Authenticity and Integrity in a Digital World

In the era of “fake news” and knowledge overload by social media, it is troublesome to type out and distinguish integrity. It is difficult to sift out if the information comes from a reliable supply, or in other words, comes from a source primarily based on integrity. “You don’t lose your integrity, you give it away.” This statement appears to be very true in modern-day policing. Integrity does appear to be missing among many leaders today, yet, ironically, integrity and different ethical standards are core themes among the various leadership styles.

In the midst of today’s culture, having integrity is key to well-being. According to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, the definition of integrity is a firm “firm adherence to a code of particularly moral or inventive values: incorruptibility.” In the following paragraphs, I will detail a few of the key parts of integrity and its significance to turning into a police officer.

Firstly, one of the essential characteristics is honesty or truthfulness.

A person who offers with situations with integrity is somebody who is coping with them actually. However, they not solely convey honesty but use fact as an ethical compass to information them. If honesty is compromised this opens the door for the opportunity to be swayed by many influences. Whether these influences are positive or negative, the person turns into corruptible. As a regulation enforcement officer, honesty or truthfulness is crucial to one’s character. Police officers are given authority and if they do not carry it out with honesty, they are prone to corruption leading to using that authority for damaging purposes.

They not turn out to be an excellent example for the community and consequently, the group now not sees integrity in policing as a complete.

Another important attribute of integrity is accountability. Guided by honesty and reality as mentioned above, a person who has integrity will maintain him or herself accountable for their actions. This doesn’t only imply that they may hold themselves accountable when they are doing good issues, however in addition they maintain themselves responsible once they make mistakes. Having integrity does not mean that an individual won’t ever make a mistake, but it implies that they’ll instantly own up to the mistake and instantly try to restore it. For instance, if an officer made a mistake while writing a report, it is important that the officer attempt to amend that report back to accurately mirror what happened.

Thirdly, humility should also be thought-about a vital attribute of integrity. As talked about earlier than, people with integrity aren’t expected to be perfect folks that by no means make a mistake. Therefore, they recognize that they might not know every thing, they usually even have an understanding that they will always be studying. They are keen to learn new values and information that may hold them trustworthy and accountable. A person with integrity won’t know they’ve integrity unless put via conditions and encounters with adverse influences. Therefore, an integral individual will remain humble recognizing that they will continually study classes of honesty and accountability. A police officer who has integrity might be keen to learn from neighborhood members and not distance themselves from these she or he serves.

The final subject to be mentioned is having good moral values. When talking about having good ethics you have to be able to recognize that you’re held to a better normal as a legislation enforcement officer. Ethics is a word that can be outlined as proper behavior, however the word has so many other words that fit, corresponding to honor, selfless sacrifice, and private braveness. Socrates stated, “To know the nice is to do the nice.” The law enforcement code of ethics states “As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve the group; to safeguard lives and property; to guard the innocent in opposition to deception, the weak against oppression or intimidation and the peaceful in opposition to violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all to liberty, equality, and justice. I will hold my non-public life unsullied for instance to all and will behave in a manner that doesn’t bring discredit to me or to my company. I will maintain brave calm within the face of danger, scorn or ridicule; develop self-restraint, and be continually aware of the welfare of others. Honest in thought and deed both in my private and official life, I will be exemplary in obeying the law and the regulations of my division. Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that’s confided to me in my official capability might be stored ever secret until revelation is necessary for the performance of my responsibility. I won’t ever act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, political beliefs, aspirations, animosities, or friendships to affect my decisions. With no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of criminals, I will implement the regulation courteously and appropriately without concern or favor, malice or ill will, by no means using unnecessary force or violence and by no means accepting gratuities. I acknowledge the badge of my office as an emblem of public religion, and I settle for it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of police service. I will never have interaction in acts of corruption or bribery, nor will I condone such acts by different law enforcement officials. I will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.I know that I alone am answerable for my own commonplace of skilled efficiency and can take every affordable opportunity to boost and improve my stage of information and competence.”

We should maintain ourselves to that larger standard of conduct each in our professional as well as private lives, as anticipated by the common public. Law enforcement officers should commit to the best ethical and moral standards, which means they can’t be prejudice or favor somebody with out knowing each element and must present good personal conduct, have high integrity on and off responsibility. Ethics are important for legislation enforcement as a outcome of it retains particular person personnel from stepping outside the boundaries and helps in achieving as much equity as possible. There will at all times be individual law enforcement officers that drift outdoors their boundaries, however the hope is that in the future those unhealthy apples that do exist in each department finally find yourself being held answerable for their actions as a result of in the lengthy term the actions of the bad apples outweigh the actions of the law enforcement officers who really want to make a distinction of their respective communities. Being aware that others are looking as much as you and having the flexibility to present initiative in getting the job done properly and with empathy goes a good distance for the neighborhood as a whole. As a legislation enforcement officer being able to give the community the relatability and belief that must be earned for them to trust you is a sacrifice. Developing management skills is at the foundation of being a excessive quality law enforcement officer and thereby having a excessive quality agency. There are two neglected areas in policing today that must be addressed in order for the group to feel as if we are doing our jobs morally and ethically correct. Those two documents are the oath of workplace that is taken by every police officer on this nation and the code of ethics. These two paperwork serve as the physique for legislation enforcement officers and their respective departments to construct trust and honesty among the many community. As legislation enforcement officers we now have to remind ourselves every day that the neighborhood we serve is the neighborhood that we stay in, we are nothing without the group if they turn their backs on us as a end result of we now have not accomplished the right issues of their eyes.

Ethical decisions are a crucial part of a law enforcement officer’s job. The legislation enforcement officer will likely be faced with making a decision of this nature time and again throughout their profession. In most cases a call that the regulation enforcement officer makes will either make or break them as a police officer and the decision they make will either strengthen or weaken their ethical values.

Personally, integrity has made a robust impact on me via the totally different leaders and people who I even have encountered. One individual that I look as a lot as is my mom. She has been capable of provide me with a fantastic instance of integrity. My mom has all the time been trustworthy in all aspects- financially when interacting together with her household, and her employment. Similarly, she has at all times been accountable for her actions. She is prepared to admit her mistakes and learn from them thus also exhibiting humility from this. She lives up to the definition of integrity, never allowing anybody or anything to deprave her.

In summary, honesty, accountability, humility, and moral values are simply a variety of the characteristics of integrity. There are many others. However, all go hand in hand and are like pieces fitting into a puzzle. Integrity is one’s private life is important as a outcome of it varieties your identification. If one has integral folks round them, they have a larger chance of additionally having integrity. Even if an individual does not have these optimistic influences, they are to be the ones who exemplify integrity for others. Essentially that is what we’re being taught within the academy. The instructors are continuously attempting to instill integrity in us. They acknowledge that whether or not we’ve had examples of integrity or not, they may step in and be these examples. It is important that we worth this as police recruits as a end result of they truly understand what it means to have integrity as a law enforcement officer. It can be silly for us to imagine that we’ll have integrity as legislation enforcement officers if we’re not even capable of exemplify that is the Essex county police academy. They try to ascertain a culture of integrity even before we become law enforcement officers in our communities.

With today’s challenges in policing, it is important that integrity is displayed when out in the field as a regulation enforcement officer. Because of national media protection, neighborhood members already view legislation enforcement officers as lacking in integrity even before they meet the officers due to what’s proven on tv. Law enforcement officers are seen as corrupt and as exerting their authority for selfish ways. Many neighborhood members imagine that a regulation enforcement officer’s sworn oath is now not to “protect and serve,” but to “protect the self.”

Integrity in policing is about guaranteeing that the people who work for the police uphold the values of the service, strive to do the best thing in all conditions and have the boldness of the public. Any compromise of the trust established by regulation enforcement can result in disorder in the community. It is not merely about whether or not the basic public thinks the police are involved in corruption and misconduct, though clearly, this is important. It is also about how nicely the law enforcement officers make decisions, cope with situations, and deal with people day in, time out.

If the basic public does not trust the police to be fair and act ethically and in their finest interests, the proof suggests they will be more likely to break the regulation and be much less inclined to help the police. As regulation enforcement officers, in modern-day policing we’re referred to as on to be extra than just somebody who upholds the legislation and put people in jail, we are called on to wear many alternative hats and have many different roles to maintain the common public secure and give the peace of mind to have the flexibility to go away their houses and are available again safely with out the specter of hurt to themselves or other relations. As a law enforcement officer, I hope to vary this view all through the communities of the City of Newark. Through my experience thus far within the Essex county police academy, in addition to the examples of integrity in my personal life, I hope that my efforts will be ready to start a ripple effect towards the improvement of police-community relations. As I continue to reveal honesty, accountability, and humility, I hope to make a long-lasting impression in my career as a Newark police officer.

Arthur Miller”s The Crucible: Gaining Integrity through Failure

Integrity is achieved through the gaining of knowledge; the gaining of wisdom is a direct result of failure. Arthur Miller wrote the moralizing drama, The Crucible, in this play the primary character John Proctor was wrongly accused of witchcraft and served the demise penalty together with two others. The story of John Proctor was indirectly summarized by the American author William Saroyan when he mentioned, “Good people…are good as a outcome of they’ve come to wisdom through failure,” which means that a person willing to sacrifice for his beliefs is sweet because though he has failed, by not based on his ethical codes he has gained integrity and the ability to refuse to stay a life of hypocrisy; additional, John Proctor is nice as a result of he died refusing to lie so as to reside.

Proctor failed because his commitments wavered relying upon his personal private wants. Miller demonstrated Proctor’s failure, and later redemption and goodness all through the textual content by means of characterization, battle, and theme.

Miller makes use of the literary component of characterization to level out John Proctor’s transformation from failure to goodness. There is a definite contradiction in Proctor; additionally, he says that he loves his wife; but, he adulters her as soon as she becomes unwell. Also he does not attend church as a outcome of he dislikes the finest way in which Reverend Samuel Parris governs the church, as properly as the best way he preaches. Proctor abhors how Parris uses donations for the church to buy superfluous issues, ” …When I look to heaven and see my cash glaring at his elbows- it harm my prayer, sir, it harm my prayer” (69).

Proctor’s commitment wavers relying upon his own private wants. Arthur Miller characterised him as one with weak theology and one who struggled with personal commitment, in Puritan society faith is valued extremely and these that don’t comply with Puritan rules aren’t accepted and alienated by society. Salem residents thought-about Proctor a religious failure. He was not in a place to recite the Ten Commandments when requested by Reverend Nathaniel Hale; additional, as Proctor was failing to find the tenth commandment, his wife Elizabeth utters delicately, “Adultery, John” (71). Ironically, Proctor was capable of determine all the commandments besides the one which he was betraying. Reverend Hale pointed out Proctor’s different spiritual shortcomings, he discerned that Proctor hardly ever attended church, “In the guide of record that Mr. Parris keeps, I note that you are not often on church on Sabbath day” (68).

Proctor first argues that Hale should be incorrect, then he replies that his wife was sick; so, lastly in any case of his excuses failed, he resorted to saying that he didn’t attend church as a result of he did not like Reverend Samuel Parris, Reverend Hale continued to level out Proctor’s fallacies, Hale famous that solely two of Proctor’s three sons had been baptized, “How comes it that solely two are baptized” (69). Proctor claims that it is because he dislikes Reverend Parris, “I prefer it not that Mr. Parris ought to lay his hand on my baby. I see no light of God in that man. I’ll not conceal it” (69). Proctor proves himself to be religiously disloyal; additionally, since Samuel Parris was a preacher he will have to have the light of God is in him according to Puritan beliefs. Proctor challenges Hale’s accusations, “I nailed the roof upon the church, I hung the door-” (69). Proctor is keen to work for the church, however just isn’t keen to attend it like society expects him to; he unquestionably contradicts himself at this level.

Because of these non secular weaknesses and inauthentic choices Proctor’s faith in God is weakened. Proctor reaches wisdom via failure, he overcame his shortcomings and was finally capable of redeem himself in the eyes of society as well as within the eyes of God. When he being annoyed by the false accusations of the court docket he proclaimed, “I say- I say- God is dead!” (125). Proctor believes that God is lifeless and that everybody will burn in Hell collectively. Later he gains goodness as he realizes that God is conscious of that he is a sinner and that that’s all that issues, “God does not need my name nailed upon the church! He sees my name; God knows how black my sins are! It is enough!” (149). Also, Proctor was tortured for three months, the Salem judges tried to get him to purge a confession, but to no avail. Proctor knew that if he gave a false confession it might blacken his soul more than anything would. Elizabeth questioned him previous to his hanging, “You- have been tortured? Proctor responded, “Aye. They come for my life now.” (141).

Proctor was tortured for 3 months and was determined bolster his ideals by displaying a chilly coronary heart to the judges, right here he exemplifies firmness and perseverance. Proctor began as one whose commitment was based on his private needs, but was transformed to one keen to die for one thing he believes in, he was modified from a failed particular person to a moral man. Proctor knows that what the Salem judges have been doing was mistaken and he refused to be victimized by them. The dynamic characterization of John Proctor throughout The Crucible exhibits that he’s an excellent person because he’s prepared to die defending his beliefs; though, he agrees to admit and abandon his earlier beliefs, he has a change of coronary heart and hangs. Proctor was wrestling together with his conscience over whether to confess to witchcraft an action that may save himself from the gallows. The judges and Hale nearly convinced him to take action, but the last stumbling block is his signature on the confession, which he couldn’t convey himself to offer.

In half, this unwillingness displays his desire to honor his fellow prisoners; he wouldn’t be in a position to stay with himself understanding that other harmless, pious people died while he faltered at death’s door and fled. Also he wouldn’t signal the false confession because of his children; he did not need them to live knowing that their father was a too timid to face up for his ideas, “I have three children- how could I train them to walk like males on the earth, and I offered my friends?” (150). Proctor also hesitated to sign his false confession for concern of losing his tarnished, however all necessary name, “Because it’s my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and signal myself to lies…How may I stay with out my name? (150). He knew that he could only have one name, and if he signal the false confession folks would always look down on him as someone who was too cowardly to bolster his beliefs,

Still another literary element used by Miller is that of theme. The concept that popularity can tremendously impact a character’s thought process is an important theme throughout the play. Reputation is tremendously necessary in theocratic Salem, the place public and private moralities are one and the same. In an surroundings the place popularity performs such an necessary role, the fear of guilt by affiliation becomes notably harmful. Focused on maintaining public popularity, the townsfolk of Salem must worry that the sins of their friends and family may tarnish their very own names. John Proctor based mostly his actions on the desire to guard his popularity. Proctor seeks to maintain his good name from being broken; furthermore, he makes an attempt to quiet Abigail as regards to their earlier relationship in order to protect his good name. He tells Abigail to forget about their relationship as a result of he has reformed and wants nothing to do along with her, “Wipe it out of mind. We never touched, Abby” (24). Personal duty is another main theme throughout The Crucible; Miller exemplifies Proctor’s transformation from failure to morality via his failed personal duties.

As a citizen of Salem, Proctor has the duty of attending church weekly; additionally, he has the accountability of getting his household observe Puritan non secular rules. His youngest son isn’t baptized, Proctor argues that he doesn’t think that Reverend Parris is the proper man to baptize his son. Proctor’s largest failed responsibility is that of his loyalty to his spouse, Elizabeth. He had with Abigail throughout his wife’s illness. Proctor failed as a end result of his commitments wavered relying upon his personal private wants, he was in want of companionship and his wife was sick and therefore unable to meet his wants, so he abandon his previous ideals. Proctor’s inauthentic option to lecher his spouse contributed to his failings.

Elizabeth expressed grief concerning Proctor’s lechery, she was dismayed when she learned of John’s sin, “You’ll tear it free-when you come to know that I shall be your solely wife, or no spouse at all! (66). Another theme that plays a big role in reworking Proctor from a person of failure to a person with morals is that of intolerance of opposition. The Crucible is set in a theocratic society, in which the church and the state are one, and the Puritan religion could be very austere. Because of the theocratic nature of the society, ethical legal guidelines and state laws are one and the identical: sin and the standing of an individual’s soul are issues of public concern. There is not any room for variation from social requirements, since any particular person whose private life doesn’t conform to the established ethical laws represents a menace not solely to the public good; but, they pose a menace to the rule of God and true religion as properly. In Salem, everything and everybody belongs to either God or the Devil; opposition is not merely unlawful, it is associated with satanic activity. This division between good and evil, God or the Devil, capabilities as the underlying logic behind the witch trials.

The witch trials are the ultimate expression of intolerance; and, hanging witches is the final word technique of restoring the community’s purity. The trials categorize all social deviants with the shame of devil-worshiping and thus require their elimination from the group. Proctor conformed to society’s ways and hid his sins. Proctor’s failings were represented by the themes of popularity, intolerance, and private obligations, he was unable to satisfy his societal duties; but, he hid his weaknesses to find a way to maintain his social status white. He lined up his affair with Abigail and his non secular inadequacies. Proctor adultered Elizabeth and he was unable to stay a traditional life due to his sins.

Proctor also had an opportunity to put a stop to the girls’ accusations; however, his want to protect his status keeps him from testifying against Abigail, Proctor tells Elizabeth that he wants to suppose on the idea of testifying towards Abigail as a outcome of he fears that he could falsely accuse Abigail of fraud, but in actuality he’s thinking on it because he does not want to deliver adultery costs on himself by testifying against Abigail, he does not want to elevate lechery suspicions from Elizabeth, “…I have good cause to assume before I charge fraud on Abigail, and I will assume on it” (57). However, Proctor’s want to keep his good name leads him to make the heroic choice not to make a false confession and to go to his dying with out signing his name to an untrue assertion, he proclaims to the courtroom, “I have given you my soul; go away me my name!”

(150). By refusing to give up his name, he redeems himself for his failure and subsequently dies with integrity. Elizabeth expresses true feelings towards John because she knew that they may never speak to one another once more. She defined to John that she was one who was wrong, she said that she shouldn’t have been suspicious of John, “Suspicion kissed you after I did; I by no means knew how I ought to say my love. It had been a chilly home I kept!” (144). Proctor certainly has his integrity when Elizabeth exclaims to Judge Hathorne that John is a moral man, “Do what you will. But let none be your judge. There be no greater judge under Heaven than Proctor is! Forgive me, forgive me, John- I by no means knew such goodness in the world!” (144). Through the trials Proctor realized the conformists of society, and how folks surrender to altering their very own beliefs. When John is going through death he’s redeemed and features integrity. Elizabeth appears previous John’s adultery and recognizes that has transformed into a good man.

The literary element of conflict is regularly used throughout The Crucible to indicate John Proctor’s transition from ethical failure to ethical success. The exterior battle between John and Elizabeth exhibits John in as a failure, their battle was caused by John’s affair with Abigail. Elizabeth expressed her grief upon studying of John’s lechery, “…I shall be your solely wife, or no spouse at all! She [Abigail] has an arrow in you yet, John Proctor, and you understand it well!” (66). Another exterior conflict exists between John and society, significantly, the judges and governors. The Salem governors convince Proctor that the right method to go is to provide a false confession; further, he would spare his life, and religiously rid himself of sin by confessing. Here, Proctor failed. He chose to offer a false confession, he selected to wrongly admit to witchcraft instead of standing by his morals like Martha Corey and Sarah Good did earlier than him. Along those self same lines, John failed himself.

Internally he was fighting the same the decision of giving a false confession. Proctor failed via each inner and exterior conflicts. He was satisfied to falsely confess, and he additionally adultered his spouse. Proctor was redeemed internally; he discovered wisdom from within and reformed. Proctor realized that adultery significantly troubled his relationship Elizabeth and also his public reputation, and redeemed himself by means of admitting his sins to Elizabeth and saying that he takes his personal sins upon himself, no one else’s, “No, I take my very own [sins], my own!” (144). Proctor additionally turned acutely aware of the fact that integrity is much more important than reputation.

He exhibits this recognition by way of deciding to not give a false confession. By not giving a false confession he redeemed himself and reached virtue. In the end, he was hanged and showed his goodness through his willingness to sacrifice his own life defending one thing that he believes in. Instead of being used by the court docket to rattling witchcraft, he went towards the courtroom, and did the opposite of what they wanted him to do. By not conforming to the courts requests of a false confession he showed as soon as extra his integrity and morality.

Furthermore, Arthur Miller depicts John Proctor’s goodness by showing that he has integrity, morals, and beliefs. The American creator William Saroyan mentioned, “Good people…are good as a result of they’ve come to wisdom by way of failure.” Someone who’s willing to sacrifice for his beliefs is an effective person as a result of although he has failed, by not in accordance with his moral codes he has gained the integrity and the power to refuse to stay a lifetime of hypocrisy. The Crucible is directly related to the McCarthy hearings of the 1950s and Nineteen Sixties.

Senator Joseph McCarthy fought the rising Communist get together through the “Red Scare,” when America was vulnerable to the rising menace of Communist invasion. McCarthy’s listening to is immediately associated to The Crucible because like the McCarthy hearings The Crucible sends a timeless message. Joseph McCarthy stood up to American society to publicly defend his popularity, in addition to the reputations of others; additionally John Proctor did the identical in The Crucible as he refused to disgrace himself by mendacity and taking the straightforward way out when others died for his or her morals.

Works Cited:

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. New York: Penguin Books, 1953.

Academic Integrity and Education

Academic integrity means dealing with honesty, trust and duties in work that is the foundation for school kids to be successful in university life’s journey. Students had been more expected to express and submit their own though and data in addition to respects other people’s concept and offers they credit for their work. Students will learn to look and accurately report the things that they’re amassing or writing about it. Academic integrity is totally different from one university to a different (Vicki Nelson ).

because some universities are taking academic integrity as a serious concern, and they have coverage for it corresponding to, failing the course or getting zero in the project that they have been cheated or copied on it because they thought if pupil just isn’t sincere to him or herself and to the professors will not achieve success in their profession future job in order that they are became lazy in doing things however other universities will not have any tolerance on it and they are not taking academic integrity as a serious issue.

Having educational integrity is essential as a outcome of it affect your private behavior and attitude, your future job, keep people’s right.

Academic integrity is essential for some reason considered one of them is tutorial honesty. It means you are trying to do your individual work and tell your personal imagine, data, data to indicate folks that I am existing and proficient in expressing what that I need. Academic honesty make student to elucidate and clearly show their very own achievement and although step by step to point out what they are making an attempt to say and it also lead students to accept correction and revision from their professor as part of studying course of in order that it keep away from college students from dishonest.

Also educational honesty makes people to turn out to be a trustable particular person. Because folks know that you simply consider in doing and saying the right thing to maintain the honesty and applicable conduct in your life. Academic honesty is beneficial for someone’s future carrier job (Seattle Pi). Many companies are willing to using that graduate who’s trustable, sincere, not depending on other people’s idea and who believe on their own thought as a outcome of those things are the key for someone to turned a profitable director and guider in order that the businesses will enhance their profit in addition to the graduate sincere scholar became more profitable so as making an attempt and experiencing new issues.

Another necessary reason of having academic integrity is avoiding student from plagiarism which is borrowing and copying other’s thought, work and research with out pointing the source or the author and displaying it as it’s your personal work. Having tutorial integrity coverage at college is helpful each time college students paraphrasing others perception or word must precisely cited them correctly as a outcome of in the occasion that they don’t cite them many unfavorable penalties will face them. For instance, many of the professors have roughly coping with plagiarism as a result of they wish to you to study and earn your grade and cross the category pretty. If students get caught whereas plagiarizing the academic coverage will embrace lower grade , typically failing the course or dismissing from sure major as well recording it in the student’s transcript so that influence you in case you are prepared to study aboard for PHD. Also, when somebody who received plagiarism are trying to find job she or he can not discover it simply especially, if she or he is willing to work in navy service or authorities as a outcome of these sort of work needs somebody who had clean history(SeattlePi).

At AUIS most of the pupil had been studying APP program earlier than getting into to Undergraduate program, so the instructor from app had been toughed similar style and format of writing an essay or analysis paper to all the scholars so that once we are attempting to put in writing an essay all of us typically have similar idea and identical structure. Also, writing essay in APP program is quietly completely different from writing it in UG program nevertheless after we got here to UG there is not any enough clarification about tutorial integrity and how to write a perfect essay and research report with out plagiarisms that is why most of the students in the first semester will obtained integrity offence as a outcome of they don’t have sufficient information and we discovered the identical construction of writing essay. Even although having educational integrity coverage at AUIS just like another university is one thing helpful for us as a end result of it makes us to suppose and to rely upon our imagine it leads us to be inventive for ourselves and for society. However, our society has author and doing their work completely, but still needs somebody who is professional, creative and talented to make literature and science be more developed, and make our society identical to another so that AUIS is opening the finest way for as to be creative by punishing us whereas we try to copying and borrowing other’s thought.

Last semester, my good friend toke one of many require courses at AUIS, and the trainer gave them an task to put in writing about an argumentative essay about totally different topics. My good friend had chosen single intercourse training as her matter even though she had searched so much and wrote down many various concepts, and he or she collected different individuals believes about their reaction about separating intercourse whereas faculty. When she began to write down her essay, she forgot to cited one of the sources that she used for an evidence, so she resubmitted her essay twice in order that many adverse consequences confronted her. For example, she acquired a zero on her project, she failed the course, and she obtained integrity offence and recorded on her transcript. From that day that she received integrity she may be very afraid to write essay as a result of the integrity policy at AUIS state that if a pupil received three integrity he or she will be dismissed from the university.

However, we’re as a scholar using the identical program which is Turn it to check our essay about having plagiarism, copying different people’s idea, and keeping the author’s proper someday we’re cited correctly however we are going to see very excessive p.c of similarity as a end result of many technological problems accrue in this system and we immediately obtain integrity offence by our teacher with out listening to us and clarify the state of affairs to them they need to search if we are guilty by copying other thought or the issue is in the program.

Work Citied

University of Waterloo. Academic Integrity ‘ Academic Integrity at MIT.’ What is academic integrity .’ Michigan state college.’ What is academic integrity.’ Bauer College of Business college Houston’. Bauer Academic Honesty.’ What is Academic integrity and why is it essential.’ Luther faculty.’What is Academic integrity.’

Integrity in “Malcolm in the Middle”

Integrity is and will always be a how a person is remembered. In my opinion, integrity is the single most important personal or character trait anyone can have. Being able to do the right thing or having the willingness to do the right things when no one is looking is a big part of this. Having integrity involves having accountability, responsibility, and honesty in each and every situation that you are faced with. Being in the United States Air Force, I am very familiar with the word Integrity. The meaning of integrity has been engraved in my mind and heart for 14 years, ever since basic military training in San Antonio, Texas on June 14 2000. Integrity boils down to having honesty, accountability, and responsibility. Having honesty in every situation ensures what you do and say matches. Exhibiting the trait of accountability ensures other around you steal, cheat, or lie. Being responsible enables other around you to trust and believe that you have their very interest at heart, and that you will not be selfish to not only take care of yourself but others as well.

In the show of Malcolm in the Middle, episode “Water Parks” show examples of integrity, I didn’t agree with. The first of which happened when Hal and Lois decided to get a babysitter for Dewey. As the parents called each and every babysitter they could find, it seemed as if the parents didn’t do any homework or research to check the credentials for each person. As a parent I believe that you are having a responsibility to look out and protect every person in your family. Hal and Lois fell way short in their parental duties. In the show of Malcolm in the Middle, episode “Water Parks” show examples of integrity, I didn’t agree with. The first of which happened when Hal and Lois decided to get a babysitter for Dewey. As the parents called each and every babysitter they could find, it seemed as if the parents didn’t do any homework or research to check the credentials for each person. As a parent I believe that you are having a responsibility to look out and protect every person in your family. Hal and Lois fell way short in their parental duties.

The next poor decision that Hal seemed to make that fell short of in terms of having integrity was smuggling a pint of rum in the water park. There are rules in place for a reason. You are not ensuring the safety of yourself, but ensuring the safety of everyone in the water park as well. While drinking is not illegal, it severely impacts your hand and eye coordination and your sense of awareness and could lead to public intoxication. If the water park wanted patrons to have alcohol, they will serve it. Although, sneaking a pint of rum into the water park seems so minor, it is very hard to do the right thing. As parents, I would not have been okay with the Lois and Hals’s decision to ignore their sons and concentrate on each other in the water park. I truly understand finding the correct balance in your marriage and within your family. Although you may know and trust your kids, I don’t know if I would in Hal’s and Lois’s case, you truly don’t know the true intentions of others. The world is much more dangerous than it was 10 years ago. Furthermore, in my opinion I don’t feel children that age are truly responsible enough to make wise decisions in regards in water safety and in regards to dealing with strangers.

Sometimes acting in integrity is a very hard line to walk. We saw that Francis and Spangler played many games of pool against each other, with Francis losing the games at the very end. Later on in the episode we see that Spangler believes that Francis is losing to him on purpose. Now Francis and Spangler lose to each on purpose. This walked a fine line have integrity. I believed that Francis did the right thing by losing, he ultimately saved his friends and himself from completing extra duties. While having integrity is something that everyone would love to be remember by, very few people really walk in it. Again, being responsible, honest and accountable are in my opinion the only to truly achieve this goal.

Data Integrity in Cloud Storage

ABSTRACT:
Cloud computing has been envisioned as the de-facto solution to the rising storage costs of IT Enterprises. With the high costs of data storage devices as well as the rapid rate at which data is being generated it proves costly for enterprises or individual users to frequently update their hardware. Apart from reduction in storage costs data outsourcing to the cloud also helps in reducing the maintenance.

Cloud storage moves the user’s data to large data centers, which are remotely located, on which user does not have any control. However, this unique feature of the cloud poses many new security challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. We provide a scheme which gives a proof of data integrity in the cloud which the customer can employ to check the correctness of his data in the cloud. This proof can be agreed upon by both the cloud and the customer and can be incorporated in the Service level agreement (SLA).

PROJECT PURPOSE:
Purpose of developing proofs for data possession at untrusted cloud storage servers we are often limited by the resources at the cloud server as well as at the client. Given that the data sizes are large and are stored at remote servers, accessing the entire file can be expensive in I/O costs to the storage server.

Also transmitting the file across the network to the client can consume heavy bandwidths. Since growth in storage capacity has far outpaced the growth in data access as well as network bandwidth, accessing and transmitting the entire archive even occasionally greatly limits the scalability of the network resources. Furthermore, the I/O to establish the data proof interferes with the on-demand bandwidth of the server used for normal storage and retrieving purpose.

PROJECT SCOPE:
Cloud storing its data file F at the client should process it and create suitable meta data which is used in the later stage of verification the data integrity at the cloud storage. When checking for data integrity the client queries the cloud storage for suitable replies based on which it concludes the integrity of its data stored in the client. our data integrity protocol the verifier needs to store only a single cryptographic key – irrespective of the size of the data file F- and two functions which generate a random sequence. The verifier does not store any data with it. The verifier before storing the file at the archive, preprocesses the file and appends some meta data to the file and stores at the archive.

PRODUCT FEATURES:
Our scheme was developed to reduce the computational and storage overhead of the client as well asto minimize the computational overhead of the cloud storage server. We also minimized the size of the proof of data integrity so as to reduce the network bandwidth consumption. Hence the storage at the client is very much minimal compared to all other schemes that were developed. Hence this scheme proves advantageous to thin clients like PDAs and mobile phones.

The operation of encryption of data generally consumes a large computational power. In our scheme the encrypting process is very much limited to only a fraction of the whole data thereby saving on the computational time of the client. Many of the schemes proposed earlier require the archive to perform tasks that need a lot of computational power to generate the proof of data integrity. But in our scheme the archive just need to fetch and send few bits of data to the client.

INTRODUCTION:
Data outsourcing to cloud storage servers is raising trend among many firms and users owing to its economic advantages. This essentially means that the owner (client) of the data moves its data to a third party cloud storage server which is supposed to – presumably for a fee – faithfully store the data with it and provide it back to the owner whenever required.

As data generation is far outpacing data storage it proves costly for small firms to frequently update their hardware whenever additional data is created. Also maintaining the storages can be a difficult task. Storage outsourcing of data to cloud storage helps such firms by reducing the costs of storage, maintenance and personnel. It can also assure a reliable storage of important data by keeping multiple copies of the data thereby reducing the chance of losing data by hardware failures.

Storing of user data in the cloud despite its advantages has many interesting security concerns which need to be extensively investigated for making it a reliable solution to the problem of avoiding local storage of data. In this paper we deal with the problem of implementing a protocol for obtaining a proof of data possession in the cloud sometimes referred to as Proof of retrievability (POR).This problem tries to obtain and verify a proof that the data that is stored by a user at a remote data storage in the cloud (called cloud storage archives or simply archives) is Not modified by the archive and thereby the integrity of the data is assured.

Such verification systems prevent the cloud storage archives from misrepresenting or modifying the data stored at it without the consent of the data owner by using frequent checks on the storage archives. Such checks must allow the data owner to efficiently, frequently, quickly and securely verify that the cloud archive is not cheating the owner. Cheating, in this context, means that the storage archive might delete some of the data or may modify some of the data.

CHAPTER 02

SYSTEM ANALYSIS :

PROBLEM DEFINITION:
Storing of user data in the cloud despite its advantages has many interesting security concerns which need to be extensively investigated for making it a reliable solution to the problem of avoiding local storage of data. Many problems like data authentication and integrity (i.e., how to efficiently and securely ensure that the cloud storage server returns correct and complete results in response to its clients’ queries, outsourcing encrypted data and associated difficult problems dealing with querying over encrypted
domain were discussed in research literature.

EXISTING SYSTEM:
As data generation is far outpacing data storage it proves costly for small firms to frequently update their hardware whenever additional data is created. Also maintaining the storages can be a difficult task. It transmitting the file across the network to the client can consume heavy bandwidths. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the owner of the data may be a small device, like a PDA (personal digital assist) or a mobile phone, which have limited CPU power, battery power and communication bandwidth.

LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING SYSTEM:

▪ The main drawback of this scheme is the high resource costs it requires for the implementation. ▪ Also computing hash value for even a moderately large data files can be computationally burdensome for some clients (PDAs, mobile phones, etc). ▪ Data encryption is large so the disadvantage is small users with limited computational power (PDAs, mobile phones etc.). PROPOSED SYSTEM:

One of the important concerns that need to be addressed is to assure the customer of the integrity i.e. correctness of his data in the cloud. As the data is physically not accessible to the user the cloud should provide a way for the user to check if the integrity of his data is maintained or is compromised. In this paper we provide a scheme which gives a proof of data integrity in the cloud which the customer can employ to check the correctness of his data in the cloud.

This proof can be agreed upon by both the cloud and the customer and can be incorporated in the Service level agreement (SLA). It is important to note that our proof of data integrity protocol just checks the integrity of data i.e. if the data has been illegally modified or deleted.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

▪ Apart from reduction in storage costs data outsourcing to the cloud also helps in reducing the maintenance.

▪ Avoiding local storage of data.

▪ By reducing the costs of storage, maintenance and personnel.

▪ It reduces the chance of losing data by hardware failures.

▪ Not cheating the owner.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS FOR EXISTING AND PROPOSED SYSTEM:
FEASIBILITY STUDY:

The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential.

Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are

□ ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY
□ TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
□ SOCIAL FEASIBILITY

ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased.

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.

SOCIAL FEASIBILITY

The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of the system.

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

• System: Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
• Hard Disk : 40 GB.
• Floppy Drive: 1.44 Mb.
• Monitor: 15 VGA Colour.
• Mouse: Logitech.
• Ram: 512 Mb.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

• Operating system : Windows XP.
• Coding Language : ASP.Net with C#
• Data Base : SQL Server 2005

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:
Functional requirements specify which output file should be produced from the given file they describe the relationship between the input and output of the system, for each functional requirement a detailed description of all data inputs and their source and the range of valid inputs must be specified.

NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:
Describe user-visible aspects of the system that are not directly related with the functional behavior of the system. Non-Functional requirements include quantitative constraints, such as response time (i.e. how fast the system reacts to user commands.) or accuracy ((.e. how precise are the systems numerical answers.)

PSEUDO REQUIREMENTS:

The client that restricts the implementation of the system imposes these requirements. Typical pseudo requirements are the implementation language and the platform on which the system is to be implemented. These have usually no direct effect on the users view of the system. LITERATURE SURVEY:

Literature survey is the most important step in software development process. Before developing the tool it is necessary to determine the time factor, economy n company strength. Once these things r satisfied, ten next steps is to determine which operating system and language can be used for developing the tool. Once the programmers start building the tool the programmers need lot of external support. This support can be obtained from senior programmers, from book or from websites. Before building the system the above consideration r taken into account for developing the proposed system.

We have to analysis the Cloud Computing Outline Survey:

Cloud Computing

• Cloud computing providing unlimited infrastructure to store and execute customer data and program. As customers you do not need to own the infrastructure, they are merely accessing or renting; they can forego capital expenditure and consume resources as a service, paying instead for what they use.

Benefits of Cloud Computing:

• Minimized Capital expenditure
• Location and Device independence
• Utilization and efficiency improvement
• Very high Scalability
• High Computing power

Security a major Concern:

← Security concerns arising because both customer data and program are residing in Provider Premises. ← Security is always a major concern in Open System Architectures

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Data centre Security?

• Professional Security staff utilizing video surveillance, state of the art intrusion detection systems, and other electronic means. • When an employee no longer has a business need to access datacenter his privileges to access datacenter should be immediately revoked. • All physical and electronic access to data centers by employees should be logged and audited routinely. • Audit tools so that users can easily determine how their data is stored, protected, used, and verify policy enforcement.

Data Location:
← When user uses the cloud, user probably won’t know exactly where your data is hosted, what country it will be stored in? ← Data should be stored and processed only in specific jurisdictions as define by user. ← Provider should also make a contractual commitment to obey local privacy requirements on behalf of their customers, ← Data-centered policies that are generated when a user provides personal or sensitive information, that travels with that information throughout its lifetime to ensure that the information is used only in accordance with the policy

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Backups of Data :

← Data store in database of provider should be redundantly store in multiple physical location. ← Data that is generated during running of program on instances is all customer data and therefore provider should not perform backups. ← Control of Administrator on Databases.

Data Sanitization:

← Sanitization is the process of removing sensitive information from a storage device. ← What happens to data stored in a cloud computing environment once it has passed its user’s “use by date” ← What data sanitization practices does the cloud computing service provider propose to implement for redundant and retiring data storage devices as and when these devices are retired or taken out of service.

Network Security:

• Denial of Service: where servers and networks are brought down by a huge amount of network traffic and users are denied the access to a certain Internet based service. • Like DNS Hacking, Routing Table “Poisoning”, XDoS attacks • QoS Violation : through congestion, delaying or dropping packets, or through resource hacking. • Man in the Middle Attack: To overcome it always use SSL • IP Spoofing: Spoofing is the creation of TCP/IP packets using somebody else’s IP address. • Solution: Infrastructure will not permit an instance to send traffic with a source IP or MAC address other than its own.

How secure is encryption Scheme:

← Is it possible for all of my data to be fully encrypted? ← What algorithms are used?
← Who holds, maintains and issues the keys? Problem:
← Encryption accidents can make data totally unusable. ← Encryption can complicate availability Solution
← The cloud provider should provide evidence that encryption schemes were designed and tested by experienced specialists.

Information Security:

← Security related to the information exchanged between different hosts or between hosts and users. ← This issues pertaining to secure communication, authentication, and issues concerning single sign on and delegation. ← Secure communication issues include those security concerns that arise during the communication between two entities. ← These include confidentiality and integrity issues. Confidentiality indicates that all data sent by users should be accessible to only “legitimate” receivers, and integrity indicates that all data received should only be sent/modified by “legitimate” senders. ← Solution: public key encryption, X.509 certificates, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) enables secure authentication and communication over computer networks.

MODULES DESCRIPTION:
CLOUD STORAGE:

Data outsourcing to cloud storage servers is raising trend among many firms and users owing to its economic advantages. This essentially means that the owner (client) of the data moves its data to a third party cloud storage server which is supposed to – presumably for a fee – faithfully store the
data with it and provide it back to the owner whenever required.

SIMPLY ARCHIVES:

This problem tries to obtain and verify a proof that the data that is stored by a user at remote data storage in the cloud (called cloud storage archives or simply archives) is not modified by the archive and thereby the integrity of the data is assured. Cloud archive is not cheating the owner, if cheating, in this context, means that the storage archive might delete some of the data or may modify some of the data. While developing proofs for data possession at untrusted cloud storage servers we are often limited by the resources at the cloud server as well as at the client.

SENTINELS:

In this scheme, unlike in the key-hash approach scheme, only a single key can be used irrespective of the size of the file or the number of files whose retrievability it wants to verify. Also the archive needs to access only a small portion of the file F unlike in the key-has scheme which required the archive to process the entire file F for each protocol verification. If the prover has modified or deleted a substantial portion of F, then with high probability it will also have suppressed a number of sentinels.

VERIFICATION PHASE:

The verifier before storing the file at the archive, preprocesses the file and appends some Meta data to the file and stores at the archive. At the time of verification the verifier uses this Meta data to verify the integrity of the data. It is important to note that our proof of data integrity protocol just checks the integrity of data i.e. if the data has been illegally modified or deleted. It does not prevent the archive from modifying the data.

CHAPTER 03
SYSTEM DESIGN:
Data Flow Diagram / Use Case Diagram / Flow Diagram:

❖ The DFD is also called as bubble chart. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is generated by the system

❖ The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important modeling tools. It is used to model the system components. These components are the system process, the data used by the process, an external entity that interacts with the system and the information flows in the system.

❖ DFD shows how the information moves through the system and how it is modified by a series of transformations. It is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and the transformations that are applied as data moves from input to output.

❖ DFD is also known as bubble chart. A DFD may be used to represent a system at any level of abstraction. DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail.

NOTATION:

SOURCE OR DESTINATION OF DATA:

External sources or destinations, which may be people or organizations or other entities.

DATA SOURCE:

Here the data referenced by a process is stored and retrieved.

PROCESS:

People, procedures or devices that produce data. The physical component is
not identified.

DATA FLOW:

Data moves in a specific direction from an origin to a destination. The data flow is a “packet” of data.

MODELING RULES:

There are several common modeling rules when creating DFDs:
1. All processes must have at least one data flow in and one data flow out. 2. All processes should modify the incoming data, producing new forms of outgoing data. 3. Each data store must be involved with at least one data flow. 4. Each external entity must be involved with at least one data flow. 5. A data flow must be attached to at least one process.

SDLC:
SPIRAL MODEL:
PROJECT ARCHITECTURE:

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UML DIAGRAMS:
USE CASE:

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CLASS:

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SEQUENCE:[pic]ACTIVITY:[pic]
DATA DICTIONARY:
ER DIAGRAM:
DFD DIAGRAMS:

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CHAPTER 04
PROCESS SPECIFICATION(Techniques And Algorithm Used):
ALGORITHM:

META-DATA GENERATION:

Let the verifier V wishes to the store the file F with the archive. Let this file F consist of n file blocks. We initially preprocess the file and create metadata to be appended to the file. Let each of the n data blocks have m bits in them. A typical data file F which the client wishes to store in the cloud.

Each of the Meta data from the data blocks mi is encrypted by using a suitable algorithm to give a new modified Meta data Mi. Without loss of generality we show this process by using a simple XOR operation. The encryption method can be improvised to provide still stronger protection for verifier’s data.

All the Meta data bit blocks that are generated using the above procedure are to be concatenated together. This concatenated Meta data should be appended to the file F before storing it at the cloud server. The file F along with the appended Meta data e F is archived with the cloud.

SCREEN SHOTS:
OWNER

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TPA
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ADMIN

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CHAPTER 05
TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION:
Software Environment
Features OF. Net

Microsoft .NET is a set of Microsoft software technologies for rapidly building and integrating XML Web services, Microsoft Windows-based applications, and Web solutions. The .NET Framework is a language-neutral platform for writing programs that can easily and securely interoperate.

There’s no language barrier with .NET: there are numerous languages available to the developer including Managed C++, C#, Visual Basic and Java Script. The .NET framework provides the foundation for components to interact seamlessly, whether locally or remotely on different platforms. It standardizes common data types and communications protocols so that components created in different languages can easily interoperate.

“.NET” is also the collective name given to various software components built upon the .NET platform. These will be both products (Visual Studio.NET and Windows.NET Server, for instance) and services (like Passport, .NET My Services, and so on).

THE .NET FRAMEWORK

The .NET Framework has two main parts:

1. The Common Language Runtime (CLR).
2. A hierarchical set of class libraries.

The CLR is described as the “execution engine” of .NET. It provides the environment within which programs run. The most important features are

□ Conversion from a low-level assembler-style language, called Intermediate Language (IL), into code native to the platform being executed on. □ Memory management, notably including garbage collection. □ Checking and enforcing security restrictions on the running code.
□ Loading and executing programs, with version control and other such features. □ The following features of the .NET framework are also worth description:

Managed Code
The code that targets .NET, and which contains certain extra Information – “metadata” – to describe itself. Whilst both managed and unmanaged code can run in the runtime, only managed code contains the information that allows the CLR to guarantee, for instance, safe execution and interoperability.

Managed Data
With Managed Code comes Managed Data. CLR provides memory allocation and Deal location facilities, and garbage collection. Some .NET languages use Managed Data by default, such as C#, Visual Basic.NET and JScript.NET, whereas others, namely C++, do not. Targeting CLR can, depending on the language you’re using, impose certain constraints on the features available. As with managed and unmanaged code, one can have both managed and unmanaged data in .NET applications – data that doesn’t get garbage collected but instead is looked after by unmanaged code.

Common Type System
The CLR uses something called the Common Type System (CTS) to strictly enforce type-safety. This ensures that all classes are compatible with each other, by describing types in a common way. CTS define how types work within the runtime, which enables types in one language to interoperate with types in another language, including cross-language exception handling. As well as ensuring that types are only used in appropriate ways, the runtime also ensures that code doesn’t attempt to access memory that hasn’t been allocated to it. Common Language Specification

The CLR provides built-in support for language interoperability. To ensure that you can develop managed code that can be fully used by developers using any programming language, a set of language features and rules for using them called the Common Language Specification (CLS) has been defined. Components that follow these rules and expose only CLS features are
considered CLS-compliant.

THE CLASS LIBRARY:

.NET provides a single-rooted hierarchy of classes, containing over 7000 types. The root of the namespace is called System; this contains basic types like Byte, Double, Boolean, and String, as well as Object. All objects derive from System. Object. As well as objects, there are value types. Value types can be allocated on the stack, which can provide useful flexibility. There are also efficient means of converting value types to object types if and when necessary.

The set of classes is pretty comprehensive, providing collections, file, screen, and network I/O, threading, and so on, as well as XML and database connectivity. The class library is subdivided into a number of sets (or namespaces), each providing distinct areas of functionality, with dependencies between the namespaces kept to a minimum.

LANGUAGES SUPPORTED BY .NET

The multi-language capability of the .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET enables developers to use their existing programming skills to build all types of applications and XML Web services. The .NET framework supports new versions of Microsoft’s old favorites Visual Basic and C++ (as VB.NET and Managed C++), but there are also a number of new additions to the family.

Visual Basic .NET has been updated to include many new and improved language features that make it a powerful object-oriented programming language. These features include inheritance, interfaces, and overloading, among others. Visual Basic also now supports structured exception handling, custom attributes and also supports multi-threading. Visual Basic.

NET is also CLS compliant, which means that any CLS-compliant language can use the classes, objects, and components you create in Visual Basic .NET. Managed Extensions for C++ and attributed programming are just some of the enhancements made to the C++ language. Managed Extensions simplify the task of migrating existing C++ applications to the new .NET Framework. C# is Microsoft’s new language. It’s a C-style language that is essentially “C++ for Rapid Application Development”. Unlike other languages, its specification is just the grammar of the language. It has no standard library of its own, and instead has been designed with the intention of using the .NET libraries as its own.

Microsoft Visual J# .NET provides the easiest transition for Java-language developers into the world of XML Web Services and dramatically improves the interoperability of Java-language programs with existing software written in a variety of other programming languages.

Active State has created Visual Perl and Visual Python, which enable .NET-aware applications to be built in either Perl or Python. Both products can be integrated into the Visual Studio .NET environment. Visual Perl includes support for Active State’s Perl Dev Kit.

Other languages for which .NET compilers are available include

• FORTRAN
• COBOL
• Eiffel

Fig1 .Net Framework

| ASP.NET | Windows Forms | |XML WEB SERVICES | | | Base Class Libraries | | Common Language Runtime | | Operating System |

C#.NET is also compliant with CLS (Common Language Specification) and supports structured exception handling. CLS is set of rules and constructs that are supported by the CLR (Common Language Runtime). CLR is the runtime environment provided by the .NET Framework; it manages the execution of the code and also makes the development process easier by providing services.

C#.NET is a CLS-compliant language. Any objects, classes, or components that created in C#.NET can be used in any other CLS-compliant language. In addition, we can use objects, classes, and components created in other CLS-compliant languages in C#.NET .The use of CLS ensures complete interoperability among applications, regardless of the languages used to create the application.

CONSTRUCTORS AND DESTRUCTORS:

Constructors are used to initialize objects, whereas destructors are used to destroy them. In other words, destructors are used to release the resources allocated to the object. In C#.NET the sub finalize procedure is available. The sub finalize procedure is used to complete the tasks that must be performed when an object is destroyed. The sub finalize procedure is called automatically when an object is destroyed. In addition, the sub finalize procedure can be called only from the class it belongs to or from derived classes.

GARBAGE COLLECTION

Garbage Collection is another new feature in C#.NET. The .NET Framework monitors allocated resources, such as objects and variables. In addition, the .NET Framework automatically releases memory for reuse by destroying objects that are no longer in use.

In C#.NET, the garbage collector checks for the objects that are not currently in use by applications. When the garbage collector comes across an object that is marked for garbage collection, it releases the memory occupied by the object.

OVERLOADING

Overloading is another feature in C#. Overloading enables us to define multiple procedures with the same name, where each procedure has a different set of arguments. Besides using overloading for procedures, we can use it for constructors and properties in a class.

MULTITHREADING:

C#.NET also supports multithreading. An application that supports multithreading can handle multiple tasks simultaneously, we can use multithreading to decrease the time taken by an application to respond to user interaction.

STRUCTURED EXCEPTION HANDLING

C#.NET supports structured handling, which enables us to detect and remove errors at runtime. In C#.NET, we need to use Try…Catch…Finally statements to create exception handlers. Using Try…Catch…Finally statements, we can create robust and effective exception handlers to improve the performance of our application.

THE .NET FRAMEWORK

The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet.

OBJECTIVES OF. NET FRAMEWORK

1. To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object codes is stored and executed locally on Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.

2. To provide a code-execution environment to minimizes software deployment and guarantees safe execution of code.

3. Eliminates the performance problems.

There are different types of application, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.

Features of SQL-SERVER

The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Meta Data Services. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. The term repository is used only in reference to the repository engine within Meta Data Services SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects,

They are,
1. TABLE
2. QUERY
3. FORM
4. REPORT
5. MACRO

TABLE:
A database is a collection of data about a specific topic.

VIEWS OF TABLE:
We can work with a table in two types,

1. Design View
2. Datasheet View

Design View
To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the table design view. We can specify what kind of data will be hold.

Datasheet View
To add, edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet view mode.

QUERY:
A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the dynaset. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it, such as deleting or updating.

FULL PROJECT CODING, DATABASE WITH VIDEO TUTORIAL
HOW TO INSTALL DOCUMENT:
Execution help file
REQUIRED SOFTWARES:
1. MS visual studio 2008
2. SQL server 2005
For WAP:
3. JDK 1.6
4. Nokia 5100 sdk
HOW TO ATTACH DATABASE:
STEP 1:
Copy the database to following path.
Path: C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\Data Or
Path: C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL\Data STEP 2:
Then open sql server.
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STEP 3:
To attach the database, right click on database and click attach. [pic]
Then attach databases window will open.
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STEP 4:
Click add button in that window and choose required database. Then click ok. [pic]

Database will added in database details.
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Finally click ok.
STEP 5:
Then open MS visual studio 2008 for our project.
In server explorer, right click on database connection and click add connection. [pic]
Add connection window will open. In that, choose data source as MS sql server,give sever name and choose database name and then click ok. [pic]
Then our database will attached in server explorer.
STEP 6:
Then change the appsettings in web.config file.
For that, right click on our database in server explorer and click properties. [pic]
Properties window will open.
[pic]

STEP 7:

Copy that connection string to value in appsettings tag in web.config file.

STEP 8:
We used ajax in our project. So add ajax tools to your system using below steps. 1. Copy AjaxControlToolkitBinary folder to any directory (i.e. any path) in your system.

2. Open any design page in our project then click toolbox.

[pic]
3. Then keep the mouse pointer in general tab and right click on it.

4. Choose add tab.

[pic]
New tab will created on toolbox.
[pic]
5. Give name to that tab like “Ajax toolkits”.

[pic]
6. Right click on that new tab and click choose items.

[pic]
Then choose toolbox items window will open.
[pic]
7. Click browse button and select AjaxControlToolkit.dll file from that AjaxControlToolkitBinary folder (from where you save that folder).

[pic]
8. Then click ok.

[pic]
Now all ajax tools are added in toolbox.
[pic]
Step 9:
Finally, you should follow the given video file.

CHAPTER 06
TYPE OF TESTING:

BLOCK & WHITE BOX TESTING:

Black Box Testing

Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings, structure or language of the module being tested. Black
box tests, as most other kinds of tests, must be written from a definitive source document, such as specification or requirements document, such as specification or requirements document. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated, as a black box .you cannot “see” into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works.

White Box Testing

White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose. It is purpose. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level.

UNIT TESTING:
Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases.

Test strategy and approach

Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail.

Test objectives

• All field entries must work properly.
• Pages must be activated from the identified link.
• The entry screen, messages and responses must not be delayed.

Features to be tested

• Verify that the entries are of the correct format
• No duplicate entries should be allowed
All links should take the user to the correct page.

SYSTEM TESTING:

The purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement.

INTEGRATION TESTING:

Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.
The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications, e.g. components in a software system or – one step up – software applications at the company level – interact without error.

Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. No defects encountered. CHAPTER 07
CONCLUSION:
In this paper we have worked to facilitate the client in getting a proof of integrity of the data which he wishes to store in the cloud storage servers with bare minimum costs and efforts. Our scheme was developed to reduce the computational and storage overhead of the client as well as to minimize the computational overhead of the cloud storage server. We also minimized the size of the proof of data integrity so as to reduce the network bandwidth consumption.

Many of the schemes proposed earlier require the archive to perform tasks that need a lot of computational power to generate the proof of data integrity. But in our scheme the archive just need to fetch and send few bits of data to the client.

LIMITATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS :

▪ Apart from reduction in storage costs data outsourcing to the cloud also helps in reducing the maintenance.

▪ Avoiding local storage of data.

▪ By reducing the costs of storage, maintenance and personnel.

▪ It reduces the chance of losing data by hardware failures.

▪ Not cheating the owner.
REFERENCE & BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books, we have them in Our Department

References Made From:

1. Beginning ASP.NET 4: in C# and VB by Imar Spaanjaars.
2. ASP.NET 4 Unleashed by Stephen Walther.
3. Programming ASP.NET 3.5 by Jesse Liberty, Dan Maharry, Dan Hurwitz. 4. Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 in C# 2008: From Novice to Professional, Second Edition by Matthew MacDonald. 5. Amazon Web Services (AWS), Online at http://aws. amazon.com.

6. Google App Engine, Online at http://code.google.com/appengine/. 7. Microsoft Azure, http://www.microsoft.com/azure/.

8. A. Agrawal et al. Ws-bpel extension for people (bpel4people), version 1.0., 2007.

9. M. Amend et al. Web services human task (ws-humantask), version 1.0., 2007.

10. D. Brabham. Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving: An introduction and cases.

11. Data Communications and Networking, by Behrouz A Forouzan.

12. E. Mykletun, M. Narasimha, and G. Tsudik, “Authentication and integrity in outsourced databases,” Trans. Storage, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107–138, 2006.

13. D. X. Song, D. Wagner, and A. Perrig, “Practical techniques for searches on encrypted data,” in SP ’00: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2000

14. A. Juels and B. S. Kaliski, Jr., “Pors: proofs of retrievability for large files,” in CCS ’07: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 584–597.

15. G. Ateniese, R. Burns, R. Curtmola, J. Herring, L. Kissner, Z. Peterson, and D. Song, “Provable data possession at untrusted stores,” in CCS ’07: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 598–609.

Sites Referred:

http://www.asp.net.com
http://www.dotnetspider.com/
http://www.dotnetspark.com
http://www.almaden.ibm.com/software/quest/Resources/
http://www.computer.org/publications/dlib
http://www.developerfusion.com/

Abbreviations:

POR (Proof of retrievability
CLS (Common Language Specification
PDA (Personal Digital Assist

Top Ten Academic and Professional Integrity Elements That Are Most Important to You

Do you have a Fixed or Growth Mindset?
I found out that I have a growth mindset and probably like most people I feel that theirs always new information that I can learn and my education is never complete. My mindset says a lot about me and the reason I say that because look at me now I’m trying to further my education to a higher level by attending college. Although I’m going to college once I finish I fill that their still much to learn. I can be the most intelligent person in the world but if I fill that there is still room for growth then I will continue my education further. I love to work hard and give an assignment all the effort I can give, dedication, learning properly, and viewing mistakes as learning opportunities for growth learning primarily for myself. What surprised you me about the result is that most of the time I see myself as an failure but seeing that I like to learn from my mistakes and willing to work hard to achieve an goal I now see the I have an growth mindset.

I know I’m not lazy and I love to put effort into my work however sometimes I feel that I’m not putting enough effort into something like I suppose to. Maybe I’m being too harsh on myself and judging inaccurately on my capability of being successful. I feel that I need to be proud of the accomplishment that I achieve instead of worrying about my failure but for the most more I never give up and I love to learn and expand my brain as much as possible. The result matches how I see myself. I feel that I like to learn as much information about different things as possible. I notice myself switching majors a lot or taking different classes that have nothing to do with the major but I love being a well-rounded person. I love to learn about physical education, love to learn about hair, I love to do makeup, I have a bartending licenses, I love to learn different cooking styles etc. but whatever interests me I find a way to learn about it and apply it to my life. I’m just unhappy if I don’t learn a variety of information. I like to be unique and I love to learn.

If I could I would try to learn everything in this world have to offer. I know I’m crazy but I’m in love with information. My boyfriend says that I’m a very smart lady and he attracted to my smartness. He notices that I have an issue with learn so much material and wanting to know how to do everything in this world have to offer. He knows that I really, really, love to learn about physical education and how the bones work in the body. As you probably notice I love to work out and what it does to the body. I also like to learn about what is need in the body to be health. I love the sport world and my next achievement will be me getting a personal trainer certificate and makeup licenses. My mother also notice that I tend to try to learn everything and never know what I want to major in but me being an over achiever I would try to major in everything that I like.

What did you discover when you compared results? Bodily Kinesthetic I scored 100% Interpersonal I scored 94% and I tied with logical mathematical 75% and intrapersonal 75%. In kinesthic learning I scored 44, in auditory learning I scored 37 and in visual learning I scored 38. I notice I like to learn in all these areas I didn’t score to far apart from one another. Visual learning I love watching and observing people or my teacher I get an better understanding what needs to be done. Me being at a school where I can see the teacher everyday and look at the material that’s being explain I tend to learn better. However I scored a little low in visual learner because I’m not a good speller and I hate reading however it needs to be done. I know how I like to learn new information but hate reading. Learning something through audio and reading little passages I can do but reading long lanky pages with tons of information on both sides of the paper it’s very boring. Auditory learning: I love, love, love, listening to lectures and discussions.

I love listening because it’s way better than reading to me and I can always replay the lectures it’s doesn’t require a lot of work just listening and me with a family and other responsibility that need to be done in my house Auditory learning comes in handy . Kinesthetic learner is what I am and what I scored high in. I like to learn by doing myself and I do sometimes have a hard time with explaining assignment also I do sometimes have an hard time understanding what I needs to be done. I can read instructions all day long into its blue in my face but I still have a hard with completing the assignment correctly. I tend to find myself reading the instructions as I do the assignment and that sometimes tend to help me but most case I have to spend more than 8 hours on a project that I don’t understand. So me doing an assignment over and over again I will eventually learn how to do it correctly.

I love to type but can’t spell for nothing. I’m like most Kinesthetic learner I use spell check and grammar check a lot. Given your learning and personality styles and mindset identification, what success plans can you put in place to assist you during your academic journey? ENFJ my result are the following Extravert (11%) Intuitive (25%) Feeling (12%) Judging (78%) when I took this assessment I know I was in the right degree program. The assessment states that I have a slight preference of Extraversion over Introversion, moderate preference of Intuition over Sensing, slight preference of Feeling over Thinking and strong preference of Judging over Perceiving. I feel I took the test properly however I feel that I don’t manipulate others I do however believe in my dreams and love to help other. Some information of an ENFJ was spot on the reason why I say that because I am capable of judging properly. As and ENFJ we try to be in everybody needs and try to be dependable to others.

The test say I have great good interpersonal skills if I answer the test properly then in the near future I may put that skill to use. I probably already did in college but just never thought about it. The learning and personality styles and mindset identification learn in the segment that I plan to put in place to assist me during academic journey Is using the techniques from the information I learn and applying it to my studies at AIU. Seeing that I have trouble area in certain learning paths I will most definitely try to spend more time online and reading more to understand what needs to be done by me. I want to try to work on my weakest element of learner techniques by visiting the learning labs very often and staying focus of what needs to be done by me to succeed in college.

Integrity

Morals reflect both the being you strive to become and the individual you truly are. The value morals hold in both society and our own minds are vastly immoderate. The degree to which we hold ourselves to our own moral determines our integrity. An adherence to a code of moral or artistic values, incorruptibility, is what’s known as integrity. A lack of integrity is often recalled far longer than actions within integral standings. Both John Proctor, from The Crucible, and Ed Murrow, of Good Night, and Good Luck, share this admirable trait to a great extent.

I look for a lot of things in people before I fully bring them into my life. Those whose decisions have a kind of inner uniformity and integrity that makes them morally unassailable, those who I can trust. I want to associate myself with a person who I know would never betray me and always do what’s right, because if not your word than what have you? I define integrity as holding true to your own beliefs and standards. Living your life in a way that makes you proud or content is crucial, as John and Ed lived.

The Crucible showed a large variation of characters with an even more significant variant of personalities. John Proctor was accused of witchcraft after a cruel manhunt plagued with lies and deception. His integrity was highlighted throughout the play, for example, when he confessed to the sin of adultery to save his wife. In another instance, John agrees to save his life and confess to witchcraft by post his name on the church, but when it comes to it, he cannot, “Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my whole life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! Because I am not worth the dust on the feet of those who hang! How many may live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name!” (Miller 1166). His integrity could not allow him to sacrifice the identities of those close to him. He gave his existence to preserve the integrity he made for his name. John Proctor was a selfless man of pure integrity.

Ed Murrow also shared those qualities. The film Good Night, and Good Luck tells the story of McCarthyism, Joseph McCarthy used the fear of communism to wrongly jail citizens. Ed Murrow is the host of Good Night, and Good Luck on CBS. He sees the wrong in McCarthy’s actions and decides to take a stand and tell the public his view. His entire career is in jeopardy, even himself exposing the lies of his profession for justice, “We have currently a built-in allergy to unpleasant or disturbing information. Our mass media reflect this. But unless we get up off our fat surpluses and recognize that television in the main is being used to distract, delude, amuse, and insulate us, then television and those who finance it, those who look at it, and those who work at it, may see a totally different picture too late.” (Good Night, and Good Luck). Ed Murrow risked everything he had and put so much energy into doing what is right. He is a perfect image of integrity.

Bothe John Proctor and Ed Murrow were sources of moral value and integrity. Integrity is doing what is right, what is honest and true, and that is exactly what they did. John and Ed are both people we should try to learn from and look up to.

Academic Integrity

1.) The Importance of writing in both academically and professionally is that you are communicating and/or expressing ideas through both of them. There is a lot of jobs that will require writing skills because you need to know how to communicate through paper. Having good academic writing skills will even do you good when you are a student. Developing good academic writing skills has many advantages beyond obtaining higher grades. Professional writing involves using clear language to explain themselves to an audience.

2.) Integrity is important in writing because you should be honest to yourself and other people whom you are writing to. I believe that being in an online class helps you understand what integrity is and helps you be honest to people while you are opening up to them. For example in our discussion questions I feel like being honest is very important because it will keep my conversation going without any lies, it would be very e to be caught lying to someone while we are having a conversation. That is why it is important to have integrity.

3.) The easiest way to avoid plagiarism is by using your own words. Once someone understands what plagiarism is and the consequences for doing it they will understand it much better. Quotations must be used when the paragraph is about 40 words or 3 sentences long. Like I said in my first sentence using your own words is the best way to avoid plagiarism is to use paraphrase. Paraphrasing means you should put the ideas in a passage into your own words, usually following the order in which the ideas were presented in the original paper.

Integrity and honest like integral traits

Integrity and honest are integral traits in an academic process and as such students must be ethical and honest at all times in their pursuit of their academic goals in line Honest Academic Conduct. A student found in contravention of this policy will receive a grade “F” for the cheated in assignment and/or a grade “F” in the course.

Indeed, as certain as death and the effects of death could be certain. Certainly, death may have different and diverse effects on different people in the community and society. Indeed, death creates an environment of desperation and decay. In the Rashomon story, the different effects that death may have on different people are brought to light. The story descriptively covers the story of a black servant thrust by fate and death into desperation to survive after losing a job. Interwoven with the black servant’s fate, the effects of death are observed through the fates of the senile woman and the deceased young woman.

To begin with, huge numbers of deaths reported at a place may strike as a catastrophe making people flee. For instance, the rampant deaths in Kyoto made people leave town and hence “the Rashomon sheltered at least a few others” from the impounding rain (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 1). A few people in the town are explained by ‘one calamity…In recent years’ (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 1). As a result, the Kyoto city registered massive decay following the exodus. The city also ran into a state of desperation, decay and decline. For instance, ‘people [smashed] Buddhist statues’ and piled them along the road tucked in ‘silver and gold foils and paint flecks’ selling them as firewood. Indeed, the story further expresses the turmoil that the whole city experienced, yet ‘no one bothered’ to care for the Rashomon.

Worse still, rampant cases of death coupled with city decay attract wild animals and other scavengers. For instance, the exodus resulted to dilapidated structures that offered an ideal abode for badgers and foxes. Thieves also took cover in the city’s backstreets and dilapidated structures. Wanton social decay in the Kyoto city inspired the living to litter and dump ‘corpses in the upper story’ (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 1). As a result, the entire neighbourhood became “an eerie place everyone avoided after” sunset (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 1). This also attracted crows that “flocked in great numbers” (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 1). The scavengers created a petrifying and grotesque scene with their pecking of the dead flesh while their white droppings created an ugly scene.

Notwithstanding, rampant deaths coupled with human migration render others unemployed. For instance, the black servant sheltered from the impounding rain at the Rashomon, “had been dismissed from service some days earlier” (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 4). Regrettably, his master had dismissed him after serving dutifully for several years. Therefore, unemployment represents “one small consequence” of the wanton deaths in Kyoto city (Boer, and Donald, 14). Besides, the black servant sat idly at the Rashomon “waiting for the rain to end” unawares of what to do once the rain stopped. He was desperate to survive and find a place to sleep without the prying eyes.

Indeed, “he was determined to find a way to remain alive for an extra day” by doing all that he could (4). As the adage goes, idle minds bleed evil thoughts and hence, the black servant thought of thievery to survive. Although thievery was against his believes, and “he could not find the courage” to decide to go into thieving. Death inflicts both bodily and mental torture. The black servant confronted evil minds and ideas, but he concludes the same. The freezing evening chill was harsh against his body and he had to “drag himself to his feet” (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 5). Worse still, the blowing evening wind was unmerciful to the freezing black servant.

Constant cases of death at a decaying city as Kyoto result to careless dumping of human corpses. Often, the corpses are piled at a segregated place. True, a place with piled up decomposing human corpses is not a haven or paradise. Therefore, it is scary and unorthodox to scour through the piles plucking off their hair. The image of a “scrawny old woman, white haired and monkey-like” scouring through rotting human corpse is also pathetic and weary. However, the black servant inspired by the need to remain alive and curiosity weathered the petrifying smell and flight and approached the woman.

Incessant deaths throw people into a state of panic and desperation. The scrawny old woman endured plucking human hair to survive. She plucked the hairs to make a wig perhaps to weather the harsh weather or sell and make a living. The constant desperation in the city wore on her heavily and her faced wrinkled, her eyes reddened and became predatorily sharp while she cawed like a crow in her voice. It is obvious that the perpetual deaths had hardened her body, spirit and soul alike. She was contented with plucking off and unaffectedly arguing that the corpses deserved her wrath.

Through the old woman’s anecdote, readers learn that desperation as a result of the deaths drove people into different, diverse and complicated business trades. For instance, in her justification, the scrawny old woman reasoned that the young woman “cut snakes into four inch pieces” and sold them “like fish at the palace guardhouse” (Iglesias, Michael and Linda, 8). The old woman further reveals that the “fish” was a delicacy and the guards “bought it for every meal” (8). Therefore, death intervention was a necessary evil to the young woman because she stopped selling snakes. The act inspired the black servant to strike and strip the old woman robbing her of her robe despite the cold.

In the event of death, a trail of human anguish, torment and desperation ensues. Constant and perpetual deaths results into social decay, ruin and migration. As a result, grotesque, ugly and petrifying scenes occasion every corner. Thieves compete with wild animals and scavengers for structures and corpses to feed. Above all, human’s humane sense disappears and selfishness settles all as a result of death.

References

Boer, Jelle, and Donald Theodore Sanders. Volcanoes in human history: the far-reaching effects of major eruptions. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print.

Iglesias, Luis A., Michael Mays, and Linda M. Pierce Allen. Global crossroads: a world literature reader. Revised edition ed. Southlake, TX: Fountainhead Press, 2008. Print.

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