Annotated Bibliography Criticalthinking interview questions

Annotated Bibliography

Critical-thinking interview questions template – Hiring | Workable. (2017, December 15). Retrieved from

Basic reasoning abilities enable individuals to evaluate circumstances by way of pondering to achieve respectable choices. Organizations profit by representatives who assume basically on the grounds that these folks utilize an autonomous mentality to look for approaches to reinforce types. Basic scholars are incredible sources in all groups and jobs. This source will help my exposition by stating ways you probably can employ the most effective chance for a vocation utilizing key procedures.

Griffin, D. (2018, June 30). Types of Employee Appraisal Systems. Retrieved from

This source will help my article by stating ways you can enlist the most effective contender for a vocation using these methodologies. Representative examination frameworks enable chiefs to assess worker work execution and construct up an affordable arrangement of boosts in compensation and advancements. Evaluations thusly can help employees people improve execution, and assist organizations in formulating or revamping work capacities to all of the more likely match the place or the employee.

Job Analysis Methods – Observation methods – WORK SAMPLING – EMPLOYEE DIARY/LOG -Critical incident method. (n.d.). Retrieved from

This web site simply gives us one other viewpoint about occupation examination knowledge and how it very properly may be accrued in an assortment of how. One thought is who’s to guide the exercise investigation. Most a lot of the time, an individual from the HR employees facilitates this exertion. Contingent upon which of the strategies talked about subsequent is utilized, different people who frequently take an curiosity are directors, chiefs, and representatives finishing up the duties.

For increasingly complex examinations, trendy designers may direct time and motion contemplates. The real favorable position of the survey method is that information on quite a few occupations may be gathered modestly in a typically brief interval. In any case, the survey strategy accept that representatives can exactly investigate and impart information about their employments. Representatives may change of their view of the occupations, and even of their proficiency. Consequently, the poll technique is mostly joined with meetings and perceptions to

elucidate and verify the survey information.

Pedro, R. D. (2017, May 12). To interview or to not interview: A important approach to assessing end-users’ perceptions of the role of twenty first – century indigenous interpreters in Peru. Retrieved from

The level of this supply is to discuss concerning the discoveries received from the conferences themselves, be that as it may, quite, to assess basically the ramifications of adjusting a settled method for the reasons for concentrate the job of deciphering in a novel socio-political context. This article goes into profundity about how the folks listing of skills might be great there is usually a completely extraordinary particular person with points you may by no means anticipate. Illuminate and confirm the survey knowledge.

Ricoy, D. P., & Raquel. (2017, January 01). To Interview or Not to Interview: A Critical Approach to Assessing End-Users’ Perceptions of the Role of 21st Century Indigenous Interpreters in Peru. Retrieved from

This article facilities round a lot of six conferences led with indigenous network pioneers who had partaken in a mediator intervened convention process driven by the Peruvian authorities in the Ucayali space amongst March and September of 2015 and the goal of the conferences was to earn knowledge in regards to the interviewees’ view of the job of the translators, not from a customers’ viewpoint.

The Master Guide to Behavioral Interview Questions. (n.d.). Retrieved from

In this text it tells a few portion of the normal inquiries questions, and how to give the absolute best prime to backside reactions questioners seek for. Most risk for employments may have somewhat considered tips on how to answer a couple of inquiries however bigger a half of the time the appropriate responses prove unfocused and unreasonably lengthy for the questioner and this puts the hopeful out of the highlight. Bosses and contracting directors make the most of these sorts of inquiries so as to get a thought whether or not you could have what it takes and skills required for the activity.

15 Job Interview Questions

15 job interview questions 1. How would you describe yourself? I would describe myself as a fast learner and highly motivated individual. I additionally find myself a patient, honest, tolerant and reliable individual, suitable for this job position.

2. How has your school expertise ready you for a business career? My school expertise gave me at one hand theoretical knowledge and then again it gave me some personal expertise like the flexibility to take care of a number of assignmenst and the flexibility to resolve issues and work in staff, which I find very helpful in my profession.

. At what point did you select this career? Tourism is a posh social, cultural and financial phenomenon. It is among the largest and most dynamic industries which provides various and interesting profession alternatives. four. What do you assume it takes to be successful in this career? Being successful means working exhausting and being content material with the outcomes. In tourism business it takes the flexibility to fulfill every buyer needs and provide him an unforgettable expertise.

5. What motivates you to place forth your biggest effort? It just isn’t all about the cash you earn.


Although the wage is essential, I am mainly motivated by the sensation of being proud and satisfied with my achievements. 6. Do you have the skills and personal characteristics essential for fulfillment in your chosen career? As i mentioned, I discover myself a highly motivated and dependable particular person. Moreover I even have obtained some skilled and wanted experience in conducting the identical job. I additionally find my language expertise crucial for this job position. 7. Are you more energized by working with data or by collaborating with other individuals? My earlier faculty and work expertise gave me the pportunity to work a lot by myself, nevertheless it included plenty of teamwork too. I discover a combination of working with data and folks at one time most fitted for me, as a result of I suppose I am good enough at each. eight. Why did you determine to seek a place in this company? You are main company in tourism industry in Bulgaria, which is famous for treating its employees and clients with care and respect, so I am convinced that it is the greatest place for me to work and develop my potential. 9. What do you anticipate to be doing in 5 years? I don’t have a detailed plan, but my purpose is five years from now to see myself in a management position.

I’m going to be learning and gaining practical experience till then. 10. Would it be a problem for you to relocate? It isn’t easy to take such decision, but as I want to be a part of this company, I would certainly think about it. 11. How would you evaluate your capacity to cope with conflict? In my opinion I am quite good at dealing with battle, however of course it is determined by the scenario – if the conflict is with a consumer, between co-workers or with the boss. I assume that a state of affairs that couldn’t be solved, simply doesn’t exist. It all is determined by compromising. It’s crucial to strive wanting on the state of affairs from the opposite aspect.

Sometimes you may be proper, however typically you see you are wrong. 12. Which is more essential to you, the job itself or your salary? The salary in fact is essential, but I wish to be doing something gratifying through the lengthy work hours, even when it means I will have less money to spend on the other half of the day. The best is to have an honest balance of each. thirteen. Would you say that you can easily deal with high-pressure situations? Yes. My past expertise required me to deal with many critical situations, so in high-pressure situations I find myself very concentrated and efficient. 4. Tell me about the wage range you’re looking for. The salary ought to depend at one hand on market situations and however on my qualifications and the my outcomes. But the salary is less important to me than discovering the best job place. 15. What type of supervisor do you’re employed finest for? In my opinion one of the best type of supervisor is one who permits the employee me the autonomy to show the most effective of his talents. It’s important the supervisior to be interested in his workers, their issues and their achievements.

Interview with My Mom

For this assignment, I decided to interview my mom. Her name is Tracy Michelle Jorgensen, but she goes by Michelle. She is a strong woman who single handily raised two girls. With a heart of gold, she always puts others first. She is generous and would never expect anything in return. And although I may be biased, she is the best mom I could possibly ever imagine. As wonderful as she may be, seldom does she ever go into detail about her past, mostly because she is a very private person. So given this opportunity, I can now better understand what has made my mom the person she is today. Before I conducted the essay….

Born on July 21, 1954 in Canada, my mother grew up in a small house with seven brothers and sisters. After her parents divorced, she barely spent time with her mother, as she always had to work to support the family. The hardest part about childhood was “feeling lost in the shuffle” my mom said. “I felt invisible, and I was blamed for everything”. When my mom started school, she met her friend Lisa. My mom described to me the time they got in trouble. “The only time I’ve ever stole anything was with her,” she said. “The cops found us stealing quarters from the newspaper boxes” and “I was mostly scared that my mom would find out.” Once my mom was old enough to leave the house, she moved in with her boyfriend and started to work for him. At the age of 23 she was expecting her first child.

Things became rough in the relationship, as her boyfriend was being unfaithful to her. They moved to Florida in search of better job opportunities, when all of sudden, baby number two was on the way. Even with her doubts, my mom found it best to get married. “That was my biggest regret,” said my mom. “Having my two daughters were the best blessings, but actually marrying your dad is my only regret in life.” After splitting with my dad, my mom became determined to create a good life for us. She became part of the neighborhood church where she met Father Brian. He was the most impactful person in her life, because he fully believed in my mom. “When I felt like I couldn’t do it, he had this way of making everything okay” she said, “and making me feel stronger.” For my mom, his support was the kindest thing anyone had done for her, and because of it, it encouraged her to not let anything hold her back. Growing up, we were a huge soccer family.

My sister and I would eat, sleep, and breathe soccer. “It was my most favorite past time to watch my girls play,” my mom said. She would love nothing more than to be back on the sidelines hollering and cheering us on. Being an avid soccer fan, it’s my mom’s favorite sport to watch. I once made the mistake of taking her out in public to watch a World Cup match, as her tendencies to scream and holler follow her everywhere she goes. Even though it’s a past time for her, she relishes in the fact that she will one day watch her grand children play. 4 years ago, my mom found out she was going to be a grand mother. At first she freaked because she felt like she was too young to have that title. She said, “It made me feel like I instantly aged 10 years”. However, it brought out a new sense of fulfillment for her as she stated, “in 20 years I would love nothing more than to be a soccer grandma, cheering on my grand kids!” My mom then briefly told me how her dream has always been to travel Europe.

Her face instantly brightened, and she began to almost overflow with excitement about how her first trip to Europe would be like. She said enthusiastically, “If someone could give me a gift of anything, it would be a trip to travel Europe”. She even mentioned in one of her three wishes that she would fly on a magic carpet and travel around Europe. I sort of chuckled at the thought of that idea, but soon realized her unique and kid-like imagination is what keeps her dream more thrilling.

It puts life into perspective for me to see how my mom overcame her struggles growing up. She made mistakes, but always got up, brushed her shoulders off and kept moving. When I asked her what made her unique, she briefly paused, then said “Conviction.” “If you let your stress, and tough situations weigh you down, you can’t move past it, and you will miss out on the great things that lie ahead.” Her conviction has been her guiding light in life. That answer really hit home for me, and encouraged me to push through any hard times I face. I learned a lot about my mom in this interview, it was refreshing to see her goofy side, and it was humbling to see how she overcame her struggles. If anything has changed, its that my love for her has grown.

Leadership Interview

Could you speak a bit about your background and the role you have today? I first started school for engineering, and then after two years I found my passion was in nursing. So I started over at school, taking different types of classes as I pursued nursing, and three years later graduated with a nursing degree. Several different paths where traveled in nursing for me, meaning I tried many different departments and assignments. Then by accident I ended up as an RN case manager for mentally ill clients. Psych was never my intended path, but I loved it from the first day. I am now a Manager of a group of outpatient clinics for mentally ill clients and love it. I cannot see myself doing anything else now. How would you describe a leader?

A good leader is only as good as the group you are leading is what I was always told. That does help, but there is a lot more that goes into it. I believe a quality leader should also be a good teacher. A leader needs to have the knowledge to pass on to those they lead. A good leader has to be able to listen as well. While those under me may look to me for answers, I have to realize that I may not always have that answer. I may have to take input from my staff, my superiors, and even clients in making proper decisions. Another attribute that is important is a critical thinker. A leader has to think on the go, and know that the answers are not always text book answers. Thinking outside the box sometimes is needed. I also need to earn trust and respect from my staff and those I oversee to be effective. What are important qualities or characteristics of leaders?

It is important to have an open door policy, and listen to each staff member’s concerns. You need to be open to changes and be empathic for those who do not deal well with change. A leader needs to be forceful and fair to everybody. Confidence and inner strength will show through, making the staff
or those you oversee more confident in your abilities. A diploma on the wall may get you a position in the leadership. But only demonstrating advanced social and professional skills will allow your team to trust you, which in turn, will make for a more productive team. What is your personal philosophy?

Personally, my philosophy revolves around the construction of clear and workable vision of what needs to be accomplished. I try to envision the future, and make goals that will benefit the clients, as well as the facility and staff. Building a quality team is not as easy as hiring qualified individuals. Leading means are getting individuals to work as one coherent team. To do this, I need to be able to discipline, listen, and even moderate discussion. My personal ego cannot be larger than any staff member, or the team as a whole. I need to take criticism, and be able to see others’ points of views. I want my entire team to feel as if they are important cogs in the machine. I believe a leader accepts responsibility, and in doing so never places themselves above the team.

What learning experiences have had the most influence on your own personal development as a leader? Experiences that shaped my growth began in childhood with the support of my family. I was always told I could do or be anything if I worked hard enough. I took that to heart, and excelled in school and sports. When I started college I had no real answer for what I wanted to be, but the drive that was inside me drove me down this path. Professionally, I once had a manager that loved her job and showed it with every meeting. Her passion reminded me of my parents and what they had taught me. She was a true role model in my professional life. I was also blessed to have quality teachers throughout my years of schooling. Coaches played a key role in my development as a leader too. Unfortunately, I also dealt with my fair share of poor supervisors too. Seeing the impact poor leadership can have in a work environment can be just as enlightening for someone looking to move into a leadership position. Luckily, I do not use them as role models. At least I tried not to.

How do you see leadership evolving in nursing today?
Leadership in nursing is headed into many different fields today. Nursing roles are evolving with new technologies, new specialties, and higher levels of nursing. Because of the need for healthcare increasing, nurses are being tasked with more responsibility too. Nurses are now asked to step up and become leaders on the floor, in schools, in management, and many other aspects of healthcare. Nurses are becoming leaders in the development of strategies in developing and delivering the product to the consumer. Nurses were viewed as employees who followed doctors’ orders in the past. Today nurses have the ability to grow beyond that, and in doing so, nurses can take the lead in providing care. Leader can positively impact the health care system within which they operate. Nurses will be leading more clinics and other facilities in an effort to care for the increase in those seeking healthcare. Healthcare is a business, and nurses are trained in that business.

So it is only common sense that these highly trained people should play a leading role in the changes we will see. What are the most challenging issues in your current position? The biggest challenge is trying to get more funding for the mentally ill. It can be hard to deal with all the meetings that we have to get money for medication, treatment, food and housing and to stay upbeat as a leader. But I love this job, and my clients, so that makes it worth dong. It is also very difficult to find enough staffing for mental health. It can be a very taxing job, and it takes a special person to be able to handle the position in mental health, especially in the long term. Finding professionals with the patience needed in dealing with our clients is always a huge challenge. As a leader (or manager) in your career have you had a mentor? If so, how did this influence your leadership style? I had a supervisor that taught me to leave the business at the door and never bring it home. Working in mental health can be emotionally draining, so this tiny bit of advice is important for me to keep in my mind. If I took my work home, I would need help soon.

What advice would you give someone who is aspiring to a leadership position? My advice would be to learn as much as you can for the position. Use the knowledge you have gained through seeing others in leadership positions to your advantage too. Remember the qualities of leaders who brought out the best in you, and try to bring those qualities to the position. Also, be humble. Becoming a leader will not end your education. It is just the next step in your evolution. In conclusion, a leader is somebody who accepts responsibility. A leader is a person who can see the big picture. A person, who is adaptable and able to bring out the best in others, is a leader. A person who cares enough to make the team stronger for the benefit of all involved is a leader. A leader is a person who can moderate, discipline, coordinate, listen and teach in a way that demands respect and confidence from those they lead.

Sullivan, E., & Decker, P. (2009). Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Sullivan, E., & Decker, P. (2009). Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Interview Skills

1. List three key components involved in the communication process.

•Sender (encoder).
•Channel (Message).
•Receiver (Decoder).

2. Identify three key characteristics of effective communication and briefly explain their impact on the communication process.
Openness is a key characteristic of communication, as by listening with an open mind and showing genuine interest, the relationship and trust between the client and counsellor grows. Openness with body language is also important, as it lets the client know you are being honest and congruent.

Empathy is another important characteristic, as by being empathetic you are concerned, understand, and care for the client thereby making a warm, friendly environment that is safe for the client to be able to talk freely.

Thirdly, positiveness is important in communication. Using positive rather than negative messages, both verbal and non-verbal, shows the client that you respect them, their beliefs and believe in their ability to gain personal awareness and growth.

3. In the communication processes between a client and a counsellor, barriers may be present. List three specific communication barriers.


4. Take one of the communication barriers given in your answer to the question above, and briefly describe how you would apply strategies to overcome these barriers.

Environmental factors can be a barrier to listening as outside noise, telephones and even other people talking can distract you from getting a
clear message and understanding of what the client is saying. To avoid this clients should be seen in a fairly soundproof room, with the windows and door shut to cut out excess noise. Also if possible, your phone should be on silent, so as not to distract either yourself or your client’s line of thought.

5. List two basic micro-skills of counselling and briefly describe how they can be used to facilitate the relationship between counsellor and client.

To facilitate a good client and counsellor relationship, the use of active listening is very important so as the client feels they are heard, understood and respected. The counsellor needs to focus on what is being said, as well as how it is said, so they get a clear understanding. The counsellor also has to not let listening barriers distract them or the client. Barriers can include; judging, filtering, day dreaming or environmental factors. Paraphrasing is another micro-skill that builds a good rapport. By the counsellor picking the most important details and reflecting them back to the client, they are clarifying what has been said and the client knows that the counsellor is listening and understands what they are saying. Paraphrasing also help build trust and promotes sharing.

6. List one advanced micro-skill of counselling and briefly explain how it can be used in the counselling process.

One advanced micro-skill of counselling is to challenge the client. This is used in the counselling process to assist making the client aware of faulty thinking, self-limiting and destructive behaviours and beliefs. It is very important though, to only use this micro-skill once the counsellor has built a good relationship with the client, and then, it should only be used where really necessary. Then with this new awareness, hopefully, the client is open to explore more positive beliefs, thinking and behaviours.

Adolescent Interview

When picking my adolescent I had quite a few choices to pick from but I decided on my adolescent 15 year old sister since I know a lot about her and have seen first-hand how she is coping with this adolescent stage. Patricia is a normal 15 year old girl still in high school. She lives in a household of 7 with 3 older siblings and one younger one. She mentioned that she lived in a small home with three dogs, two fish, a bird and six other humans. Both her parents are field workers so they aren’t really at home much. Patricia has a younger 7 year old sister that she pays attention to a lot, they have a really close relationship, and she cares for her younger sister when her mother is at work. Patricia is in a special program in her high school called the International Bachelorette Program “IB,” this program challenges high school students and gives them and idea of what college is like after they graduate. She gets a lot of homework every day for all her classes, she manages to do all of it and still helps take care of her younger sibling.

I think my teenager didn’t quite fit in the conceptions people have of a typical adolescent. She seems to be really close to her family. When I asked her what her family life was like I was surprised with the answer she gave me. She said she loved her family and that they were the best. Most teens at her age tend to distance themselves when they hit puberty. Puberty brings an increase in parent-child conflict- psychological distancing that may, in part be a modern substitute for physical departure from the family. (Berk, 2012, p.541.) According to what my teen said about her family life, she has a very good relationship with her family; her parents seem to play an important role in how hard she is working on her education and her good grades since she mentioned that school was really important to her because her mother wanted her to have a better life for herself. I believe that my teen interviewee has reached the stage of formal operational thinking. When I asked her what if people had no thumbs she gave me a bunch of explanations as to what would happen if such a thing were true.

She said people wouldn’t be able to text, suck their thumbs, cover the sun, be able to thumb print criminals for criminal cases, be able to write, click on the computer mouse, do their hair, and that everyone would be ugly. She pretty much hypothesized what would happen if people had no thumbs. According to Piaget she has become capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning- this being when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. (Berk,2012, p.566.) Her answers to the problem of having no thumbs were thought out. I wish she would have explained them a little more but I know if I asked her to explain more thoroughly she would have the logic for doing so.

Propositional thought is also a characteristic of formal operational thought; it is when a young individual can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. (Berk,2012, p.595.) When I asked her question number 13 of the interview she gave me a smart remark saying “Duh it’s going to make a freaking noise if she hit it. No she did not make noise because she didn’t hit it.” She said this right away and asked why I was asking such weird questions that were so obvious.

I did notice some signs of my teen forming an identity. Her style of clothing seemed to be pretty laid back. She wore a loose fitted tee shirt, some jeans, and a pair of converse. Her hair was in a ponytail and she didn’t have any tattoos or piercings. She doesn’t wear any make-up and her only concerns about her appearance were being fat. She mentioned having a lot of friends in school and the particular group she hung out with during lunch and her breaks was only a pair of two close friends. When asked if she belonged to a group she pointed out that she belonged to a group nobody knew about and all her group does is sit and talk and think about homework and. She mentioned all the other different kinds of groups she saw in her high school such as the popular kids, the jocks, the gang bangers, the Asians, the cheerleaders, the gothics, the bible geeks, and the nerds.

She didn’t categorize herself in any of these, but she mentioned that her only concerns are getting good grades, she mentioned this a lot during her interview. Constructing an identity involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to purse in life. (Berk,2012, p. 600.) When I asked her what role school played in her life she easily told me she was pursuing getting good grades throughout high school and eventually going to college, her moral values play a great role in her life, these being the things her mother has encouraged and guided her to pursue. Her direction in life has been identified; she explained to me she wanted to eventually be able to go to really good universities. I believe my teen has formed her identity because of these things. My teens’ identity status is probably at the identity achievement; she has established her values and goals in life. Identity achieved individuals are committed to a clearly formulated set of values and goals; they know where they are going. (Berk, 2012, p.603.)

I don’t really have much advice to give to my teen; to me she seemed to be on track. But her mentioning herself as being fat does concern me. I think her self-esteem is low, when I asked her if she had a boyfriend she said she did not because she was ugly. She also seems to think she is fat, since she mentioned twice in the interview she wanted to lose weight. The advice I would give my teen is, to not concern herself too much about physical appearance and focus more on the relationships she has formed with the people she has becomes friends with. I would tell her she doesn’t have to look a certain way to have a boyfriend, I would also mention that it doesn’t really matter if she has one or not, the right one will come along someday.

Her academic self-esteem seems to be good though, while I was interviewing her she mentioned that her grades were really good and she was concerned about keeping them that way. Academic self-esteem is a powerful predictor of teenagers judgments of the importance and usefulness of school subjects, willingness to exert effort, achievement, and eventually career choice (Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004;Denissen,Zarrettt,& Eccles,2007;Valentine, DuBois,& Cooper,2004; Whitesell et al.,2009) I would tell her she should keep on pursuing her goals of getting good grades and eventually going to the university of her choice. I would tell her this because I personally didn’t pursue going to a university after I graduated from high school and have totally regretted it ever since. Having a good education is a good goal for a young individual to have to have a better life.

My interviewees’ didn’t have any signs of a cognitive distortion, there wasn’t signs of any self-focus in her answers. Imaginary audience is when the adolescent believes that they are the focus of everyone’s attention. (Berk. 2012, p. 572.) She stated in the interview that she and her friends were part of a group that nobody knew about; she showed little concern about it. Her social development is good; she said in her interview that she talked to most of her classmates in all her classes. She seems to have attained good peer relations and has established good friendships. I don’t think my adolescent would conform to peer pressuring, she mentioned in the interview that alcohol and drugs were of easy access but they have no effect on her friends and her. She said she did not pay much attention to those things.

Berk, L. E. (2012). Infants, Children, and Adolescents (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Interview questions for capital market & NSE

What is capital Market?
Capital market is a market of securities. Where a company and government raise long term funds. it is a market where money invested more them one year. In this we include the stock market and bond market Definition of ‘Debt’

An amount of money borrowed by one party from another. Many corporations/individuals use debt as a method for making large purchases that they could not afford under normal circumstances. A debt arrangement gives the borrowing party permission to borrow money under the condition that it is to be paid back at a later date, usually with interest.

Definition of ‘Primary Market’

A market that issues new securities on an exchange. Companies, governments and other groups obtain financing through debt or equity based securities. Primary markets are facilitated by underwriting groups, which consist of investment banks that will set a beginning price range for a given security and then oversee its sale directly to investors

Definition of ‘Secondary Market’

A market where investors purchase securities or assets from other investors, rather than from issuing companies themselves. The national exchanges – such as the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ are secondary markets.

Secondary markets exist for other securities as well, such as when funds, investment banks, or entities such as Fannie Mae purchase mortgages from issuing lenders. In any secondary market trade, the cash proceeds go to an investor rather than to the underlying company/entity directly.

What do you mean by Equity investment?
Answer: An equity investment generally refers to the buying and holding of
shares of stock on a stock market by individuals and firms in anticipation of income from dividends and capital gains, as the value of the stock rises. It may also refer to the acquisition of equity (ownership) participation in a private (unlisted) company or a startup company What do you mean by stock market or equity market?

Answer: A stock market or equity market is a public entity (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) for the trading of company stock (shares) and derivatives at an agreed price; these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. What do you mean by money market?

Answer: The money market is a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing and lending with original maturities of one year or shorter time frames.

What do you mean by stock exchange?
Answer: A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities traded on a stock exchange include shares issued by companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. What do you mean by Financial regulation?

Answer: Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system. This may be handled by either a government or non-government organization What are the Aims of financial regulation?

Answer: Aims of regulation

The aims of financial regulators are usually:
* To enforce applicable laws
* To prevent cases of market manipulation, such as insider trading * To ensure competence of providers of financial services * To protect clients, and investigate complaints
* To maintain confidence in the financial system
* To reduce violations under laws
List some financial regulatory authorities
* Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
* National Credit Union Administration (NCUA)
* Financial Services Authority (FSA), United Kingdom
What do you mean by NSE?
Answer: The National Stock Exchange was incorporated in 1992 by Industrial Development Bank of India, Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India, Industrial Finance Corporation of India, all Insurance Corporations, selected commercial banks and others. Trading at NSE can be classified under two broad categories: (a) Wholesale debt market and

(b) Capital market.
What are the advantages of NSE? (National Stock Exchange)
NSE has several advantages over the traditional trading exchanges. They are as follows: * NSE brings an integrated stock market trading network across the nation. * Investors can trade at the same price from anywhere in the country since inter-market operations are streamlined coupled with the countrywide access to the securities. * Delays in communication, late payments and the malpractice’s prevailing in the traditional trading mechanism can be done away with greater operational efficiency and informational transparency in the stock market operations, with the support of total computerized network. Why India needs economic planning?

One of the major objective of planning in India is to increase the rate of economic development, implying that increasing the rate of capital formation by raising the levels of income, saving and investment. However, increasing the rate of capital formation in India is beset with a number of difficulties. People are poverty ridden. Their capacity to save is extremely low due to low levels of income and high propensity to consume. Therefor, the rate of investment is low which leads to capital deficiency
and low productivity. Low productivity means low income and the vicious circle continues. Thus, to break this vicious economic circle, planning is inevitable for India. What are general objectives of Indian Planning?

The long-term general objectives of Indian Planning are as follows : * Increasing National Income
* Reducing inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth * Elimination of poverty
* Providing additional employment; and
* Alleviating bottlenecks in the areas of : agricultural production, manufacturing capacity for producer’s goods and balance of payments.


Interview With Manager

Throughout the essay, the managers will be referred to as Mr X and Mr Y and their company’s will be referred to as Company X and Company Y respectively due to confidential reasons. The first manager that was interviewed in order to fulfil this task was Mr X. He works for Company X, which is, a large service based organisation at the position of ‘Head of Corporate Credit Administration.’ His key responsibility at this bank is to provide credit administration support to Corporate, Investment banking and SME business. Within Company X’s hierarchy Mr X appears to be a middle level manager at he is expected to report to the CEO of the company while he also supervises. The second interview that was conducted for this task was with Mr Y. He is a Creative Marketing Director at Company Y which is a marketing consultancy and IT development enterprise located in Malaysia. His organisation is also service based; however, it is a medium sized one. As a top level manager, Mr Y’s task is to direct and oversee the overall projects and ensure that they are carried out as planned and are successful. Management is the process of coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2012).

In the subsequent essay, the universality of management will be discussed in light of Fayol’s four functions and Katz’s three skills and how relevant these theories appear while analysing the information gathered from the interviews. Henri Fayol proposed that that all managers perform five functions: planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2012). During the course of the essay, however, the emphasis will remain on the four functions: planning, organising, leading and controlling. A skill is the ability either to perform some specific behavioral task or the ability to perform some specific cognitive process that is functionally related to some particular task (Peterson, 2004). For the purpose of this task Katz’s skills will be related to the interviews collected. Namely these are: Conceptual, Human and Technical skills. Mr. X is involved in a moderate amount of planning as he defines the credit policies for the corporate portfolio. Moreover, he has to cascade the defined goals to individual job levels and monitors them closely for accomplishment.

In his organization, high achievers are often rewarded with awards and cash bonuses which serve as a motivation. Reports are also compiled frequently to monitor portfolio behavior and to make sure that customer’s expectations at various occasions are fulfilled. At the same time, he is also expected to be able to work with various other departments to ensure smooth transactional processing. These tasks of Mr. X relate to the organizing function of Fayol, that is, the providing of everything essential in performing a particular task i.e. the right equipment and tools with right people and right amount of capital (Fayol, 1949, as cited in Lamond, 1998). It is not enough to just organize the employees and assign them jobs to perform. But what is more important is to know that which employee is specialized in which job (best suited for a particular task) and assign them jobs accordingly (Fayol, 1949, as cited in Lamond, 1998). Mr. X’s interview conveys that he is the most involved in leading, organizing and controlling with a moderate amount of planning. All this is in line with the existing theories of what a middle level manager ought to do.

However, he has rated controlling as ‘4’ which is rather high for a middle level manager. Theory says that a middle-level manager is only expected to contribute 14% of his tasks to controlling (Stephen Robbins, 2012, p.19). Mr. X rated the need of human skills as ‘5’. These skills are important for managers at all levels (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2012).  Hence, it falls in line and confirms Katz’s theory. However, Mr. X’s rating of the other two skills and the theory related to those seem to be contradicting as he rates technical skills and conceptual skills as very much while according to Katz, a middle level manager is expected to possess moderate amounts of each. Thus, in Mr. X’s case, Fayol’s four functions seem to be evident while Katz’s theory appears to not be relevant to his job description and tasks expected out of him. Managers can manage action directly, they can manage people to encourage then to take necessary actions, and they can manage information to influence the people in turn to take their necessary actions (Mintzberg, 1994).

Being a part of a board member, Mr. Y claims that he is involved in a moderate amount of planning (rating of ‘3’), along with, employing the correctly skilled people for a task that is most suitable for them. Mr. Y feels that it is his responsibility, being a senior, to inspire his subordinates and provide them with the recognition that they require to be able to excel in their respective fields. A weekly reporting system is used in Company Y to check through the company’s progress and its employee’s efficiency and effectiveness. Thus, there is quite a lot of leading and controlling, followed by organising and planning is the least of them all. Fayol’s four functions seem to be in accordance with Mr. Y’s job description except for the function of controlling which, for a top level manager, should be the lowest and in this case it is rated as a ‘5’ (very much). Technical skills are defined as the understanding of, or proficiency in, specific activities that require the use of specialized tools, methods, processes, procedures, techniques, or knowledge (Peterson, 2004). Relating back to Katz’s theory, a top level manager is expected to possess very little of technical skills which contradicts with Mr. Y’s rating of ‘3’ for technical skills.

The real performance of the manager is the knowledge base of the manager (Carroll & Gillen, 1987). Being a top level manager, it is generally assumed that Mr. Y should have very much of conceptual skills which will enable him to think outside the box as he also claims that it extremely hard to be creative on demand, which is something that his job requires of him. Conceptual skills are generally thought to be needed more as the level of managing gets higher. Along with this, human skills are also vital for a manager at all levels. These skills allow the manager to train, direct, and evaluate subordinates performing specialized tasks (Peterson, 2004). However, Mr. Y has overrated technical skills and underrated conceptual skills in relation to his job. Hence, this contradicts with the outlined theory and Katz’s skills come across as irrelevant while analyzing Mr. Y’s job.

Hence, it can be concluded that Fayol’s functions are more relevant and evident in Mr. Y’s descriptions of his job, as compared to Katz’s theory which is mostly contradicting with the information provided by Mr. Y. Although there is some empirical support for the influence of hierarchical level and functional specialty on managerial role requirements, the influence of these factors on required skills, knowledge, and abilities remains more speculative in nature (Pavett & Lau, 1983). If management is truly a generic principle, then what managers do should be essentially the same whether they are top level executives or low-level supervisors, in a business firm or a non-profit arts organization…(Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2012). With advancements in technology and changing ideologies, the traditional definition of an organization is changing along with the traditional definitions of a manager. The roles that managers play and the expectations that others have of them are evolving to reflect new forms of organization (Chapman, 2001).

During the past ten years or so, the usefulness of the classical functions for classifying managerial work activities has been questioned by a number of writers (Carroll & Gillen, 1987). Similarities can be observed between the two managers with reference to moderate amounts of planning and organising involved. Both managers also recognized human skills as highly important. These similarities could be due to both the managers being linked with the service sector. On the other hand, there are some evident differences that cannot be ignored. Mr. X requires very much of technical skills and conceptual skills, while Mr. Y needs only a moderate amount of both. No significant difference can be obtained in light of Fayol’s functions. Mintzberg (1980) proposed that differences in managerial work involve the relative importance of the roles across hierarchical level and functional specialty (Lachman, 1985). Hence, these differences are probably due Mr. X being a middle level manager while Mr. Y is a top level one. Also, Mr. X comes from a public sector while Mr. Y relates to a private one.

Furthermore, Mr. Y works for a medium sized organization where the need for technical and conceptual skills rises very seldom which is why he rates it so low. On the other hand, Mr. X, working in a large organization rates them higher as the circumstances are different. Managers in both small and large organisations perform essentially the same activities, but how they go about them and the proportion of time they spend on each one are different (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2012). Regardless of their level, all managers make decisions and all managers are viewed to be performing the four functions of planning, organising, leading and controlling.

However, the time dedicated to any particular function cannot be merely stated as a fact as it tends to vary from manager to manager. After analyzing the interviews, it can be concluded that Fayol’s four functions are found to be relevant in the light of the managers interviewed, but at a varied degree. How relevamt are Katz’s skills? Examining the interviews separately, the skills stated do not seem to support the theory, except for the human skills. Although these skills are defined and explained separately, they will be interrelated when enforced to managerial problems. Therefore, looking at the general overview of the functions and skills, they appear to be the universal guideline for managers even though the level of importance for each individual function or skills may be different.

Reference List
Carroll, S., & Gillen, D,. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work? Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 38-51. Chapman, J.A., (2001). The work of managers in new organisational contexts. Journal of management development, 20(1), 55-68. Hales, C,. (1999). Why do Managers Do What They Do? Reconciling Evidence and Theory in Accounts of Managerial Work. British Journal of Management, 10, 335–350 Lachman, R,. (1985). Public and Private sector differences: CEOS’s Perceptions of their Role Evironments. Academy of Management Journal, 28(3), 671-680.

Lamond, D,. (1998). Back to the future: Lessons from the past for a new management era in G. Griffin (Ed.) Management Theory and Practice: Moving to a New Era. MacMillan: Melbourne. 3-14. Lau, A.W., & Pavett, C.M,. (1983). Managerial Work: The Influence of Hierarchical Level and Functional Specialty. Academy of Management Journal, 26(1), 170-177 Peterson, T. (2004). Ongoing legacy of R.L. Katz: an updated typology of management skills, Management Decision. 42(10), 1297-1308.

Robbins, S., Bergman, R., Stagg, I. & Coulter, M. (2012), Management, (6th ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: Pearson Education.

Case Manager Interview

The interview with a case manager took place in Kevin on October 25, 2013 at 11:00am and it was done approximately at 12:15pm. What we will be evaluating in this interview using the questionnaire as a guide to better understand case management. The questionnaire or survey used for this interview has twenty-four question related to case management, which we will explore one question at a time. The first part of the survey address different function of case management. Kevin was ask based on his own experience in the department of Mental Health, would he eliminate any functions from the list given that included: Client identification and outreach, Intake, Psychosocial assessment, Goal setting, Resource identification and indexing, Getting general agreement by community agencies, Direct treatment (Therapy), Service planning, Counseling, Linking clients to needed services and supports, Monitoring service delivery, Reassessment, Advocacy, and Client evaluation? Kevin said, “He said that this is a sum of what they do but they go even further by engagement with the community, partnering with different non-profit and faith base organizations and integrating different resources to create a more comprehensive services for their clients.”

According to Kevin the engagement with the community, different non-profit and faith base organization is what needed to be added to the function list for assisting clients with his or her needs. Also Kevin stated, “I would not change the chronological order because this is just a format” but he clarified by saying, “The way the chronological order is makes a guide but each client has unique needs, which can cause a change of the chronological order given to meet the most pressing needs at a time. The second question Kevin was asked, “Do You preform this function as part of your case management role?” Kevin response to the question, “Yes, let me explain to you how we do our process.’ ‘I have twenty-seven staff working for me and each staff has his or her own expertise.’ ‘The different staff, which includes ten case managers, psychologist, house specialist, therapist, psychoactive nurses, all has goals in assisting individual clients; making it a team effort.’ ‘So the functions for each client is done through shared responsibility.” He also explained that the staff have regular meeting to determine if goals of clients is being properly carried out and if not what can be done to achieve his or her clients plan.

Kevin also said the only one thing that hinders his team from performing his or her function is lack of resources and policies can restrict how he can serve his clients. In addition, Kevin told me that in order to be refer to his department there has to be some kind of psychological problem but with the psychological problem there can be other condition present such as: drugs use, homelessness and criminal activities; making serving these individual more complex. The time spent of each function during a typical week depends on the individual and different people and as stated before these function are achieve with many different professional with his or her own expertise working together to serve his or her client. The next question asked Kevin was, “Where he would like to devote more time to a given function and why?” He stated, “As a agency he feels they are always on a consistent bases putting out fires and he would like to spend more time in engagement and working with individual with long term goals.” Kevin also said that different crisis, which needed immediate attention is what keeps his organization from devoting more time to engagement and working with individual with long term goals. Kevin told me he works full time and that his case manager spends about eighty percent of his or her time doing case management. When ask if the work done at the agency was his own or a team or group basis he restated what he said earlier about team effort but also added it was also one his own because each team member has a part in the process where he or she focuses on; so to answer the question he said both individual and team effort. The next question for Kevin was, “What does he think is required for effective case management to occur?” Kevin says that empathy is important when working effectively as a case manager, resources and communication. He also said the way they determine family involvement in a clients is by first assessing the clinical risk, is this relationship with family a healthy one that will assist his clients to achieve his or her personal goals.

The question that followed the last question asked was, “What has been the most successful part of your experience as a case manager?” He shared a story how when he first started working for the agency that he would see patients who had psychotic episodes during his or her intake and it was rewarding when he saw these patients at the end of his or her treatment functioning relatively normal, which demonstrated progression. He went on to explain to me that the ultimate goal of a case manager is to help improve lives and that this type of field is investing in the betterment of others. Moreover, Kevin said the attribute to his success is a collaboration of clients, agency team effort, families and the community. The next question in the interview was, “Is there something distinctive about Stanislaus County that gives case management a unique form here?” Kevin response was base on what he stated earlier about how his organization engagement makes his agency unique. He stress by working with different non-profit and faith base organization the agency was working outside the box. He also told me that his agency has also works with other city such as: San Francisco, San Jose, Bakersfield and as far as Redding to provide service for his clients collaborating with different organization throughout Northern California. Kevin told me my working with different organization has broadened the agency resources causing them not to be limited to a geographical area making their approach different and unique.

The next question in the interview was, “What are some of the main problems you face in doing case management?” Kevin stated resources is the main problem as a practitioner; not enough resources to assist all of his clients. Also Kevin said motivation of his clients is an issue to even recognize he or she has a problem, which needs to be address. Kevin also told me that with some clients basic needs are not being met and his clients cannot focus on assistance because of this problem. He went on to state the lack of understanding of both family and community is a problem, which his agency is trying to address through educating both family and community. He told me these have specific programs for family member to help educate them and they are actively involved with many events in the community. Also according to Mr. Panyanovong service gaps he encounters can be either lack of resources or policy issue where an individual cannot meet requirement to qualify for a certain program.

He also told me that lack of insurance and state funding can be a problem in service gaps or lack of space where the program and facility is overcrowded. The next question I asked Kevin was, “When there is a service gap, are there any things as an organization they can do?” He said that as an organization they work hard to remove barriers, discover new resources, change policies and try to determine how to get from point “A” to point “B”. He said with his team they work together talking about how can we expedite the process and continue to say his organization does not see it as just them but working with other resources. Then Kevin was asked, “What problems do you have with service providers, particularly agencies in the community that are essential to your clients?” He said he was not sure if he had a problem with a particular provider but with the physical he stated there could be disconnect because many of clients have Medicare and Medicaid, which has limitations. According to Kevin many of his clients have health issue, which can be a major problem in the care of his clients.

The interviewer went on to ask, “What administrative problems do you encounter in your daily work?” He said that Medicaid has been a problem and there are many regulations that the organization needs to follow, which can make it difficult in servicing his clients. However, as a program Kevin explain to me they do what they can to serve their client despite Medicaid regulations and many times it has resulted in loss in revenue. The next question in the interview was, “What are some crisis situations you typically face with clients?” Kevin responded by saying, “Medication emergencies, client becomes suicidal, homicidal”, he goes on to say we do crisis assessments, evaluation and place clients in the hospital all the time, which answered the next question, “What are some things you typically do when these crises arise?” The question in the interview that followed that last question is a close end question where the interviewer asked Kevin, “Can you generally handle these situations in an adequate way?” Kevin answered the question by saying, “Yes”. As the interview continues the interviewer ask Kevin, “How could you be enabled to deal with crisis situations more adequately?” Kevin answered was again resources and working with different organizations. The next question is base on a scenario and it is, “A board-and-care home calls you to state a client of yours in this category is having hallucinations that are causing behaviors threatening to other clients. What do you consider your most therapeutic intervention, given no limitation on resources?” The first thing Kevin said, “Is that he needs to assess is this an immediate crisis, which it sounds like it is?” He asses if this particular person is a risk to self or the community and if so he has the authority to put this client on a seventy two hours hold, placing them in a hospital for the individual safety and the safety of the community.

The other thing Kevin mention is by assessing he can determine if this is an ongoing issue and nothing ever happens; than he may set up a meeting with this client. Kevin said because it is their client it is important to look into the history, which can shed light to what is causing him or her to act this way. The second part of the question for this scenario, “If the patient were living at home with family would you do anything differently?” Kevin said yes they would involve the family members more, which is ideal because now the client has support that he feel could be a benefit to the client. Also the family member could help with administration of medication and to determine if something is not right in their family member who needs special assistance. He went on to say the majority of his clients do not have that family support. The question the interviewer asked Kevin next was, “What can case managers do to optimize maintaining hard to handle patients in board-and-care facilities or with their families?” Meeting with client and working with him or her to remain medication compliant, forming good partnership with board-and-care facilities or family members. Kevin went on to say it would be better to treat the individual early before it becomes a crisis. The following question Kevin is asked is, “What recommendations would you make to strengthen the case management process and program in the Department?”

Kevin states resources and also changing policies of organizations, which creates barriers in his clients being place in their respect program. Kevin continue on and said, that practitioners need to set healthy boundaries but at the same time have empathy for their clients and being able to connect with a client at a human level. He also stated that strengthen the commitment of clients to the goals that has been set and for the clients to acknowledge that there is an issue. When it comes to families and informal support networks, Kevin said, communication is key when working with them and education to assist them in helping the needs of the individual client. The interviewer than asked, “Since you started working in this program, have you initiated any major changes in the way you do things or in the procedures?” Kevin says, “Yes” and that he has been in this program for over seventeen years and that the biggest shift according to Kevin is community oriented, which is forming different partnership that the organization did not use in the past. This forming of partnership is done to increase the natural support system for clients in working with outside agencies. He went on to explain to me that when he first started the mentality was in the organization that they were the only agency.

Also as a case manager they as an organization has heighten the awareness that the problem with mental health is a community issue; that everyone needs to be involve in supporting these type of individuals. Kevin continue by saying that they invited community partnerships, they invited faith base, invited community leaders to come to the table and have a conversation of how they could work together to make the problem of mental health better in their city. Kevin said this is accomplished through a town hall meeting to address all these concerns. Also Kevin said this change is adopted by his organization because it is a team effort and they have to work together for the benefit of their clients. The next question interviewer presented to Kevin was, “If you could design a case management program from scratch, based on your experience here, what changes would you make?” Kevin said many of the things they are currently doing is a direction that is offering more assistance for their clients by adding resources through many different organizations.

The last question the interviewer asked, Kevin was, “What advice would you give to a new case manager coming into this agency?” Kevin said he would tell them to know their resources and that they are in the business of helping people, which requires them to have empathy towards their clients and to work as a team with colleague to give the best situation for his or her clients needs. The interview came to a conclusion and the interviewer thank Kevin for taking the time out of schedule to meet with him. The interviewer also ask if in the future if he has similar projects would it be alright for him to contact him again, which he said if his schedule permits he does not mind and he told me he tries to make time for these type of interviews because he feels it is part of educating the community and that he has not only met with college student but high school students to do similar interviews. Than, the interviewer said his final thank you and told Kevin to have a good weekend.

Counselor Interview

Mrs. T C***** currently is a guidance counselor at YPre-K center in _____. She has overseen the YPRE -K counseling program for about 10 years, which is designed to be compressive and developmental, with an emphasis on positive behavior and support. Mrs. C is a trained professional certified by the state of Texas. She received a Master’s degree in Education with a minor in Guidance Counseling from Sul Ross University.

From a young age Mrs. C knew she had the gift of what it would take to be a counselor. In High School she always provided family and friends with a listening ear and loved helping people solve their problems. Being a previous Pre-k teacher, she was challenged with young children that needed help with their emotions. Seeing those problems, Mrs. C had the desired to help those children in need, but realized that she didn’t have those specific skills to address the problems. From that moment she went on to increase her knowledge and understanding of the counseling field. To maintain her credentials, Mrs. Ceniceros must complete 200 hours every 5 years by attending certain conferences every year and local trainings. As a professional she is continually looking for ways to improve to provide that successfully curriculum for her students.

The Ysleta Pre-k counseling program serves around 300 students ages 4-6, which Includes large groups, small groups and individual counseling, along with consultations with staff, parents and the community. As a guidance counselor she is excited and happy to be a part of the early education counseling program at Ysleta. Her goal is to continue providing the help, support and a positive environment. She wants to help students develop health perceptions of themselves; believe in competence, and their learning abilities. Mrs. Ceniceros role is an important part, she sees herself as a leader. Along with the principal and assistant principal they work towards a foundation of positive learning and teaching them how to adapt to a variety of environments by recognizing the needs coming from all diverse backgrounds. Mrs. Ceniceros mentioned that she is very blessed to have a supportive administrative system, where she is able to have a well-rounded guidance program. It’s an expectation, school wide program where everyone: teachers, coaches, nurses, volunteers, bus drives ensure a safe, respectful and responsible environment. It’s very rewarding to her how she is not secluded; she is part of school, they all work to together.

Her program includes activities to enhance the students’ academic progress by addressing conflict issues that may have risen from their home life, work on interpersonal relationships, or if they lack of basic necessities: both physical and emotional, communication skills, study skills, listening skills and most importantly to develop social skills. She allows provides guidance in topics such as kindness, respect, responsibility, honesty, friendship, cooperation/teamwork, and manners. The early childhood guidance counseling program also consults parents and teachers to develop strategies in growth, development and learning. For parents it’s to make sure they understand what kind of environment is needed to help their child succeed and which intervention tactics to use.

Her counseling theory she closely follows is Alfred Adler. She agrees on the theory of personality which is defined as, “A comprehensive in depth analysis on how people function. It emphasizes the importance of early life experiences within the family of origin, or family constellation. From the perspectives such as birth order, sibling, rivalry, and social interest played important fools in the formulation and function of personality.” (Nystul. Pg 173 ) She agreed on how Adler stressed that emotions are useful in helping person toward a goal. In her counseling program she uses some of Alders techniques Such as phase one: establishing a relationship. Mrs. Ceniceros uses listening skills along with a smile to promote trust and respect, with the power of laughter and humor she believes that it follows step 2 in winning respect and offering hope. The third step in phase 1 she allows provides encouragement to her young students again by helping them develop positive attitudes about themselves and the world around them. She mentioned that she loves to use Art therapy which “offers a form of sublimation whereby clients can achieve indirect gratification of unconscious needs.” (Nstyul, pg. 204). She has her kids color code their feels by filling a white heart outlined in black to identify their feelings such as blue is for sadness. For them is easier for the kids to communicate comfortably, has helped her tremendously to engage them to express their feelings and thoughts. Another therapy she uses is Play therapy, which involves play media such as sand play, art, music, and music to learn skills and work out problems. “Play represents an important developmental tool for children and adolescents, natural form of communication, and expression creativity leading to learning, coping, and self-realization.” (Nstyul . pg 297).

Mrs. C guidance lessons reflect the needs of the children identified by the teachers, principal, assistant principal, parents and the children themselves. She typically reaches 20 or so students per week in individual counseling. Her typical work hours are from 6 am to 4 pm, every day is a busy day, Meeting with special educators, parents, teachers, attending conferences and trainings behind the scenes. Even when and if the families or child need her during a crisis after hours, Mrs. C is there to support them. “It’s exciting, not knowing what the day will bring, every day is a different day, love the challenges.” Mrs. C says.

She loves working with children especially since she has previous experience as a teacher. Mrs. Ceniceros mentioned that it comes easy to her on how to speak to them and how to engage them in her activities. “Definitely a fun age!” she says. Her heart will always be with early childhood. That being said Mrs. Ceniceros believes that in order to be a counselor the key quality is to have the Heart! Counselors should be passionate, enjoy helping people. Need to have compassion and empathy to understand the problems and work with children that are in stressful situations. In her eyes counselors are always willing and looking ways to help .They need to be able to intervene appropriately when there is a crisis at hand. She says kids don’t always say what they mean or feel, most of the time they can’t understand their feelings or sometimes put up a front, as a counselor you have to look beyond words. Counselors need observational skills to spot signals of emotional, sexual abuse, certain behaviors, and relationships and being able to determine data from test or interviews. Have people skills and communication skills are also important she says. Mrs. Ceniceros is constantly in collaboration with the principal, assistant, teachers and parents, along with that come having good listening skills, open mind, speaking and writing professionally. Lastly she says that having humor and a smile is an important attribute, which brings hope, trust, and allows the student to engage. Even though she has a supportive team and District who want their kids to succeed, she said it’s a sad surprise to see some parents that really don’t care about the emotional, physical, developmental health of their kids. Although at the end of the day the advantage of her job is to see the success of her kids, For Mrs. C is knowing that she made a difference and was able to help those in need. She smiles when her kids come down the hall way saying “Hi friend, I am helping my feelings!” Mrs. C stated that each child is different and beautiful in their own way and most importantly, they all need to be valued. As for future prospective counselors make sure you’re in the field because that is want will thrive that individual to help others. For Mrs. Ceniceros she believes if you’re passionate about your job you won’t see if as a job. Especially those who want to become a guidance counselor she recommends those individuals to make themselves visible to schools, teachers, and other school professionals. Greet the students, attend related meetings, and attend certain school activities, will allow the individual to establish valuable relationships. She allows mentions to participate in counseling practicum or internship, taking the opportunity will allow that perspective to learn and grow and even speaking with other professional counselor experiences will be a great deal of help.

Choosing Mrs. Ceniceros was a great choose and a great experience. I chose Mrs. Ceniceros because I had heard she was a great counselor at Ysleta pre-k being that I am from Ysleta pre-k myself. I noticed that Mrs. Ceniceros is not only an effective guidance counselor but a nice person. Arriving into her office began with a positive image feeling warm and welcome of brightness and having the cute drawings from her kids. Not only did she provide a qualified image such as clean and professional attire, she presented a smiling and enthusiastic personality. Listening to her education , background, interests to why pursing a counseling degree, to her program and approaches showed me that she really cares about the developmental , behavioral, and wellness of Y Pre-K children. She has great communication skills, improve her competence, works hard, and most important has humor. Mrs. C displays a wholesome philosophy, by valuing the diverse background of her kids, willingness to listen and the patience seek and accepts advice, maintains a good physical, emotional health. Most importantly I could see how she was well equipped to assist her children live a happy and healthy life. Overall enjoyed this experience and grateful for the opportunity!

Evaluate the usefulness of the documents in the interview pack for a given organisation

Justify actions a business might take when experiencing cash flow problems? At first ,the owners of business need to start a cash flow analysis for current month and the future.The owners should know and find out what’s wrong with the company and check which areas result the most money to get out of their company.However, the receivables are always a big problem.Because the owners are busy with their business so that they forget to send the money for a long time . Secondly, they can use loan to solve the cash flow problem,they can borrow a great deal of money from the bank or other personal organizations, they can just give these organizations little interest per month but they get a pretty long-term support for the whole business.They should have their own line of credit, regardless of business or personal ,it’s function is similar with the credit cards.The company can have a source of emergency funds in the future as long as it pays long-term attention on building the credit line , which can solve the cash flow problems as well. Finally, it is important for the business owners to make some changes n operations ,For example ,the loans can not solve the fundamental problem because this situation is serious.The operator should reduce the time between a transaction and when receive the money . The business needs to accelerate the speed of sending it’s produces as well as invoices.In addition to that, the company can use the discount to attract the customer to pay early and enforce the punishment for late payment.If the customers pay by cash , then they will have cash discount and the point of transactions.Absolutely, the business won’t penalize those people who pay by card and credit card. How to prevent the situation for cash flow problems

As a formal business ,the operator should have a detailed financial book which keep up-to date records on the transaction between business ,customers as well as the suppliers.The company should stop selling if the customer often gives money late or has an outstanding balance.

Evaluate the financial performance and position of a business using ratio analysis? There are Profitability ratio which is looking about the profit of the company ,Liquidity ratio is the amount of cash that the business has available to use and Capital structure ratio which is about the shares and loans of the business .By using the ration analysis,company can see the ratio in the past few year.This can show the business whether improved or worsen .For example,the gross profit margin in the 2011 is 44.5%,2012 it is 42.1% and 2013 is 40.9%.Compare the gross profit margin ,we can see that the business performance is getting worse.As a result business should start to investigate why business performance getting worse. For Gross Profit Mark-up ratio is show in every $100 of cost ,how much was added to arrive at Sales price.The mark up ratio and gross profit margin ratio are reflect to each other.Both of them can show the business current financial performance and position .Also, there is expense in relation to revenue ,if the business revenue increase over time,owner will expect the ratio fall.

For example in 2011,it is 21.3% .In 2012 it is 20.5% and 2013 ,it 19.9%. This ratio can show the business financial performance and position is improved.Lower percentage will showing improvement of business.there is current ratio business is willing to reach 2:1.The business have to make sure it does not increase above 2:1 as this may not be an efficient use of resources.For the acid test ratio,this ratio can let the business know if he ratio is too low,they will have difficulty meeting request from the supplier to make payment .However,if the ratio is too high ,this will cause the business has too much cash or trade receivable.This can reflect the cash flow of the business at the current financial state. The ratio can indicate which part of business doing well while which part of business are going to face problem .

An Interview With Graphic Designer Jessica Thompson

Essay on extension interaction interview

Essay on extension interaction interview


       Extension is one of the services offered in most American states and helps people to get information and learn different ways to solve their day-to-day problems. Texas is one of the states where extension is offered across the counties. Both paid and voluntary services form the most valuable part of extension. However, extension volunteer forms the major populations of extension (Boleman, & Burkham, 2005). This paper is based on the interview that was carried out from a local extension volunteer. My uncle, John was interviewed about his interactions with the extension and how the program has helped him while serving as part of their voluntary personnel. The person interviewed for this essay was my uncle who works as extension volunteer. My uncle has offered extension services to local community for the last three years. He graduated five years ago with bachelors’ degree in Disaster education. He has spent most of his life with the local communities, which makes him to have vast knowledge about the county. In addition, he is outgoing and social and you will find him making friendships with most local people. He is a serious person and always respects his career and people who interact with him. After long interaction with him, I found that he likes listening to music, watching movies and making new friends. Perhaps, it is his involvement in voluntary services that has helped to him to develop outstanding social skills.

       According to him, he interacts with extension as a master volunteer. He gained this status after completing a specialised training in disaster education for 40 hours. In addition, his ability to lead and teach disaster subjects to the local community saw him being promoted to his current position from youth volunteer. As a result, he has been delegated to offer service for at least 50 hours. During his service, he interacts with the extension audience on face-to-face and sometimes teaches youths and adults about how to manage local challenges facing the county. According to him, extension has helped to develop his leadership skills that enable him to solve problems facing the community with much ease. He concurred with Lockett, & Dodd, (n.d.) that development of competent leadership skills is crucial to the success of extension program in Texas. As a result, he has been able to motivate his audience, influence them and solve the impending problems. He has also developed problem solving skills, which has helped him to address situations he meets on the ground when offering his extension services.

       He has a dream of building his career in the field of extension and help people to address their challenges and hence improve their lives. His devotion to help others and see the lives of other people has been the main motivation. He said he was comfortable if the information about his extension interactions were shared with other people since it would encourage them to join extension. He argued that the fast growing population across the Texas counties and the limited finance in the extension required more people to volunteer and thus there was need to share the information about the program. This will increase the number of extension volunteers and thus help it to meet the increase demand of its services.


Boleman, C., & Burkham, A. (2005). Volunteer administration in the 21st century: Roles volunteers play in Texas Extension. E-457) Texas Agrilife Extension. The Texas A&M System.Lockett, L., & Dodd, C. (n.d.) Developing Leadership Skills in Volunteers. AgriLife Communications, The Texas A&M System

Source document