematically. Morality is based largely in human needs, of oneself and others. It is grounded in goods such as friendship, fellowship, self-respect, health, happiness, fulfillment, a sense of meaning in life. Following Aristotle, there is a strong emphasis here on human nature and basic human desires and tendencies.4 Many moral and social values, then, such as self-control, truthfulness, promise keeping, loyalty, fairness and so on are largely means to ends rather than ends in themselves. They should be seen (and taught) as components within a total value system, the ultimate purpose of which is to enable humans, individually and as groups, to achieve human goods.

This in no way diminishes the importance of moral and social values but shows that they, like all other values, must be weighed against one another rather than be seen as absolutes. Members of subgroups (such as adolescents) have a right to pursue their distinctive interests rather than subordinate them completely to general societal values. They also have a responsibility, of course, to integrate their values with others as much as possible and look for areas of shared values. Morality in both its foundations and its daily implementation involves feelings, desires, and life forces (such as those we have noted in adolescents). It is “a work of life, not of death.”

It is not purely mental. The mind does not simply control feelings in morality; rather the two are constantly interacting or working together to give direction to life and moral motivation.6 Moral autonomy is an important ideal, and the notion of the child as moral philosopher is crucial.7 However, young adolescents are dependent on their peers, their parents, and their teachers for moral support, encouragement, and guidance. They should be basically in control of their own lives, but it is rare that they will be able to think or act completely by themselves, nor is it clear why that would be a laudable moral ideal.8 Religion plays an important role in morality for many people, but it is possible to be moral without being religious.

This follows from the rootedness of morality in human nature and human life. One could develop a broad definition of religion according to which it would be necessary to be religious in order to be moral.9 But in the everyday sense of religion there is no necessary connection between the two. For a great many people, however, their religion is in fact the mediator (in part at least) of their morality, and if they lost the one the other would suffer, temporarily and perhaps permanently.10 Ethical questions are objective. Here we part company with “values clarification” and other relativist positions. Moral issues are deeply embedded in the hard realities of life, and no matter how much we clarify our values, we can still be wrong, objectively.

For example, we may firmly believe that it is always wrong to tell lies, but one day come across a case where, given all the facts, we are forced to admit that telling the truth would be wrong, since it would clearly do more harm than good. This does not mean that the same things are right or wrong for everyone: Relevant differences abound in circumstances and temperament. But for a given person or group in given circumstances one can in principle objectively determine which actions would be better and worse morally. Moral questions are enormously complex, but nevertheless soluble in many cases.

Morality has often been seen (and taught) as a matter of following a few simple rules, the main obstacles lying not in finding out what is right but in bringing oneself to do what one knows to be right. The view I have presented, rather, is that moral questions are difficult–hence the need for moral education–but that humans have the capacity to weigh a wide range of considerations and, in many cases, arrive at sound conclusions. THE PRACTICE OF MORAL EDUCATION

In the present context, we only have room to highlight a few elements in moral education, ones which follow from preceding discussion and are especially relevant in the junior high school. The following are some key principles and strategies. Teachers (including administrators) and students are growing together; they are engaged in joint inquiry. On many matters students know as much as teachers and on some they may know more (e.g., bullying, fighting in the school yard, parent-teen-ager relationships, early teen-age sexual needs). The teacher’s input may be quite strong: information, ethical theory, tough questions, possible answers, persuasive arguments. But it is given as grist for the mill, not as the last word. Teachers should embody in their behavior and the way they run the school their view of how one should live. This view, however, is constantly developing. It is not the established “right” way: We do not yet know fully what that is.

Furthermore, it is a view that the students are helping to develop. School behavior and organization should, for teachers and students together, be an ongoing experiment. Modeling sound attitudes and behavior is an important aspect of the teacher’s role, but it should not become a vehicle for indoctrination through the transmission of unquestioned moral beliefs. The school as an institution should be used to illustrate some of the “hard realities” of life. It is unlikely that we will be able to make the school a great deal better than other societal institutions, since it is inextricably bound up with the rest of society. But we can discuss why the school is the way it is, in terms of embedded injustice, the bureaucratization of society, cultural inertia, parental, teacher, and student convenience, institutional imperatives, sexual discrimination, age discrimination.

We should work with the students to try to correct moral wrongs in the school; but it is crucial that, in addition, we help them understand situations of this kind and how to make the most of their lives within them. The school is an ideal laboratory for learning both how to change an institution and how to live with what (for the moment at least) cannot be changed. The discipline system of the school should be used to help students and teachers learn how to create sound power structures and how to live within them. Students should have genuine involvement so better decisions are made and students gain a deeper understanding of the issues. Teachers should not be afraid to exercise authority when appropriate–e.g., stopping a fight, punishing use of prejudiced language, insisting that homework be done–but should see the explanation and discussion of their actions as a major means of moral education.

Teachers should not be embarrassed to be “in charge,” since this is their assigned leadership role and does not necessarily imply superiority. Participation in curriculum discussion and decision making is an essential tool of moral education in the school. Students need to understand why learning is necessary, why particular branches of learning are important, and what is the place of the school in the total cultural, economic, and social fabric of society. Obviously, once again, these are questions to which many teachers have only very sketchy (and perhaps incorrect) answers, and which must be addressed jointly with the students whose experiences and interests are crucial data. The quality of social experiences in the school should be enhanced, both by increasing the opportunities for social interaction and by including the study of friendship and other human relationships in the curriculum.

The school is a setting in which students can make a great deal of progress in relationships with both peers and adults. This is so because of the large amount of time spent in school, and also because of the many contacts it provides beyond the immediate family and neighborhood. Making room for genuinely social occasions and improving the quality of interactions should be an integral part of the moral education program.11 There should be extensive study of morals in the school. If students and teachers are to benefit substantially from other aspects of the moral education program, they must grow in their moral knowledge and understanding. Of course, moral discussion can take place as issues arise incidentally in the life of the school, and also in the context of decision making about school organization, social life, and curriculum. But the issues are so many and so complex that there is need for a more systematic treatment, whether in separate courses or within other school subjects.

Importance of Mathematics and statistics to Economics


Statistics and mathematics are everything to economics. infact statistics and Mathematics, the economic field wouldn’t even exist. Economist need statistics to represent data, to track and store information, to identify trends, to attribute value and mathematics to calculate those figures.The way to look at the relationship between statistics and economics is that economics is essentially the study of human decisions and trends, and how these have a financial impact. Economists rely on information to form analyses, understanding and opinion on the human activity that they are scrutinizing. This information comes in the form of statistical data. Statistics is the core around which economic deductions are built. It highlights the relationship between figures that would otherwise be meaningless, and is key to economic analysis. An example of this would be an economist trying to analyze the performance of a car manufacturer over the period of a year.

Figures that show the car manufacturer’s sales, profits, costs, and other important economic information would be relayed through the use of statistics. Although people would be right to argue that economics requires more than just statistics (for example, it also relies heavily on understanding and monitoring of sociological factors), it’s undeniable that statistics form an integral part of what economics is all about. Infact the Role of mathematics and Statistics to the field of Economics cannot be over emphasized as we look at the below outlines


Statistics is the area of mathematics we use to explore and try to explain the uncertain world in which we live. You may be familiar with the use of statistics in opinion polls and market research, but it is also central to the manufacture and testing of many products, and, in particular, showing that modern drugs used in the treatment of disease in humans and animals are effective and safe.


Statistical methods are used for preparation of these accounts. In economics research statistical methods are used for collecting and analysis the data and testing hypothesis. The relationship between supply and demands is studies by statistical methods, the imports and exports, the inflation rate, the per capita income are the problems which require good knowledge of statistics.Statistics are everything to economists. Without statistics, the economic field wouldn’t even exist.

Business Strategy and the Importance of Data-Driven Decision Making

Good decision making is arguably the most important skill a successful manager can possess, but the ability to make intelligent decisions on an on-going basis requires not only intuition and experience, but also the right data. In fact, Garrison, Noreen, and Brewer (2012) identify intelligent, data-driven decision making as a business leader’s most basic managerial skill.

That basic skill plays a critical role in helping a manager formulate and execute a successful business strategy. Manager’s need access to relevant historical data and projections to make intelligent, fact based decisions. The use of business intelligence and analytics has become the cornerstone of strategy formulation and execution across corporations around the globe. Access to relevant data is a necessity in not only formulating a business strategy, but in monitoring the execution of that strategy.

The use of data for effective decision making is not a new concept, but since the introduction of the balanced scorecard by Robert Kaplan and David Norton in 1996, the use of data to support decision making has taken off. In addition, the adoption of enabling technologies has accelerated the use of data-driven decision making. Whether it’s an operations manager monitoring key operational indicators or a sales manager forecasting sales revenue, appropriate data and the technologies which enable its most effective use, are key necessities in making intelligent and timely decisions.

Formulating and executing a business strategy is a basic requirement for just about any business, but making good decisions is the difference between a successful business and one that goes bankrupt. The key to making those intelligent decisions that aid in the formulation and execution of a successful business strategy is the use of data to support those decisions. As an encore to their balanced scorecard concept, Robert Kaplan and David Norton (2001) describe how to successfully execute a business strategy by creating an organization where everyone is focused on strategy.

At the heart of their approach was their original balanced scorecard which provides a summary of relevant data for managers. In their next book, they expand their original concept by making strategy a priority for everyone involved in the organization (2001). Although, Kaplan and Norton focused on business strategy, what they really succeeded in doing was putting data at the heart of every business process in every organization that adopted their approach. They enabled data-driven decision making as a by-product of designing a successful mechanism for executing business strategy. Kaplan and Norton understood that having access to relevant data was the key to successful decision making.

Since Kaplan and Norton, the use of data-driven decision making has expanded. Today, aggregating, displaying, and analyzing data is referred to as business intelligence and analytics. Laursen and Thorlund (2010) contend that the deployment of business analytics and a business’ strategy are tightly linked. Analysis of important data sources and methods are a critical component of overall strategy development and decision making (2010). Today, successful business leaders not only recognize the use of data to make effective decisions, but they demand it. Although companies are capitalizing on the use of business intelligence and analytics today, it’s clear the use of data as a tool for decision making had its roots in Kaplan and Norton’s balanced scorecard (1996).

The balanced scorecard concept was originally proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1996) as a way to measure a company’s performance and execute the company strategy. It was an improvement on the traditional method of using financial systems to track performance (1996). Kaplan and Norton’s balanced scorecard became the norm for not only measuring performance, but also as the preferred method for executing business strategy (1996). Although the use of data was nothing new in business, the balanced scorecard gave way to an era of using data for making critical business decisions. I have been involved in business meetings for a number of years with business leaders from operations managers to senior executives.

Each meeting from operations reviews to performance or strategy always includes the review of some form of scorecard with critical business data. Simply adopting the balanced scorecard approach is not sufficient though. Managers must choose a method for implementing the approach that is efficient and gets the right data to the right people when they need it; the use of business intelligence can accomplish this goal (Paladino, 2008). Businesses have recognized the value of critical business intelligence, but some have taken the approach a step further. The most successful companies have adopted helpful business intelligence technologies available today to optimize the use of the balanced scorecard approach.

Leading business intelligence tools on the market optimize the use of data for intelligent decision making by taking volumes of data and making it easy to access, organize, and augment to quickly fit the needs of the business. These enabling technologies allow a company to efficiently use data to formulate and execute a sound business strategy. Business Intelligence offerings from SAP, IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft represent more than half of the tools available in the market and are often tailored to specific industries (Henschen, 2012).

For example, iLog is a business rule management system product from IBM that enables an insurance company to build a list of business rules that make a decision on whether or not an individual is approved for coverage based on user input (IBM ILOG, 2009). An individual enters all pertinent information into a form on the insurance company’s web site (powered by the ILOG product), and a decision based on coverage is immediately provided. An insurance company whose business strategy outlines process and operational optimization and improving customer acquisition is better positioned to execute that strategy with such a product. ILOG however is geared toward a more specific purpose.

The more common business intelligence technologies take volumes of company and market data and organize it in such a way that provides a summary of valued business indicators. These technologies enable managers to make more informed decisions by having the right data readily available.

Intelligent decision making is a complex process that requires a combination of experience and intuition, but most importantly, the use of the right supporting data. The formulation and execution of a successful business strategy requires managers to make a number of intelligent decisions. Having access to relevant data to make those intelligent decisions is the key to success. Integrating the balanced scorecard into the heart of a business’ management system as outlined by Kaplan and Norton (2001) is, in fact, a way to integrate data into every business process within an organization.

More recent business intelligence and analytics technologies have made adopting these methodologies much easier for businesses. Managers are finding that an investment in enabling technologies yields significant financial results through efficiency and optimization. There is a common element that exists within any organization that has developed and executed a sound business strategy. Within each business, you will find a manager or team of business leaders who recognized and implemented the use of data to drive their decision making.

Garrison, R. H., Noreen, E. W., & Brewer, P. C. (2012). Managerial Accounting (14th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions.
Henschen, D. (2012). Advanced analytics. InformationWeek, (1351), 7-15. Retrieved from IBM ILOG Solutions for Insurance. (2009, July). IBM Software Group Solution Brief. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 1996. Print.

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2001). The Strategy-Focused Organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Laursen, G. H., & Thorlund, J. (2010). Business Analytics for Managers: Taking Business Intelligence Beyond Reporting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Paladino, B., & Williams, N. (2008). Moving strategy forward: Merging the balanced scorecard and business intelligence. Business Performance Management Magazine, 6(2), 12-17. Retrieved from

Importance of Informal and Formal Language

Society is changing at a rapid pace and informality in the English language is on the rise. In places where formal language was once a must, informality has taken over, and questions are raised over whether formal language still has a place in modern English. However, despite changes, formal language is still in use and is still expected and considered the most appropriate method of address in many situations. In written and spoken communication, formal language has the ability to convey knowledge and provide a sense of occasion, while informality has the ability to minimise social distance and is easily understood. Situations in which formal language is the most appropriate form of address may have diminished, however it retains an important role in society.

From chatting on the phone to a friend to asking about a neighbour’s day, spoken informal language is the main form of language used in most people’s everyday lives, however it is now being used in more situations. For example, a shift in the way businesses run has been reflected in a less formal method of communicating. Whereas the old business model was focused on the boss being above their employees, hence, a formal manner of communication between the two groups. Businesses now run on the basis of collaborating, sharing and creating a healthy and enjoyable work environment, so the method of communication is far more informal. Another example of a shift to informality is in the way people learn.

Teachers now speak in a far more informal style than they used to, instead of talking down to the students in a formal manner. The internet also uses informal, humorous language, people now go to Youtube videos to learn The advantage of using more informal language in these situations is that it minimises social difference, is engaging and makes both parties in a conversation feel comfortable. Informal spoken language is a huge part of peoples lives, the personal way in which it is spoken is now being mimicked in informal writing.

Over the course of the last 10 years, mostly due to the invention of texting and the internet, the informal form of writing has become far more prevalent. People are more connected to each other, and yet often see little of each other face-to-fac. Informal writing is very similar to informal spoken language, non-fluency features are used, as well as other previously spoken language only features. In this way informal written language connects people in a way that formal written language never could, and can almost replace in-person conversation. However, punctuation and grammar are forgone for the convenience factor of less keys to press, and in a fast moving society it is quicker to use non-standard grammar and shorten words to just a handful of characters than it is to plan, write and edit a single message. In a fast-paced, digital setting, informal written language is being used more than ever, however that does not mean formal written language no longer has a place.

Formal written language is one of the forms of language most declined in use, however the use of formal written language but still remains a requirement in many areas of communication. Formal language enables both individuals and corporations to convey their expertise and knowledge on a subject. Formal language is expected in academic essays, scientific research reports, legal documents and other more ‘serious’ occasions. For instance, compare a formal sentence such as “I believe working at KMart would allow me the opportunities to grow as an individual,’ with an informal one such as ‘I reckon working at Kmart’d make me a totes swaggier person’ for a job application. The first conveys experience, maturity and intelligence, and is in the style of language expected on the occasion, and as a result is far more likely to get the position. Formal written language may not be as widely used as it has been previously, however in certain situations it is the most appropriate, as is the case with formal spoken language.

While it is not the language the average person uses reguarly, formal spoken language has immense importance in both conveying knowledge and giving a sense of occasion. For a formal speech, given by a politician or other powerful figure, such as a debate, a press conference, ceremony, or other formal occasion, formal language is the most appropriate method of communication. This choice assures the audience of the speaker’s expertise on the subject and their competency in their position, which leads to trust what they say as being truth. Another occasion where formal language is prevalent is at ceremonies such as weddings, funerals and religious events such as Mass.

This formality, and adherence to the norms are key to creating a sense of occasion and meaning. For instance, wedding vows, or the Lord’s prayer. Each of these is highly formal and rehearsed, and an event would not have the same weight without them. Formal spoken language still has a place in society, giving meaning and weight behind individuals and situations.

A mixture of both formal and informal language are important for the continuance of society as it stands. Despite technological and societal changes, formal language remains key to conveying knowledge giving a sense of meaning and occasion to events. The two forms can coexist in separate spaces, in what linguist, Renato Beninatto, describes as the “underwear effect”. ‘Wearing a suit, people don’t mind using formal language […] The closer they get to intimate life—the closer they get to their underwear, that is—the more they want to use their mother tongue.’ So for the most part, in their homes, informality will be the language chosen by people, however for different occasions, be it a funeral or a job interview, people will accept formality. This goes to show that formality still has a place in today’s society.

The Importance of Studying English

English,whether you like it or not it is very important in tour life.We must improve our English skills.Nowadays,English has official or special status used in at least seventy five countries with a total population of over two billion. Around 750 billion people are believed to speak English as a foreign language. Most of the student thinks English is a wasteful and boring subject, so they study English recklessly. They are many reasons why you should study English. First of all, studying English will help you a lot when you further studies. Most of the university abroad uses English as a second languages after their mother language.Many of the books were written in English,although the advertising also using in English as a man language.Three quarters of the world’s mail is written in English and over two thirds scientist and lecturer read and teach in English.If we doesn’t study English,we will had a problem in doing and searching books in the library for revision.Anysone who wanted to attend university in US,must pass a test proving that he or she is fluent in English(oral test).

Other than that,it will also help you a lot when you travel.Through the UK,US,Canada,travelling and shopping are often made easier to understand and speak in English.The most important is, you can explore their regions and more easily communicate with locals to learn about places when you travellig.So,knowing English can also benefit when travelling in locations and you can go travel the world without worrying because if you get lost, you can speak in English clearly. Furthermore, English language also helps greatly in your job. The international business community often uses it for communication, among people who do not speak the native language. Speaking and understanding English can let person more easily communicate with others and find more job opportunities not only in his or her country , but around the world as well. The interviewer will interview you in English and if you poor in English,the chances for you to get the job are very slim.It’s can also help you to communicate with your clients when you works under an international company.

Apart from that,speaking English will also help you a lot when you want to present a slideshow in front of the department and chairman. Moreover, you are enable to enjoy an entertainment programs .A huge amount of popular entertainment of American movies and TVprograms are often comes out with subtitles for people who don’t language. Knowing English can allow you understand the subtitles of dialog that subtitles frequently miss it.If you watch a Chinesse,Japan or Korean movies,you must also read the subtitles that view in English.Thus,we must improve our English skills and so we can watch a great movies such as Twillight,Merlin,The Maleficient and others.

Last but not least,you can also enjoy read a literary works.You can buy and read an exciting novel books. There are many literary works or classics novel that were written by Willian Shakespear.Example of the books that written by Willian Shakespear is Romeo and Juliet and Twelftth Night. Most of the literary books were exciting to read.At least,reading a literary books can gain more knowledge in English and can also help improve our English structure.So,that’s why we must study English properly.It’s can help you in many things.Your life can also be easier if you are excellent in English language.

The Importance of a Defense In-depth Approach to Network Security to Provide Protection Against Internal and External Attacks and Vulnerabilities White Paper

Modern distributed data communication systems are comprised of hardware and software that facilitate the creation, manipulation, and transmission of data across multiple computers, networks, and servers. With so many components that make up these complex systems come numerous vulnerabilities that can be exploited to compromise the integrity or availability of the data they were designed to support. These multiple attack vectors require a multi-tiered defense strategy, known as defense in-depth (Stewart, Tittel & Chapple, 2013). Data communication networks have multiple ingress and egress points throughout the design where data enters and leaves the network. These boundaries exist between different segments of a corporate network. One such boundary is between the network backbone and the remote sites. Other examples are between the backbone and Internet-facing demilitarized zones (DMZs) where resources such as web servers exist, and between the backbone and the Internet.

This logical segmentation is necessary to define limitations for broadcast communication protocols, to isolate types of systems and data, and also to apply security policy specific to those systems and data (Oppenheimer, 2011). The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of data communication is a model that defines how computers communicate with one another, agnostic of specific hardware, software, and protocols. Purpose-built computers known as ‘firewalls’ are deployed at the ingress and egress points of a network to monitor traffic at the lower layers (one through three) of the OSI model. Network Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (NIDS/NIPS) are also purpose-built computers that inspect network data more closely at layers four through seven of the OSI model. Once traffic has been permitted through the firewall, IDPS appliances inspect the actual contents of the data packet, and match those contents against vendor-provided signatures (Beale, Baker, Esler & Northcutt, 2009).

Firewalls and NIDS/NIPS systems are deployed to monitor data-in-motion as it traverses the network. Workstations and servers are the final destination of most network traffic. Once the data arrives at these hosts, the information is considered data-at-rest. Here too, the data must be protected. Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) and Antivirus (AV) solutions are installed on these hosts to ensure no malicious code has made it to the host and is actively compromising its data. The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader of the multiple layers of data communication technology, and how deploying an multiple layers of defense mechanisms provide the best protection against malicious software pervasive on the Internet. Introduction

Since the advent of the computer, programmers have realized that software can be manipulated for purposes other than it was originally created. All programmers have a bit of a hacker mentality. In fact, the word ‘hacker’ did not begin as a negative term. The word originated in early computing communities such as that at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1960’s (Raymond, 2001).

It referred to someone who was skilled in computers and enjoyed solving problems and pushing the limits of what was possible. It was hackers who created the Internet, the World Wide Web, and the Linux operating system. (Raymond). Not all hackers were benevolent, however. Some wanted to create chaos or gain access to data for which they were not authorized. In the early days, this required physical access to the computer. When computers were first networked with the Department of Defense-designed Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANet) in the 1960s, suddenly hackers could exploit weaknesses on remote computers (McQuade, 2009).

As computers at colleges and universities throughout the country became interconnected, more reports of computer pranks and abuses came rolling in to administrators (McQuade). From ARPAnet grew the Internet, and with it, more hackers with more connections to other computers. New methods for violating the integrity of hardware and software were devised. At first, malicous software (later known as malware) came in the form of viruses, called such due to their ability to replicate themselves initially via floppy disk, and later over networks. Soon, trojans, which disguise themselves as legitimate programs, became prevalent. The concept of network security was a reaction to these attacks, and was born of necessity (Newman, 2010).

Data Communications – the OSI Model
The original model of network communications upon which ARPANet was based was called, appropriately enough, the DoD Internet Architecture Model (Cerf & Cain, 1983). From those early beginnings, new applications were created that made use of the new-found interconnectivity between computers. Out of the DoD model came a new model that better represented the new uses. This new model was called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. There are seven layers of the OSI model that describe different functions of data communication (see Figure 1). Layers one through seven are, in order: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application (Stewart, Tittel & Chapple, 2013). Media Layers

The first three layers are referred to as the media layers (McMillan, 2012). The bottom layer is the Physical layer and consists of computers, cabling, leased data communication lines such as T1s and DS3s, and historically, plain old telephone service (POTS) lines. The second layer is called Data Link, and is responsible for formatting the data from the physical layer into a transmission format, called frames. Third is the Network layer which takes the frames and forms packets with source and destination address information. This is where network routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) do their work (Stewart, Tittel & Chapple, 2013).

Host Layers
The top four layers of the OSI model are considered host layers, and are handled by the computers on either end of the communication (McMillan, 2012). The fourth layer is the Transport layer, and it defines standards for how communication and error correction will occur. Fifth is the session layer, and it is responsible for carrying out the standards defined by the Transport layer. The Presentation layer is layer six, and it defines standards for file types including JPEG, MP3, and DOC files. Last is the Application layer, which determines how to present the documents to the user. Each layer of the OSI model is potentially a target for hackers and malicious code. To provide end-to-end protection, a multi-tiered security approach must be taken. Firewalls, Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems, Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS), and antivirus software all play a key role in providing defense in-depth.

Defense In-depth
Firewalls operate at the second and third layer of the OSI model, known as the Data Link and Network layers, respectively. Firewalls do not care what type of data is contained within the data packets, only the source, destination, and encapsulation protocol being used to transmit the data. Firewall administrators define a specific set of rules, known as a policy, that determine whether traffic is permitted inbound or outbound of the network boundary. A good firewall policy is the first line of defense for data entering and leaving a network. Network Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDPS)

Network Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (NIDS/NIPS) are deployed on the inside of the firewall, and inspect the host layers of the packet before they actually reach the host, where they can do damage . When the IDPS device is deployed ‘inline’, the appliance is able to block the traffic interactively (see Figure 2). This is known as Intrusion Prevention Mode, and the system is an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS). When the traffic is copied from a network switch to the device (spanned) and only alarms but does not block traffic, it is considered to be in Intrusion Detection Mode, and is referred to as an IDS (Intrusion Detection System). IPS deployments are considered ‘active’ while IDS deployments are ‘passive’.

Signature Updates
Each malicious piece of code or network traffic has its own fingerprint. This permits IDPS vendors to create and maintain thousands of signatures that search for these known characteristics in the data stream. The sensor looks for properties of the data that are indicative of malicious traffic like Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, malware such as worms and viruses, and exploitation of vulnerabilities in common software packages and operating systems. These attacks are created for various purposes ranging from simply causing havoc on a network, to stealing company or state secrets, and gathering personally-identifiable information (PII) such as social security numbers, credit card numbers, and banking information. New vulnerabilities and malicious code to exploit those weaknesses are discovered and created every day. For this reason, IDPS vendors are constantly creating new signatures, updating old ones, and releasing updates to their customers.

User-defined Custom Signatures IDPS platforms also support the creation of custom user-defined signatures that provide a way for security engineers to block or alarm on traffic that is important to their organization, though it may not warrant inclusion in the signatures released by the vendors. While each IDPS platform provides an interface for creating custom signatures, their functionality is proprietary to that vendor, and is not universal.

This does not make it easy to share known signatures throughout the security community. SNORT is an open source language created specifically for custom IDPS signatures, and is supported by all major IDPS vendors. When new threats are discovered, the security community shares their latest signatures in SNORT format. An IDPS administrator is able to download the SNORT signature and import it into their IDPS solution even before the vendor is able to release a signature designed specifically for their platform. Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems

Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) are software agents that run locally on laptops, workstations and servers that monitor the internals of operating systems for evidence of suspicious or malicious activity (Newman, 2010). While the network IDPS is monitoring the datastream as it traverses the network (data-in-motion), HIDS agents monitor the host systems themselves for anything that was able to get past the firewall and IDPS device (data-at-rest), providing defense in-depth against malicous software.

Like network IDPS platforms, vendors of HIDS software release regular signature updates for their applications that facilitate the discovery of the latest threats and vulnerabilities that could affect the operating system on which the HIDS agent is installed. Security engineers taylor their HIDS policies based on the operating systems deployed within their organization by disabling signatures that are not relevant to their infrastructure. Antivirus

Antivirus (AV) software has a role very similar to HIDS agents. The primary difference between the two centers around what each focuses on to detect malware. The HIDS agent monitors system files and logs for unauthorized changes to those files. Antivirus software scans the computer for files that do not belong on a system, and for changes to known application files (Greensmith & Aickelen, 2005). Like NIDS and HIDS platforms, AV vendors release regular signature updates for their software that look for characteristics of files that are known to contain malicious code. Summary

Defense in-depth involves inspecting computer data at every opportunity. Firewalls provide the first level of support, inspecting traffic at the media layers as soon as it attempts to cross a network boundary. Network Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (NIDS/NIPS) inspect data within network traffic for known malicious fingerprints before it gets to the host. IDPS is deployed right after the firewall as traffic is entering the network, and can be deployed in monitoring mode (IDS), or blocking mode (IPS). IDS or passive mode receives a copy of data from a network switch, and alarms if something malicious is detected. IPS or blocking mode puts the sensor behind the firewall in the data stream, where it can proactively block any traffic that matches a known fingerprint. Firewalls and NIDS/NIPS systems provide protection for data-in-motion.

Data-at-rest is monitored and scanned by Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) to monitor system files and logs, and Antivirus (AV) software that scans files for known characteristics of malware. Implementing all of these solutions across the data enterprise is the best defense against the onslaught of malware that traverses the Internet. I actually will echo my feedback from the white paper draft – however, the penalties are more severe because you did not respond to feedback regarding APA citations. Since you did not respond to feedback, the 33 points in this area are substantially impacted (-20). Since some content was discredited, another 15 points will be deducted. From white paper draft:

” Good writing approach – neutral, objective and professional. You need some in text citations in several areas, and this is actually this largest source of point deductions in this paper. Aside from that, it is a good foundation for the final paper – build on current methods, practices and software for protecting software in this area.” Final grade: 65/100; D


Beale, J., Baker, A. R., Esler, J., & Northcutt, S. (2009). Snort, ids and ips toolkit. Syngress Media Inc. Cerf, V. G., & Cain, E. (1983). The DoD internet architecture model. Computer Networks (1976), 7(5), 307-318. doi:10.1016/0376-5075(83)90042-9 Greensmith, J., & Aickelen, U. (2005). Firewalls, intrusion detection systems and anti-virus scanners. School of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Nottingham, Jubiliee Campus, Nottingham, UK. , Available from Retrieved August 3, 2013 from

McMillan, T. (2012). Cisco networking essentials. Indianapolis, Ind: John Wiley & Sons.

McQuade, S. C., & ebrary, I. (2009). Encyclopedia of cybercrime. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Newman, R. C. (2010). Computer security: Protecting
digital resources. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Oppenheimer, P. (2011). Top-down network design. (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, Ind: Cisco Press.

Raymond, E. S. (2001). How to become a hacker. Retrieved from Stewart, J. M., Tittel, E., & Chapple, M. (2013). Cissp, certified information systems security professional study guide. (5th ed. ed.). Indianapolis: Sybex.

The importance of setting goals

Setting goals is a fundamental component to long-term success. The reason for this is you need to know what you’re trying to achieve before trying to achieve it. In order to be motivated in life you need to set goals; there are different types of goals, long term and short term. We usually set long-term goals but in order to achieve them, set short-term goals. They all fit together when looking at the bigger picture. The long-term usually being over a longer time ‘I want to save up for a house’ and short-term goals more quickly achieved ‘I want to save up for a playstation’. When setting goals you should consider a few things like it should be feasible and specific. You should be able to visualize your success, making the goal as specific as possible, for example not just saying ‘I am going to loose weight’, say ‘I’m going to loose 5kg’. You have to make sure the goal is measurable.

Try and quantify the result for example, ‘ I want to loose 5kg in 6 months’. This will give you more of a drive and when you do achieve your goal feel happier about it, because not only you have reached your goal, you’ve done it in the time frame set. Your goal must be attainable, so if you did loose weight not putting it back on. There is no point of setting goals if they are not realistic, if you know you cant achieve it then you are not going to try and do it. Your emotions can reflect on goals. If you had a really bad day at work and have come home to do an assignment that you’ve let last minute, your not going to be able to concentrate very well so might not pass and then your goal of getting a pass has not been met. As long as we consider all these points with hard work and determination we should all be able to achieve our goals.

I have just started my studies and have set a few goals so I will be successful. My first goal is to pass both of my units. I have not studied in a very long time so not used to writing essay’s and assignments. I set weekly goals, listening to all my lectures and doing the tasks. Time management is very important when studying, I still will be working 40 hours a week and trying to do 2 units so the workload is very high. I have found a routine that works well for me, I plan the week before when I will be studying and make sure I do listen to all my lectures and do my reading in that time.

If I split all units up over 4 years and focus on passing each one each semester, it is a lot less daunting than saying I have to pass 16 units. Another goal is that I go to the gym at least 4 times a week. It makes me feel great when I do get to work out so need to keep these positive goals. My long-term goal is to be a teacher, have a house and a family. All these goals link together, I will have to work very hard to achieve all this but when I become a teacher, I can then buy and house and start a family. I have already achieved one of my goals in life to become manager in the café where I work. About 6 months ago I was made manager that made me feel great, this is how a goal is suppose to make you feel when you achieve it. I’m now working hard to keep the café running well and maintain my goal, staying manager.

The Importance of Public Speaking.

Public speaking can be defined as continuous formal presentation to an audience made by a presenter . Most of the time, people use public speaking to deliver vital messages to the public in proper way. As its name implies, it is a way of communication that will make our ideas public. Through public speaking, we share our ideas with people and it may influence people’s thoughts.

Nowadays, many people around the world use public speaking to spread their ideas and influence such as Franklin Roosevelt, Billy Graham, Martin Luther King, and Barack Obama. Although public speaking requires the same skills as used in normal conversation, public speaking and conversation is not identical. Public speaking involves talking in front of a group of people, usually with some preparation. It can be in front of people that you know or a crowd of strangers unlike normal conversation which does not requires preparation to talk.

Public speaking is important to everyone regardless what kind of job. Most people, at some point in their life, will need to stand up and speak in front of a group of people. According to Michael Osborn (2003), people seldom speak in public unless they have some idea that they wish to deliver to people. Mostly, we do need to speak in public speaking when we have something to share with other people. Moreover, public speaking is also needed for career purpose and for educational purpose.

The time we speak in a public setting is when we decide to speak on matters of importance, or when we are asked to speak about experiences and expertise or when we are required to speak. For instance, Lois Gibbs prior to 1978 who described herself as “typical American women”, decided to speak out about 20 000 tons of toxic chemicals were buried beneath her home in New York after she learned about it . Ryan White, a child who involved in public speaking after been asked to share and speak about his experience – infected by AIDS virus after received a blood transfusion (Griffin, 2003).

According to Rudolph F Verderber (2008), public speaking is one type of human communication which occurs within the public communication context. Imagine, for a moment, that human beings could not speak and could not communicate ideas about science, current events, and topics as mundane as the weather. It is only then that one can understand the benefits of social communication, especially public speaking.

Public speaking may be the most frightening thing as one must stand up in front of mass umber off people. However, it has many benefit such as it builds self-confidence, develops one’s critical thinking skills, it can develops personal and professional skills, it creates community, and lastly it can influence the world and can change people’s thoughts.

First of all, public speaking can help us build self-confidence. Based on recent surveys, almost 75 percent of adult population fears public speaking. (Mc Croskey, 1993; Richmond and Mc Croskey, 1995). It is proven that most of people would prefer to be listener than a speaker. Fear and nervousness are factors that discouraging people from being a public speaker. According to most studies, public speaking is number one people’s fear and death is number two.

This means that if someone have to go to a funeral, they are better off in the casket than doing eulogy (Seinfeld, 1993, p. 120). However, many people do not realize that public speaking will help us feel more confident. Nervousness because of stage fright is normal and most of public speakers experienced it.

The major reasons of nervousness are fear of being stared at, fear of failure, fear of rejection and fear of the unknown . In order to be more confident, one must know the right way to handle the nervousness. According to Lucas E. 2012, one of the key to gain confidence is by doing preparation thoroughly and picking a topic that we really know it well.

Next, we must think positively. Confidence is a well-known power of positive thinking (Lucas, 2012). Then, we have to remember that most nervousness is not visible. Therefore, knowing this will make it easier for us to be confident and face the audience. After few times doing public speaking, we will automatically develop self-confidence in speechmaking abilities and we will likely become more confident in other aspect .

As a result, many people especially those who have high level of public speaking anxiety (PSA), feel more confident and competent after they have done several times of public speaking. Next, public speaking can help improve communication and personal skills. One of the best benefits of learning to give a good speech is it brings personal satisfaction (Hamilton, 2003). When we successfully deliver a good speech, the kind of personal satisfaction you experience is unparalleled. A positive response from the audience can help us feel more confident.

Thus, it can bring about a lot of improvement in our overall personality. Public speaking is interrelated with communication skills and can be described as a form of communication. Public speaking does not always mean that we have to give a speech to a large audience. When we go for an interview, and speak to a group of interviewers or when we are giving a class presentation; all these are also forms of public speaking. In such situations, if we have the ability to communicate properly, it can help us shape up our future as the personal skills has been improved.

Nowadays, most of employers look for employees who can listen carefully, present ideas clearly and think critically. Requirement for higher-level positions is communication skills. Therefore, the ability to present thoughts clearly and persuasively that we gained from public speaking will lead to job success (Jaffe, 2004).

Besides that, public speaking can improve critical thinking skills. Lucas in his book described critical thinking as the ability to detect weakness in other people’s arguments and it involves skills such as ability to differentiate fact from opinion, to judge the credibility of statements and to assess the soundness of evidence. It is also the ability to see clearly the relationship among ideas (Lucas, 2012, p.16). Writing a speech requires a lot of careful thought. It’s not enough to have a message; we also need to figure out how to deliver the message to fit the needs of audience.

According to Lucas (2012), organizing a speech is not only about arranging ideas but it is an important part of shaping the ideas themselves. We have to think how to make points which are relevant to audience and how to make the audience understand the message. Thinking in this way is a great way to improve critical thinking skills. If we start thinking critically about the speaking style, we may also find ways to improve our general communication style.

For instance, to make a good speech, we need to think how to make arguments strong and how to make the structure of the speech clear and cohesive. Therefore, this situation makes us become a more effective thinker and we can enhance our ability to think clearly. For that reason, public speaking has been included as a part of education to develop the skills of critical thinking among students.

Furthermore, public speaking can be used to influence the world and can change people’s thought. Many people around the world have spread their influence through public speaking. The examples of people who used public speaking to spread influence are Martin Luther, Barack Obama, Billy Graham in United States while in other countries, the power of public speaking employed by people such as former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, South African leader Nelson Mandela and Burmese democracy champion Aung San Su Kyi .

Unlike usual conversations, public speaking contains purpose and responsibility in many every interaction. Public speakers use their knowledge of persuasion to motivate others to take collective action to achieve desired goals. Public speaking skills can be used to influence multiple people simultaneously, such as in a meeting or when addressing a large group. This is why it has power to influence others. We can use public speaking to persuade others to believe or accept our ideas.

In addition, public speaking affects cultures. According to Jaffe (2004), culture are not static, which means it can be shaped and it mold our way of life often through public speaking continuously. Public speaking has influenced culture throughout history. Both women and men have spoken on issues that transformed culture. Most historical events have some form of public speaking associated with it. According to Pearce (1998), public speakers attempt to influence society in few ways. First, some hope to spread cultural beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviors to people who do not hold them. Second, speakers reinforce or strengthen existing cultural elements.

They encourage listeners to continue with the current behaviors and elements. For instance, a politician influence citizen to keep voting, and pastors urge their effort to continue feeding the hungry. Next, some speakers attempt to restore matters to a healthy state when events threaten to split apart communities. Besides, speakers try to change their societies by bringing about social change .

This is because public speaking can be persuasive which can influence the culture. Indeed, cultures are changing and uncertain. Public speakers use this opportunity to transmit cultural beliefs and behavior. They also persuade audiences to change their ways of thinking or acting.

As a conclusion, public speaking is a form of communication to make our ideas public. It is a medium to share our thoughts and it can influence people. Although many people are afraid of speaking in public setting, it actually can boosts self-confidence. Based on Lucas’ opinion, one way to overcome nervousness and become more confident is by doing preparation thoroughly. Moreover, public speaking also helps to develop critical thinking skills. To convince people, we must plan our speech wisely. This needs us to think deeply and critically in order to influence people about the ideas that we share.

Therefore, it will improve the critical thinking as we have to think how to make audience understand the message. What is more, public speaking improves our communication skills and personal skills. When we learnt how to deliver speech effectively, our skills will be better after few times doing the public speaking. According to Hamilton (2013), the improved skills will bring personal satisfaction to individual.

Next, public speaking can influence the world and change people’s thoughts. Hamilton (2003) said, public speakers usually used the knowledge of persuasion to change people’s mind and accept their ideas. This is what makes the public speaking very influential.

Gregory, H. (2012). Public Speaking for College & Career. McGraw-Hill. Griffin, C. L. (2003). Invitation to Public Speaking. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Griffin, C. L. (2003). Invitation To Public Speaking. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Hamilton, C. (2003). Essentials of Public Speaking (5th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Cengage. Jaffe. (2004). Introduction to Public Speaking and Culture (4th ed.). Belmont: Holly J. Allen. Jaffe. (2004). Public Speaking Concepts and Skills for a Diverse Society (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Holly J. Allen. Lucas, S. E. (2012).

The Art of Public Speaking (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. Lucas, S. E. (2012). The Art Of Public Speaking (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Micheal Osborn, S. O. (2003). Pubulic Speaking Instructor’s Annotated Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Rudolph F Verderber, D. D. (2008). The Challenge of Effective Speaking (15th ed.). USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Sellnow, D. D. (2003). Public Speaking: A Process Approach Media Edition. Thonson Wadsworth.

Speech about the importance of water

Assalamualaikum and a very wonderful morning I bid to our lecturer and to all fellow classmates. This morning, it is my pleasure to share with all my audiences on my talk about the importance of water.

As we know, water brings and sustains life in our planet. Water is something which we cannot do anything without it. After all, our bodies are made up of seventy percent water. It is quite possible to survive without food for more than a month, but without water we will perish in a matter of days. Ladies and gentleman,

Before I go further with my speech, I would like to read the poem from the ancient mariner’s that cry of agony and despair in Samuel Coleridge’s poem that sound;
Water, water, everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.
This poem clearly points to the absolute need of suitable drinking water for survival. The mariner, being the only survivor left on his ship, is desperately lost at sea for months. Having used up all the ship’s store of drinkable water, he laments on his plight; surrounded by water on all sides, but not a drop to drink. Ladies and gentleman,

Water is essential to life. We require water for washing and cooking, cultivating our field, and most important, for drinking. Life becomes impossible on earth without water. Imagine a drought situation: there are no rains; the rivers and lakes have dried up; and all plant-life lay dry and wasted.

When we read about the origins of life on earth, we realize at once the importance role water had played in causing living things to come into existence. Water has those unique chemical elements and properties needed to nourish the living cells of living beings. Dearest comrades,

Apart from the fact that water is essential to life, water is also man’s precious resource. Water is a source of energy. Water converted into steam can be used as fuel for driving vehicles fitted with water power.

In conclusion, the importance of water cannot be measure. It is not only a source of life and energy, it also sustains life on the planet. We should all be duty bound to ensure that our sources of water remain unpolluted. That’s all for my speech today. Thank you for listening.

Importance of Research

Jean Piaget is a trailblazer whose focus was on children’s cognitive development. He lay the foundation by naming four stages sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each stage builds upon the other, coinciding with biological development of the brain. Although some of his theories were deemed inaccurate, they paved the way and gave direction for upcoming psychologists who were able to build upon his work by disproving some of his theories simply to develop their own. Just as Jean Piaget, several scientists have theorized on many other parts of psychology, but all with general advantages. They provide us with a better understanding of ourselves, they provide us with a better understanding of others, and they provide us with methods to prevent and/or treat mental illnesses. At times it seems as though we do not know ourselves at all. We question our behaviors and feelings.

Psychologically understanding these behaviors helps us to understand that we are probably not alone in our feelings. Also, by having a full understanding of self, psychologically, we can learn how to respond to certain feelings and emotions and how to wean ourselves off of them. In the same way that we can further understand ourselves in the study of this field we can apply reverse psychology to understand others. Being able to do so enhances people’s skills and work skills by enabling you to question possibilities and to address them as needed. This makes for more effective communication skills expanding beyond personal life and into the workforce. Lastly, research/experiments in psychology help to treat and prevent mental illnesses. Scientists have discovered biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial facts that influence mental illnesses.

Case studies allow these illnesses to be identified. By knowing what triggers them, scientists can make the general public aware of those that are most influential and can advise of help if at all needed. Factors are considered, tested, and named. Research further helps us to recognize early symptoms or onsets. In conclusion, effective research/experiments play a large role in today’s society. It helps to influence several work fields such as law enforcement in which psychologists profile criminals to help catch them. In major corporations, psychology is used to screen potential candidates or present employees and even as a part of advertising, appealing to consumer’s wants and needs.

Even schools use the influence of psychology to enrich student’s learning experiences via group assignments or to enhance athlete’s performances via pep rallies. You see, Psychology is an inevitable part of everyday life. Effective research and experiments help us to better understand our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions enabling us great communication skills and a better well-being.

The Importance of Defensive Driving

There are several reasons Defensive Driving is important. Well all recognize driving is risky business. As a defensive motorist, you can prevent collisions and reduced the threat behind the wheel. What is Defensive Driving? Defensive Driving is essentially driving in a fashion that utilizes secure driving strategies to allow motorists to deal with identifiable hazards in a foreseeable manner. These techniques can work out beyond guideline of standard website traffic legislations and procedures. Protective Driving needs all vehicle drivers to think, look and act ahead. Running an automobile is a severe matter and also calls for a great deal of responsibility. According to stats, over 40,000 individuals are killed each year because of auto crashes that can have been protected against. By taking a defensive strategy to driving, you might inevitably save another person’s life or assistance avoid a crash. Defensive driving skills can likewise help you avoid the dangers caused by other people’s negative driving.Before you support the wheel, it is very important to learn abilities that will certainly assist you stay in control. First of all, make sure your own automobile remains in good working problem

. Your car should be inspected by a certified facility a minimum of yearly. Always ensure that your headlights, brake lights, and signal lights are appropriately functioning as well as are tidy as well as devoid of particles as well as residue. Also pay close attention to your brakes, tires, windows, steering, wiper blades and also horn. These things need to be checked on a regular basis. It is very important to have your vehicle examined at the very least once a year by a licensed professional. If any kind of issues develop, make sure you manage them as soon as possible since mechanical issues might lead to break downs or web traffic accidents. It is very important to protect each passenger in the cars and truck before you even launch the engine. People do not realize that appropriate safety restraints are necessary also if taking a trip a short distance. Safety belt as well as car seats for youngsters save thousands of lives each year. Safety belt do numerous points for you. They give effect defense, they absorb crash forces, and they maintain you from being thrown out of the car. So prior to take off, make it a routine to check that everybody is appropriately protected. Next off, you need to ensure you are not speeding up. You need to always adhere to the speed limit, they are put in place to shield you and also others when traveling. If a pet jumps out in front of you, and you are speeding, you might swerve as well as strike one more car causing a deadly accident. You might drive off of the road and damage your lorry. Not everyone drives well. Some rate boldy. Some drift into the incorrect lane due to the fact that they merely aren’t taking note. These people are called Aggressive drivers.

Aggressive drivers may comply with as well very closely, make sudden turns without signaling, or weave in and out of website traffic. Hostile drivers are recognized road dangers, creating one 3rd of all website traffic collisions. Recently, unobserving driving has become more of a problem than in the past. People try to”multitask”by talking on the phone, texting, eating, or perhaps viewing TV as they drive. In order to avoid these roadway hazards, You need to come to be a Protective Driver! It is an excellent concept to take a Defensive Driving course. The advantages of taking a protective driving course differ with each state, but usually consist of a reduction of factors on your driver’s certificate complying with a citation and also the assurance that insurance policy rates will certainly not increase. In some states, taking a protective driving course can cause a decrease of up to 10%in your insurance policy

prices for a while of 3 to five years. On top of everything, you get the essential understanding to effectively drive defensively! Protective driving can assist you protect your household! You can’t control the activities of various other vehicle drivers. However, by acquiring defensive driving abilities, you can prevent the dangers triggered by other people’s poor driving.