Autocratic and Democratic Leadership

There are numerous advantages and drawbacks of both autocratic and democratic federal authorities, not to mention, lots of apparent variations. Surprisingly, there are likewise some similarities in between these two distinct governing designs. Autocracy as outlined by the Merriam Webster on-line dictionary is, “A government in which somebody has countless energy.” Opposingly, democracy as outlined by Danzinger, teacher and former chair of the department of presidency on the University of California is “A governance by leaders whose authority is predicated on a limited mandate from a universal voters that selects amongst real choices and has some rights to political participation and opposition” (173 ).

Most leadership qualities can be categorized into these two groups extra separating them into 2 distinctive management designs. An autocratic chief tends to guide with an iron fist comparable to the design of a police state, whereas a democratic leader tends to take a somewhat softer technique governing with approval and compliance from individuals. Throughout this paper I will provide an evaluation of basic qualities of each autocratic and democratic authorities and leaders, in addition to a quick introduction of the favorable and unfavorable parts of both governing techniques.

Each governing design is made to work within its own surroundings, governing its people and doing what is best for its nation.

Autocracy requires an absence of separation of powers, so absolutely the ruler can’t beopposed by any other efficient source. For example, a checks and balances’ system would hinder an autocratic federal authorities as a end result of the leader would not have outright power.

Autocracies can take the kind of a totalitarian/dictoral federal authorities, where a country is under the rule of 1 individual. Often times, autocratic rulers work to better their nations only because it in turn offers wonderful benefits for the rulers themselves. “An autocratic federal government is one which takes full advantage of the online income the ruling clique extracts from the relaxation of the population; this extraction, in flip, is the excellence in between the tax revenues the routine gathers and the quantities it invests on public services, navy activities, and curiosity.” (Niskanan, 182).

Basically, out of the increase in output that results from the net income extracted from the inhabitants, the chief obtains extra resources for his or her personal functions than for the general public. Also, for the reason that public population is a supply of tax-income for the leader, the chief then has incentive to guard his or her individuals from warfare, terrorist attacks, etc. Hence, the monopolization of earnings tax can even have a positive have an result on on most of the people. The public can additionally be benefitted as a end result of they get hold of the revenue they have made that has not been taken in taxes.

A commonly used phrase individuals use when talking about autocratic governments is, “An absolute ruler fails absolutely,” but is this necessarily the case in an autocratic government? Unlimited power of a ruler could solely be thought of harmful if it falls into the incorrect arms. The time period autocracy has become synonymous with the title of dictator, however, not all dictatorships are necessarily a unfavorable form of government. For example, Hugo Chavez, leader of Venezuela has created the Bolivarian Revolution, “A shut duplicate of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal-a progressive revenue tax, public works, social security, low-cost electricity-makes him wildly well-liked with the poor. And most Venezuelans are poor” (Palast 42). On the other hand, many people argue that Chavez is in fact a nasty leader. A frequent view of the American government portrays Chavez as a threat to international oil prices and regional financial system. Just like there’s a great and dangerous aspect to autocratic leaders, there are heaps of pros and cons when carefully inspecting an autocratic authorities.

Many might argue that an autocratic style of government is corrupt and unjust. However, there are numerous constructive features of autocracy. Decisions are made quickly with out strenuous contemplation from different political powers. For example, if a dictator wished to cross a legislation making it illegal to wear blue denims in his or her nation he could move the law with out consent from anyone else. If a president wished to make the same regulation, it must be overseen and contemplated by numerous different events before passing. Not solely is an autocratic government fast to make decisions, it additionally defines a transparent backside line. Topics of controversy are not left as a lot as the interpretation of the basic public, and differing opinions usually are not expressed as a outcome of the common public inhabitants of an autocratic government is usually discouraged from expressing particular person opinions.

Unfortunately there are also many negative elements of autocracy. Mainly, it has the potential to disregard the wants of the majority. Ultimately, all decisions are left as much as the chief, creating a doubtlessly skewed consequence as far as the wants of the public go. The views and norms of a complete state may be held solely in the hands of one person and evidently could have fairly a adverse impact. Irrational choices can be made, with just about no hope of being stopped. If an autocratic leader happens to be having a nasty day and makes an irrational and harsh choice, it may have a negative influence on the entire nation.

One could wonder why the residents of an autocratic authorities would tolerate such a harsh and extreme chief, why not just overthrow him?The similar logic of collective motion that ensured that there are not any social contracts within the historical report whereby massive groups agreed to obtain the benefits of government also implies that the plenty shall not overthrow an autocrat just because they would be better off to do so. Historical evidence from no less than the primary pharos through Saddam Hussein indicates that resolute autocrats can survive even when they impose heinous amounts of struggling upon their peoples. When they are replaced, it’s for different causes (Mancur 23).

The opposite of autocracy might be regarded as democracy. Democracy is a broadly accepted form of authorities that works for the folks by allowing them to choose on their very own representation. Not solely are the individuals represented by a leader of their choice, however are additionally capable of give opinions as to the on goings of their country. “Democracy is a sign of the existence of a powerful civil society that is primarily based on various middleman teams, from women’s associations and labor unions to cooperatives and trade councils. Such groups function in all probability the best instruments for communicating social calls for to decision makers.” (Gangi 41).

Democracy is said to have originated in medieval Europe as a explanation for three details;First, late medieval Europe had quite a few political characteristics that distinguished it from other main world civilizations. These characteristics an important of which have been consultant assemblies constituted as a foundation for liberal democracy which offered Europe with a predisposition toward democratic political institutions. Second, the ‘military revolution’ of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led to the strengthing of monarchal energy in international locations counting on home assets to finance fashionable armies. In these international locations, medieval constitutionalism was done away with and expansive autocracies had been built demolishing the predisposition. Third, in nations that avoided the army revolution, navy modernization didn’t destroy constitutional authorities, and a liberal political end result became more probably (Downing 3).

Much like autocracy requires an absence of separation of powers, democracy wants a separation of powers. A democratic government is divided into three branches. The executive branch consists of the presidential party which in turn consists of the president, the vice president, and all the cupboard members. This branch assists in finishing up the regulation. The president is allowed to move or veto a invoice despatched by the legislature. The legislative department or “Bicameral Congress” consists of the Senate (100 seats, one-third are renewed every two years; 2 members are elected from every state by well-liked vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are instantly elected by in style vote to serve two-year terms)” (

The legislative branch writes laws on a invoice to enable them to be sent to the senator, after which to the representatives, and then to the president. The judicial branch is in command of the courtroom techniques consisting of the “Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the recommendation and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts” ( The judicial branch applies the legislation by hearing and making selections on various authorized instances. Just like some other government, democracy can differ from country to nation.

A democratic authorities could are out there in many different varieties similar to participatory democracy, representative democracy, electoral democracy, liberal democracy, and so forth, hence there are close to countless optimistic and unfavorable aspects. Singapore practices an electoral democracy where “All citizens periodically vote to have the ability to choose political leaders from amongst alternative contenders” (Danziger 173), that means that the federal government picks the candidates that the citizens can vote for. In 2006 the Freedom House described America as a liberal democracy which is a authorities where “Citizens take pleasure in not solely electoral democracy but in addition these extensive political rights and civil liberties regarding participation, private freedoms, and opposition” (173). However, I feel that America is better categorized as a consultant democracy the place “Citizens elect people to represent them within the political process and to allocate values on their behalf” (172). Because of all the totally different situations within the many kinds of democracies one may surprise what exactly defines democracy.

One of the key characteristics of American democracy is common suffrage. Universal suffrage consists of the best to vote no matter race, religion, gender, social standing, economic standing, and so on. Suffrage has been a continually developing side of democracy for hundreds of years. According to Wikipedia, African American suffrage started in 1866, and women’s suffrage began in 1920. A second democratic characteristic is equality of all folks. Within the US Constitution it’s implied that beneath a democratic government each particular person is entitled to equal safety beneath the regulation, freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and so on, along with varied other economic, social, cultural, civil, political, and group-oriented rights. Democracy bases itself on offering fair and equal alternatives for all people no matter their race, intercourse, faith, economic/social standing, etc. The idea of American democracy totally supporting equality introduced many immigrants right here, with promises of equal opportunity. Along with all of the rights and privileges residents of a democratic government have, there are additionally some adverse elements.

The larger democracies get, the tougher voting and vote tallying turns into. For example, through the Gore vs. Bush presidential elections the vote counts in Florida were misinterpreted, and many people thought the outcome of the election was skewed because of vote fraud. Also, democracy is hailed as one of the truthful governments, however catering to the wants of solely the majority truly excludes the minority. No matter how minuscule the minority may be, they’re still be exploited by the bulk. Lastly, the larger a democratic system becomes, the less peaceable and environment friendly it turns into. Mancur Olsen provides an excellent example of this negative side of democracy in his essay Autocracy, Democracy, and History.

If there are say 5 related folks, every of them will get about a fifth of the features from the creation of a peaceful [democratic] order. …The advantages of such an order are so large that one fifth of the positive aspects may eaisly exceed the entire sacrifice. Moreover, when there are only a few individuals in a bunch it goes to be clear that the welfare of every particular person is determined by whether one another particular person acts in a group-oriented or anti-social method. Thus every person by making clear that the cooperation by others will convey forth cooperation from him but that non-cooperation is not going to, can increase the chance that others will match his habits. This not solely increases the probability of peaceful [democratic] interaction but even makes it easily attainable that cooperation will attain a super or group optimum extent (Olsen 3).

Hence, democracies work better for relatively small teams. Mancur argues that a democracy is better than raw anarchy, but democracy continues to be removed from excellent. (2)In conclusion, both autocratic and democratic governments have many sturdy and weak factors. Some unfavorable features of autocracy such as income tax monopoly can have a optimistic have an result on on an entire country’s inhabitants, while some optimistic elements of democracy such as majority ruling can have adverse impacts such as excluding the minority.

The pros and cons of a authorities are what ultimately define that government’s fundamental construction. If a government has a disorganized electoral system, power may probably fall into the mistaken leaders palms. If a government has a very strict electoral policy, the folks could additionally be misrepresented as a end result of the truth that they do not have full freedom to decide on their chief. Each governmental style works for the betterment of their citizens whether it’s by strict rule, or lax rule. All in all, governments working towards the betterment of their residents, are really working in the course of the betterment of the human population as an entire.

Works Cited

“Autocracy.” Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary. 2004. .

Danziger, James. Understanding the Political World: A Comparative
Introduction to Political Science. New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2007.

Downing, Brian. The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy andAutocracy in Early Modern Europe. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Gangi, Akbar. “The Struggle Against Sultanism.” Journal of Democracy 2005: sixteen.four. ProjectMuse Scholarly Journals Online. Wayne State University Library. Wayne State University Library, Detroit, MI. 16 Apr 2007.

Olsen, Mancur. “Autocracy, Democracy, and History.” Online working paper #22, 1991.

2 April 2007.

Niskanan, William. Autocratic, Democratic and Optimal Government: Fiscal Choices and Economic Outcomes. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publications, 2004.

Palast, Greg. “Hugo Chavez.” The Progressive. July 2006. 10 April 2007.

“United States.” 2007. The World Fact Book. four April 2007.


Applying Transformational Leadership in Nursing Practice


Nurses face day-to-day challenges as they supply care for their sufferers. In the previous, nurses have been managed inappropriately with their values and wishes being unmotivated due to the then leadership types. Nursing management types have nonetheless skilled a significant change over time. This change has improved the welfare of nurses and improved healthcare outcomes (Cummings et al. 2010, p. 364). This essay describes the benefits of an efficient management method that promotes professionalism and creates wholesome work surroundings. It highlights on how leadership kinds impression key nursing roles and finally addresses the alternatives of recent graduate nurses in management.

Section 1

Leadership is a posh course of advancing over time. It is defined as a course of where a frontrunner plays the role of inspiring a group of individuals to realize the targets a frontrunner desires for the group (Cummings et al. 2010, p. 364). Many management kinds have been described in varied nursing literature. Each of them has advantages and shortfalls on the followers and in addition leaders.

It thus establishes the relationship between a mode and the impact on the nurse’s working surroundings and healthcare consequence (Cope & Murray 2017, p. 61). Certain leadership approaches are most popular over others relying on the specified end result in the healthcare business. In its optimal kind, an efficient management fashion results in a motivated group of workers therefore reaching the finish result (Cummings et al. 2010, p. 364).

The widespread management types embrace autocratic the place the leader makes all selections with out considering any enter from the staff (Abdulhafith 2017, p. 4517). Democratic leadership permits for open communication with the followers being concerned in decision-making.

Laissez-faire leadership is the place followers make their own choices however are blamed in case they mess (Abdulhafith 2017, p. 4517). Transactional leadership makes use of rewards and punishments to ensure compliance (Cope & Murray 2017, p. 61). Transformational leadership allows for the motivation of group members to achieve desired outcomes ((Doody & Doody 2012, p. 1217).

Section 2

Transformational leadership

The transformational management strategy is outlined as a kind of leadership where leaders commit themselves by identifying change and being visionary to information the change by inspiring and executing it with the help of their followers (Skinner 2018, p. 64). The idea was first described within the late 70s and has been since the best fashion replacing other conventional management and leadership types (Hutchinson & Jackson 2013, p. 12). Since the twenty first century, most organizations shifted to this strategy not solely within the healthcare sector. The essence is to provoke change and keep a optimistic working setting (Cope & Murray 2017, p. 61).

Attributes of transformational leadership

In transformational management theory, there are 4 specific attributes inspire and motivate followers to maximize their productiveness in the group ((Doody & Doody 2012, p. 1217). The first of those 4 elements is idealized affect. A nurse supervisor who must be an effective mentor and a job mannequin who influences others by way of challenging ways to be competent care suppliers. Charisma retains the chief outstanding which promotes gaining respect from the followers (Hutchison & Jackson 2013, p. 12). This improves the probabilities of retaining nursing staff (Cummings et al. 2010, p. 379).for instance, a nurse manager who reveals she cares and engages the workers on decision making on problems going through them is more probably to acquire belief.

The second issue is leaders who intellectually stimulate their followers and encourage them to question position and to critically look at their very own assumptions and beliefs and people of their leaders which promotes creativity (Echevarria, Patterson & Krouse 2017, p. 168). For instance, managers may provide time for nurses to work with other healthcare employees to have the ability to ensure evidence-based follow is integrated in patient’s care.

The third issue is leaders who present individual consideration in customized attention to each employee’s wants so that each employee feels valued. This is the place nurse managers coach and mentor their) workers on the idea of their particular person wants (Echevarria, Patterson & Krouse 2017, p. 168). For example, a frontrunner who aspires to know their employees and functions to know their aspirations and targets for the group. This offers them an opportunity to mentor their workers thus promoting a constructive work environment (Cummings et al. 2010, p. 379).

The fourth factor is leaders who give inspirational motivation and a imaginative and prescient and the arrogance that the imaginative and prescient is attainable by the followers (Echevarria, Patterson & Krouse 2017, p. 168). Example is a transformational leader who has the ability to creatively and innovatively inspire their workers. Setting up meetings with workers nurses is a technique of reaching them to setting out goals and visions of the organization hence motivation to maintain going (Hutchison & Jackson 2013, p. 12).

Section 3

Transformational management has impression on the vital thing nursing roles and utility of this leads to “transforming care” whose end result is improved quality of care and elevated affected person satisfaction. A good mannequin which could be integrated in transformational leadership is the patient centered care model which requires collaboration between care suppliers to improve the satisfaction of patients.

Nurse communication and documentation

This is a key component of nursing practice. Promoting an effective speaking system offers an opportunity to share priceless knowledge and data. There should effective communication between members of the nurse managers and the workers (Clavelle 2012, p. 345). This communication could possibly be lateral communication which helps to enhance the organizational change that’s needed. Creating an setting where departments can share information results in decreased circumstances of medical errors and improved nurse identity ( Vaismoradi, Salsali & Marck 2011, p.436 ).For example, a variety of the patients’ deaths may end result from some faults in communication. By the virtue that a manager is a transformational chief, they’d want to promote the safety of the affected person. They would subsequently take up the role of guaranteeing correct communication channels. Communication between nurses and nurse managers is necessary for charismatic leaders who followers belief (Clavelle 2012, p., 435).

Professional relationships


Transformational leaders construct skilled relationships not solely with their nursing employees but additionally with different medical employees. Maintaining and nurturing relationships with their followers is important in inspiring others to have the ability to establish with their long-term imaginative and prescient in relation to the organizational targets and individual nurse goals(Cummings et al. 2010, p. 375). While leaders execute the apply of transformational leadership, they are required to build a collaborative relationship whose intention is to realize the organizational desired change. A study performed in Canada reveals a few of the explanation why nurses needed to leave. One of them was as a end result of poor relationships with other staff and a poor leadership fashion (Abdulhafith 2017, p. 4522). This has influenced their working environment negatively and in addition reduced their job performance. In the case of transformational management, there’s more job satisfaction and a optimistic working environment. Also improves the connection between nurse leaders and the nurses(Cummings et al 2010 p., 375)


Transformational nurse managers encourage the staff to be group players. According to Williams, Parker & Turner (2010, p. 301) a group that works collectively achieves higher job satisfaction, higher affected person outcomes, and a less nurse turnover(Cummings et al. 2010, p.379). Collaboration and effective communication are the premise of a reliable staff who shares a visionary goal in the course of providing care. Teamwork is enhanced by transformational management as employees members and nurse managers sit together to speak concerning the challenges they face(Williams, Parker, & Turner (2010, p 301). They all are involved in contributing ideas of the means to counter the problem. This improves nurse possession and the belongingness within the group hence simply reaching their objective.

Scope of practice

The scope and requirements of follow dictates how nursing care and duties should be performed. This ensures competency and improves affected person care. Apart from providing affected person care, nurses have a task of treatment administration( Vaismoradi, Salsali & Marck, 2011, p.436). As the leaders aspire to advertise patient security, they want to always collaborate with the nursing team to make sure treatment safety(ACSQHC,2013). Advocating for medication safety through transformational management is a need that the majority nurse managers require their nurses to have the proper expertise needed in safe medicine administration. This reduces medical errors and improves patients’ security (Abdulhafith 2017, p. 4517). In addition, transformational leadership is a mannequin of sturdy management in to nurse schooling to make sure effective scholar learning. Its principles could be utilized in nursing training to not only to organize effective well being care leaders, but additionally to guarantee that medicine safety is taught so successfully that medicine administration improves which this doesn’t threaten the standard of healthcare offered (Botting, L 2011, p. 14 ).

Delegation of care

As a leader, a delegation of duties is highly beneficial in achieving the specified objective. For instance, a nurse leader who effectively delegates duties to different staff nurses believes in them. The nurses could have the insight to ensure sufferers are cared for and are protected. Delegation is in itself a type of motivation to the nursing workers members who know their leader trusts their talents (Nerdinger & Pundt 2008, p. 574) . They are prone to tackle greater responsibilities and possibly even really feel more prepared to strive new things. Team members can be strengthened, their confidence levels can improve and many of them will begin to develop into new leaders themselves. The affected person and employees satisfaction scores are improved as a end result of responsibility delegation. Therefore transformational leadership supplies a chance to delegate successfully thus strengthening staff members and improves affected person care(Nerdinger & Pundt 2008, p. 574). In the case of nursing houses that present aged care, efficient delegation and relevant management ensures most care providence (Yoon & Shin 2016)

Conflict management and resolution

Leadership fashion has a task to play when it comes to how conflicts are resolved. It is crucial for a nurse chief to develop the efficient ways essential for resolving conflicts among the many employees. This is thru risk-taking and the ability to understand feelings( Enzman 2017, p 405) . Mediation may be advanced and in a company, it’s the role of the chief to unravel issues. In healthcare, conflict could arise between staff nurses or nurses with other medical personnel. As a manager, one ought to have the characteristics of a frontrunner who listens and judges well. For the set targets and visions to be achieved, correct expertise for resolving conflicts ought to be employed.

Impact of follow on high quality healthcare

The practices of transformational leadership have shown to positively impact and enhance the standard of care sufferers receive. Quality healthcare is one which patients are glad with the care they’re receiving and staff is provided with a healthy work environment(Cummings et al. 2010, p. 379). This, therefore, shows that job satisfaction, improved patient security, and care, and employees empowerment all are determinants of high quality healthcare. Transformational leadership has all of the characteristics essential to offer high quality and transforming care. Nursing managers should due to this fact take the role of inspiring, motivating, and mentoring their workers. This benefits the community and the group realizes its productiveness through transformed healthcare (Botting, L 2011, p. 14 ).

Opportunities for graduate nurses to develop management skills

A study showed that nursing students usually are not developing the desired instructional outcomes to turn out to be nursing leaders due to lack of suitable scientific placement sites the place they can study or apply necessary leadership abilities (Lizy 2014, p. 737). This makes it onerous for graduate nurses or workers nurses who’ve labored for fewer years to develop necessary nursing leadership skills and apply them to patient care. Some variables which undermine the gaining of leadership skills embrace schooling and position held during follow greatly influence one’s ability to be a transformational leader. Nursing faculties ought to subsequently develop a curriculum where students are trained on leadership expertise as properly as follow them in their clinical placement areas. (Lizy 2014, p. 742)


In conclusion, transformational leadership has shown to be the trending and most effective within the healthcare business in terms of offering a optimistic working surroundings, empowering the staff, improving affected person security and enhancing the standard of healthcare sufferers obtain. It should subsequently be embraced alongside other useful types to make sure nursing employees work effectively, are retained within the group and motivated to provide wonderful care. In addition, every nurse supervisor should have the best abilities and angle is able care for his or her workers holistically. Finally, nursing training should incorporate leadership coaching into their curriculum to train absolutely geared up nurses ready to remodel care through management.


Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence is a half of nursing schooling program which allows nursing students to use their feelings within the work surroundings to beat challenges. Developed by way of coaching its impact includes capacity to relate to others empathically and building self-worth Nurses who developed emotional intelligence are capable of obtain competence and the desired end result (Price 2008, p.28). Such people sometimes act as leaders and generally as followers.

There are four elements which make up the idea of emotional intelligence. These expertise facilitate the availability of person-centered care. Social awareness is an important ability. Self-awareness, self-management, and relationship administration are other aspects used to know whether a care supplier is emotionally intelligent (Price 2008, p.28). All of those factors are used in the understanding of emotional intelligence.

According to Kooker, Shoultz & Codier( 2007, p.31), the value of emotional intelligence in inpatient care is reiterated as a outcome of sufferers and purchasers ought to always really feel respected and be handled with dignity. I have discovered that emotional intelligence is essential in for nurse managers since they’re in a position to encourage nurses by way of their leadership practice which impacts positively on my working expertise and the care for sufferers (Schneider, Lyons& Khazon 2013, p. 909). The worth the leader puts on us is a method of inspiring us and bettering the patient consequence.

Emotional intelligence allows me to combine the weather of nursing apply in the course of caring for my patients. This permits me to treat my sufferers with dignity and respect via the practice of autonomy and education of sufferers. Being able to grasp emotional intelligence is an advantage to me in addition to the sufferers under my care. Navigating via every day challenges presents a chance for me to discover emotional intelligence in improving my take care of the patients(Shanta & Connolly 2013 p., 174)

Early profession plans

As I proceed to become a registered nurse, I actually have had plenty of expertise both in nursing schooling training and my experiential studying attachments. These have made to think about my future profession plans and aspirations in nursing follow. I have planned early enough due to the experiences and expertise attained from attachments. Application of this data and abilities ought to help me as I plan to follow within the subsequent one to two ye


  1. Abdulhafith, Y 2017, ‘Leadership kinds of nurse managers and their effects on nurse and organizational performance, issues and problems’ International Journal of Information Research and Review Vol. four, no. 9, pp.4516-4525,
  2. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care 2013, Literature Review: Medication Safety in Australia. ACSQHC, Sydney. Australias
  3. Botting, L 2011, ‘Transformational change in action’, Nursing Management (through 2013), vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 14-9.
  4. Clavelle, TJ 2012, ‘Transformational Leadership: Visibility, Accessibility, and Communication’, JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, vol. forty two, no. 7/8, pp. 345-346.
  5. Cope, V & Murray, M 2017, ‘Leadership kinds in nursing’, Nursing normal (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), vol. 31, no. 43, pp. 61.
  6. Cummings, G, Macgregor, T, Davey, M, Lee, H, Wong, C, Lo, E, et al 2010, ‘Leadership kinds and consequence patterns for the nursing workforce and work surroundings: A systematic review’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 363-385
  7. Doody, O & Doody, C 2012, ‘Transformational management in nursing practice’ British Journal of Nursing, vol. 21, no. 20 ,pp. 1212-1218.
  8. Echevarria, M, Patterson, J & Krouse A 2017, ‘ Predictors of transformational leadership in nurse managers,’ Journal of Nursing management, vol. 25, pp.167–175
  9. Enzman, HM 2017, ‘Transformational Leadership: A Model for Advanced Practice Holistic Nurses’, Journal of Holistic Nursing, vol. 35, no. four, pp. 405-406.
  10. Hutchinson, M & Jackson, D 2013, ‘Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more important interpretation’, Nursing Inquiry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-22.
  11. Kooker, BM, Shoultz, J & Codier, EE 2007, ‘Identifying Emotional Intelligence in Professional Nursing Practice’, Journal of Professional Nursing, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 30-36.
  12. Lizy, M 2014, ‘An Examination of Transformational Leadership among Graduating Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Practicing Nurses,’ Open Journal of Nursing, vol. 4, pp. 737- 742
  13. Nerdinger, F & Pundt, A 2008, ‘Leadership and progressive habits in organizations: An empirical investigation on transformational leadership, leader-member change and delegation’, International Journal Of Psychology, vol. 43, no. 3-4, pp. 574-574.
  14. Price, B 2008, ‘The clever workforce: in the first of three articles, Bob Price discusses an intelligent strategy to workforce growth.(CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT)’, Nursing Management (Harrow), vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 28.
  15. Schneider, TR, Lyons, JB & Khazon, S 2013, ‘Emotional intelligence and resilience’, Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 909-914
  16. Shanta, L & Connolly, M 2013, ‘Using King’s Interacting Systems Theory to Link Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice’, Journal of Professional Nursing, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 174.
  17. Skinner , A. 2018, ‘Leadership styles’, Nursing Standard (2014+), vol. 32, no. 22, pp. 64.
  18. Vaismoradi, M , Salsali, M, and Marck, P 2011, ‘Patient security: nursing students’ perspectives and the function of nursing schooling to supply secure care’ International Nursing Review, vol.58, pp. 434-442
  19. Williams, HM, Parker, SK & Turner, N 2010, ‘Proactively performing groups: The function of labor design, transformational leadership, and staff composition’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. eighty three, no. 2, pp. 301-324.
  20. Yoon, J, Kim, M & Shin, J 2016, ‘Confidence in delegation and management of registered nurses in long‐term‐care hospitals,’ Journal of Nursing Management, vol. 24, pp. 676–685

An Autocratic Leadership Style

1. Introduction


Autocratic management, also called authoritarian management, is a management style characterised by particular person control over all choices and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make selections primarily based on their very own ideas and judgments and infrequently settle for recommendation from followers. Autocratic management involves absolute, authoritarian management over a bunch. The goal of doing this project is to know Autocratic Leadership Style in detail.

The title of the project is Autocratic Leadership Style

Autocratic describes a method of ruling, but not in a pleasant way.

An autocratic leader is one who rules with an iron fist; in different words — someone with the behaviour of a dictator. In an autocratic management fashion, the particular person in charge has total authority and control over determination making. By virtue of their position and job obligations, they not solely control the efforts of the staff, but monitor them for completion –often beneath close scrutiny This type is paying homage to the earliest tribes and empires.

Obviously, our historical motion towards democracy brings a negative connotation to autocracy, however in some conditions, it’s the most applicable sort of management.

That, after all, doesn’t mean a blank examine to ignore the wellbeing of his subordinate. In an autocratic management style, the person in charge has complete authority and control over determination making. By virtue of their place and job obligations, they not only management the efforts of the staff, but monitor them for completion –often beneath shut scrutiny This style is paying homage to the earliest tribes and empires. Obviously, our historical movement towards democracy brings a adverse connotation to autocracy, but in some conditions, it is the most appropriate kind of leadership. That, in fact, doesn’t mean a clean check to disregard the wellbeing of his subordinate.

a. Introduction
b. Types of Leadership Styles
c. Autocratic Leadership Style
d. Characteristics of Autocratic Leadership Style
e. When to make use of Autocratic Leadership Style
f. Prone and corns of Autocratic Leadership Style
g. Case Study
h. Recommendation
i. Conclusion
j. Bibliography

For my project I actually have referred:-


There are basically 2 methods of research DESCRIPTIVE METHOD AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD. In my Project I might be utilizing DESCRIPTIVE technique. Secondary data technique will be used for doing this project. Secondary knowledge would the data accumulating from the articles, web, and books. After amassing that I have really helpful interpretation of cause and impact.

2. Types of Leadership

Leadership type is the style and approach of offering course, implementing plans, and motivating folks. As seen by the employees, it contains the whole pattern of explicit and implicit actions carried out by their chief (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). The first main examine of leadership kinds was carried out in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a gaggle of researchers to establish totally different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939). This early research has remained quite influential as it established the three major leadership kinds: (U.S. Army, 1973): authoritarian or autocratic – the leader tells his or her staff what to do and how to do it, without getting their advice participative or democratic – the leader contains a number of staff in the determination making course of, however the leader normally maintains the ultimate determination making authority Delegative or laissez-fair – the chief permits the employees to make the decisions, however, the chief continues to be liable for the decisions which are made Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, unhealthy leaders tend to stick with the one style, usually autocratic.


I want each of you to. .

This type is used when leaders tell their workers what they want carried out and the way they need it completed, with out getting the advice of their followers. Some of the suitable circumstances to make use of this type is when you’ve all the knowledge to solve the issue, you might be short on time, and/or your staff are well motivated. Some individuals have a tendency to assume about this type as a car for yelling, utilizing demeaning language, and main by threats. This isn’t the authoritarian type, somewhat it’s an abusive, unprofessional fashion referred to as “bossing people around.” It has completely no place in a leader’s repertoire. The authoritarian fashion should usually only be used on uncommon events. If you’ve the time and need to gain more commitment and motivation out of your employees, then you must use the participative fashion.

Participative or Democratic Leadership

Let’s work together to solve this. . .

This fashion includes the leader including one or more staff in the determination making process (determining what to do and the means to do it). However, the leader maintains the final choice making authority. Using this fashion is not a sign of weakness, quite it is a signal of strength that your employees will respect. This is generally used when you’ve a part of the information, and your employees produce other components. A leader just isn’t expected to know everything—this is why you utilize knowledgeable and expert folks. Using this fashion is of mutual benefit as it permits them to turn into part of the team and allows you to make better choices.

Delegative or Laissez-faire Leadership

You two take care of the issue whereas I go. . .

In this style, the leader permits the workers to make the selections. However, the chief remains to be responsible for the choices that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyse the state of affairs and determine what needs to be carried out and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You should set priorities and delegate certain duties. This just isn’t a style to make use of so as to blame others when issues go mistaken, rather this is a fashion to be used if you totally belief and have confidence in the individuals below you. Do not be afraid to use it, nonetheless, use it wisely! NOTE: Laissez-faire (or lais·ser faire) is the non-interference within the affairs of others. [French : laissez, second particular person pl. crucial of laisser, to let, permit + faire, to do.]

Transactional Leadership Style

The transactional style of management was first described by Max Weber in 1947 after which later described by Bernard Bass in 1981. Mainly utilized by administration, transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers via a system of rewards and punishments. There are two factors which type the basis for this method, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception. Contingent Reward Provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and recognizes good efficiency. Management-by-Exception allows the chief to maintain the standing quo. The chief intervenes when subordinates don’t meet acceptable performance ranges and initiates corrective action to improve performance.

Management by exception helps reduce the workload of managers being that they are solely called-in when workers deviate from course. This kind of chief identifies the wants of their followers and gives rewards to satisfy those wants in change of certain stage of performance. Transactional leaders give attention to growing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are extra concerned with following existing guidelines than with making changes to the organization. A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that may assist the group reach: Maturity

Efficiency of operation
Increasing productiveness.

Effect on work teams survey carried out by Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Xianju Zeng on the correlation of transactional leadership and the way innovations could be affected by group feelings. The analysis was composed of ninety work teams, with a total of 460 members and 90 staff leaders. The study found that there’s a relationship between emotions, labor conduct and transactional leadership that affect for the team. Depending on the extent of emotions of the group; this will affect the transactional leader in a optimistic or adverse means. Transactional leaders work better in teams the place there is a decrease degree of emotions going into the project. This is as a result of people are in a place to Think freely when setting their emotions aside from their work. Have all of their concentrate on the given task.

A transactional chief is:
Negatively affected when the emotional stage is high.
Positively affected when the emotional stage is low.
Transactional management presents a type of strategic management that’s essential for the organizations development. Transactional management is important for group innovativeness.

Transformational Leadership Style

A transformational leader is a type of individual by which the chief is not restricted by his or her followers’ notion. The major objective is to work to vary or rework his or her followers’ needs and redirect their pondering. Leaders that observe the transformation type of main, challenge and encourage their followers with a sense of function and pleasure.[10] They also create a imaginative and prescient of what they aspire to be, and communicate this concept to others (their followers). According to Schultz and Schultz, there are three identified characteristics of a transformational leader:

Charismatic leadership has a broad information of subject, has a self-promoting persona, high/great power level, and willing to take danger and use irregular strategies to be able to stimulate their followers to suppose independently Individualized consideration

Intellectual stimulation

3. Autocratic Leadership Style

Authoritarian leaders are generally referred to as autocratic leaders. They present clear expectations for what must be done, when it ought to be accomplished, and how it must be done. There can be a clear divide between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make selections independently with little or no enter from the relaxation of the group. Authoritarian leaders uphold stringent control over their followers by immediately regulating rules, methodologies, and actions. Authoritarian leaders construct gaps and build distance between themselves and their followers with the intention of stressing role distinctions. This type of leadership dates again to the earliest tribes and empires.

It is often utilized in present day when there is little room for error, similar to building jobs or manufacturing jobs. Authoritarian leadership typically fosters little creativity in decision-making. Lewin additionally found that it is harder to transfer from an authoritarian fashion to a democratic type than from a democratic kind to an authoritarian form of leadership. Abuse of this style is often seen as controlling, bossy and dictatorial. Authoritarian leadership is greatest utilized to conditions the place there could be little time for group discussion.

3.2 Views of Autocratic Leaders

A widespread perception of many authoritarian leaders is that followers require direct supervision at all times or else they’d not operate effectively. This belief is in accordance with considered one of Douglas McGregor’s philosophical views of humankind, Theory X. This principle proposes that it is a leader’s function to coerce and control followers, because individuals have an inherent aversion for work and will abstain from it whenever potential. Theory X also postulates that folks should be compelled through force, intimidation or authority, and managed, directed, or threatened with punishment to be able to get them to perform the organizational wants. In the minds of authoritarian leaders, people who discover themselves left to work autonomously will finally be unproductive. “Examples of authoritarian communicative behaviour embody a police officer directing site visitors, a instructor ordering a scholar to do his or her task, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to wash a workstation.”

Communication Patterns of Authoritarian Leadership:

Downward, one-way communication (i.e. leaders to followers, or supervisors to subordinates) Controls discussion with followers
Dominates interaction
Independently/unilaterally units coverage and procedures
Individually directs the completion of tasks
Does not supply constant feedback
Rewards acquiescent obedient habits and punishes misguided actions Poor listener
Uses conflict for particular person gain
Ways to Properly Incorporate Authoritarian Leadership:

Always explain rules- it allows your subordinates to complete the duty you need accomplished effectively Be consistent- if you’re to enforce rules and regulations, ensure to do so regularly so your subordinates take you seriously. This will kind a stronger degree of trust. Respect your subordinates – always recognized your subordinates efforts and achievements Educate your subordinates earlier than imposing rules – don’t present them with any surprises. This can result in issues in the future due to false communications. Listen to recommendations out of your subordinates even if you don’t incorporate them

Effects of Authoritarian Leadership Communication Styles: Increase in productivity when chief is present
Produces more accurate options when leaser is knowledgeable Is extra positively accepted in larger groups
Enhances efficiency on simple duties and decreases performance on complex tasks Increases aggression ranges amongst followers
Increases turnover rates
Successful when there’s a time urgency for completion of projects Improves the long run work of these subordinates whose skills usually are not very applicable or useful with out the demands of another


Adolf Hitler was extraordinarily authoritarian. He required the population of the Third Reich to accept every little thing that he stated as absolute legislation, and was in a place to impose a dying sentence on anybody who failed to do so. Hitler was obsessive about being in management, and with being the alpha male in a rigid male dominance hierarchy.

Characteristics of Autocratic Leadership

The major autocratic management style characteristics embrace: 1. The autocratic leader retains all power, authority, and control, and reserves the right to make all choices. 2. Autocratic leaders mistrust their subordinate’s capability, and intently supervise and management people beneath them. three. Autocratic leaders involve themselves in detailed day-to-day activities, and infrequently delegate or empower subordinates. four. The autocratic leader adopts one-way communication. They do not seek the guidance of with subordinates or give them an opportunity to offer their opinions, irrespective of the potential benefit of such inputs.

5. Autocratic leadership assumes that employee motivation comes not by way of empowerment, but by making a structured set of rewards and punishments. 6. Autocratic leaders get work accomplished by issuing threats and punishments and evoking fear. 7. The main concern of autocratic leaders stays coping with the work at hand and not on developmental actions. eight. Autocratic leaders assume full responsibility and take full credit for the work.

Advantages of Autocratic Leadership Style

the autocratic fashion is certainly one of the most acknowledged types of directive leadership. At first, the fashion seems to contradict many modern work environments that emphasize teamwork, group input and shared decision-making. However, sure conditions and specific industries, such as the military, manufacturing and construction, thrive when a frontrunner takes tight management and makes most of the selections, in accordance with Leadership-Toolbox. Even so, the most effective autocratic leaders bear in mind to communicate task expectations and to respect their followers.

Easy to Learn

The autocratic, or “do this or else,” type of leadership is intuitive, straightforward to learn and does not require specialized training or information of leadership concept, in accordance with Leadership-Toolbox. Autocratic leaders do not have to fret about recognizing and responding to followers’ feelings or try to meet totally different motivational needs of group members.


Dangerous work environments or situations requiring sophisticated tasks with no room for error, similar to safety inspections, prosper under autocratic management since each is dependent upon management. In addition, companies might turn to autocratic management for urgent short-term results, based on Money-Zine. For example, employees working via a company crisis may have one authoritative leader to call the photographs and guarantee tasks are completed accurately.

Good for Inexperienced or Unmotivated Workers

Depending on the business, new staff may have specific instructions and close follow-up till they learn the job, according to Leadership-Toolbox. The autocratic management type is also good for low-skilled duties, such as directing staff to make copies or file papers. In addition, in accordance with LeadershipExpert, bosses may have to make use of the “do it or else” type of autocratic management to ensure that unmotivated staff complete their assigned duties.


Autocratic management creates a centralized chain of command with heavy involvement of the leader in all gamuts of operations. This leads to the formation of a hub and spoken kind of organizational structure that helps in some ways, such as: Getting things accomplished quickly

Improving communication and logistics.
Better response to adjustments in the external environment

Putting forth a extra coordinated method toward fulfilling organizational targets Anticipating problems upfront, and better realization of penalties of an motion by one part on other sections Proponents of the autocratic leadership type advocate it as an ideal method to extract high performance from employees with out putting them underneath stress. They insist the close supervision and monitoring leads to a sooner tempo of work with much less slack, the place the chief assumes full accountability for the choices and actions, ultimately creating lowered stress for subordinates.

Drawbacks of the Autocratic Leadership Style

Increased Work Burden

Since they take full accountability for staff choices and review of a team’s work, autocratic leaders are extremely busy, which can result in excessive stress and even health issues, based on LeadershipExpert. Other management styles, similar to participative or democratic, distribute a variety of the decision-making to sure group members.

Bad for Highly Skilled and Motivated Workers

Few folks prefer to be told what to do, particularly those who are already intrinsically motivated and understand the duty at hand, according to Leadership Expert. An autocratic leader dealing with this kind of group will dampen morale and can reduce his team’s creativity and productivity.

Autocratic leaders in this state of affairs might not make one of the best choices since they lack the group input from team members who have expertise and abilities. In addition, members of Generation Y, workers born within the mid-1970s to 1990s, usually don’t respond well to autocratic management, based on Leadership Expert.

Leader Dependence

The autocratic style is handiest when the leader is current, in accordance with Leadership Expert. Unlike the transformational type of leadership the place followers turn out to be self-motivated to complete duties, once the autocratic chief is gone, there is no guarantee that staff members will maintain working. The advantages of autocratic management notwithstanding, this management style has born the brunt of heavy criticism in the final three decades, where the transfer towards techniques thinking and empowering people have led to the perception of “autocratic” and “centralized command” as negative and undesirable traits. Theory Y, the antithesis of Theory X assumes that formidable and self-motivated employees take pleasure in their psychological and bodily work duties.

Such workers possess the power for artistic drawback solving, however most organizations under-utilize their skills. Theory Y holds that workers seek and settle for responsibility and train self-control and self-direction in undertaking aims, provided the conditions remain congenial for such an approach. The autocratic leadership fashion remains wholly unsuited for such Theory Y oriented workforces and doesn’t rank among the modern management kinds in a changing world.

Criticisms Levied Against Autocratic Leadership

The main criticisms levied in opposition to autocratic management include the next: 1. Contrary to claims of close supervision with detailed directions to minimize back stress and enhance productiveness, analysis suggests that such actions truly unmotivate workers, and trigger them to changing into tense, fearful, or resentful. 2. Lack of involvement from the worker within the determination making process results in workers not assuming possession of their work, contributing to low morale, lack of commitment, and manifesting in high turnover, absenteeism, and work stoppage. three. The heavily centralized command of autocratic management style ensures that the system depends entirely on the chief. If the chief is robust, capable, competent, and just, the organization features smoothly, and if the chief is weak, incompetent, or has low moral and moral standards, the whole group suffers for the sake of a single chief. 4. All energy vested with the leader results in risk of leaders with low moral fiber exploiting workers, indulging in favoritism and discrimination, and the like.

5. Weak autocratic leaders tend to take selections primarily based on ego somewhat than sound administration rules, and punish staff who dare to disagree with such decisions. 6. The chief reserving the right to make all selections results in subordinates changing into closely dependent on the chief. The group thereby turns into ineffective in running operations in the occasion that they lose contact with their leader, and absence of the chief results in complete collapse and shutdown of operations. 7. The one sided communication move in an autocratic leadership style restricts the creative and leadership skills of the staff and prevents their improvement. This harms the group as properly, for the workers remain incapable of assuming larger duties, or to carry out something exterior the routine. eight. The autocratic leader, by taking all accountability and concerned closely in everyday operations, remains forced to work at full capability, leading to stress and different well being issues. 9. Autocratic leaders usually remain unpopular and damage working relationships with colleagues. This management fashion is unsuited to construct trusting relationships.

Application of Autocratic Leadership Style

A critique of autocratic leadership style reveals that it remains finest suited in sure situations corresponding to: 1. Occasions when the scenario requires a powerful centralized management with detailed orders and instructions, corresponding to within the army or during surgery. 2. When leading an extremely giant group, corresponding to in meeting line factories, where the wide span of management not solely makes it inconceivable but in addition counterproductive to elicit the views of all workers. 3. When followers are new or inexperienced, or lack the skills, abilities, or talent to reply to any participative leadership types, or stay unmotivated, and non dedicated employees. 4. During occasions of contingencies, emergencies and different situations warranting on the spot decisions.

5. When dealing or negotiating with external agencies or departments. The autocratic management fashion on the whole stays a short-term or quick repair strategy to administration. The capacity to make decisions quicker, whereas serving to the organization in the brief time period, truly unskills the workforce resulting in poor decision-making functionality and productivity in the long run. This leadership fashion survives by default because it comes naturally to most leaders, particularly in instances of low morale or insubordination.

Case Study Business Leadership – A Study on Steve Jobs

Executive Summary

This task makes an attempt to study the leadership of Steve Jobs. A visionary innovator, a marketing guru and an autocratic chief admired by many. The first part of the assignment will study and analyse how Jobs management is similar to the traits and models present in textbooks. Jobs is analysed by using McGregor’s principle X & Y. Jobs management traits and skills are compared with Stogdill’s theory whereas additionally taking a glance at how Jobs utilized contingency principle. The reports studies how Jobs changed Apple’s path from an ailing firm to a client giant. When Jobs speaks, everyone stops and listens to him, be it a meeting or a Worldwide Developer Conference. Jobs just had the charisma to capture people’s consideration. Jobs autocratic management fashion was accepted by his staff, some could not have appreciated it however they stood with him and the corporate and by no means regretted their decision. The research also discovered Jobs to be a meticulous perfectionist.

Jobs never approves a product with out fully testing them, him being a beta tester for all of Apple’s product had made sure Apple delivered what the market needed. The second part of this research is about to look at the differences and examine the management abilities of Steve Jobs, Michael Dell and Bill Gates. Jobs’ leadership expertise had been completely different from each Dell and Gates. Jobs lead Apple to its height along with his own aptitude. His leadership fashion and character was unique and at occasions appears inappropriate nevertheless it has introduced only optimistic progress to Apple and its workers. All three of them are iconic leaders, brought advancement to the group they based and strive for nothing lesser than the best. Finally, the examine suggests and recommends what Jobs might have adopted to be a greater leader.

Background of Apple Inc

The corporate historical past of Apple Inc is considered as a history of passion. It was begun by a pair of Stevens, i.e. Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs along with Ronald Wayne, who mixed their professional expertise to create Apple Computer on 1st April 1976 with the release of the Apple I, the primary Apple pc, in the same yr. Since the institution, Apple has been specializing in the patron electronics, computer software, and personal computer systems and the best-known merchandise embody Iphone, Ipad, Mac line of computers and different hardware and software program products. And in accordance one of the most current brand research carried out by the worldwide manufacturers company Millward Brown, Apple has overtaken Google because the world’s most valuable brand ( 2011).

Introduction to Steve Jobs

A revolutionary chief, an innovator of technology and a charismatic grasp showman, is the phrases that can be utilized to explain Steve Paul Jobs. Jobs has portrayed fantastic examples of management all through his career. Being a younger boy, he was attracted to electronic gadgets. Jobs has always been exploring means to improve technology. His ideas was mentioned to be unimaginable and impractical has proven many critics and even his workers wsrong (Elliot, 2011a). Throughout his profession he has influenced many leaders to hitch his staff of progressive work drive, particularly John Scully, Jay Elliot, Andy Hertzfeld, Larry Tessler and Bob Belleville (Elliot, 2011b).

During his teenage life, the love for technology introduced him and Steve Wozniak together. The duo later went on to begin Apple (Isaacson, 2011a). Jobs has then lead Apple, Next and Pixar to their peak bringing futuristic inventions. Jobs was a fantastic marketer, captivating hundreds of thousands of audience every time he’s delivering a speech. Barrack Obama describes Jobs as a visionary, and amongst the best innovators of America (, 2011).

Steve Jobs’ management styles do match the theories from the textual content books and documented papers. Most of his qualities and traits if not all are linked to the theories from the text books. There are a small variety of traits and qualities present in his management that opposes to the theories of text books however Jobs has managed to make use of his charisma and management expertise to lead his followers and make them profitable. McGregor and Gershenfeld (2006) have explained Theory X and Y Managers.

Appendix 2 reveals the distinction between Theory X and Theory Y people. Jobs is a Theory X supervisor, being self centred, emphasizing whole control and inducing fear (Stewart, 2010). Jobs believes the expenditure of physical and mental effort is as pure as play or relaxation, this is seen his act of forming a group of proficient and devoted.

William, Mchugh & Mchugh, (2006) states that autocratic leaderships imply making managerial choices without consulting others. Jobs held on to his authorities, makes decision and expects his staff to comply with them with out being questioned. Jobs additionally displays that his instruction are followed by his employees. The autocratic management style has helped Apple to make fast decision and have an organized flow of activities. Job autocratic type is nicely balanced by his charismatic management, on a rare sight Jobs was also seen giving pep talk to an underperforming staff and subsequently inspiring him. Jobs was always making an attempt to do his best for the betterment of the product and firm and that went on to make Apple the corporate with the lowest employees turnover charges amongst know-how corporations. Jobs have portrayed self-directions to attain dedicated goals to his employees and he demanded the same from them.

Elliot (2011d) states that Jobs has demanded sixteen hours work shift Monday to Sunday from his core group of builders and engineers, Jobs additionally would tell them to not hassle coming to work on Monday if they didn’t flip up on weekends. Since younger, Jobs was identified by his mother and father and acquaintance for his creativity, high stage ingenuity and creativeness, even his pranks as a rising teenager. Jobs was additionally persuasive, throughout his comeback to Apple in 1997, he did a quantity of evaluation sessions with the product team and key stakeholders. And upon completing them he has ordered all other products to be cancelled and to give attention to his suggestion of latest products consisting 4 quadrants labelled as shopper, pro, desktop and portable (HBR, 2012). Jobs’ power of influence was enormous, not solely to the patron but also his influence to other CEO’s. His influential power and leadership abilities can be clearly seen when he advised Larry Page to solely concentrate on 5 merchandise at a time and discard the remaining. Larry Page took his advice and informed his staff to focus on Google+ and Android (HBR, 2012).

This had proven favourable to Google. As of 1st quarter of 2012, 59% of smart phones shipped are Google’s’ Android powered operating system (Forbes, 2012a), Appendix four reveals the market share of cell phone by operating system. There is nothing that is much less essential for Jobs. The design of a product and its performance is as necessary as the method in which a worker at an Apple store treats its clients. Jobs demonstrates this by going to one particular store in Pasadena to examine the new tiling work, being a perfectionist, Jobs wasn’t happy with the tiles and also the workmanship. He ordered the work crew to tear up the flooring and demanded a whole redo (Elliot, 2011f). Jobs perfectionist perspective was also seen throughout his takeover of Pixar. During the production of Toy Story, Jobs felt that the storyline was not nice enough and stopped the manufacturing for five months. While Jobs and his core staff reworked the story line, Job paid the relaxation of the crew to do nothing for five month (Jobs, 2008).

Jobs portrays the traits of a traditional transactional leader, Jobs makes use of his authority and power of his management to make use of followers to complete his task (Burns, 1978). This is seen when Jobs took over the Macintosh growth group after being kicked off Lisa. Jobs took over the staff with no discover, he added new people to the group, known as meeting and setting new instructions. Despite the usage of keyboard to command the machine, Jobs wanted a control gadget to maneuver the cursor, to click on, drag and display an inventory of choices, the group was not advised how, however they knew only what Jobs needed Jobs is stuffed with ambition and achievement, when Jobs was sacked from his personal company by John Scully, a frontrunner that Jobs handpicked, Jobs started Pixar, together with his management and advertising skills, Jobs later offered Pixar to Disney for USD 7.5 billion in 2006 (Anon, 2008). Jobs was additionally liable for his motion, when the Mac was virtually completed for launch, Jobs informed his engineers to remove the fan from the machine as a end result of it was too noisy and asked it to be improvised.

The engineers went on to ship the Mac without cooling fan and upon launching the Mac had overheating problems. Jobs took duty and went on to improvise the design and efficiently made a quiet operating machine Managing change is commonly an unpleasant scenario to be in for any human being. Returning to Apple after a decade, Jobs turned an ailing firm to an organization with stock valuation of USD 600 billion (CNN Money, 2012). Rogers, (1986) counsel particular person typically may be divided into 5 categories consisting innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. Jobs was solely interested in the innovators and early adopter to a sure extent.

Jobs achieved this by deciding on and motivating his own management group, some of his administration group members are his followers from previous firm. Jobs told them to create innovative merchandise and to think out of the box. He wanted the products to face out from the present market offerings (CNN Money, 2008). Every scenario is subjective and wishes a personal influence of the chief. Jobs practised empowerment in his leadership, Jobs coaches his core staff, counselled them, motivated them and at the same time was strict to them. Jobs has powerful folks abilities. Elliot, (2011j) justified this by saying Apple has the bottom staff turnover price within the trade.

Leadership behaviours of Steve Jobs

In the early time before Steve Jobs left Apple, he led the company utilizing a laissez-faire management style that was believed to contribute the creation of the technology-based merchandise and plenty of of which proved to be fairly profitable due to the surroundings introduced by the laissez-faire leadership fashion and such surroundings did encourage the creativity of the staff (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor 2011, p.170). But there are also constrains of utilizing laissez-faire management such as that it’s confirmed as being connected with the reason for low productivity (Bass, B. M., Bass, R. & Bass, R. R. 2008, p.451). As for Apple, the laissez-faire leadership fashion of Steve Jobs become to some extent ineffective and had made the corporate in drawback when competing with IBM after IBM’s entry into the PC market. And this was one of many key the reason why Jobs was changed by the robust John Scully who was known as a top-down determination maker (Clemens & Meyer 1987).

And after his return to Apple in 1996 when Apple announced that it might buy NeXT, Steve Jobs’ new company for $429 million, Steve Jobs got here with the leadership with some differences. He nonetheless requested for perfection and he was manipulative and demanding which his staff described as “autocratic” but such autocratic leadership was focusing on the important thing project as himself was quoted saying that “My job is to not be easy on individuals. My job is to make them better. My job is to drag things collectively from totally different elements of the corporate and clear the ways and get the resources for the necessary thing projects” (Kramer 2010).

Though laissez-faire leadership style and autocratic leadership conduct appears to be contradicting, they do co-exist in Steve Jobs’s administration practices because the CEO of Apple which individuals explained as Steve Job is having a personalized management which means that his management behaviors serves primarily his personal pursuits and obviously money just isn’t crucial factor that he cares about leading to his only focusing on the necessary thing tasks in his imaginative and prescient leaving his different leadership roles untouched.

Recommendations for Steve Jobs

Jobs was a visionary, an instance of great leader. Below are suggestion and recommendations how Jobs might have been a better leader. Jobs devoted his life to work and his obligation as a CEO. He lacked emotional intelligence, he doesn’t care how others really feel and does not wish to take heed to them speaking the rest apart from work. He solely listened to their ideas and the way it can help Apple develop (Kahney, 2008b). Davenport, (2008) described Jobs as corporate dictator who makes each determination, up to the extent of the meals being served in cafeteria. Jobs ought to have opened himself to suggestion and enchancment plans by his workers, this is not going to solely help quicker remedy setting but additionally produce a better environment for the staff. Jobs classifies everybody into solely two classes, it’s both a 3 digit IQ individual or someone who does not measure up. Jobs should not stereotype people neither judge them without giving them an opportunity.

Jobs was a feared in Apple, employees would stammer whereas talking to him, this does not means they aren’t smart or they are unproductive but this is due to the image Jobs has created for himself. However, this has also created a cult like devotion of Apple employees towards Jobs. Jobs may have been a extra sincere man, as this also displays to his management, and as a leader it is by no means a great publicity to be caught lying or dishonest as this reflects for a really lengthy time, in Jobs scenario, two important examples which continues to be being discussed is when Jobs denied paternity, claiming he was sterile and infertile, this has made Lisa, the women he impregnate to reside out of welfare (CNN Money, 2008) and another one is when Jobs lied to his companion, Wozniak when they successfully created a recreation call Breakout for Atari, Jobs was given a bonus of $5000 however Jobs only informed Wozniak they received $750 (Businessweek, 2006).

Jobs is also known for being brief tempered and using abusive language to his employees, he typically scolds them and uses foul languages, (CNN Money, 2011). This does not promote a conducive environment to work in as Jobs scolds his employees in public and in front of their subordinates. This also will lead to low morale in individual and possible situation of resignation. Jobs also should portray good qualities not only as a business leader but in addition as a great human being. Not giving again to the society is something of Jobs’s notion and choice. Kahney, (2008c) has talked about that Jobs likes to park at handicapped spot and at occasions even taking as much as 2 spots. Kahney even had a number of pictures of Jobs’s parking etiquette. Leaders are supposed to be adopted, but by portraying bad examples and contrary moral practices defeats the aim of a pacesetter.


Jobs was a transformational chief, he introduced change to Apple, challenged the stakeholders and demanded his employee’s to attain impossible objectives (Bryant, 2003). His autocratic management fashion was totally different from the opposite leaders. He was a demanding perfectionist and by no means took no for a solution. Steve grew up in a median family surroundings but he achieved what very few can come near. His perseverance and never say no perspective has brought him and Apple to an unimaginable peak. His leadership was deemed unhealthy by some critics but Jobs did not take the critics instead went to show them mistaken.

This research has analysed the traits and management quality of Jobs, compared him with leaders in Information Technology field and to critically analyse them. Jobs has dedicated his complete life to technological improvement, his research and growth in Apple isn’t ending vouching for improvement and delivering one of the best expertise for both business and company users. His diverse journey in different fields proves that Jobs just isn’t a quitter and will not failure have an effect on him one bit. Jobs would come again from a fall stronger than ever.

This research also has confirmed that Jobs isn’t solely a genius creator, however a visionary chief and a advertising guru. His advertising and promotional campaigns have by no means didn’t create one other benchmark. His presentation and speeches has gathered another humongous group of followers mesmerized by his session. Marketing and public relation organizations have began to develop coaching courses to dub and emulate Jobs’s presentation technique. Jobs a true genius, made his mark and conquered the world of mobility. He shall be significantly missed, looked up as an idol and eternally be the father of Apple.


Autocratic management is one of the forms of administration which is utilized in companies and organizations everywhere in the world. Autocratic management isn’t thought-about as a favourable approach in modern-day leadership, however it can still be seen in practice and is a broadly discussed management mannequin, it’s also one of the accepted kinds of management.

Alan Mulally and Leadership

Alan Mulally, CEO, Ford Motor company  “Leadership and organizational behavior”


Leadership is guiding people in the path of productive results to realize the goals of the organization. An effective chief has the flexibility to inspire and influence others. The following sources of power characterize the engine of affect that they use effectively and ethically to realize their targets, nonetheless, true leaders are imagined to make the staff work onerous by giving their efforts and ensuring that the targets and the mission of the group are achieved.

To be efficient each chief ought to have the following competencies: Vision, Integrity, Honesty and Values Releasing Potential and Energy. The content of this paper is to stipulate the roles of management and how it impacts organizational performance. It then discusses the function of Allan Mulally’s, CEO of Ford Motor Company, and management style. The paper also presents how mulally decision to set a aim has elevated the company’s performance and mentioning how Allan Mulally’s openness has gained him trust and helped him to succeed in his objective.

Alan Mulally moved to Ford in 2006. He had labored at Boeing since 1969. He had been chief engineer for growth of the 777, and was later Vice President of Engineering for industrial plane. Mulally had no sales expertise, and he wasn’t a “Detroit automobile man, “Much less a car man at all. He offered his Lexus after shifting to Dearborn. What’s most spectacular is Mulally’s “results oriented” management type. His administration is crisp and authoritative, though he defers to the firm’s design consultants on the trivia of the product lines.

But on the big questions of the company’s past errors and the place it’s headed, Mulalley made key selections that positioned Ford in good stead. When mulally testified earlier than Congress in December 2008, together with GM’s Rick Wagoner and Chrysler’s Robert Nardelli, he introduced that Ford would be ready to survive the recession with no bailout. In 2006, Alan Mulally turned the CEO of Ford. At the time, the corporate was relying heavily on their truck revenue and had a number of other traces that were not properly supported to earn one of the best revenue.

Some of Mulally’s first selections had been to unload some of their sub manufacturers, namely Jaguar and Land Rover, and focus extra on the small automobile strains which are rising in popularity with shoppers. With a focus on the small cars, this would allow for the corporate to learn from economies of scale and improve the income from promoting these vehicles. He additionally took out a $23 billion loan to assist keep away from needing the bailouts that would come 2 years later. Mulally threw away the politics concerned within the vp construction, forcing the weekly management assembly to be extra about the success of the company than the squabbles of these main it.

He insisted that the vice presidents really admit to their issues so they can be handled; having operations be labeled both green for going nicely, yellow for warning, and pink for issues. The vice presidents were apprehensive of this at first, afraid to confess their issues and failures, however Mulally made it obvious he wished to know these points to resolve them, as a substitute of to sweep them underneath the rug or assign blame. Finally, Mulally put forth a model new thoughts set for the corporate; One Ford, involving a One Team, One Plan, One Goal setup.

One Team centered on uniting the person group in Ford into one cohesive team, each member serving to out different members, no matter what project they’re on or division they are in. One Plan was about restructuring to operate profitably, speed up development to get new merchandise that customers would need to buy out sooner, finance the plan, and work together as a group. Finally, One Goal was all about developing an exciting viable Ford with worthwhile growth. Mulally have a extra arms on method to management. He wants to know exactly where the corporate is and the way they had been going to get someplace better.

This is proven with his colour coded operations technique with the vice president meetings. His answers to problems weren’t just to shrug them off and return to the standing but quite how to proceed from the place those issues introduced them. Alan Mulally demonstrated organizational innovation; he used totally different methods of production and administration. Conveying his concepts and management, mulally exhibited his innovation that comprised the ideas from outdoors Ford in conjunction with those ideas from inside Ford Motor Company.

The message he portrays involves planning initiation, execution, choice, and implementation of the aims to attain the goals set forth by his administration The success of an innovation is related to a market forecast of customer wants and wants in addition to effective management of the innovation process. Concentrating on a fewer products to supply with lots of enchancment and repair innovation involving the introduction of a new service that meet the customers’ expectations. He has excessive regard for government administration and maintains open communication.

Mulally has an agenda to serve and fulfill not only clients, however employees as properly, increase market share, improve earnings, and communication is on the top. Alan Mulally has a confirmed effective leadership style. He is persistent with innovative processes that handle issues inside the group to make sure successful development. His administration responsibilities embrace decreasing the danger; managing the shopper interface; coaching and managing employees performance; and interesting Ford’s executive staff.

Highlighting how profitable his tactic could be Mulally has insured his status as one of industry’s nice leaders; it is properly price listening to what he says and learn from his leadership skills. Any profitable leader has to know the plan, and areas that want particular attention. There are difficult occasions to be a frontrunner whether it is a cultural disaster, monetary crisis, or environmental crisis, however, if one can study from the experience of a pacesetter such as Alan Mulally, a company will do just nice and be one of the respected models to comply with and be taught from.

Reading Leadership and Self Deception

After studying Leadership and Self-Deception, which is a superb guide, I have come to the conclusion that I truly have been dwelling my life within the field with self-deception. During conversations with my husband I typically felt that I was a big part of the problem. After reading this guide I realized that I was the primary problem. I also mirrored on a person I terminated at my job. During the termination meeting I defined that she was a major problem to the corporate.

Unknowing that I contribute to her lack of success. I was so frustrated at how she performed and my unwillingness to coach or mentor her largely because of her perspective. But what I learned from this book is that I MUST begin to stay my life placing others ahead, in a healthy way in fact. The description of self-deception in chapter three, “The downside of not understanding and resisting the possibility that one has a problem”, really hit home for me.

I totally had no concept that my life was in a diseased state of self-deception. I’m now dedicated to working my way out of the field and deliberately taking the time to understand the wants of others and strategy their wants or needs in a positive perspective.

I may relate to the story Bud shared about his abrupt enterprise journey right after his first son’s birth. Bud talked about having his workplace on the 21st flooring isolated from his colleagues. He later discovered that food was served, negotiations occurred, and other perks had been available on the 25th ground.

After finding that out, Bud felt like somebody ought to have advised him what was taking place on the twenty fifth ground. He blamed others but not his self. Very usually I isolated myself from folks and then later surprise why I by no means get invited to events others have or why others don’t purpose of their hearts to strike up a dialog with me. I usually felt different folks ought to speak to me or strategy me. I puzzled what was mistaken with them. But I thank God for my energy which is, my willingness to alter. I am dedicated to seeing and treating people as individuals. Inviting methods to engage them. I actually need to do better and believe some of my, in the field, feelings stem from fear, of which I actually have been praying for deliverance from. In my need to be prefect over the years I have developed this spirit of concern. Which the word of God states, “For God has not given us a spirit of concern, but of power and of affection and of a sound mind”. (2 Timothy 1:7) Fear is an unpleasant emotion that I will try to turn into Faith in God’s energy, love and a sound thoughts.

As Christians our thought process must all the time weigh closely on approaching individuals in a optimistic method. I am a childcare director, through the years of supervising a variety of workers, there was a need for me to guide or coach different individuals. I remember at some point as I entered the lunchroom, an assistant instructor was hollering at a child. She responded, “STOP IT”, in a rather loud tone. My instant response was to ask her in entrance of kids and staff, why are your yelling at him, however I walked over to the child and asked are you alleged to be sitting on the table consuming your lunch? He replied, yes! I continued, properly, you know whenever you swing again in your chair like that, you would really damage yourself. I know you don’t wish to do this right? He replied right! I said, “so I’m going to need you to sit down properly in your chair whilst you eat”. Later, in my office I told the assistant instructor, “I’m positive you were afraid that he would fall and possibly harm his self, however here are a couple of ways to deal with a scenario like that in the future. I continued by giving her a quantity of eventualities. We must always approach folks in a means that exhibits them we’re committed to serving to them succeed. Psalm 32:eight (ESV) tells us; “I will instruct you and train you in the greatest way you must go, I will counsel you with my eye upon you”. We should by no means be thoughtless of a person’s needs.

Leaders must offer compassion. During the federal government shutdown there were a few single dad and mom on the childcare middle where I’m employed. One morning I overheard a father or mother telling the center’s greeter that she waited in line for hours, the evening earlier than, along with her son at a food financial institution solely to obtain food that had expired. This saddened me. When this mom got here again to pick her son up, I requested to talk along with her. I took her in my workplace and shared with her the dialog I overheard that morning. After which, I gave her two grocery present cards and knowledgeable her that she needn’t be concerned about paying her son tuition until she returns to work. Now, I could have said to her, that’s horrible, you should report them or one thing completely ineffective to her and remind her of the contract she signed when she enrolled her son that stated, ‘tuition is due each Friday’. That would have been thoughtless and very selfish. However, once I gave her the reward cards and provided her the deferment, it gave me nice pleasure in doing thus says the Lord, “Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the regulation of Christ”, Galatians 6:2(ESV) As leaders, the interest in others should come from a loving and caring manner not a egocentric or belittling conduct.

It is significant that we know who we are, what we are and what we’re capable of doing. We should pay consideration to our feelings, our desires, and our cravings. The bible tells us that we were made in the image of God, “So God created man in His personal picture, in the image of God He created him; female and male He created them”. Genesis 1:27 (ESV). Therefore, if we don’t develop a healthy mindset we compromise our ability to be like Christ. When we cultivate self-awareness, we now have the ability to achieve others in a way that’s pleasing to God. “Show your self in all respects to be a mannequin of fine works, and in your teaching show integrity, dignity…”, Titus 2:7 (ESV) I’m reminded of the time my mother-in-law transitioned. She was in a hospice middle. The night she died, my husband three siblings and their families arrived before her body was taken to the funeral residence. There was lots of traffic within the hallway, however at no time did any of us linger there. The head nurse constantly made negative remarks about our whole family being there one of which times my husband and I were passing each other within the corridor. The nurse got here out whereas I asked him if he was okay, he had just left his mother’s room and I was going to the ladies’ room. The nurse said, very rudely, you are not allowed to stand in the hallway. My husband continued to the family room. As I left the women room, I went to the nurse’s station and asked to talk with the nurse in query. I mentioned to her, do you assume what you said and the way you stated it was necessary? She responded, ‘said what’, very rudely again. I repeated what she mentioned and informed her in a very well mannered and calm method that she was very rude and that she showed no compassion or empathy for my husband who had simply misplaced his mom. This nurse most assuredly was not working towards self-awareness.

Tolerance is a characteristic of a person’s, perspective, habits, and self-centeredness I may go on and on. But the word of God talks in regards to the fruit of the spirit in Galatians 5:22-23 (ESV) “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, pleasure, peace, endurance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is not any law”. Our tolerance must embody endurance, which is crucial for all, with the promise that we’ll be happier people. It additionally includes respect which is a priceless heirloom that is grossly overlooked these days. A healthy dose of respect is highly effective and important. Generosity, much like tolerance, has to do with a person’s attitude and behavior. People show generosity through their intentional deeds of giving, i.e. time, presence, advise, or materials issues. When you deliberately give different people are grateful because of your giving. Showing gratitude to others is taken into account constructive to not mention its simply good manners. Just like every different thing in our life, optimistic acts are rather more powerful than unfavorable acts. Consider this, every night time before going to bed take time to (1) give God thanks for all He has carried out, (2) give God thanks for what different people have done for you, which may have been as small as holding the door for you, (3) but most of all, give God thanks for what you deliberately did for different folks.

Addressing the Community Leadership Challenges Faced by Women Leaders of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo

This 2012 research explores the community management of girls within the locale of Sitio Galilee in Antipolo City. Even although the standards of leadership persist to be male-oriented, more women are taking on management positions in our society. The prevalent goal of this study is to establish the challenges that these girls leaders face towards development of their neighborhood; more importantly, how these can be addressed. The research mainly sought to (1) establish and perceive the leadership challenges that girls leaders face in initiating growth of their group, and (2) facilitate or help potential action programs that can handle these challenges.

To resolve this concern, the processes of the Participatory Action Research (PAR) have been followed, specifically:

(1) diagnosing the status of women’s involvement and leadership locally, (2) planning of action programs that can handle the identified management challenges, (3) its implementation and monitoring, and (4) the evaluation. The accounts of women leaders and the perceptions of the members had been collected via one-on-one interviews. In addition, focus group discussions were performed to encourage people’s participation.

Guided by the Social Role Theory, the position of the women as community leaders is further analyzed. This research is a contributory issue to theoreticians and group development practitioners in analyzing the unaddressed issues of community management.

See more: My Writing Process Essay

Keywords: Women and management, group management, community development, Participatory Action Research

Background of the Study Traditionally, group affairs and administration have been the sphere of affect of males. Hassan (2008) explains that “this is obvious from the imbalance of leaders and workplace bearers throughout community, native councils and associations.

” Silong (2008) also pointed out that “women haven’t been active in local politics and are comparatively inactive in public processes because of institutional, socio-economic and cultural constraints.”

In the historical past of the Philippines, girls portrayed essential roles, not solely in the facet of taking care of the family but in addition in the development of the lifetime of the tribe in the course of the pre-colonial occasions (Shah, 2007). With the start of colonization, it caused a patriarchal society whereby girls were made inferior to males and are not licensed to sure rights (Clamonte, 2007). However, instances are altering. There is now acceptance that women can do and play a significant function in community affairs, notably in contributing to the achievement of community growth and progress.

Nowadays, stories of girls occupying management positions are becoming strange. Although regarded by Zaharah and Silong (2008) as “the unsung heroes of group action”, women’s position in group management has become increasingly necessary. In certain communities, they already discovered the information and ability which have produced optimistic transformation to their group (Bond, Holmes, Byrne, Babchuck, & Kirton-Robbins, 2008). More importantly, they’ve established themselves as group leaders. However, many aren’t conscious of the challenges that these women leaders face.

In view of this, the researcher learned, through the ocular go to that all the group leaders of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo are girls. Their husbands work in the city and only come residence for the weekend. Hence, their weekdays are spent at caring for the household, doing household chores, daily chatting in the neighborhood and taking part in card games. Above all this, they also manage to plan and work concerning community affairs. The researcher sought to additional investigate on the women’s management in the neighborhood, specifically on the challenges they encounter.

Research Objectives

The women leaders locally of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo face several management challenges that must be addressed. How can the group of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo tackle these? Specifically, this research sought to:

1. Diagnose the standing of women’s involvement and leadership locally; 2. Identify the leadership challenges confronted by girls leaders in direction of group improvement; 3. Initiate the planning of action applications that can tackle the recognized management challenges; four. Implement the motion program and facilitate its monitoring; and 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the action packages.

Significance of the Study

This examine serves its significance for two aspects: theoretical and practical. Firstly, this study is guided by the Social Role concept. This concept emphasizes on the processes of role-taking and role-making as part of an individual’s life. Accompanied by these processes is the role conflict which can develop as one battle completely different simultaneous roles. This study improves the readability and applicability of the idea as it is used by a researcher.

This research is a contributory issue to the residents of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo in broadening their understanding of the leadership obstacles that their ladies leaders are encountering. This Participatory Action Research assists them within the means of most participation of the neighborhood, via initiating action packages, in addressing the recognized challenges. Hence, this study promotes and encourages community improvement within the locale.

This research is affiliated with the University of Santo Tomas and its Simbahayan Office. This is a helpful doc in analyzing and addressing the problems of community leadership within their partner communities.

Scope and Delimitation

The scope of this research is the women leaders in Sitio Galilee, Antipolo. This examine centered on the position of girls in leadership and community development, the identification of the experienced management limitations in the direction of development in their community, and most importantly the method wherein these challenges have been addressed.

This research didn’t cover different components, aside from leadership per se, that impede the process of growth and progress in the community of Sitio Galilee. A constructivist worldview was utilized. This implies that the researcher seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon from the views of the individuals. In this endeavor, the journeys of ladies leaders had been described and decided by the members. Furthermore, the action packages applied got here from the propositions of the members. The researcher only served as facilitator and participant observer of the mentioned strategy.

Theoretical Framework Individuals have a number of roles that they play across time and place within the interval of life. According to Burr (1972), “throughout life, individuals switch into and out of various roles, preserving some, leaving others behind, and beginning new roles.”

This study is guided by the Social Role Theory. This is not only a single concept; somewhat this was established through interrelating and interconnecting perspectives. One of the pioneers of this theory is George Herbert Mead’s “role-taking”. It explains that the flexibility to put oneself in another’s place is a vital development of the ‘self’ (Ritzer, 2000).

According to this principle, “social function is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms and habits an individual has to face and to meet.” Linton (1936) defined that, as cited within the examine of Harrison and Lynch (2005), “the role represents the sum total of all various roles of a person, and determines what one does for the society and one could expect from it.”

In this sense, “roles do not stay static, however change and evolve over time”, as stated by Turner (1990). There is the concept of “role-taking” where an individual acquires or takes on the position of different people; and “role-making” whereby one is ready to create and recreate these roles (Turner, 1990).

In undergoing these processes, one may experience “role overload” and “role conflict”. Turner (1990) defines position overload as, “the experience of missing the resources, including time and energy, needed to satisfy the demands of all roles.” On the other hand, role conflict is defined by Turner (1990) as, “an incongruity between the expectations of 1 position and people of one other.” However, there’s the so referred to as “role balance”. Role balance is a state whereby a person is ready to perform his or her roles properly and meet its expectations (Marks & MacDermid, 1996).

To present how the social role principle is utilized on this study of the management challenges of ladies leaders, the researcher conceptualized a paradigm that illustrate how the multiple roles (with its linked rights, duties and expectations to it) of a lady contribute to the challenges they face.

Literature Review

Gender role encapsulates the traits and behaviors which would possibly be distinguished as either masculine or female (Bem, 1974; Clamonte, 2007). Carli and Eagly (2001) have enumerated:

The set of traits and behaviors labeled as masculine includes the next: is self-reliant, unbiased, and assertive, has management talents, is prepared to take dangers, makes decisions simply, is dominant, is prepared to take a stand, acts like a leader, and is athletic, ambitious, and self-sufficient. The set of traits and behaviors labeled as feminine embody these: is affectionate, compassionate, and cheerful, does not use harsh language, is loyal, sensitive to the wants of others, sympathetic, light, and understanding, loves youngsters, and is tender and heat.

Tannen (1990) identified that, “the conventional gender function is a social orientation that emphasizes closeness and solidarity, whereas the traditional masculine gender role is a social orientation that emphasized energy and status.” In sociology, gender roles are thought of ‘artifactual’ or socially constructed beliefs in the society. Eagly (2002) has characterized this as a “male-advantaged gender hierarchy.” The roles associated to males benefited them more than the women’s. They gained extra entry to assets, authority in determination makings and more slots in the administration (Kolb, 1999).

In the Philippines, girls loved distinguished equality within the society during the pre-colonial instances (Santos-Maranan, Parreno, & Fabros, 2006). Shah (2007) explicated that, “Filipinos have tracked kinship bilaterally.” Some of the rights they experienced are: (1) they had been entitled to the properties of their family, (2) instigate divorce of their husbands, (3) interact in trading and much more privileges (Clamonte, 2007).

However, the coming of the Spaniards that introduced about the indoctrination of Catholicism has downgraded the role of Filipino girls (Shah, 2007). The spirit of the native Filipina was changed. Shah (2007) expounded that, “the image of the Filipino ladies became tied to the house whose only responsibility was to take care of the husband and the children.” Alesina, Nunn and Giuliano (2011) also added, “It also became a father’s good woman, a husband’s topic, and a long-suffering girl with sealed lips and silent sobs and has not proper to participate political undertakings.”

In the agricultural space, the Filipino lady belongs in the house. Flavier (2007) described in his guide, Doctor to the Barrios, that “rural ladies in the Philippines wield considerable authority, the housewife particularly.” According to him, the housewife is often called because the “Reyna ng Tahanan”.

A latest writing by Vartii (2011) revealed that, “there is a re-emergence of the empowerment of Filipino girls although the political course of.” In the current times, girls within the Philippines are reviving the strengths they lost. Women now are seen working outdoors the house and occupying the outstanding positions in their own subject. Many even handle to become leaders. Fabros (2005) affirmed, “No matter what kinds of points they (women) are involved in at present, one thing is clear – they’re the very testimony of a greater Philippines.”

The second-wave feminism and radical feminism have remedied the normal issues on gender (Cornell, 1998 in Pflanz, 2011). Even though there was a significant development of the status of ladies in the 20th century, there’s nonetheless much to be carried out to totally change the social beliefs regarding this matter. Carly and Eagly (2001) argues that, “women proceed to lack access to power and management in contrast with men.” There is that this phenomenon referred to as “glass ceiling”. Coleman (2003) defines this as “a barrier that is impenetrable to girls.” Pflanz (2011) talked about in his study that, “Studies involving women in leadership roles point out the vast majority of women believe their biggest impediment to advancement is a mindset favoring candidates that slot in a male-dominated surroundings.”

Even though the requirements of management persist to be male-oriented, extra women are taking on management positions in our society (Pflanz, 2011). Pflanz (2011) additional defined that, “many girls assume leadership positions in order to have an affect inside their communities.”

The Department of Communities of the Queensland Government (2006) stated that, “Community management is management in, for and by the neighborhood.” Ferrer (2010) affirms, “it reflects the concept of people and teams working together to attain widespread imaginative and prescient and targets.” Community leadership just isn’t profit-oriented and therefore includes non-paid leaders (Baconguis, 2010). In the examine of Garina (1957), he revealed that, “non-paid local leaders are vital in neighborhood action; cooperation with them by exterior agencies is imperative within the means of group growth.”

Women’s participation in the communities and nationwide scene was not solely via public management. In many cases, women form the backbone of formations as members or volunteers, significantly at the group level. There are quite a few examples of this point: barangay well being employees, churchwomen, group mobilizers, members of people’s organizations and civic organizations – over and above their traditional roles as domestic managers/housekeepers, caregivers, and whilst they engage in productive labor exterior the domestic sphere (Bond, Holmes, Byrne, Babchuck, & Kirton-Robbins, 2008).

The report on the Forum on Women NGO Managers in 1987 entitled, “Women NGO Managers: Issues and Dilemmas” revealed that ladies NGO managers play multiple roles and have triple duty of caring for the house and children, earning a living/working exterior the house and contributing to the national improvement. It confirmed that these women experience a serious dilemma on the method to stability and integrate the considerations of family life and the demands of work/career commitment. These pressures on family-work commitments are further magnified by management roles that girls play of their group (PHILDHRRA, 1987).

A reflective account on approach to leadership


Leadership is found not simply at work but throughout us. Leaders all the time step ahead and take charge of the situation. It may be at house, at work or at any other place. Leaders are by no means born, they turn out to be leaders as a end result of they’ve credibility and different people would like to comply with them. This paper describes about my management strengths and areas for growth/ future study. People have totally different qualities and that is how I do have additionally private Leadership Strengths:

Problem Solving:

As there are many problems revolving round us, but we don’t ever have to care about that because these issues could get far-off from us very quickly.

I all the time consider to be an issue solver however not the issue creator.


I consider to be a pacesetter, one ought to love the work he/she is doing. I always discover new ways to keep my self-motivated and I at all times have eagerness to study new issues, finding new methods to do a task differentially.

The advantage of maintaining my self-motivated is that people working with me can also feel the optimistic vibe and so they all also can begin working the task, which makes it straightforward.


Living in this world makes us tough by being partial. Leaving this partial life behind there are various varieties of feelings whereby I imagine to be joyful always by setting and preserving my life away from the bitterness of the world. I always encourage individuals around me to be pleased as a end result of there is only one life to stay and there are much less people to love and more people hate us without any purpose, as my feelings are important I sometimes have a hard time to regulate my feelings however still I rise up with a constructive angle and overcome this section and this is where I take over a new management via feelings.


Communications with completely different folks is critical. I do have a great communication with my household, associates, relations in addition to all in my surrounding. I love speaking with individuals and speaking with them as a outcome of this makes me more daring and fearless. I always have a thought that if I can speak to somebody and the other person is listening it correctly and in a place to perceive the thing which I need to say is the most effective thing or the ability which I even have within me.

Cultural intelligence:

Cultural intelligence is the ability to effectively work with individuals from other countries and cultures. Leaders must study to adapt to an intercultural workforce and variety to turn out to be a successful international leader. Cultural intelligences present a better understanding of cross-cultural leadership and assist to adapt the have to be carried out in leadership. I believe that every global leader should accept high-context culture as well as low tradition context to work in international setting.


It is essential for a leader that not solely can organise an efficient team, but additionally have to manage that each staff member can work as part of one themselves. I strongly consider that leader may have the power to take an energetic function in what’s going on to realize desired goal. As a staff chief I always keep confidence and trust in group so that they can take a optimistic angle in the course of their goals.

My current strengths embody;

My honesty and fervour in direction of my work. I actually have at all times been positive and confident relating to my goals and targets. Along with these, I am good choice maker, because of which I could make proper and quick decision.

As a matured scholar I actually have developed self-discipline, which is essential for effective learning. My reflective management conveys a way and sensible software of collaboration, it has involve my listening and studying capacity. “The philosopher John Dewey has made an excellent contribution to the current conceptualization of reflection in leadership studying because the origins of the reflection are primarily attributed to him. “He describe it as a type of the issue solving.”

I belong from a family where manners are very important which also reveals my character. As I come from Vadodara Gujarat, when I got here to United Kingdom there where many problems revolving round me as such the problems where my worry of getting over by way of my household into a new metropolis the place there were no family members of mine but I overcame all the state of affairs and began a brand new and a fresh journey here, by this I got here to know that I even have no concern left all off as a outcome of I all the time motivate my self to take a step forward for my life and this teaches me a lot more.

As I know my strength, my household matters me lots and they’re my energy too. They taught me many issues to face out and be taught good issues on this massive world. Leadership is tough in accordance with me as a result of where there could be management to be taken, individuals should understand you, they need to listen to us. I am a type of individual which doesn’t wants a lot time to hold on with folks I get mix up with them simply and like to be round them as everyone knows that speaking with different individuals offers us completely different information each time.


As such there are not a lot limitations in my rule guide. But sure everyone do have some limitations in direction of their leadership, I by no means try to harm some one with my words. I maintain my opinions in the course of every one in addition to I take ideas from everybody. I try to listen individuals who really are full of knowledge and are sharing their information out there. Therefore this also proves myself that I am a good listener and never an annoying particular person. I keep on trying new things and I by no means try my self to drag down instead if I fail I do encourage my self by encouraging myself that no I can do that specific thing once more. Failure doesn’t issues me however Yes I love to win every little thing which I really have participated in.

A Personal Perspective: Personal Reflections on Followership and Leadership

I will discuss private follower and chief interactions with two people that I have worked with over the past 5 to seven years. I chosen these people due to my relationship with them and their leadership capabilities. Secondly, I admire and model after both of them. Finally, I chosen these people as a end result of they imagine in me and have invested in my skilled and private growth. I will talk about their management fashion in context with course materials and illustrate how I am capable of be an efficient follower underneath their management.

I may even discuss the management qualities that make them highly efficient leaders. A Personal Perspective: Personal Reflections on Followership and Leadership Trust is an important consider most relationships, professional and private. It is very simple to comply with someone that you simply belief, even when there are variations of opinion.

I have worked beneath the management of two dynamic leaders for the last five to seven years. The first is my boss, Karen Schrock, President & CEO of Adult Well-Being Services.

The second particular person I selected is my Pastor, James Minnick. I selected Karen and James because of my relationship with them. They are both highly efficient leaders that I admire for his or her ability to lead underneath strain, handle tough folks and conditions, accomplish what must be accomplish and stay optimistic. They believe in me and have invested in my skilled and personal improvement.

I strongly concur with the assertion leaders are solely pretty much as good because the individuals who comply with (Johnson, 2011).

Bjudstads defines followership as the power to successfully observe the directives and support the efforts of a frontrunner to maximise the organization (Bjudstad, 2006). An efficient follower is one who’s enthusiastic, self-reliant, and fulfills their duties with enthusiasm (Kelly, 1998). Courageous, honesty, credibility, competence, and focus are also qualities of an excellent follower. It is straightforward to observe when you are lead by leaders who are competent, passionate, exhibit compassion, and are in a place to communicate the imaginative and prescient, goals and aims.

I have worked with Karen for seven years, first as her Administrative Assistant and now as the Manager of Executive Office Operations and Stapleton Operations. I worked as a project manager with my previous employer and the skills I developed in that position enabled me to transition to the place of Administrative Assistant for the President & CEO of a corporation with ease. They discuss with us because the dynamic duo because we work so well together. Karen is very organized, an in depth planner, and clearly communicates her expectations. I am very organized and an in depth planner. We meet at the beginning of every week. We each prepare a list of priorities (often they contain the identical items). We differ in communication fashion. I prefer emails. She prefers nose to nose or phone communication. A good follower adapts to the fashion of the chief when needed. So, I’ve adapted my type considerably. When managing contacts for her, I will make the call or contact in particular person. Leaders and followers have to be versatile. I am capable of strategy her and discuss my view after we disagree because of our relationship and her management fashion. She all the time takes the time to verify I perceive even excessive level choices.

She shares information in order that I am able to make better selections and work more effectively as a follower. I follow her because I trust that she has my best interest, in addition to the best interest of the group, in her perspective as she leads us. Another high quality that allows me to be an efficient follower is Karen allows me to do my work. I cannot think about how irritating it is to be micromanaged. I don’t require a lot of supervision. I know her expectations. I know the organization. I ask questions and for assist when needed. I am additionally proactive. It is not essential for her to tell me what needs to be done in each occasion. After working along with her for thus long, I usually know what is expected and attain it earlier than it is requested. I advise her of ongoing initiatives and points that require her attention. It is my accountability as a follower to make sure she is informed. Johnson states followers have a duty to offer good information (Johnson, 2011). Good data just isn’t necessarily nice.

I am able to inform her issues others typically sugar coat. If something is not working, she must know. I additionally current her with potential options when presenting issues. I am snug making decisions and informing her of the issue and my resolution. If I make a bad decision, she uses that as a studying alternative. This is empowering, and has constructed my confidence and helped me develop as a supervisor. My relationship with James Minnick started many years in the past. We grew up in our native church and I have known him for over thirty 5 years. I did not work closely with him until he grew to become our Pastor. Shortly after changing into Pastor, he asked me to serve as a Trustee. I am now the Assistant Financial Secretary. It is on this capability that I even have grown to respect him as an effective chief. I am in a place to exhibit the identical qualities of a follower as a Trustee that I exhibit when working with Karen. The setting is completely different; nonetheless, I am who I am. I am simply as efficient at a Trustee and Assistant Financial Secretary as I am as an employee of Adult Well-Being Services. Good stewardship is required in each environments. Good leaders are capable of identify the skills and skills of their followers to meet the vision and mission of the group in business and non-business environments.

I have the same commitment to the Church and its chief as I even have to the group that I work for. I comply with James as a outcome of I trust him and his capability to lead membership. It is easy to comply with him as a outcome of he allows every of us to first acknowledge, and then use our presents to support the ministry. I actually have grown tremendously underneath the management of each of the individuals I’ve mentioned. I am in a position to use my expertise, abilities and talents at each organizations and use the assets of both organizations for the frequent good. I even have realized from experiences at Adult Well-Being Services which have helped me as a Trustee and Financial Secretary at the church. They have assigned me projects that I did not consider I was capable of managing however with their encouragement, I completed them. James can additionally be the Director of Transportation for Detroit Public Schools. I volunteered to move a project at work to make use of his expertise to improve our transportation operations. I even have watched Karen develop collaborations and relationships to learn the group, and used this as a mannequin to develop opportunities and relationships that profit the organization and church. Goleman (2000) identified six leadership styles: coercive, reflective, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting and
coaching. Goleman and Gupta explain good leaders use the entire management styles; nonetheless, they constantly use solely 4 of the leadership types.

Not all of the styles produce constructive results and a optimistic work climate (Goleman, 82). I was able to visualize how Karen and James use the kinds introduced and their impact on the organizations they lead. On a more private observe, I was capable of see how the kinds have impacted my relationship with them and my capability to be an effective follower. The four management styles that produce positive outcomes and create a constructive work setting are: 1. Authoritative (Mobilizes folks towards a vision, encourages others to be a part); 2. Democratic (Works towards consensus, seeks the input of others); three. Affliliative (Builds harmony and emotional bonds, individuals come first); and four. Coaching (Develops individuals for the longer term, encourages new ideas/actions). These 4 types, in addition to the coercive and pacesetting, are demonstrated within the follower and leader interactions I even have with James and Karen. I actually have to admit there are times when I say to them “Hold-up. You’re taking me too fast.” But I later appreciate that they trust my ability to do what they are asking me to do (even after I don’t). There are also occasions when they have to drag rank and say “just do it” as a end result of I am resistant and should not wish to comply with what I’m being asked to do. I’m studying that there are occasions after they simply want things achieved.

While it will not be my duty, it will prolong their need to have the task achieved if I don’t do it. Most of the time their management kinds exhibit the characteristics of leadership apparent within the democratic, coaching, authoritative, and affliliative management kinds. Not only are these leadership types helpful to me, they benefit the organizations the lead. Under their management, tense and chaotic situations become less stressful and chaotic. No one can ever say that they don’t know what’s expected of them as a outcome of the targets and aims are all the time communicated clearly. Karen and James possess values that allow me to follow without reservation. Honesty is firstly. They also value people as people, recognizing particular person strengths and weaknesses. Bjugstad theorizes that organizations can maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of leader-follower relationships by matching the kinds of leaders and followers (Bjugstad, 2006). I did not search leaders from the delegating management quadrant. The chosen me and have allowed me to turn into an exemplary follower. I also model their management types and am rising as a frontrunner. Exemplary leaders make it simple for others to be exemplary followers.


Bjugstad, K., Thach, E. C., Thompson, K. J., & Morris, A. (2006). A recent look at followership: A mannequin for matching followership and management kinds. Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 7(3), 304–319. Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets outcomes. Harvard Business Review, 78(2), 78-90. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from the Business Source Complete database. Gupta, S. (2011, July). Leadership that delivers outcomes. Siliconindia, 14(7), 34-35. Retrieved March 26, 2014, from Business Source Complete. Retrieved from the Walden University library database. Johnson, B. (2011, September). Good followership. Training Journal, 32–36. Retrieved March 15, 2014, from the Walden Library databases. Kelley, R. E. (1988). In reward of followers. Harvard Business Review, 66(6), 142–148. Retrieved March 15m 2014, from the Walden Library databases. Walumbwa, F. O., Lawler, J. J., & Avolio. B. J. (2007). Leadership, particular person variations, and work-related attitudes: A cross cultural investigation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(2), 212-230. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from the Business Source Complete database.

A New Leadership in MySpace

Jessi Hempel’s article, Yes, MySpace can be Saved, delved on the prevailing problems which may be besetting the once-most well-liked social networking web site within the United States of America. Here, Hempel theorized on several causes for his or her obvious down flip, and elaborated on factual figures that exposed their actual standing, both of their numbers of global patronage as nicely as with their declared revenues.

While the primary focus of comparison is geared toward their closest rival, Facebook, the article nevertheless reveals a positive outlook in to the future of MySpace, as evidenced by different corporations that had additionally experienced financially-challenging times and had recovered since then.

Firstly, the primary purpose for MySpace’s concern stems from their slipping to the second spot, when it comes to numbers of tourists per month. In the United States alone for the month of May in 2009, MySpace had 70. 24 million to Facebook’s 70. 28 million (Hempel, 2009, p.

1). This was the primary time that Facebook was in a place to surpass MySpace in this aspect.

Likewise, as of June 16 of the said yr, MySpace necessitated shedding “420 workers, roughly 30%” (Hempel, 2009, p. 1) of their complete work force. However, all may not be completely lost for MySpace, as Hempel himself has given Apple and Amazon as prime examples of corporations that discovered themselves in dire situations and had survived. The most obvious advantage of MySpace over different rivals is that despite of Facebook’s having extra guests in their web site, MySpace’s patrons still logged in additional minutes, whereby their members spent a mean of 218 minutes, compared to Facebook’s 149 minutes (Hempel, 2009, p. 1).

Another benefit is Rupert Murdoch himself. As the company’s CEO, he refused to easily admit defeat and pack up. He took to hiring new recruits who have already proven their dynamism and excellence within the digital business. In April of 2009, he employed former AOL chief Jon Miller, and by the tip of the stated month Miller “replaced co-founder Chris DeWolfe with a proficient triumvirate” (Hempel, 2009, p. 1): namely Owen Van Natta, who was the previous COO of Facebook, and who later was to be made CEO by Miller; Mike Jones, AOL’s former executive, because the COO; and Jason Hirschhorn, an ex-chief digital office of MTV, as Chief Product Officer.

Under this new management, the company’s attempts to reduce their bills were put into motion. First have been the abovementioned employment terminations of roughly 30% of their staff, then the shelving of the plan to move the company tackle to a highly-posh neighborhood in Playa Vista, Los Angeles.

Perhaps Miller’s new imaginative and prescient for the corporate could be evidenced in the speech that he delivered in May of 2009, on the D: All Things Digital, the place he said, “The tendency whenever you fall behind in product areas is to think that you must catch up by checking bins. I think that’s incorrect. You ought to leapfrog and give attention to rising behaviors, and go for the large moves” (Hempel, 2009, p. 1). This heightened measure of risk-taking is completely contradictory to the past methods established by MySpace.

After all, they have all the time designed their innovations primarily based on costumer feedbacks, “by responding to what its members requested” (Hempel, 2009, p. 1). Unquestionably, this resulted in a positive consequence, whereby the overwhelming majority of the “most intriguing new elements…migrated to MySpace after bubbling up on competing sites” (Hempel, 2009, p. 1). Lastly, a need arises for MySpace to use this dynamism to their advertising technique, especially since their contract with a disappointed Google is set to expire, and that roughly half of their revenues come from this deal.

While MySpace’s 2008 promoting revenue of $600 million continues to be topped within the social network trade, Miller and his staff needs to make revolutionary modifications to find a way to win the allegiance of their 130 million members worldwide. Wirth the brilliance of this staff and with an virtually countless capital at hand, it definitely seems that MySpace is due to regain lost grounds. Reference Hempel, J. (2009, June 18). Yes, MySpace may be Saved. CNNMoney. com. Retrieved July 9, 2010, from ;http://money. cnn. com/2009/06/18/technology/myspace_can_be_saved. fortune/index. htm;

A Literature Review of Transformational Leadership “Organization Climate – Employee Performance”

The literature evaluate attempts to examine transformational management impression addressing organizational change and efficiency. Based on the idea and concept do the attributes and abilities provide the tools for leaders to motivate and affect follower’s verses the traditional main via energy and authority. The historical past of transformational leadership style has now been tested and defined for over thirty years. The literature evaluate sampling crosses many organizations from the non for profit, governmental, non-public business, paramilitary, corporations and healthcare. Furthermore, the distinction in fashion from transactional management (situational leading) to transformational leadership, along with addressing the cultural and local weather of the organizations which challenge leaders to find a methodology to encourage and inspire their followers.

As the leaders navigate the changing panorama inside the organization what characteristics and traits are parts of the make-up an excellent and effective chief. The paper will conclude that the analysis and review of the literature supports transformational leadership will motivate, encourage and create an progressive environment to meet today’s group and employee trust to observe their chief.

As the topic of leadership begins with many research and opinions on what type of management motivates and evokes an organization and its employees working in path of a standard objective for the betterment of one another which usually factors to transformational leadership. Therefore, the search and evaluation of numerous articles and research confirms that transformational management has an edge as a successful management fashion and idea to meet the challenges addressing morale and efficiency. Furthermore, transactional leadership has a psychological part through its approach creating relationships as a key factor as a substitute of leading by authority and power whereas responding to the state of affairs.

Before shifting on to the literature evaluation and findings I found an attention-grabbing article titled “Traits of leadership” (Jerabek, S., & Day, J., Danny. (2009) to concentrate on what is a good chief and “For this text, the authors qualify an excellent leader as one who can effectively lead a gaggle of people with a selected goal.

The persona of the chief, coupled with a capability to accomplish the mission, show crucial for achievement of the group. Leaders even have character traits that promote and develop others, such as general awareness, empowerment of others, and private integrity. The lack or overabundance of a leader’s characteristics can affect any organization. Leaders exhibit varied kinds of leadership that mature and alter all through their careers.” ( FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 78(11), pg.20.) As the review approaches to handle the question many organizations do not understand administration verses leadership I thought this text provided an excellent basis on what is a good leader which assisted with focusing on the topic of transformational leadership.

So what is transformational management which started as remodeling management inside the political area in 1978 by James Macgregor Burns through his analysis on political leaders? “The preliminary concept of transformational leadership was supplied by Burns in his research about political leaders. According to Burns, transformational leadership is a process by which leaders and followers promote one another to higher levels of morality and motivation. Transformational leaders assist their followers to take a look at old problems via a model new perspective. They stimulate their followers to attempt larger than ordinary levels.

Transformational leaders encourage their followers to assume greater than their very own goals and interests and to give consideration to greater staff, organizational, national and world goals. By providing future perspective, such leaders influence over their followers in a manner that they assume that perspective as their very own goal and show high efforts to achieve it. These leaders are in a place to move the group towards the best perspective by coordinating the staff and integrating all system elements [1].” (Jandaghi, G., Matin, H. Z., & Farjami, A.) (2009).

The research began in 1978 and in 1985 Bernard M. Bass prolonged Burns work and targeted on the psychological side of transformational management because it encourage and motivated followers. As the researched advanced into the nineties the influence on organizational culture and innovation was being examined. Since this sort of management idea was more individuals oriented and relationship constructing inside the group the question about performance and success was starting to be research in the 2000’s.

Furthermore, what’s the impression to the changing tradition within organizations regarding innovation and the speedy adjustments in technology, globalization and the high demand for model new products and services? “As it’s obvious from the term related to this kind of management, transformational leaders, look doe transforming and altering, which is important for innovation. Although management is a crucial issue within the life of each organization, “yet few studies have empirically examined the link between this issue and innovation on the organizational degree (Jung et al., 2003:p.525)”. (Mokhber, M., Ismail, W. K. b. W., & Vakilbashi, A.) (2011) Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 5(6), p.504).

Does this type of management style favor any gender kind because the concept has extra of the softer method to leadership verses the hard line authoritarian and power sort approach? There was one reference within the research which referred to a phenomenon termed the glass cliff the place the woman’s attributes are a better match throughout an organizational disaster corresponding to poor performance. So a lesson learned as part of this analysis about gender nonetheless focuses on traits, attributes and corporate stereotyping kind of bias. However, if this information is carried forward past the stereotype company male dominate leaders these analysis findings might validate why transformational leadership fashion works finest during a crisis because of the female attribute of relationship building. As part of this evaluation you will need to look at this kind of research of gender variations and their psychological phenomenon of transformational leadership.

There is one thing to study from the glass cliff analysis of (Bruckmüller, S., & Branscombe, N. R.) (2010) as stated, “If males have maneuvered the organization into bother, appointing a feminine chief will appear as one method to achieve the transformation wanted to show issues around (see Ryan & Haslam, 2007 for a related discussion). (British Journal of Social Psychology, 49(3), p. 435). One word of importance throughout the above sentence which is transformation signifies the worth of glass cliff analysis not because of the bias or gender problem but the attributes to obtain success during an organizational disaster which mirrors one of many attributes needed to be an efficient transformational leader…a small validation.

The evaluation mentioned many points as they relate to organizational challenges and the influence of management kinds when motivating and inspiring followers to perform, turn out to be revolutionary and improve local weather inside the organization or group. As mentioned in the course of the analysis from 1978 to 2012 the change in the workplace and worker expectations from their employer or the leaders. How transformation is delivered was addressed and the elements which are identified with decrease morale and scale back efficiency. (Bunker, K., Wakefield, M., Jaehnigen, O., & Stefl, B.) (2006). “Change initiatives sometimes derail as a end result of the ball is dropped on the people aspect. Perfectly good methods and alter initiatives stall or fail when staff turn into caught in some phase of the emotional transition. Leaders who fail to attach around these pure emotions typically battle to realize adequate buy-in from workers and thereby undermine their progress toward new goals. Instead of a loyal, productive, and enthusiastic workforce, executives and managers find yourself leading employees who are insecure, fearful, and skeptical. (Transformation delivered. T+d, 60(3), p.26.)

The motion within organizational change to recruit and retain good talent was and additional benefit recognized with efficient leaders and as said to be an efficient leader your followers need to be motivated and impressed. So this was another constructive element the analysis found why transformational management is a part of efficiency of a corporation and its workers. (Bunker, k. et al.) “For leaders to successfully harness and preserve the talent and dedication needed to benefit from organizational change, they want to: Examine their behaviors and emotions tied to vary and transition. This begins the process of working from a place of authenticity as a leader. Establish and shield belief. Without belief and honesty, authenticity and credibility undergo, which undermines stable change initiatives or management selections. Find a balance between structural leadership and people leadership. By studying the essential competencies for main in instances of change and transition, leaders have a brand new perspective from which to function. (Transformation delivered. T+d, 60(3), p. 30). This article is an overview of the transition plan to remodel the United States Postal Service which began in 2002.

Each study referring to organizational change and management concept helps the transformational leadership type. As acknowledged within this article transformational management. .(Jandaghi, G., Matin, H. Z., & Farjami, A.) (2009). “The effective role of managers and leaders in radical modifications and transformations is unavoidable within the organizations. Leadership and management are not equivalent. To affect over others, management is trusted formal power whereas leadership is resulted from a social affect process. Leaders make cultures and their fundamental role is affecting others. In other words, transformational leaders try to make changes that increase organizational efficacy and efficiency. These are adjustments that trigger higher aim and expectations to the organization. (Comparing transformational leadership in profitable and unsuccessful companies. International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), p. 212).

Furthermore, does this idea and principle carry over to multi-agency and crisis administration which is more historically authoritative administration style nevertheless, there’s a movement of change in management fashion called Interwoven Leadership which combines options such as task abilities, interpersonal abilities, stakeholder consciousness and private qualities of commanders and their teams. This type of management has some of the same attributes as transformational management when referring to interpersonal skills. (Borodzicz, E & Devitt, K) “For an interwoven method to be embedded successfully, it should be supported by the broader organizational tradition in normality and included into organizational training at many ranges. This might raise challenges of ethos in addition to practicality. As with all cultural shifts, these worth modifications take a long time to really embed inside a corporation, and some Gold leaders may proceed to be wedded to the ‘hard skill’ approaches that may have served them properly in their careers. (Interwoven leadership: The lacking link in multi-agency major incident response. Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management, 16(4), p. 214)

In addition, the next comment supports the research defining leadership shifting towards the need for interpersonal skills to be an efficient chief. (Jandaghi, G., et. al.) (2009) “The efficient function of managers and leaders in radical changes and transformations is unavoidable in the organizations. Leadership and management are not similar. To influence over others, administration is trusted formal power while management is resulted from a social influence process. Leaders make cultures and their fundamental role is affecting others. In different words, transformational leaders try to make changes that enhance organizational efficacy and performance. These are changes that trigger higher purpose and expectations to the group. (International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), p. 211)

Now another factor was found in the research of the literature which one was the impact of the baby-boomer retirement phase which could leave a deficiency within the management roles. However, the research showed more optimism to this concern and myth. (Johnson, J.) (Spring 2009) “Among the issues over child boom retirements is that of a workforce management drain. The age demographics of CEOs presented here, based mostly on census data, suggest that a leadership deficit in the nonprofit sector may not be as imminent as in the government sector however that it looms nearer than in the for-profit sector. (Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 19(3), p. 300)

Wisdom is an distinctive attribute identified in the review of literature titled Developing You. (McCullough, C.) (2007). “Wisdom. As Jim Collins’s analysis demonstrates, Level 5 leaders have this very deep inside perspective. Wisdom isn’t developed through a checklist. It is developed over the reflective journey of a lifetime. (Developing You, p. 67) This helps the research which highlights most transformational leaders have extra experience to truly be efficient and develop trust from the follower’s additional time.

The analysis did address the distinction of transactional leaders and transformational leaders and the dialogue was obvious in today’s challenging occasions the transformational chief is the right match “According to Fulwiler, there are transactional leaders and transformational leaders. Transactional leaders operate in command-and-control mode. They give consideration to costs and financial objectives, and have a quid pro quo relationship with workers. “This will get you common,” Fulwiler added. On the other hand, transformational leaders function in a collaborative mode. They lead by example, encourage employee involvement and team building, and genuinely care about worker Wellness. “This is the necessary thing to productiveness and high-performance work methods,” Fulwiler stated. “This results in above-average outcomes.” (The Power of Transformational Leadership) (2013), Professional Safety, 58(1), 19-19.)

Another issue addressed in the literature was the relationship of training and development to transformational management and the analysis displayed a positive end result as said, “The outcomes have essential implications for these aiming to implement organizational-level interventions to enhance employee well-being. Although cross-sectional, our research raises the chance that coaching leaders to exhibit certain behaviors may additionally change working circumstances of subordinates. Rather than implementing wide-ranging organizational modifications for a large number of staff, these outcomes counsel that training their superiors might need an analogous impact (e.g. training managers in transformational management behaviors might result in concerned followers who perceive their jobs as significant and expertise excessive levels of influence).

Training employees at managerial levels might show to be each less expensive and simple to control than implementing wide-ranging organizational adjustments. (Nielson, et al., Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(5), p. 473 ) Another viewpoint which helps training transformational leaders will enhance performance as stated,. “Specifically, the finding that transformational leadership was positively related to relational identification with the supervisor, which, in turn, was related to self-efficacy, and consequently performance, suggests coaching leaders to be extra transformational might provide necessary and useful returns on funding by method of follower growth. Such coaching initiatives have been proven to be associated to increased ranges of commitment, motivation, satisfaction, and performance among followers (Barling, Weber, & Kelloway, 1996; Dvir et al., 2002). (Walumbwa, F.O. & Hartwell, C. A., Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 84(1), p. 167) Furthermore, this analysis which was stated within the above article confirmed the research regarding the 1985 (Bass) theory that transformational management does have an effect on efficiency.

Moreover, it’s supported by the following data and analysis. (Zhu, W., Sosik, J. J., Riggio, R. E., & Yang, B). (2012). “As indicated by a number of researchers (e.g., Bass & Riggio, 2006; Sosik & Jung, 2010), empowerment is a vital course of that defines transformational leadership and illustrates why it is efficient in building follower organizational identification and performance. Followers’ identification with the organization may be extremely necessary for his or her work attitudes, similar to organizational dedication, and for different work performance measures, associated with excellence in the up to date world market. (Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 13(3), p. 208)


Supported by research, concept and sampling of managers, leaders, workers and stakeholders referring to organizational change, performance and leadership the conclusion is transformational management style or concept has the abilities and attributes to inspire and encourage followers. Therefore, the organizational local weather is conducive to innovation and healthy work environment to address the ever changing office whereas improving organization’s capacities to compete within the challenging business environment.

Bruckmüller, S., & Branscombe, N. R. (2010). The glass cliff: When and why girls are selected as leaders in disaster contexts. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49(3), 433-451. doi: 10. 1348/0 14466609X466594 Bunker, K., Wakefield, M., Jaehnigen, O., & Stefl, B. (2006). Transformation delivered. T+d, 60(3), 26-30. Retrieved from Devitt, K. R., & Borodzicz, E. P. (2008). Interwoven leadership: The lacking hyperlink in multi-agency major incident response. Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management, 16(4), 208-216. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5973.2008.00551.x Jandaghi, G., Matin, H. Z., & Farjami, A. (2009). Comparing transformational leadership in successful and unsuccessful corporations. International Journal

5 Bases of Power and Leadership

When we mention the word “Power” most people will assume that energy is evil, corrupt, self-serving, manipulative and hurtful. However, there is a optimistic face to addressing power acquisition, power-base development, and energy use. When power is used in an moral and purposeful means, there might be nothing evil about it. Leadership is “interpersonal influence, exercised in a scenario, and directed, via communication course of, towards the attainment of a specified goal or targets. (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961, p. 24).

Sales Leadership regularly acquires and makes use of energy to accomplish particular work objectives and to strengthen their very own positions to empower salesperson rather than dominate them.

There are 5 totally different powers that affect leadership which include skilled power, referent power, respectable power, reward power and coercive power. Expert energy is outline as a major source f private energy is experience in fixing issues and performing important task. (French & Raven, 1959) Expert power is needed for those workers who want task direction.

It additionally builds confidence within the leader’s capability to show and delegate duties that the group needs to accomplish.

The extra necessary problem is to the goal particular person, the higher the facility derived by the agent from the possessing the necessary expertise to resolve it. With the professional energy it helps the leaders to develop and maintain a reputation for technical expertise and robust credibility. Moreover, Charisma leader have the skilled energy and also have insight into the wants, hopes, and values of followers and are able to encourage commitment to proposals and methods change.

Leadership at is an internet giant in terms of e-commerce. It was incorporated by Jeff Bezos in 1994 under the name Cadabra. In 1995 he changed the name to Amazon because he decided the former sounded too similar to “cadaver” and because he wanted a name beginning with “A” so it would potentially be at the top of any search results returned in alphabetical order. has headquarters in Seattle, Washington but has retail websites across the globe. It is the world’s largest internet company. Jeff Bezos has a solid reputation that is appreciated by colleagues, employees, and customers alike. Forbes magazine touts his status as “our greatest living CEO” while his employees perhaps know him best for leaving an empty seat open at conference meeting tables. The empty chair is symbolic of the customer at and Bezos often refers to it as “the most important person in the room” (Hartung 2013).

While many leaders in retail recognize the importance of customer satisfaction, by making the customer an active presence at meetings Jeff Bezos sends a powerful message to his constituents. Some of the characteristics of Jeff Bezos leadership style are that he always challenges idle thinking, he makes customer service a main priority, and he continuously renovates his approach. Bezos does not accept that there is one truth about the way things should be done, even if that way has proven to be successful previously. An example of how Bezos challenges idle thinking also illustrates his stark belief that failure is an opportunity to progress: Years ago, when the bulk of product was written and spoken language the company hired editors to write book and music reviews then decided to use customers critiques instead (Anders, 2012).

That relatively small decision speaks volumes of Jeff’s commitment to truth and to customer satisfaction. A hallmark of Jeff Bezo’s leadership style is his innovative reinventing of any process, idea, or task regardless of how big or small it is. Bezo has a critical eye for improvement, and the intestinal fortitude to make changes where and whenever he sees fit. An example of this is Bezo’s solution to shipping fees. Instead of the expected shipping and handling fee added to each item at checkout, he invented a unique solution. He implemented Amazon Prime, a service that charges an annual fee for unlimited 2 day shipping on eligible items, of which there are thousands. This has significantly reduced the hassle of checkout for several reasons. Subscribing to Amazon Prime eliminates calculating extra fees based on distance and the timeframe for delivery of items. It also promotes a positive customer experience by not seeing totals continue to increase as tax and shipping fees are tacked on during the last few clicks of checkout. Lastly, it speeds the checkout process by offering one click ordering using previously saved information such as address and payment info.

A simple solution to the sometimes painful fees associated with product delivery has made a huge impact on the customers shopping experience! My own individual leadership styles and characteristics are similar to Jeff’s in regards to reinventing. Though I have never used that word to describe my approach it is in line with how I tackle and solve problems. I am never satisfied with one way to do things, and I abjure routine. At the forefront of my leadership style I am always considering my resources whether it be an innovative new process or lesson, considering the ideas my partner or team presents, and utilizing help in any fashion to carry out effective leadership. To be an effective leader, all of the leadership styles commonly associated with powerful leadership abilities would apply and they include Directing, Coaching, Supporting, and Delegating. The challenge for the leader is the flexibility to recognize the dynamics of the situation and be versatile in the application of the different styles. Consider a Mass Casualty Incident, or “MCI” such as the recent tragedy in Boston, the marathon bombing. MCI leadership would first be responsible for establishing command and Delegating others to oversee patient triaging, which is the sorting of victims by severity of injury or illness.

As Emergency vehicles and personnel respond to the scene, MCI leadership would Direct resources to the appropriate locations. Because there may be so many different levels of personnel at the scene of an MCI, leadership may have to Coach lesser trained personnel to effectively carry out necessary tasks involved in scene management. Finally, an effective leader in this scenario would recognize where Supportive care, resources, and needs of the team should be addressed. Some of the leadership characteristics I share in common with Jeff Bezos are passion, fearlessness, and confidence. Environmental or Societal factors that might influence my approach to leadership at this organization would be politics and inexperience. Even as I feel as though my leadership characteristics are similar to the CEO of Amazon’s, it would be a challenge to understand how they apply in a business model. In contrast, I have achieved efficiency and success with similar styles in a healthcare setting which can somewhat be comparable to business in the interest of organization, responsibility, and professionalism.

Even if I were in a different organization I do not feel as though my style or characteristics would alter. I may adjust them to meet the demands of the current situation, organization or environment but I would always be functioning on a core set of values that would adapt to my needs, versus my needs adapting to my values. Economic conditions would influence my approach to leadership affecting budget and finances. Like Jeff Bezos, I support spending a significant amount of resources dedicated to customer service and evaluations of what the customer wants. In times of a strong economy I would want to expand the Amazon product and consider a restaurant line to the online retail chain as a means of satisfying 2 venues: a retail storefront, and a new experience for fine dining. Diners would be able to experience the Amazon style of purchasing by specifically choosing what ingredients, cooking methods, and dinging decor they want by placing orders through the website at tableside mounted computers. Amazon Prime members would receive a discount or some type of special privilege, and orders would be delivered in a timely manner to the customer.

References (2014, February 9). Retrieved September 2, 2014, from Anders, G. (2012, April 23). Jeff Bezos’s Top 10 Leadership Lessons. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Hartung, A. (2013, January 8). Why Jeff Bezos is Our Greatest Living CEO. Retrieved September 5, 2014. McGinn, D. (2013, October 18). How Jeff Bezos Makes Decisions. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from

Leadership Development Report

Leadership has a paramount importance in the business world. It is not about a position, but how a person can influence others in creating and working towards that common organisation’s goal, and to create meaning in the works that we do. This report begins with the servant leadership framework that covers what I value in leadership. Also included in this report are the self-assessments that measure my leadership potential and competencies. This report also covers the issues associated to the industry I have chosen to work in and address my person-specific issues.


Definition servant leadership
Servant leadership is a type of leadership where the leader does order to be served; but focus on serving their followers in order to assist and guide them into more useful and satisfied people. This theory emphasize on the creation of moral purpose for leaders. It focuses on the impact that they leave on other people’s life to measure their greatness. Characteristics of servant leadership

The servant leadership theory consists of ten key characteristics. These characteristics are; listening intently, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. (Miller, Skringar, Dalglish & Stevens, 2012) Why servant leadership?

My concept of leadership is someone who is able to influence their followers through inspiration, empower them to realize their undiscovered true potential, and bring meaning to their life. In addition, I believe that a leader needs to be able to listen to their follower’s need in order to put the will of the group above their own will on the group. I strongly uphold the need for empathy in my leadership concept, because I believe that a leader must be able to put themselves in their follower’s shoes and perceive things through the eyes of their followers in order to gain understanding from different perspectives and to empower the followers to bring out their passion and thus bring forward their fullest potential in making a meaningful work.

As mentioned by a successful leader – Fred A. Mansk Jr, “ The ultimate leader is one who is willing to develop people to the point that they eventually surpass him or her in knowledge and ability.” Therefore, I find Servant Leadership as the most suitable framework for my leadership plan. III. Diagnosis of Strength and Weaknesses

To support the diagnostic process and to provide the information on my leadership strengths and weaknesses I am using the information from two personality tests; Carl Jung’s and Issabel Briggs Myer’s Typology Test and a standardized emotional intelligent (EI) test. Self Assessments

Carl Jung’s and Issabel Briggs Myer’s Typology Test Carl Jung’s and Issabel Briggs Myer’s Typology Test is a psychometric assessment designed to measure the preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions based on their psychological preference. The aim of this test is to help people to have a better understanding of themselves, by understanding their strengths, weaknesses, possible career preferences and their preferred approach when interacting with others. This test puts one into four letter categories, where each letter stands for a specific personality type. (Briggs, Myers, 1998) After undertaking this typology test, I was classified under INFJ (Introvert, iNtuitive, Feeling, Judging) typology.

Firstly, introversion displays a characteristic that is reserved and highly private. This goes in line with my personal characteristic as I look within for meaning and understanding. Secondly, intuition indicates an emphasis on abstract ideas and focusing on the meaning of the bigger picture rather than solid details. Feeling focuses mainly on personal concerns and emotional perception rather than the logical and objective facts. Judging describes about the need to have control by planning, organizing and making decisions as soon as possible because of INFJs’ deep attention on the future. INFJ type is described as having the strengths of being determined and passionate, altruistic, decisive, insightful, creative, inspiring and convincing.

Dr. Dranitsaris stated that INFJ leadership style is quiet and influencing. INFJ leaders often lead by inspiring and motivating people with their ideals, working hard to gain the cooperation of others rather than demanding it. In a business context, INFJ leaders also tend to genuinely care about the people and how happy they are with their job. (Dranitsaris, 2009). This describes the traits considered as strengths of the INFJ type: that of being warm, altruistic and passionate.

The main motive for every work done is not focused centrally on gaining personal benefit but for the greater good of the broader society; to find value and purpose for every tasks. Also, INFJs are described to be deeply concerned about their relations with people and how it links to humanity. (Heiss, Butt, 1996) These are the strengths I believe I possess in myself and these characteristics go in line with the framework of servant leadership as explained previously.

However, the very strong need to have a cause for every work done can serve as a weakness for INFJ. This is because it can become difficult to maintain
the drive and energy to complete works when I am not able to derive any deeper purpose or relate the objective of the work to a worthy goal. The complexity INFJ is further seen with the tendency to be idealistic. When objectives are not in line with a meaningful goal, INFJ will incline to grow restless and demotivated overtime. This will affect the effort and end result. The result may deviate from the targeted aim which becomes a conflict with the need for perfection. These weaknesses are worsen with the reserved nature of INFJ which may trigger unexpressed internal conflicts.

Emotional Intelligent Test (EI)
Emotional Intelligent test, on the other hand is a psychological test which allow an individual to identify their social skills that facilitate their interpersonal behavior. It identifies one’s capacity for goal-oriented adaptive behavior. It focuses on the aspects of intelligence that govern self-knowledge and social adaptation. Below are the results that I have attained from this self-assessment: Strengths

Potential Strength
– doing well in the area of emotional understanding

– chose good forms of resolution for others conflict situations on the test

– empathetic

– socially insightful

– driven towards self-development

– healthy approach in resolving conflict situations
– doing reasonably well in the area of emotional identification, perception, and expression

– act in accordance with your values

– lacking in self-motivation
– not very assertive
– need to strengthen self-esteem

– further development needed in personal resilience/hardiness.

These strengths indicate that I possess some of the traits that are needed to display the characteristics of a good servant-leader.

IV. Industry-Specific Issues
Looking into the Hospitality industry, specifically Airlines, I will use Singapore Airlines as a basis of my evaluation. The extent of superior service is paramount for it to establish itself. In order to deliver the standard of service the company has set for itself, it requires highly passionate and motivated employees. One of the elements that contribute to the success of Singapore Airlines is its human resource that highly regards contribution of creative ideas in which rewards are later given. (Singh, 1984) To be passionate, to inspire and to encourage innovation are strengths found in INFJs that match with the traits of Servant Leaders who encourages and motivates the followers to making a meaningful and effective work efforts.

V. Person-Specific Issues
Gender, age and culture are important aspects to be considered in shaping one’s leadership development. Being someone coming from Asia, the idea of women becoming a leader will face cultural constraints. In the context of organization, becoming a female leader will be more challenging than the male counterpart because there is a strong notion whereby men are born to lead and women to follow or serve and men hold the leadership positions. (Carly, Eagly, 1999). This is still present in the traditional Asian culture. Even to the eyes of the followers, the figure that is seen to be capable of leading goes to male gender. The masculinity possessed becomes a symbol of strength and competency. (Schein, 2001) Instructions led by female leaders are more likely to be followed because of the idea of obedience to authority rather than being influenced through inspiration.

The gender-bias corporate culture becomes a huge obstacle in making use of servant-leadership framework as a female. This gender bias is still evident in many office settings of Japanese corporations whereby higher ranking positions are given mostly to male; and in fact Japan seeing a near zero resemblance between women and managers. (Schein, Mueller, 1992) Besides that, age also becomes an issue in determining the level of experience of a professional. Younger age typically indicates limited exposure to the various real-life experiences and this may affect the extent of wisdom in making judgments.

VI. Timeframe and Evaluation Plan
The weaknesses based on the self-assessments are used to develop my leadership goals and the Michigan Leadership Competency Model serves as a tool to categorize the goals set and the timeframe for the plan. Time

Self-Developmental Goals

Servant leaders seek to nurture their abilities to dream great dreams; not just consumed by achieving operational goals. To develop characteristic and thinking process encompass broader-based conceptual thinking require discipline and practice.

Leading Others
Servant leaders seek to persuade and convince others through inspiration rather than coerce compliance. This requires a level of confidence, personal drive and energy to be emulated to the followers. As represented in one of my weaknesses from the self-assessment, I lack in self-motivation, self-esteem and assertiveness. These characteristics need to be developed in order to gain enough personal power to lead and guide others.

Creativity is one of the key characteristics of servant leaders. Also, the hospitality industry takes great importance in areas of innovation to stay competitive and relevant. This is a characteristic that continually needs to be fostered and developed.

Social Responsibility
Ethically Social
Servant Leadership highlights the importance of leading for the greater good for a deeper moral purpose. This emphasizes the need for moral awareness and ethical conducts when leading. This can be done by participating more in charitable or environmental causes which aim in improving social welfare of the broader society. Such participation allow exposure and knowledge-gaining.

Evaluation by Multi-Step Action Plan
1 year
Completing Bachelor of Business Degree
3 years
Employment in Airline as Flight Attendant to gain exposure to new experiences, ethical conducts and ideas and insight knowledge on providing service in hospitality industry (Innovation & Social Responsibility) 2 years

Further study on Master of Hospitality Management to broaden conceptual thinking process. This also help to gain self-esteem and improve on the ability to influence (Conceptualization & Influencing)

Working in Management

VII. Industry Leader Input
Previously I focused my goals only on the trait developments. This was difficult measure because characteristics can only be proven once I’ve been put on the position to be a leader in a group. There was no tangible achievement to evaluate the success of my goal planning. Therefore, through his suggestion, I modified my goal timeframe by adding a multi-step action plan that cover the length of time to achieve each target. For example, the employment in an Airline industry will help me garner new experiences, perspective and practice discipline in work ethics. Feedback on my work performance from supervisors can serve as a form of evaluation. Also, the attainment of higher qualification will allow me to gain broader and deeper knowledge on the industry through research. The exposure and experience may help me to develop a stronger leadership characteristic and further evaluation can be done through taking re-test for EI.

Wordcount: 1,509 words
(Excluding References, Appedices, Headings & Tables)

VIII. Appendices

1. Michigan Leadership Competency Model
Leadership Assessment Report
Scores range from 1 to 6, with 1 indicating that you rated yourself low on that competency and 6 indicating that you rated yourself high.

Introverted iNtuition
Introverted intuitives, INFJs enjoy a greater clarity of perception of inner, unconscious processes than all but their INTJ cousins. Just as SP types commune with the object and “live in the here and now” of the physical world, INFJs readily grasp the hidden psychological stimuli behind the more observable dynamics of behavior and affect. Their amazing ability to deduce the inner workings of the mind, will and emotions of others gives INFJs their reputation as prophets and seers. Unlike the confining, routinizing nature of introverted sensing, introverted intuition frees this type to act insightfully and spontaneously as unique solutions arise on an event by event basis. Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted feeling, the auxiliary deciding function, expresses a range of emotion and opinions of, for and about people. INFJs, like many other FJ types, find themselves caught between the desire to express their wealth of feelings and moral conclusions about the actions and attitudes of others, and the awareness of the consequences of unbridled candor. Some vent the attending emotions in private, to trusted allies. Such confidants are chosen with care, for INFJs are well aware of the treachery that can reside in the hearts of mortals. This particular combination of introverted intuition and extraverted feeling provides INFJs with the raw material from which perceptive counselors are shaped. Introverted Thinking

The INFJ’s thinking is introverted, turned toward the subject. Perhaps it is when the INFJ’s thinking function is operative that he is most aloof. A comrade might surmise that such detachment signals a disillusionment, that she has also been found lacking by the sardonic eye of this one who plumbs the depths of the human spirit. Experience suggests that such distancing is merely an indication that the seer is hard at work and focusing energy into this less efficient tertiary function. Extraverted Sensing

INFJs are twice blessed with clarity of vision, both internal and external. Just as they possess inner vision which is drawn to the forms of the unconscious, they also have external sensing perception which readily takes hold of worldly objects. Sensing, however, is the weakest of the INFJ’s arsenal and the most vulnerable. INFJs, like their fellow intuitives, may be so absorbed in intuitive perceiving that they become oblivious to physical reality. The INFJ under stress may fall prey to various forms of immediate gratification. Awareness of extraverted sensing is probably the source of the “SP wannabe” side of INFJs. Many yearn to live spontaneously; it’s not uncommon for INFJ actors to take on an SP (often ESTP) role.

Briggs, K. C., & Myers, I. B. (1998). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). The Servant as Leader. Business Leadership: A Jossey-Bass Reader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Miller, Skringar, Dalglish & Stevens, (2012) Leadership and Change Management. 1st ed. Prahran VIC Australia: Tilde University Press.

Maxwell, J. C., & Dorvan, J. (1997). Becoming a Person of Influence: How to Positively Impact the Lives of Others. Nashville: Thomas Nelson

Schein, V.E. (2001) A global look at psychological barriers to women’s progress in management. Journal of Social Issues. 57, pp. 675-688.

Schein, V.E., & Mueller, R. (1992). Sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics: A cross cultural look. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 13, pp. 439-447.

Carli L.L., Eagly A.H. (1999). Gender effects on influence and emergent leadership

Powell G.N. (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 203–222

Soo Min Toh, Geoffrey J. Leonardelli (2012) Cultural constraints on the emergence of women as leaders. Journal of World Business, Vol. 47, Issue 4, pp. 604-611

Karmjit Singh (1984). Successful strategies—The story of Singapore Airlines (SIA) Long Range Planning, Vol.17, Issue 5, pp. 17-22

Dranitsaris, A., (ed.) 2009, Personality Type and Leadership Behaviour: Jung’s Typology for the Workplace, e-book, accessed 25 April 2013,

Central Michigan University, 2004, Leadership Competency Model, accessed 20 April 2013, < >

Heiss, M.M, Butt, J.,1999, INFJ, Typelogic, accessed 25 April 2013,

HumanMetrics Jung’s Typology Test INFJ, 2012, accessed 25 April 2013,

Participative Leadership

In taking the online quiz required for this assignment I found myself to be a participative leader. This type of leader fits me perfectly and I was not surprised to see the answer. I try to engage each team member in identifying necessary goals and developing procedures or strategies for reaching those goals .

Nursing management is a challenging and difficult task. The style of the manager can be important for employees’ as well as other members of the healthcare team’s acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve a high quality of care. From this view, participative leadership can be seen as a leadership approach that relies greatly on the leader functioning as a facilitator and mentor rather than simply issue orders or make assignments. Participative leadership theories recommend that the model guidance approach is one that takes the involvement of each member of the team concerned into consideration.

I encourage participation and contribution from members of the group. This helps them feel more significant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative leadership, however, the leader retains the right to allow the participation of others and eventually has the final say for the best interest of the group and entice teamwork. Teamwork is established through effective communication and a shared vision that reinforces an environment of collaboration with a constant free-flow of ideas. The leader must communicate a clear vision of where the organization is headed and how the team is going to attain this goal.

I find myself trying to take complete control and responsibility for the team. I have a hard time letting go and giving in to new ideas. I need to develop better listening and compromising skills. I am not a shy or quiet spoken person/leader. I do think I am fair, honest and take pride in maintain integrity. Taking a different approach and keeping an open mind would be a good place for me to start.

I most definitely will be watching for the leadership skills needed for advanced practice nurses in my clinical phase of courses. I am open to suggestions now as a leader in management in my current role. I feel it is always most important to do what is safe for the patients, the team and the organization. I am always watching the leaders of my organization and picking up skills I see as note worthy. Unfortunately, each organizations has leaders with attributes that should not be a part of leadership qualities.

The most important quality that a leader can possess is honesty. The process of becoming a leader starts with honesty and builds into a trusting relationship between leader and followers. If this quality is lacking no amount of team building will be successful. Honesty is the building block of any healthy relationship. “Honesty is the most powerful weapon in business” (Fralic, 2011, p. 447). “Leaders must have a sense of one’s own character and be able to accept no less than what is beneficial for the whole group”(Fralic, 2011, p. 447) In order to function with total honesty and integrity each leader must have the mind set of what is beneficial for the whole group not just the select few or the leader (Fowler, 2010).

Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Nursing is an occupation that work with people of all ages, cultural background and lifestyle to help them accomplish the highest level of care possible. They play an important role in society as well as in economy since they are the ones that provide care to people with illness and not capable to take care of themselves. Recent studies demonstrate that population of nurses is declining and hospitals are desperately struggling to keep hold of their current nurses. Shortages in nurses are definitely shocking , given that the evolving population require skilled nurses to take of them throughout their desperate times.

A nursing shortage is determined when the amount of nurses being retired and the amount of nurses entering the nursing field is not the equivalent. Nurses educate people to support and sustain their own wellness and to avoid illness. Research studies have shown that majority of US citizen are overweight, and unhealthy. This study demonstrates major cause to promote more to enter nursing field since there are so many diseases on the rise like obesity cause people to have diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pleasure, and other harmful qualities, cancer, heart attacks etc.

If rate of nurses keep dropping, patients would have to wait longer to treatment and there will be lot of patients that are being admitted in the hospital. People with severe conditions will have to wait for long time before the nurses can attend them, which could result in either death or other serious condition since most of the operations that saves a person’s life happens in a millisecond. A second can mean life or death to the patient’s existence. Nurse turnover is the description given to nurses that quit, or terminated from nursing industry over the nurses that join it (Huber, 2010). High standards, hard labor, major skills, and high education are various factors that cause nurse turnover to increase over the past few years. This paper will be focusing over the causes of nurse turn over and solution to resolve issue from a leader’s stance than a manager’s point of view.

Comparing and Contrasting the Approach of Nursing and Manger Nurses and a supervising manager make up the essence of every nursing association. The manager is in charge and is given the opportunity to make a difference in the work environment. The managers have many goals, including directing, teaching, and encouraging the nurses and staff. By doing this, those under the manager can achieve more on a professional level, while being satisfied with their career. Even though the managers might not have much of a status in certain hospitals and work environments, they still strive to encourage and influence critical settlements. A manager must always be supportive of the nurses and staff.

There are some work environments where the managers always provide help and advice. It is very difficult for nurses to stay in the field and work when their manager does not show respect or satisfaction towards their efforts. Thus, the manager must not only be responsible for critical decision making, but the happiness and motivation of the employees. Even though the nurses are in charge of their patients, the manager is the one who overlooks both the patients, nurses, and staff. To be a nursing leader, one must direct the nurses, employees, and other staff members throughout all situations. Their personality must be one that is knowledgeable, strict and fair. They must be able to lead others, take care of monetary issues, and talk with different types of people. Nursing leaders must also have great people skills.

This includes taking with fellow employees and overcoming language obstacles. An important example is conducting interview sessions with different types of people and being able to make conclusions on their personalities, as well as grading the individual based on their ethical values. A nursing leader should also be able to provide an enjoyable territory in a difficult environment. This can be completed by organizing and arranging everything from budget costs to special occasions. In this way, a nurse can have something to look forward to after they have finished taking care of their patient. The nursing leader can also help raise money to help those around them by hosting fundraisers. By advocating the study of nursing, a nursing leader can conserve the nurses and staff in the work environment.

They can promote the career of nursing to the younger generation. For example, there have been recent articles discussing problems between the United States of America and Syria. If there is a possibility of a war, the United States must have many nurses to help with the crisis. Thus, promoting the nursing career is crucial because it will be very beneficial. One way this can be completed is by having the nursing manager step up as a role model to the younger generation. Another possibility is to publicize the career to those who are still studying in college with undeclared majors. Personal and Professional Beliefs of Nursing

Nursing is a profession that concentrates on the desires of others and taking care of patients that need professional care. Nurses are believed to provide holistic care for the patients as it is the finest method to heal a patient quicker. Nurses deserve respect for the work they perform on a daily basis basis. Over the past few years, media have been demonstrating false illustration of nurses. The famous TV series known as Gray’s Anatomy is a perfect example of the misleading ideas about hardworking nurses. Even though its purpose is to entertain people, people take it seriously. As by the writer the best to contradict the declining rates of nurse turnover is to prove good leadership skills, people skills, financial skills, and quality care skills. Conclusion

Over the past few years the number of nurse turnover has amplified. As we all know, nurses play an significant role in culture, physically mentally and financially in the United States as well as in other countries. Hospital and clinics are trying hard to hold onto their nurses because the number of nurses joining the medical field is declining. In order to convey more people to enter medical field, one must educate the rising students about the benefits about being a nurse and how they affect the society. Another technique is using advertisement to as way to encourage people to enter medical field. Using these strategy, it can help the medical field increase population of nurses.

Huber, D.L., (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management, (4th ed.). W.B. Saunders,
092009, retrieved from
Steven T. Hunt, (2009) Nursing Turnover: Costs, Causes, & Solutions, Success factors for
Healthcare retrieved from

View as multi-pages

Effective approaches in leadership and management

Healing hospital paradigm represent the whole health care system which mainly focus on the whole recovery of the body mentally physically and spiritualy.The traditional style of cure model is only to eradicate the disease. But in the case of healing health it mainly focus on the total wellness of the entire body by addressing the patients emotional and spiritual needs.There are three major important elements in the hospital paradigm.They are loving care healthy healing surroundings and the technology.In this paper we are going to discuss the elements and challenges of the healing hospital when we implement the healing environment.

Components of the healing hospital Patients curing environment is the most highlighting element of the healing hospital paradigm.It always concentrate on the care of the patient, the atmosphere of the hospital while on treatment (Samueli Institute ,2010).In the case of healing hospital paradigm it is not only restricted on the patient’s treatment or the diagnostic procedure nor the medicine but also it consider the patient’s health care person or the care giver or even the family members in the progression of cure.This theory is based on the knowledge that a patient’s full recovery connect with the patient’s emotional and spiritual well beingness.Healing hospital paradigm states if a whole person is to be okay it needs to be his physical body and all its parts ,the mind and the spirit must be healthy.Therefor healing hospital perception , the treatment of a patient is with compassion and a culture of concern and fundamental loving.

Under healing hospital paradigm, health care practioners have to support physical wellness as well as the mental health of the patient instead of only taking care of the treatment of the illness or disease(Baptist healing trust).It is important to prepare the patient mentally to receive the treatment. Health practioners need not only show their skills in the treatment but also have to show their ability to deliver their loving care and make extra step to make the patient feel more better(Samueli Institute ,2010).Showing compassion to the patient is also a way of meeting their needs of mental and spiritual needs. Healing physical environment is the second element of the healing hospital paradigm.It clearly says the physical environment is very important for the healing process of a patient(Samueli Institute 2010).Rest is very important in the healing process.

A hospital environment supposed to be very calm and quiet in order to make the patient feel better.Eventhough the hospital are provided information about keeping silence inside the hospital ,many of the hospital surroundings are characterized by noisy environment with the nurses spectra link phones,pagers,and nurses conversations. On the top of that family and relative gatherings in the corridors of the hospitals. These challenges always a matter for the entire patients recovery. Most hospital are facing these challenging situations and cannot make a comfortable stay of the patient. The healing paradigm came up with some suggestions which includes providing an relaxing environment by the hospital that improves the service level of the hospital and improve the patients satisfaction. Entertainment program for the patient and decent meals also provides greater satisfaction to the patient.

Work design and the technology is the third component of the healing hospital paradigm. Healing hospital has to have a well advanced work design which help the health professional to deliver quality care.(Samueli Institute 2010).Healing has the technologies which aid the patient to have competent service,confidence,cost effective, and confidentiality in their treatment. Patient get satisfied with these psychological needs and which proceed to have a fast recovery from their disease. Healing hospital participate with the patient with their advanced technologies and design to meet such needs. The modern technology and design helps the health practioners to work without difficulty and provide better care that can proceed to an effective healing development to the patient.

Challenges involved in implementing a healing environment

There are number of challenges to implement the noble concept of healing hospital in the traditional hospital settings.One of the main challenges to implement the noble concept of the healing hospital in the traditional hospital is to do with the finances(Geffin,2004).To provide the healing environment need a huge amount of investment.To provide the advance technology ,recruitment of the skilled people and their training need a big amount of money. Requirement of investment in facilities and technology is necessary to make sure that the hospital physical environment has been incorporated with the healing process. Also it is very important have a terms of mind set ,ability and culture of medical practioners in order to provide a devoted and sympathetic care in regards the requirement of the hospital healing paradigm.It must be a discouraging job for the traditional hospital authorities to accept such expensive projects.

One of the other main challenges to implement the healing concept is the legal problems. Hospitals must have already many legal challenges including higher rate of court cases and problems with the insurance. Since this perception is not yet fully activated in the health care the healing concept also may attract the people to file court cases.One of the challenges in these concept is the current employ organizations. The current system treat the employees in a graded system. But the healing hospital system treats all the employees equal. There are philosophical challenges also can see in this. The treatment model is exactly different in the old traditional style .They only focus on eliminating the disease by using the scientific methods and procedures. But the healing hospital always give importance to physical mental and spiritual needs of the patients. This type of treatment based on the patients beliefs and values. Conclusion

Holistic approach to the health care is the main element in the healing hospital paradigm.It is a concept of entire wellbeing of a patient. Not only curing or treating the disease but also taking care of the entire physical as well as emotional and spiritual needs of the body by using healing physical environment and high advanced work design and technology. There are challenges to bring this in to live .This assignment discussed about the elements of healing concept and its challenges to bring into practice.

View as multi-pages

Leadership Examples in IT industry in India

Azim Hashim Premji (born 24 July 1945) is an Indian business tycoon and philanthropist who is the chairman of Wipro Limited, guiding the company through four decades of diversification and growth to emerge as one of the Indian leaders in the software industry. After the demise of his father, Azim Premji took charge of WIPRO when he was 21 instead of taking up a high paid job. He believes in the concept of come easy go easy.

A money earned was of far more value to him instead of five found. He never let success overwhelm him and constantly learnt from his failures and built an empire which does not need an introduction. He never stopped leaning and is the best example of humility in the software industry. He always strived to find better ways to innovate and treated excellence as journey rather than destiny. He evaluates with calm mind and does whatever is the most appropriate.

At an age when most of the businessmen would retire and live a peaceful life away from stress, he is still active and inspires his employees to not only work but also enjoy the entire process. He is an idol for today’s generation and an epitome who shows us on how to live life without compromising on our core values. His desire to stretch and achieve which seem beyond one’s grasp is the most inspiring characteristic. His down to earth nature is visible from his charities.

Nandan Nilekani is considered among the most successful business leaders from India. He has several accolades and awards to his name which are proofs of his tremendously rich leadership in fostering Infosys first and now the UIDAI. Nandan Nilekani was born in Bangalore, Karnataka on June 2, 1955 as the younger son of Durga and Mohan Rao Nilekani.

He grew up as a typical middle class child high on traditional and moral values. As a child, Nilekani was extremely brilliant and had good leadership skills. He graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai and joined the Mumbai based software firm Patni Computers where he came into acquaintance with Mr. N R Narayan Murthy who later founded Infosys Technologies with Nandan and his associates.

Nilekani was known for his bold leadership style and risk taking behaviour. He co-founded Infosys Technologies with his colleagues and a starting capital of $250 after three years with Patni. Despite having considerably less experience, he moved to the US in 1981 handling the marketing and development effort for Infosys. In 1987, he came back to India and in March 2002, he took over as the Chief Executive Officer of Infosys Technologies.

Nilekani stressed in bringing about an excellence in execution within Infosys. He transformed the business at Infosys by division into verticals such as financial services, healthcare, hospitality, manufacturing, etc. emphasizing on values such as timely completion of projects on budget, hiring of high quality employees, excellent training programmes and high client and employee satisfaction. It was under his leadership that the global delivery model emerged as it is known today.

Nilekani recognised the global nature of Infosys as it was emerging with a high number of employees and huge bio-diversity. Under his leadership, Infosys was awarded several awards such as “Best Company to Work for” and “India’s Best Managed Company Award”. His entrepreneurial skills inspire the present generation to take all responsibilities head on and increase the hunger of success.


1. Explain the personality of the leaders based on Big 5 model. Cite instances to support your view.

Big Five Model states that five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. The following are the Big Five factors on which the personality of Azim Premji is evaluated against:

The Big 5 personality traits are: (OCEAN)

1. Openness to experience: (Openness to new ideas)
Azim Premji has been very open to ideas and experiences. After the death of his Father in 1966, the 22-year old scion to the hydrogenated-oil manufacturing firm returned to manage the business and diversified the company into other areas such as lightning products, soaps, etc. Also, the coming-up of Wipro as the leading IT Company was foreseen by Azim Premji.

2. Conscientiousness: (Show self-discipline and aim for achievement against expectations) In the span of 50 years, Wipro has transformed to one of the leading R & D service providers of the world. One of the popular Azim Premji anecdotes was when he attended his first annual general meeting. A shareholder doubted Premji’s ability to handle business at such a young age and publicly advised him to sell his shareholding and give it to a more mature management.

This spurred Azim Premji and made him all the more determined to make Wipro a success story. His conscientiousness can also be seen in the focused efforts the CSR initiatives that the “Azim Premji Foundation” undertakes.

3. Extraversion: (Energy creation from external means; gregariousness) Azim Premji is considered to be an introvert. He maintains a measured engagement with the media. This can also be discerned from the relatively less number of news articles on Azim Premji (about 3000).

4. Agreeableness:
One of the most famous quotes by Azim Premji is “We must have faith in our own ideas even if everyone tells us that we are wrong.” Also, he was one of the few corporate leaders in India who spoke out against the populist CSR measures taken by the Government of India.

5. Neuroticism: (Tendency to experience negative emotions)
Azim Premji’s ability to manage the business in the face of difficult situations is a proof of his emotional stability. Time and again, he has
shown dedication to his work and duties; even when faced with a grave personal loss (death of his Father).

2. What are the values of the organization or group the leaders represent? What are their personal values? Substantiate your claims by evidence.

Wipro had 3 Values as stated on its Website (Popularly known as SPIRIT OF WIPRO):

Intensity To Win:
For Wipro It is not about winning at all costs, neither is it about winning every time, nor about winning at the expense of others. It is about working together to create a synergy; realizing that I win when my team wins, my team wins when Wipro wins, and Wipro wins when its customers win and when its stakeholders win. It is about innovating all the time. It is a continuous endeavor to do better than the last time. It is the Spirit of fortitude, the Spirit of never letting go… ever.

This is evident from the product extension of Wipro in various fields possible from its flagship product of vegetable oil to lightning products, from Computer software to FMCG product like soap.

For this spirit of Play to win made Wipro achieve following: Wipro ranks 11th in the first edition of Interbrand’s ‘Best Indian Brands’ study, 2013. Global Telecoms Business recognizes Wipro with the ‘Wholesale Service Innovation Award 2013′ for their unique IT R&D Partnership Project. Wipro cited as a Leader in Sustainable Technology Services by Independent Analyst Firm.

Act with Sensitivity:
At its highest vision, respect for the individual is unqualified. The core of this sensitivity lies in understanding that every being, however different, is equal. The spirit of democracy underlies our notion of sensitivity. It believes in true respect meaning creating conditions in which every individual grows to realize his/her promise and potential. As quoted on its website “We are responsible for, and have an obligation to live in harmony with, our ecological environment. We should actively act to preserve nature, and refrain from any action that harms ecology.”

This Act with Sensitivity led them to bag the following awards: Wipro is the highest ranked gadget maker in Greenpeace’s latest green guide to electronics 2012. Ranked 2nd in the Workplace Diversity & Inclusivity category in India’s Best Places to Work For Study -2012 conducted by Great Places to Work Institute.

Unyielding Integrity:
Integrity is a commitment to searching for and acting on the truth. “Truth” is a word with many manifestations – it means keeping one’s word; it also means understanding and realizing the highest vision of oneself. As quoted on website “I am the litmus test of my integrity. For integrity is the manifestation of conscience.” Wipro’s code of conduct for employees says it all: Don’t do anything that you’re unwilling to have published in tomorrow’s newspaper with your photograph next to it. It’s that kind of Integrity that has catapulted Premji and Wipro to unprecedented heights.

Personal Values:
Azim Premji, the businessman, practices what he preaches. When it comes to upholding personal values, there’s no margin for error. He followed 2 principles throughout his life. They are: Value For Money:

If ‘value for money’ was a guiding principle of Premji’s life, so was his practical nature. Although Wipro was well regarded, stories current in Bangalore at that time about Azim Premji related to his ‘careful about money’ habits. Azim Premji flew economy class and there was this tale about him taking an auto from the airport after disembarking from a flight and not finding his car.

Everybody in Bangalore knew that he was a rich guy who was extremely simple and would do things such as borrowing magazines from the staff periodical pool with the promise of returning them later. It was not unusual for Premji to land up at the premises of customers for a sales pitch for his computers. If a good order could be bagged — and this could be anywhere in India — Premji disregarded his high status and became a salesman.

This was the value which he admires the most. One of the incident for which this principle is found to be evident in Premji is when Wipro managers speak in awe of the time they received a terse message that their chairman was flying down to Bangalore for a meeting. It was clear that something major was in the offing. Premji came straight to the point. A senior general manager of the company had been given marching orders because he had inflated a travel bill. The man’s contribution to the company was significant; the bill’s amount was not. Yet he had to go for this solitary lapse. It was, Premji stressed, a matter of principles.

3. What are some of the major conflicts that these leaders have confronted? Who were the stakeholders? How did they resolve the conflict? Were they able to live up to the expectations of all stakeholders?

Conflict of Wipro:-
In 2000 Wipro came out with an IPO of American Depository Shares (ADS) in the United States. Wipro offered a commonly utilized and Securities and Exchange Commission approved Directed Share Program (DSP) that allowed employees and clients of Wipro to purchase ADSs at the IPO market price. Their clients also included the World Bank staff to whom Wipro allowed to purchase shares at market price.

The Program’s objective was to involve employees and customers with the public offering to expand recognition and brand of Wipro, but the World Bank in June 2007 determined that this was a conflict of interest. The World Bank deemed the IT firm ineligible to bid for direct contracts from IT sector for the period 2007-2011. The multilateral lender banned Wipro in June 2007 from doing business with the group under its corporate procurement program.

Effects of ban on Wipro by World Bank:-
The ban came to light in January 2009. Shares of Wipro were down by more than 10% when news came out after two years of ban. Employees of Wipro were under fear after what happened in Satyam. They were worried about future of their career as well as the future of the company.

Leadership of the Chairman of the company – Mr. Azim Premji:- At this time, Mr. Azim Premji led Wipro from the front. He wrote a letter to 1,00,000 employees of Wipro. He denied allegations of providing improper benefits to Bank staff. He gave assurance to employees that all participants in the program signed a conflict of interest statement and their purchase did not violate any ethics or conflict of interest policies of their company.

He said business ethics is their top priority while dealings with all stakeholders of Wipro. According to his letter, Wipro’s success over the decades has been built on the foundation of its values. Mr. Azim Premji was able to gain confidence from employees of Wipro. Wipro passed that difficult phase and continued their success story. World Bank lifted the ban on Wipro in 2011. It is now the fourth largest IT Company in India. Azim premji has shown us what effective leadership can do.

2. What are the CSR initiatives that these leaders support? Give examples.

CSR Initiatives taken by Azim Premji:
Azim Premji has already given 25% of his wealth to charity. Azim Premji has become the first Indian to sign up for the “Giving Pledge”, an undertaking by large-hearted billionaires to dedicate a majority of their wealth to philanthropy. Azim Premji’s biggest CSR initiative has been the establishment of “Azim Premji Foundation.”

Azim Premji Foundation:
Azim Premji Foundation was established in 2001 with a vision to contribute to education that facilitates a just, equitable, humane and sustainable society. Their approach has been to focus all their resources and efforts on systemic change and improvement in quality of education in the government schools. The foundation has focussed on following areas while working with the government:

Teacher Education
Azim Premji Foundation’s teacher education programs have sought to build capacity in the existing education functionaries in terms of their perspectives, subject matter knowledge, competencies and motivation levels. Since inception, they have worked with over 50,000 government school teachers across 8 states.

Education Leadership and Management
Azim Premji Foundation has developed about 3500 education functionaries in the state of Karnataka, including principals of schools in a unique effort involving training of master development facilitators for extended periods of time through classroom training and field projects. Examination Reforms

Following Azim Premji Foundation’s work in the area, about 8 districts in 5 states have changed the way they conduct examinations for students up to 5th standard and the state of Karnataka has introduced external competency based evaluation. Technology in Education

The Foundation initiated the Computer Aided Learning programme in the year 2002 to harness the potential of computer technology for education. The objectives of the programme were to make learning enjoyable and assessment fun, for all students. To this end, the Foundation created syllabus-based bi/trilingual multimedia content. It is probably the largest developer of Digital Learning Resources that address curricular issues of children from classes 3 to 8 in 18 languages (including four tribal languages). 2.5 million Children in 20,000 schools have used these resources across 16 states.

Other Initiatives by Wipro:
Wipro Care:
“Wipro Cares” engages with communities in our proximate locations. The primary objectives of Wipro Cares are to support the developmental needs of marginalized communities in cities and towns where Wipro has a large presence. They have four core areas of work – education, health care, environment and disaster rehabilitation. Wipro Cares is currently engaged in 12 projects across India.

Through its five health care projects in three states of India, Wipro Cares is providing more than 50,000 people access to primary health care. More than 70,000 children benefit from the six education projects in five Indian cities and one Indian village. Their project in social forestry has helped plant more than 50,000 trees and has at the same time provided livelihood to around 40 farmers.

Employee engagement is an integral part of Wipro Cares where they encourage employees to volunteer with our partners, acting thus as catalysts in bringing about positive change. Apart from these core areas, as part of the long term process that is typically involved in the rehabilitation of communities affected by natural calamities, Wipro offers its employees the opportunity to engage meaningfully with the affected communities.

Mission 10X:
Mission10X is a not-for-profit trust of Wipro, launched on September 5, 2007, with an aim to enhance the employability skills of engineering graduates in India. It aims to achieve this by collaborating with academicians & leading educational institutions across the country. The Mission10X Learning Approach empowers engineering faculty with innovative teaching techniques using which they can help learners in imbibing higher level of understanding of subjects, application of concepts learned and development of key behavioural skills.

Since its launch, Mission10X has gained tremendous recognition and momentum in the field of engineering education. Mission10X has reached out to over 1,200 engineering colleges across 25 States in India and has empowered over 23,000 engineering faculty members.

The core of Wipro’s social and community initiatives is focused on responsible and deep engagement with all stakeholders – present and future generations. Eco-eye is the way they see themselves and their engagement with stakeholders – on the journey to more sustainable business practices. The initiative focuses on reducing ecological footprint of their business operations, engagement with employees and supply chain, partners and customers to create a more sustainable society, and transparent reporting/disclosures.

The ecological dimensions of their operations are focused on energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste/pollution management and recently enhancing biodiversity–they have set stretch targets for each of them. Moving beyond mere compliance with laws and regulations, engagement with employees focuses on health and safety, people development, and increasing diversity and inclusivity at workplace are their important considerations. Close collaboration with suppliers to reduce their own ecological footprint and help meet and exceed labour and human rights norms is a key focus area. NANDAN NILEKANI

1. Explain the personality of the leaders based on Big 5 model. Cite instances to support your view.

Big Five Model states that five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. The following are the Big Five factors on which the personality of Nandan Nilekani, co-founder and ex- CEO & ex-MD of Infosys is evaluated against: The Big 5 personality traits are: (OCEAN)

1. Openness to experience.
Nandan Nilekani’s career graph shows him to be a risk taker. He started his career in an IT firm as an engineer which he later quit to start his own business with his five other colleagues. Then, from an entrepreneur, he became a technocrat in the government in charge of transformational projects. Now, speculations are rife about his joining government by contesting elections from Bangalore constituency. He has also authored a book on ideas that have made India titled ‘Imagining India’. In his own words he describes his journey so far as from being an ideator to a change initiator.

2. Conscientiousness
The biggest trait of a highly conscientious person is that he is reliable and responsible. Nandan Nilekani scores high on this parameter. Only a person who is deemed responsible and dependable can be made the chief of the biggest initiative by government. Other than that, he has also served as a member of the National Knowledge Commission, formed by the prime minister to reform higher education in India. In his stint at Infosys, its revenues grew fivefold.

This shows the immense trust that the shareholders have on his leadership capability. He is well organized and persistent in his efforts. He has managed to issue 380 million AADHAR cards so far which is consistent with his target of 400 million AADHAR cards by 2013. 3. Extraversion

Nandan Nilekani is an extravert because he exudes gregariousness, is assertive and sociable. In 1981, Nandan Nilekani along with Narayan Murthy and five others co-founded Infosys. If he wouldn’t have been an extravert then probably he would have still remained as an employee of “Patni Computers” where he worked initially with the other co-founders of Infosys. Also, on his last day at Infosys, he made a speech that brought his assertive nature to the fore. It read “I am generally very articulate but this is not the day or place where I can be articulate.

I’ve been wrapped up in Infosys for 28 years. My only identity is Infosys. I will be going to lead a programme to give identity to every Indian. But today I am losing my identity…But, in my new role, I’m supposed to work with 600 government departments knowing fully well that no two government departments get along with one other.” Also people close to him and the employees who have worked under him know him as a good orator and communicator.

4. Agreeableness
Nandan Nilekani ranks high on the agreeableness dimension. He is known to be cooperative, warm and trusting. Mohandas Pai, co-founder of Infosys and a close aide of Nilekani says that he listens to all stakeholders, but has the capacity to take decisions. Also when he left Infosys to join UIDAI as its chief, many of his employees too left Infosys to join him in UIDAI. Even in UIDAI, he willingly subscribes to its rules, but at the same time also constantly looks for openings to subtly sell his ideas.

5. Neuroticism
Nandan Nilekani is a positively stable person. The desire and urgency to serve a larger good has seen Nilekani and his wife, Rohini, give away hundreds of crores of their personal wealth—which Forbes estimates at $1.3 billion (about Rs. 9,000 crore), as of March 2013, largely from their Infosys shareholding—to educational institutions, and organisations that work to address some of the basic human needs.

Some of this thinking is influenced by Nilekani’s father, Mohan Rao, a manager in a textile company and a Nehruvian. Nilekani is considered the Bill Gates of our very own silicon valley for his benevolence and Samaritan acts. 2. What are the values of the organization or group the leaders represent? What are their personal values? Substantiate your claims by evidence.

Hard work & sacrifice:
I learned the value of give and take. I learned that there is the need to sacrifice your own wants in favour of someone else. I also believe in the popular saying: Let all living beings prosper. Another feature that this leader represents is the quest for knowledge. He stresses that success depends on continual learning. He also believes in the fact that ultimately hard work pays. He says that value system is very important as it acts as a guiding light in times of darkness, confusion and self-doubt, and when faced with moral dilemma.

Leadership by example:
Nandan Nilekani believes that transferring the values and beliefs of the organization to the next generation leaders is one of the most important functions. He is actively involved in the company’s leadership development workshops and mentoring activities. He believes that future leaders need to learn how to set direction, to create a shared vision, encourage execution excellence, embrace inclusive meritocracy.

The company recognizes the importance of nurturing relationships that reflect our culture of unwavering ethics and mutual respect. The company behaves ethically and honestly in all its interactions – with the clients, partners and employees.

Right of Liberty:
The company has unwritten rules. Everybody knows that if we want to work as a team we have to be transaction based. We start every transaction on a zero base. It is perfectly feasible for us to disagree on a transaction but we start the next transaction without any bias. Only an argument that has merit wins; it has nothing to do with hierarchy.

Disagreeing is in the nature of things. When you bring a set of people who have respect for each other’s competence in certain areas and you’re transaction-oriented then it can work as it has in our case. In Infosys, we have consciously brought about a respect and dignity for every individual.

Pursuit of Excellence:
We at Infosys take a long-term view of our business and life. We remember that success is, generally ephemeral. We remember that we are only as good as the results of our last quarter. Infosys has always placed a premium upon recruiting people with a high learnability quotient.

Personal Values:
Excerpts from an interview with the Indian Express
“When I address new hires, the main thing I talk to them about is the value system. I tell them that even in the fiercest competitive situation they must never talk ill of customers. For heaven’s sake don’t short change anybody. Never ever violate any law of the land. It is better to lose a billion dollars than a good night’s sleep. It is a true meritocracy.”

Once Nandan Nilekani was having lunch with Mihir S Sharma. They ordered something to eat and Nandan waited patiently for the food to arrive. The steward finally arrives. He received an education in how Important People are treated in restaurants. He’d rather be unimportant: mainly because it is assumed Important People are Too Busy to Order. The steward asks them if they want vegetables, chicken or meat, and tells them he’ll do the rest. Before he can interpose a panicked reply, Nilekani says: “dim sum.” The steward rushes off, and brings them a random selection.

They’re terrible: undercooked and flavourless. Nilekani calls the steward over, and asks for the restaurant’s hottest sauce. The steward points to one on the table. Nilekani Smiles and picks up the sauce on his own. He understands that even the steward is a busy man and can get frustrated by his job. This clearly indicates the degree to which Nilkeni understands human behaviour and respects others.

One, stay a technocrat, as he has been since 2009, when he was handpicked by
Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi to lead a project to issue unique identity numbers to every Indian. Two, come in as a member of the Rajya Sabha, which does not require a mandate from the people, and be a minister like Jairam Ramesh or even Manmohan Singh. Three, in what will be the most challenging personally and professionally for Nilekani, a member of the Lok Sabha, elected by the people. This indicates value of excellence in Mr. Nilekani.

Former Infosys chief and chairman of Unique Identification Development Authority of India Nandan Nilekani and his wife Rohini have announced Rs. 50 crore philanthropic grants to the Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) to fund the establishment of a School of Environment and Sustainability. This indicates the generous nature of Mr. Nilekani.

The principle of building and implementing great ideas that drive progress for clients and enhance lives through enterprise solutions. Mr. Nilekani has constantly endeavoured in bringing to life great ideas and enterprise solutions. His efforts in developing a unique identification project which aims at issuing identity to all Indian residents is commendable.

4. What are some of the major conflicts that these leaders have confronted? Who were the stakeholders? How did they resolve the conflict? Were they able to live up to the expectations of all stakeholders?

Nandan Nilekani’s life seems like a smooth ride if you have a look at it. He has handled the conflicts in his personal or professional life so properly that you will feel like they weren’t even there. But, there were some brickwalls which he had to overcome. The two biggest conflicts in his life were: ‘To take care of newly started Infosys’s interests in US’ and of course, ‘the UID or Aadhar card project implementation’. To take care of newly started Infosys’s interests in US:

After walking out of Patni with Narayan Murthy and co-founding the Infosys with him, Nandan Nilekani moved to US to take care of Infosys’s interest there. He was the face of the Infosys in US and did a brilliant job in expanding its business. This part doesn’t necessarily seem as a big conflict but this was a really important phase for Infosys before it went public in 1993. Even when Infosys went public in 1993, no one picked up the stock.

Among the first people Nandan Nilekani tried to sell the Infy stock before the Initial Public Offering was his IIT Bombay senior by one year, and now Union minister, Jairam Ramesh. So, I think the answer to this conflict in question is more related to his personality and his ability to give his team or co-workers a direction towards improvement through simple and logical questions that would properly analyse their work as well as its efficiency. Mr. Nandan Nilekani has a quick mind but at the same time he is very patient and a superb listener. He is quick in doing 360 degree analysis about any problems and is quick to ask the questions on exact points too.

With these qualities he expanded the number of Infosys’ clients as well as provided them work the quality they needed. Even though, he makes it look effortless, it’s his experience, his quizzical & quick mind and his innovative thinking that makes this possible. With all these traits, he contributed to Infosys immensely and became its CEO in 2002. It was Nilekani who put Infosys on the global map and coined the phrase “flat world”, which inspired Thomas Friedman to title his book ‘The World is Flat’. The UID or Aadhar card project implementation:

When Nandan Nilekani began working on providing a unique identification number to half of India’s billion-plus people four years ago, he ran into a wall of problems. The main criticism was that 120bn rupees (£1.72bn; $1.89bn) project was also the world’s biggest biometric exercise. Not surprisingly Mr Nilekani, info-tech whizz turned head of the Unique Identification Authority of India, faced tough questions over access and misuse of personal information, surveillance, profiling, securing of confidential information by the government and threats of budget cuts.

A parliamentary panel even trashed the idea, saying it would be “misused”. When all these were cleared the whole project was called directionless. The major stakeholders in this case were: He himself, Government, Opposition, Indian population and UIDAI. Nandan Nilekani persevered really hard, day and night to answer these questions and handled each one of them professionally and answering them with his actions. As his wife said in one of the interview, “For 30 years Infosys consumed him and now it is UIDAI.” That’s how much he is involved.

When the certain journalists went for the interview at his house, Nandan and Rohini Nilekani had just returned from a workshop at the National Law School in Bangalore where he had brainstormed with a group of legal experts on how to create the legal framework for the UIDAI. A week before that he was in Bihar where he had had a 90-minute lunch meeting at chief minister Nitish Kumar’s house.

The day after the interview, Nilekani was flying off to Mumbai to meet the Maharashtra chief minister. In the four months before the interview took place, he had met 12 CMs to explain to them the intricacies of the UID project and ask for their support in enrolling people into the program.

When he was interviewed about all this and why did he take up a project that was risky and that might face such a huge criticism, he said it was mainly because he was restless. He mentioned, “I thrive on challenges and new intellectual issues. I had to show that I could execute something outside my normal world. So there was that desire to prove myself again.” There was one more reason – the feeling that he needed to give something back to the country. Nilekani was aware that he came to this job with a certain “brand perception”.

He was famous and wealthy and while these two attributes can help in opening many doors, there were people inside the government who did not believe that he understood the problems and issues of the poor. That is why he launched what he called an “outreach programme” where he made the first move in reaching out to various organizations and departments inside the government and public sector. Nilekani has been able to successfully complete the UID project and it has shown far reaching benefits. It has improved the delivery of social welfare programs, lead to more inclusion of the underprivileged, brought down the government’s transaction costs and plugged leaks and fraud in welfare schemes.

But the implications of Nilekani’s role go far beyond the UID. He was one of the most high profile hires made by the Manmohan Singh government in the project. There were two implications – if he succeeds, a lot more people from the private sector and academic world will step forward to work with the government but if he fails that movement could slow down, which is why so many people across the country were watching this move so closely. Mr Nilekani was well-aware of the risks.

As he himself says, “In the private sector, nine out of 10 start-ups usually fail and the UID too is like a start-up.” He knew that his prior success didn’t guarantee success in this world and if he didn’t deliver the consequences would be large and four years on, Mr Nilekani – the famous co-founder of Infosys, the $7bn Indian info-tech behemoth – believes he has been able to allay fears. One of his biggest strengths at Infosys was building consensus and breaking down a complex problem and get people to identify the specific parts where they could not agree.

The other was his supreme networking skills. And he put both of them to good use in UIDAI. He certainly silenced the critics with superb execution of the project, cleared all the doubts of the stakeholders and Indian people and even grass root politicians and provided people with Aadhar Card – their UID.

5. What are the CSR initiatives that these leaders support? Give examples.

Nandan Nilekani himself is not an organisation or is not heading any profit making organisation so it is not mandatory upon him to devote 2% of his earnings towards corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. In fact he has right now devoted his complete time towards society by spearheading the UIDAI project. He is the chairman of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIADAI). This project is aimed at creating a complete database of the Indian population in order for the government to reach out to the masses in a more effective manner.

Besides this Mr. Nandan Nilekani’s wife Rohini Nilekani has been involving herself into a lot of social work which could be indirectly termed that she has been doing on his behalf. Recently Mrs Rohini Nilekani raised about Rs 163.58 crore by selling 5.77 lakh of her shares of the IT services company for philanthropic work. Mrs Rohini Nilekani recently stated that she has taken philanthropic initiatives in multiple sectors such as education, water, environment and governance among others.

The proceeds of the sale of shares, post tax, are being deployed towards these and other philanthropic contributions. This was just a one-off social task undertaken by them. Besides this on a full time basis they have a non-profit organisation named Arghyam. Arghyam grants funds to organisations, which implement and manage groundwater and sanitation projects in India. Arghyam has made grants to recipients in 22 states of India since 2005, the year of its founding.

Arghyam, a foundation she set up with a private endowment, to work on water and sanitation issues in India. Apart from this Mrs Rohini Nilekani is also Founder-Chairperson of Pratham Books, a charitable trust which seeks to put “A book in every child’s hand.” All these initiatives it could be assumed are being undertaken by her but it cannot be denied that the source of income or the free movement of all projects undertaken by her have a bearing signature of her husband which can be easily noticed. When Mr. Nandan Nilekani was asked the reason for his leaving Infosys it was found out that he had a feeling that he needed to give something back to the country.

It was feeling that lead him to develop the country’s first unique identification scheme that hopes to cover all of India in phases and give a unique number as exists in all other developed countries. Mr. Nandan Nilekani like his wife does not believe in philanthropy is the way to alleviate poverty and inequality. He rather believes that social work for the country can only be carried out by working with the government.

He has also been trying to enter into politics and has a belief that if one academically successful man is able to enter politics and is able to help India there would be more who would get into it. A person who is working for the government in a selfless manner is the most apt example for social responsibility being carried out and Nandan Nilekani is doing that thing in the best possible manner there could be. REFERENCES

‘Value for money’ – an article on Azim Premji in Times Of India (03 December 2010)–Take-charge-of-your-career-destiny

View as multi-pages

Leadership Profile

I am currently the Director of the Patient Care Management Department at one of the local for-profit hospitals. We have gone through some tremendous changes since I have been there. When I started at the hospital, we did not have a director we only had a team leader and the hospital was up for sale. April 2012, the team leader decided to resign. I was then nominated by my co-workers to step up to the team leader position. Immediately the hospital was sold and they posted a job listing for director of our department. For the next year, there were only a scant number of interview prospects for the job listing.

I then decided that I should tackle this job opportunity, so I applied. In the midst of all of this, the new owners brought in a consulting firm for our department. The consulting firm mentioned to upper administration that there was great talent already in the department to fulfill the director position. In May 2013, I was promoted to director. I currently oversee the day to day operations in the department. Leadership Weakness

I consider Welch’s core principles of voice and dignity to be an area of development. As indicated in Welch’s book Winning “every person in the world wants a voice and dignity, and every person deserves them”. As an evolving leader, this will be a principle that needs further development. I need to learn to conduct my voice in a professional manner so that I am heard and well respected. I also want to allow my team to have a voice and dignity in the workplace. I want them to bring all their brain power to the table (Welch, 2005) and make sure they know they can do this. Leadership Profile

I was given a task to handle in my department even though it really should have been assigned to another department. I did not want to turn anything down being the new person and fear of having a voice, so I accepted the responsibility of writing the policy. I started to work with one of my team members to write the policy. My team member came to me one day and stated “I really do not mind helping write this policy but it should really be the other department”. I listened and once she was finished I scheduled a meeting with the director of the other department. I met with the other director to discuss that his department should really take a handle on writing this policy and that we would help in any way possible. I had a voice and was listened to because the other department has now been assigned the policy writing.

This has impacted me as a leader because we all should have a voice. Everyone in the work-place deserves to be heard. Winning states that not “everyone’s opinions should be put into practice or every single complaint needs to be satisfied”, however this team members opinion did need to be heard. If I would not have given her a voice, we probably would still be writing the policy. Voice and dignity in relation to my D/C management style, I am very direct and straightforward (“Everything Disc Management Online Profile”, 2008).

This is where I need to be mindful when speaking, that I do not come across as harsh. The voice and dignity principle that I plan to improve will take specific steps. I plan to execute methods within our department that will consistently allow every ones voice to be heard. I will set up monthly meetings where everyone will be able to discuss any concerns or ideas to better improve our workflow. I will keep meeting minutes where I can go back to address these Leadership Profile

concerns and see where we can make changes and even collaborate with other team member’s hospital wide. The team will also know that they can come to me at any time or day to discuss issues and that I will listen openly and confidentially if need be. This will give them a chance and opportunity to feel included in the task at hand. Leadership Strength

Winning states that “leaders relentlessly upgrade their team, using every encounter as an opportunity to evaluate, coach, and build self-confidence”. I consider this to be a strength of mine. Before I took this new position, I knew that I had to get the best team together if we wanted to succeed. I had evaluated two employees that were not capable of performing the daily job duties, and released them. I did lots of research on my prospective employees and hired the best.

Now that I have a fully qualified team, I am constantly looking for ways to enhance the department and their skills. I also look daily to entertain one’s self-confidence if appropriate. This is a passion of mine to acknowledge others when they have earned it. As indicated in Welch’s book Winning “when you become a leader, success is all about growing others”. I feel this has impacted me as a leader because I take pride in helping and watching others grow.

The growth of others represents my management style in that I am results-oriented. I like to see the end product of my team members. With my style I also need to be conscious not to be so demanding. To further improve on leadership rule number one, I would like to incorporate a monthly evaluation tool that can also be part of their quarterly review. This will allow me to be managing Leadership Profile

their production throughout, instead of waiting to the end to do the quarterly review. I believe when waiting until the end of the three month period to do the quarterly review, we lack the ability to constantly upgrade because things are missed or forgotten. This makes the quarterly review less worthy and a disadvantage to the team, the team member and myself. Recommendation As a young leader, I want to learn from the Jack Welch Management Institute and apply my learning daily. I hope to accomplish becoming a more effective leader in the near future.

Leadership Profile
Everything DiSC Management Online Profile (2008). Resources Unlimited (3rd edition). Inscape
Welch, J. (2005). Winning. New York, NY: HarperCollins

GE’s Two-Decade Transformation: Jack Welch’s Leadership

Jack Welch received his Master of Science and Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois in 1960. After completing his years of education, Welch was hired by General Electric Corporation (GE) as a chemical engineer for the Plastics department. Promotions followed rapidly and at the age of 45, in April 1981, he became CEO of GE, one of the world’s leading diversified industrial companies. Even though, the U.S. economy was in a recession during that time and unemployment rates were very high, Welch found the way to challenge everyone around him and to made changes that helped him create one of the ”Most Admired Companies in the United States” 1.How would you describe Jack Welch’s leadership style? Was his effect on organizational culture positive or negative? Defend your argument.

When Jack Welch became CEO of GE, he made a decision to radically restructure the company, realign goals and motivations, and push managers and employees to “stretch” to new previously unknown limits. He set high standards for each of the business units to become number 1 or 2 in the industry, and if the results weren’t satisfying, he disengaged from that sector or sold it completely. Between 1981 and 1990, GE sold more than 200 businesses that freed up over $11 billion of capacity. Jack believed in complete dedication and always putting 110% into everything he was doing. His management style and motivation included three main areas: empowering/motivation, goal setting and clear communication. Welch was very motivated and full of internal driving passion that made him work for reasons that went beyond money or status.

He was always “thirsty” for better results and continuously raised performance bar for GE. He was a strong believer in incentives and rewards, in addition he also implemented a model where stock options became the primary component of management compensation. Employees who were scored highly on their performance reviews received large bonuses, what further motivated them to even higher performance. Welch continuously worked on creating environment in which people could do their best. He believed that good people were GE’s highest asset and created main foundation for company’s success. In order to improve communication and organizational culture, Welch reduced the hierarchical levels from nine to four and made sure that all business units would report directly to him. Welch focused on creating the boundaryless company, with a friendly, open and anti-parochial environment.

It was important to him to create atmosphere where employees could freely share new ideas and find best solutions to any obstacles that company had to deal with. He was completely aware that employees at GE come from different backgrounds and with different experience, therefore his goal was to take away from the benefits of this diversity and aimed to reshape them and guide them toward the right direction with the use of GE philosophies. He promoted people who were thinking outside the box and were able to challenge the status quo. Through these channels of open communication Welch was able to motivate his employees, as they felt direct connection with the company. Welch spent most of his time on training and developing talent within top managers of GE. Around 70% of his time was dedicated to people issues, various problems and developing others.

He used Crotonville training center as a place for communication throughout the GE organization. It was a place where managers learned and experienced many of the GE problems, as well as ways to better cope with various business difficulties and challenges. Through the implementation of the 360° reviews he was able to openly communicate with his employees and let everyone know exactly where they stand in the organization. It was a major motivational force that contributed to increased performance and employee’s dedication. Jack Welch wanted to create a work environment where people at all levels would be held accountable for their own work and asked people to use their dreams while setting business targets. His goal was to make everyone “stretch” and constantly work on becoming a better performer.

In order to reward those employees who were able to reach their dream goals, he compensated them with stock options and substantial bonuses. Welch was fully aware of psychological contract that exists between employees and organizations. Throughout his career as a CEO, he knew that GE offers the best jobs for people who are willing to compete and perform at their highest standards. The company offered opportunities for personal and professional growth and simultaneously rewarded top performing individuals. By flattening the organizational hierarchy, removing the bureaucracy, setting clear goals and open communication Welch succeeded in transforming GE and creating healthy organizational culture. His motivational strategy and clear understanding of psychological contract helped him create best managers and company that became a global leader.

2.From a motivational perspective, was Welch an effective or ineffective leader? How so? Explain and support your argument. Jack Welch is a truly legendary leader who has made General Electric into one of the world’s most successful companies and as Fortune described him “Manager of the Century”. Throughout his career at GE, Welch has continuously concentrated on motivating his employees and “stretching” their abilities. He believed that leaders should articulate a vision and then energize others to execute it. As we all know, socially skilled people are also expert persuaders who find the right way to motivate others. Their passion for work seems “contagious” and has a positive impact on other employees. Welch was striving to attract only the best talent and people who would bring the most value to the organization.

He succeeded in getting huge numbers of very capable people all pulling them in the same very profitable direction. He knew that good people will steer the company toward success and therefore he was a strong believer in incentives. He made sure that psychological contract between employees and organization was being constantly negotiated and that great performance needed to be rewarded. He expended the number of options recipients from 300 to 30,000 and made sure to distribute generous bonuses to individuals who demonstrated outstanding performance. Another characteristic that helped boost motivation and performance within employees was “integrated diversity”, this open and friendly environment helped inspire a much broader thinking, new ideas were being generated and it also improved collaboration between departments.

Welch encouraged his teams by always looking at change as a never-ending opportunity. He constantly urged his people to reinvigorate their business model before someone else did. This strategy helped him gain new market share and strengthen GE’s leadership position. It further invigorated creative thinking and made the company more competitive. His next objective was to create the culture where everyone felt engaged and important. By eliminating one of the sector levels he was able to gain more direct contact with managers reporting to him. We must remember that motivation starts with employee engagement, and engagement begins with effective communication skills. Welch dedicating most of his time to communicating with his staff, developing special management training programs that would help managers reach their goals and educate them to become great leaders.

As he knew that General Electric was an A-plus company, he only wanted to attract A players. To find the right equilibrium he knew that it was necessary to take good care of his best personnel. He did it through promoting them, offering great salaries and stock options and investing in their further development. According to one of the articles written by Victor H. Vroom “Work and motivation”, the concept of Force concentrates on efforts an individual will take when pursuing a particular course of action. Vroom also argued that a person’s behavior is the result of a field of forces, each of which has direction and magnitude. Highest level of force will be reached by actions with high level of both valence and expectation. According to Vroom’s equation of force (Force=Valence x Expectancy), valence and expectation cannot be zero, as it will result in no force to adopt given course of action, since anything multiplied by zero is zero.

When choosing alternatives, people tend to select ones that correspond to the strongest positive force or least negative force. As we can observe in the leadership style of Mr. Welch, he was fully aware of this relationship and knew it was necessary to take good care of his top management. Welch didn’t concentrate on micro management, by giving his employees clear visions and setting new goals he was able to make his workers determine the necessary level of support required to achieve those goals. He constantly set high expectations and asked for more, this triggered creative thinking, increased performance and set new standards for the followers. He didn’t waste time on trying to train and develop Cs to Bs. Through the use of performance appraisal system and “vitality curve” the company was able to eliminate poor performers and only keep the best talent. Welch was able to inspire his staff and his employees were certainly glad he was captaining their side. Whether they liked him or not, they respected him, followed his leadership style and admired him.

Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

The enactment of the affordable care act has significantly changed the structure of all health care. As the focus of treatment at health care facilities all across the country transitions from specialty care and acute illnesses to preventative and long term health management, many changes have taken effect that have directly affected the approach and delivery of care. One of the greatest changes is the vast amount of patients that are now seeking health care. In an attempt to keep up with these high demands, many facilities have been left scrambling to adjust their budgets, reduce excess spending, and implement more efficient means of care delivery. Nurses throughout this process have had to adapt to a work environment that is constantly being changed and restructured. As a result, decreased job satisfaction, increased incidence of compassion fatigue, and nurse to patient ratios involving higher acuity levels have all contributed to the vast nursing shortage that is being experienced today. In addition, patient satisfaction scores and Medicare reimbursement have been greatly affected as well.

Despite all of the aforementioned issues, there are some facilities that are taking the extra step to recognize and promote nursing excellence by setting the standards higher in an attempt to gain Magnet status. The focus of this writing is to compare and contrast the expectations of the approaches that nurse leaders and managers may use regarding magnet status as well as discuss the approach that most identifies with the values and beliefs of this author. Magnet status, as defined by Miriam Hospital, is a designation awarded to hospitals for their creation of a “Magnet Culture”; an environment that not only supports nursing practice, but focuses on professional autonomy, decision making at the bedside, nursing involvement in determining the nursing work environment, professional education, career development and nursing leadership (Miriam Hospital, n.d.).

The concept of magnet status was first conceived in the early 1980’s and was born of an inquiry as to how certain hospitals were able to retain and motivate nursing staff. This concept was identified based on the results of several research studies and documented in an article entitled “Magnet Hospitals: Attraction and Retention of Professional Nurses,” written and published in 1983 by Dr. McClure president of the American Academy of Nursing (AAN), professor at New York University, and a member of the original task force (Hawke, 2004). Currently in the United States only six percent, or 389 hospitals, have achieved Magnet status with twenty-six of these located in California (“Magnet,” 2013, para. 2).

Statistics have shown that Magnet hospitals have excellent patient satisfaction scores, safer patient environments, fewer repeat admissions, and better patient outcome overall. There are many rigorous qualifications that must be met and maintained throughout a facilities’ designation. It is imperative that nursing leadership and management work together within their defined roles to accomplish the goal of recognizing, organizing and accomplishing the tasks and to ensure the staff participation needed to achieve nursing excellence. Only by existing within these defined roles, can the most efficient and accurate results be obtained. The role of management is to identify the resources that are required to accomplish the target goal of the organization. A manager must also plan, organize and implement strategies from an organizational level that outline what is required of subordinates in order to meet the proposed goal (Huber, 2010, p. 31).

It is the responsibility of the manager to ensure that policies and procedures are implemented and carried out correctly. To achieve Magnet status the nurse manager would need to survey patients and staff to define areas of weakness that would need to be addressed by staff to improve patient satisfaction. These actions can include steps to becoming more financially efficient by reducing waste, ensuring Medicare reimbursement through patient satisfaction, and nursing practices that reflect these decisions such as bedside reporting, user-friendly patient education, hourly rounding and updating whiteboards. The role of the nursing leader is to assist the nurse manager in accomplishing the organizational goals by facilitating smoother transitions through communication, guidance and assisting staff in the understanding of what the vision is, why they are being asked to do certain things, and how they relate to the larger picture.

This is accomplished by establishing trust and striving toward cohesion and mutual tolerance while managing conflict (“The difference between leadership and management,” 2012, para. 2). In comparing and contrasting managers and leaders there are some points to consider. In management, many goals are established by other people and carried out by the managers within the organization. Leaders will act to develop new and fresh approaches to problems that may exist within the organization. The leader’s instinct is to take risks and to challenge those people and ideas within an organization that may be holding it back. Managers work to accomplish the tasks and usually will continue to do whatever is necessary to get the job done without taking on too much risk or moving forward (“The difference between leadership and management,” 2012, para. 7). Magnet culture is one of empowerment, shared decision-making and accountability (Frellick, 2011, para. 8). In order for this vision to succeed, health care facilities must demonstrate mastery of specific core principles known as the Fourteen Forces of Magnetism which includes a high quality of nursing management, and an environment that is built upon strong participation, where nurses are recognized by the top levels of management.

Another key to success is strong interdisciplinary relationships; meaning members from all departments of the health care team are able to work together; this includes nurses, physicians, pharmacists and therapists. Participatory leadership focuses on the mutual respect and involvement of all parties. It is democratic in nature and promotes shared responsibility for actions; it is this leadership style that this author most identifies with. It is of the opinion of this author that personal involvement and the inclusion of everyone is key to maintaining a working professional relationship between management and subordinates because it empowers everyone to work together to achieve a vision or goal.

If employees on all levels feel that their opinions and ideas matter and are important, than they will be willing to go the extra mile to see that goals get accomplished as the organization’s visions become their visions as well. This cannot be accomplished without managers and leaders who have the ability to harness this commitment and facilitate unity between all parties involved. True success is not gained through the dictation of what is and what will be, it is gained through the understanding that if we all work together, we can be really great because we all have something to contribute and when joined together, these contributions will make us the best we can be.

Frellick, M. (2011). A Path to Nursing Excellence. Hospitals & Health Networks. Advance online publication. Retrieved from Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Magnet. (2013). Retrieved from Hawke, M. (2004, January). Magnet Status Attracts Mettle. Nursing Spectrum, 19-21. Retrieved from Huber, D. L. (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management (4th ed.). []. Retrieved from Miriam Hospital. (n.d.). The difference between leadership and management. (2012). Retrieved from

My Leadership Style Analysis

My Leadership Style Analysis

SAT2 Task 1

My Leadership Style Analysis
A1. Leadership Style Evaluation

There are many different leadership styles. After reading the assigned chapters for this task. I was able to identify my own leadership style as a result. In order to know my leadership style, I took a series of assessments in order to determine my personal leadership style. Assessments I took that helped me to determine my personal leadership style are: “the Emotional Expressive Scale, Personal Magnetism Deficit Inventory, Task Oriented Attitudinal and Behavior assessment, Clarifying your Work Values, What Style of Leader are you or would you be, What is your propensity of taking Risk, How Flexible are you, the Least Preferred Co-worker Scale for Measuring Leadership style, and Measuring your Situation and Perspective assessments (DuBrin, A. (2010). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 9780547143965).

After taking the above assessments, I was able to determine that my personal leadership style is Participative. A Participative leader is “a person in charge who shares decision making with group members” (DuBrin, A. (2010). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 9780547143965). A1a. Strengths

As a Participative leader, my leadership style advocates teamwork. Advocating teamwork is considered strength for my leadership style. This is strength for my leadership style because advocating teamwork gives team members opportunity to participate in the decision-making making process of developing team, and as a result, employees are empowered, and feel a sense
of belonging as a result.

Another strength that my leadership style has is that my leadership style strives for consensus. This is considered strength for my leadership style because having a consensus empowers employees, and provides them with a sense of belonging as a result. A1b. Weaknesses

One weakness of my leadership style is that if team members do not agree on something, a decision cannot be made until all team members are in agreement with a specific decision. This can be considered a weakness for my learning style if team members are not able to Another weakness for my leadership style is the opportunity for wasting time. This is considered a weakness for my leadership style because if teams are not able to form a consensus for any reason, productivity stops, a valuable time is lost until a consensus is formed. A2. Comparison of Leadership Styles

Other leadership Styles that I learned about and found interesting are the Autocratic Leadership Style, and the Entrepreneurial Leadership Style. The Autocratic Leadership Style is when the leader “retains most of the authority for himself or herself” (DuBrin, A. (2010). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 9780547143965). Unlike the Participative Leadership style, the Autocratic Leadership Style retains most of the authority, while Participative Leadership Style allow team members the ability to make decisions based on policies and procedures develop by teams, with the final approval of management. In addition, the Autocratic leadership style are not concerned with the concerns of team members. While the Participative leadership style allows for team members to develop and form their opinions, and as a result, this privilege implies that this leadership style is concerned with the concern of team members. The “Entrepreneurial leadership style stems from personality characteristics and circumstances of individuals” (DuBrin, A. (2010). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 9780547143965).

The Entrepreneurial leadership style is a leadership style for individuals who are innovative enough to open and operate their own business. The Entrepreneurial leadership style is completely different from the Participative leadership style. The Entrepreneurial leadership style tends to have higher achievement and is where the Participative leadership style tends to strive for consensus. The Entrepreneurial leadership style tends to be more creative and enthusiastic than the Participative leadership style. The Participative leadership style tends to negotiate demands of employees, and the Entrepreneurial leadership style responds immediately if a crisis presents. A3. Leadership Style Discussions

Understanding different Leadership Styles can help me to become an effective leader by helping me to identify deficient areas in my personal leadership style. Being able to identify personal leadership deficiency will give me the opportunity of being aware. Being aware of deficiency in my leadership style will help me to gain new skills that will help me to improve and perfect deficient areas in my leadership style. This newfound awareness will allow me the opportunity to obtain knowledge, skills and abilities needed in order for me to become an effective leader. Another reason understanding different leadership styles can help me to become an effective leader is that it will give me the opportunity to think outside the box. This skill will help me to be more creative in my leadership style, and as a result, I will gain and implement new leadership skills to my personal leadership style. This new skill will allow me to future improve and perfect deficient areas of my leadership style, and will help me to become an effective leader as well.

In addition, understanding the many different leadership style will also help me to become a effective leader by ultimately allowing me to understand the many different learning styles, this will allow me to improve my communication skills, which will allow me to effectively communicate with employees. This skill will improve my leadership skills, and help me to become an effective leader as a result. A4. Problems

In order to minimize problems for leaders in the workplace, it is imperative that leaders are emotionally intelligent, know their own personal leadership style, and understand the many different leadership styles in order to minimize problems for them in the workplace. Problems that can present for leaders in the workplace that do not have a complete understanding of differences in leadership styles are miscommunication, and a decrease in employee moral as a result. A4a. Overcoming Problems

In order for leaders to improve miscommunications in the workplace, leaders should hold weekly meeting and encourage employee input. This will demonstrate to employees that the leader is concerned with team members and is accessible to employees when needed; this can improve communication in the workplace as a result. In addition, conducting weekly meetings will also establish an open door policy for employees. An open door policy demonstrates to employees that you are available, and as a result, communication can future be improved in the workplace. In order for leaders to increase moral in the work place, leaders should take the opportunity of the open door policy to get to know their employees personally, in addition, in an effort to increase employee moral, leaders should plan team building activities in an effort to increase employee moral as well.

Taking the opportunity of the open door policy to get to know your employees personally will increase employee moral in the workplace. Employees will continue to believe that their organization appreciate them as employees, and as a result, communication will improve, and employee moral will increase as a result. Leaders can further improve employee moral by encouraging team-building activities. For example, leaders should incorporate quarterly activities such as employee luncheon, and or employee picnics in order to improve employee moral. These teambuilding activities will further demonstrate to employees that the company appreciates them and as a result, employee moral will increase as a result.

A5. Synergies
Three potential advantages that may be created between the Leadership styles are the ability to collaborate with other team members, obtaining a higher level of enthusiasm, and the ability to make decisions confidently. The Participative leadership style can create the advantage of allowing team members to obtain knowledge, and implement skills that are presented by other team members as a result. . The ability to collaborate with team members will allow both employees and leaders opportunity to develop ideas as a result. The Entrepreneurial leadership style will give teams and leaders the opportunity to become enthusiastic while performing job descriptions.

Being enthusiastic in the work place will allow both team member and leaders to become motivated while performing job descriptions as a result. The Autocratic leadership style will give leaders opportunity to make business decision more confidently. This ability for leaders to make business decisions confidently empowers leaders in the work place, when leaders are empowered, they develop self-confidence needed while making business decisions as a result. A5a. Increasing productivity

The ability to obtain knowledge, and implement skills that are presented by other team members will increase productivity because employees will gain new ideas and skills that can help them to perform their job description with ease. When employees are confident with performing their job description, productivity will increase as a result. Being enthusiastic while performing duties in the workplace stimulates and motivates both team members and leaders the same, and as a result, team members are eager and happier while performing their job descriptions, and as a result, productivity increases when employees are happier in the workplace. When managers have the ability to make sound business decisions with confidence, leaders are empowered, employees become subordinate to their leaders, and as a result, productivity increase because leaders become responsible for administer employees performance appraisals that can provide raises for employees as a result.

B. References
Ciulla, J. B., Price, T. L., and Murphy, S. E. (2005). The quest for moral leaders: Essays

on leadership ethics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. ISBN-13: 9781845429454.

Topchik, G. (2007). The first-time managers’ guide to team building. New York: AMACOM. ISBN-13: 978814474297. Anonymous. (2009). Introducing the one-on-one dispute resolution process. Dispute Resolution Journal, 64(3), 90. Brown, J. (2010, January). Leadership vs. management. Supply House Times, 52(11), 118,120-121. Gesell, I. (2010). How to lead when the generation gap becomes your everyday reality. Journal for Quality and Participation, 32(4), 21-24.

Guttman, H. (2008). Leading high-performance teams. Chief Executive (231), 33-35. Momeni, N. (2009). The relation between managers’ emotional intelligence and the organizational climate they create. Public Personnel Management, 38(2), 35-48. DuBrin, A. (2010). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning. ISBN-13: 9780547143965.

Effective Human Resources Leadership for Nursing Home and Assisted Living Facilities

Management Style for Assisted Living and Nursing Home Facilities Human Resource Management in Healthcare Organizations

The type of organization I chose to discuss is an independent the assisted living facility and nursing home. They both provide some of the same functions, although the name of the facility may be slightly different. While these are separate types of organizations now, in the future, they will blend due to the fact that the longer the clientele is a “resident” of the Assisted Living Facility (ALF), the more likely they will be in need of full-time nursing care. (NursingCenter). I chose this particular type of organization because it is one that I am interested in due to the fact that such a large portion of our population will be served by these organizations in the near future and for some time to come based on our aging population statistics. Forty-two percent of the population that lives until the age of seventy will spend time in a nursing home before they die. (Knickman).

Residents, or patients, in those facilities will receive services from a variety of providers like physical and occupational therapists, medication management for mental and physical ailments and perhaps social service support services as they move toward the nursing home in lieu of assistance from family members when they have none to call for assistance. Because the environment is clinical and service oriented over longer periods of time, it is important to examine what kind(s) of management style is successful in order to manage the intensive daily clinical needs and the ongoing relationships that develop among the staff and residents.

One report on the study of leadership styles suited for nursing homes and assisted living facilities reported that a consensus leadership style had a strong association with quality of care. (Castle). Models indicate that consensus leadership style is also the best approach in limiting staff turnover, which is essential in how the residents rate their satisfaction of service. (Donoghue).

Consensus management style is not a majority vote. After management has reached a decision, consensus approach seeks to determine if all the team members find it acceptable and if they are in support of the decision. In this management style we would ask what could be changed in order to obtain staff support. All members of the group should feel that their ideas and views were heard and that they heard the others in the group as well. The idea is that the team will support the management because decisions were arrived at fairly. (Mayoclinic).

To meet all the demands of infection control, government regulations, service to the residents, clinicians, families and inherent risks associated with the geriatric population, management must not only be task oriented, but people-centered. Management must develop clear and effective strategic plans, but with a humanistic approach of consensus so that all the team members that serve the clientele are happy and effective. It is truly an environment where management must foster employee relations which will decrease risk, and improve patient satisfaction which should in turn also reduce marketing needs as each point of contact that the staff has with a family member is also an ambient sales opportunity.

In order to meet the patient needs in such a high demand environment where a majority of the time the patient/customer is in contact with a lower educated, less clinical staff such as a certified nurse assistant making a low wage, that staff must have a voice to understand that they make a huge impact on the organization. When they feel valuable, the organization will run much more smoothly. My first job and customer training out of high school was working the front desk of a four star hotel. We were the lowest paid on the totem pole, but management and human resources through incentive programs and awards recognized our achievements and solicited our input of ideas at all times.


Castle, N., & Decker, F. (2011), Top Management Leadership Style and Quality of Care in

Nursing Homes. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnr064. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Donoghue C, & Castle NG, (2009), Leadership Styles of Nursing Home Administrators and

Their Association with Staff Turnover, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnp021. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Knickman JR, & Snell EK, (2002), The 2030 problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers. Retrieved from
Kreofsky, B., & Vrtiska T., & Rego S., & Lewis T., & Chihak A., & Spurrier B., & Larusso N., & Farrugia G. (2011), Using Innovative Idea Management Tools in a Large Health Care Organization: Lessons Learned. Retrieved from Nursing Center. N.p. n.d. Web. 1 Sept 2013. Olson, Dana. (2007). Effective leadership in long term care: the need and the opportunity. Retrieved from /ACHCA_Leadership_Need_and_Opportunity_Paper_Dana-Olson.pdf

Philosophy of Nursing Leadership

I have worked in healthcare for over thirteen years both as new scare nurse and as an informal leader and as an appointed manager. Throughout this process I have experienced many different feelings towards my managers and experienced several different types of management styles as related to our recent management concept learning. A prior class text book definition states “Philosophy looks at the nature of things and aims to provide the meaning of the nursing phenomena. Philosophies are the broadest in scope and provide a broad understanding” (Blaise & Hayes 2002 p. 98). Combining a defined leadership theory with my own personal nursing philosophy engages a higher level of understanding about personal concepts and ideas of my past experiences and the possibility for growth as a leader. Peter Drucker’s theory in regards to involving the entire organization in planning and establishing the management process has been implemented for many years at my current employment, to include weekly staff meetings with open discussions and an anonymous “drop box” for problems or ideas to be shared with upper management.

We also give one-hundred dollar bonus to any employee who presents a new idea or plan and the hospital corporation agrees to use it. This form of staff participation in leadership by Peter Drucker was used to advise the heads of General Motors, Sears, General Electric, W.R. Grace and IBM, among many others. Often times Drucker offered his management advice to non-profits like the American Red Cross and the Salvation Army. Drucker’s theory in the health care setting encourages individual autonomy and embraces the ideal of leaders not being born but can should be taught and encouraged to use their best judgments for every unique situation. Drucker is quoted as stating “Leadership is something scientific but has artistic expression.”

Artistic expression is individualized and when an organization encourages this individuality of its member’s the results can in turn provided broader solutions and opportunity for growth. This form of collaboration of many different unique perspective and special skills are imperative in today’s health care system as specifically outlined by the American Nurses Association (ANA) “recognition of the expertise of others within and outside the profession, and referral to those other providers when appropriate” (2003, p.8) The increasing competitive nature of health care and ever changing technology and change make it imperative for a health care organization to work together as a team for the betterment of the patient outcomes and a hospital’s long term viability.

Personal Growth as a Nurse Leader

With review of my personal experiences in my nursing career, I can now see the obvious management transitions that took place at the facility I worked at. When I first started working, I basically felt like a “warm body” only there to perform certain tasks at certain times and felt of no real value to actual hospital’s overall revenue or outcome. Looking back at the management style from that time, I felt no real structure or individual importance toward the outcome of the hospital I worked for. The hospital was a non-profit, government owned facility and the resulting management style is easily related to the Laissez-faire leadership form. With this “hands off” (Finkleman, p6) form of management comes a great lack of feeling of security or capability to grow and learn as a nurse. Three year after working there a new company bought out our hospital and many extreme changes happened. Computer charting came in, new managers, new rules, new standards and many people left because of these changes. Not because they were bad changes but because they simply did not want to accept change.

With these changes emerged a new management technique that follow the Drucker philosophy of encouraging staff participation, goal setting and leadership learning with in the hospital. I will never forget the first time the hospital administrator came up to me, shook my hand and simply asked how everything on my nursing unit was going. If I had any problems or concerns. This form of management encouraged professional growth and self-esteem. I became more familiar with small skills such as intravenous access, medications, equipment and general patient involvement, I began to find myself more interested in the art of health care and learning. Challenges and learning became my journey and led me to a management position in the emergency room department. I grew as a person and as a nurse.

I learned so many things about health care and genuinely cared for my co-workers. Their input was invaluable and helped us create new policies and systems to give our patients better care. I learned mostly about myself and who I wanted to be as a person and a leader or example to other nurses. I became very confident after ten years in this department and enjoyed the teamwork of this area and wanted to be able to do more with this invaluable acquired knowledge. I came to an understanding of a nurse’s ability to provide their perspectives and past experiences to help other care for the patients.

In conclusion, with the educational advancements and experience I hope to continue to learn how to be an effective leader. I would like to see our organization encourage some the emotional intelligence theory philosophy into our practice to encourage stronger relationships between all staff. As stated in (Finkelman, 2011 p 10), “emotional intelligent leadership is key to creating a working climate that nurtures its employees and encourages them to do their best with enthusiasm, in turn this pays off in improved business performance.” I believe that all people inherently want to be recognized for what they do and need positive reinforcement. With future leadership roles I hope to incorporate both of these leadership theories of including the employees in the organizations plans, group problem solving and building good leaders along with stronger emotional relationships built on encouragement and positive reinforcement to provide an open positive learning environment with strong inter employee relationships.

Blais, K., & Hayes, J. (2002). Professional nursing practice. (2011 ed., Vol. 6, pp. 2, 27-29, 268). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Retrieved from http//

Finkelman, A.(2006).Leadership and Management for Nurses. (2011 2nd ed., pp. 5-13).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Retrieved from http//
Nursing Times. (2011) Leadership Skills for Nurses. Retrieved from

Leadership and governance

Executive Summary

The following essay will analyse two important elements in every organisation, leadership and governance, the interaction between them and how they influence in organisations outcomes. This paper will cite different journals and studies to support the ideas referents to this topic. Firstly this essay will discuss on leadership to understand why this culture of influence and motivation has become so important for nowadays organisations and explain the role of the modern leader, among all the perspectives and theories aroused about this subject. The second point is about governance; the term organisational governance is defined and evaluated to find out how governance enhances the management in organisation. Also is discussed what is the managers role in the governance scheme in order to expose the difference between leaders and managers.

They are different but complementary, while leaders have a compromise with the vision on the long term, manager focuses on how to achieve the vision strategically. Furthermore the next logic step is to evaluate the relationship between these elements analysed previously. Leaders can affect positively and negatively the governance outcomes, basically if there is no self-control or lack of ethic among leaders even the best governance scheme would collapse. On the other hand collective leadership will have a beneficial effect in the board of director’s performance.

The last point assesses how the leadership development and effective followership can affect the organisations outcome, being the relationship between leader and follower the most important key for leadership effectiveness and consequently a more effective organisation. It is clear that leadership play an important role in organisation path to succeed in this modern world where constant changes and uncertainty require more competitive and adaptable organisations. Introduction

Nowadays, organisations are exposed to global uncertainty and they have to adapt rapidly and become more effective in order to survive in this competitive world. Major organisations invest millions in human capital and technology with the explicit objective of increase their organisations effectiveness. Organisational effectiveness is a broad concept represented by several perspectives, organisations are effective when they have a good fit with their external environment, when their internal subsystem are efficient and effective, when they are learning organisations and when they satisfy the need of key stakeholders (McShane, Olekalns & Travaglione 2010).

There are many studies and theories about leaderships, due to its importance for organizations success. According with Rodsutti and Swierczek (2002, p. 250) different dimensions of organisational effectiveness including return on asset, most admired, job satisfaction and personal satisfaction are related to specific aspects of leader characteristics, organisational culture and multicultural management style.

This is the main reason why leadership has become the base of modern organisations success. In order to understand the leader’s role in effective governance in organisations, it is necessary define leadership and governance separately and then analyse the correlation between then, this will help us to understand why leader and managers are different but complementary, they should reinforce and support each other, however this is not always the case (Lussier & Achua 2010). Organisations performance is measured constantly in order to value if the outcome satisfy the stakeholders goals, thus the influence of leaders over the governance outcomes need to be evaluated.

The organisation outcomes it is also affected by effective fellowship as a result of a leadership development. Leadership behaviours are perceived as trustworthy through the observer’s mediating lens, trust increases and leaders are more likely to be viewed as ethical stewards who honour a higher level of duties (Caldwell, Hayes & Long 2010).

Organisational leadership
Everybody somehow have the idea of the leadership meaning that probably belongs to yesteryear image of command –and- control boss. The concept of leader is no longer the person that is seen as the company’s hero. Leaders exist throughout the organisation, not just in the executive suite. The first studies about leadership was published in 1904, the main researches in this field occurred while the First World War, it first interest was investigate the leadership characteristics and the mechanism of how the employees obtained promotions. A decade ago fifty-four leadership expert from thirty eight countries reached consensus that leadership is about influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organisation of which they are members (McShane Olekalns & Travaglione 2010). Even today there is still considerable debate about the exact role and definition of a leader.

Most parties agree that one of the primary functions of a leader should be to set a path towards a goal and then inspire and motivate others to follow (Prewitt 2003). Furthermore (Lussier & Achua 2010) brought a more simplified and brief concept defining leadership as ‘‘the process of influencing leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change. There are many studies and theories about leadership and different perspectives of this concept, the most relevant of those perspectives in the last 20 years are charismatic and transformational leadership. Transformational leadership perspective explains how leaders change teams or organisations by creating, communicating and modelling a vision for the organisation or work unit and inspiring employees to strive that vision (McShane, Olekalns & Travaglione, 2010).

The charismatic and transformational leader, according to many scholars and practitioners, represents a new paradigm of leadership that may be capable of steering organisations trough the chaos of the twenty first century (Lussier & Achua 2010). There is some confusion and controversy to define the distinction between charismatic and transformational leader. Many researchers either use the words as they would have same meaning or view charismatic leadership as an essential ingredient of transformational leadership. However there are managers that may lack of charisma but they can lead by applying transformational leadership behaviours, for example Alan Lafey, CEO of Proctor and Gamble or Sam Palmisano CEO of IBM. The point is that effective transformational leaders are not necessary charismatic (McShane Olekalns & Travaglione 2010).

Leaders are particularly effective if they engage in transformational leadership behaviours, such as articulating a captivating vision for the future, acting as charismatic role models, fostering the acceptance of common goals, setting high performance expectations, and providing individualized support and intellectual stimulation for followers (Menges et al. 2011). In the last years has been agreed that leadership it is not about rely in only a person as a leader, leadership can be considered as a collective practice, leaderful leaders develop sufficient trust in others to make leadership a shared and yet very powerful tool for action and responsibility (Raelin 2005).

Understanding organisational governance
There is not a specific definition for the term “organisational governance”, however as a first approximation, organizational governance refers to the instruments of governance that organizations deploy to influence organization members and other stakeholders to contribute to organizational goals (Foss & Klein 2007). This idea clearly is consistent with other more frequently used terms as “corporative governance”, “organizational control” and “governance structures and mechanisms.” Similar definition we found about strategic management.

Strategic management is the set of decision and actions used to formulate and implement specific strategies that will achieve a competitively superior fit between the organisation and its environment, so as to achieve organisational goals (Lussier & Achua 2010). According with Commonwealth Australia (2009) governance may be described as “…the process by which agencies are directed and controlled. It is generally understood to encompass authority, accountability, stewardship, leadership, direction and control”. Top management plays an important role in firms’ achieving an orientation to quality creating values and establishing objectives and systems to satisfy customers’ expectations and improve performance in the organisation (Albacete-Sáez, Fuentes & Bojica 2011).

Furthermore the aim of governance is not only improve the organisations performance but also achieve the stakeholders economic and social satisfaction. A firm that manages for stakeholders allocates more resources to satisfy the needs and demands of its legitimate stakeholders than would be necessary to simply retain their wilful participation in the firm’s productive activities (Harrison, Bosse & Phillips 2010).

Theories of governance for many years had been based on assumptions about the leader as an agent who might act with opportunism to take advantage of superior information or self-serving personal interests however latest studies have demonstrated that corporate governance imposes on businesses and their leaders an instrumental duty to maximize long-term wealth creation to benefit all of the stakeholders served by the firm (Caldwell, Hayes & Long 2010). In the last few years due to scandals and financial crisis, board of director has gain especial interest in corporate governance debate.

The corporate governance rely on the board of directors capabilities to conduce the companies and take the best decision for their stakeholders benefit. However organisations not only need managers they need leaders as well, and governance have to provide the conditions to promote both in their schemes as per Zaleznik (2004, p.74) suggest organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favour of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.

Leaders and governance
Manager and leaders play different role in organisations, their personalities and attitudes towards goals are different as Zaleznik (2004, p.74) stated managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly-sometimes before they fully understand a problem’s significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure in order to understand the issues more fully. In previous studies on governance, board scholars have mainly limited themselves to a strict input-output approach in their studies, directly linking board demographic indicators (e.g., board size, age of directors, number of independent directors, etc.) to board and firm performance (Vandewaerde et al. 2011).Lately scholars focus is about leadership, examination of leadership processes and behaviours inside the board team.

As stated before leadership can be considered as a collective practice, this is applicable for tams or board of director where every member has different capabilities and knowledge leadership influence based on knowledge and expertise in the team network will have a beneficial effect on the board’s problem-solving capabilities and, therefore, board task performance (Vandewaerde et al. 2011). Painter (2008, p.523) also supports this idea stating that ‘the capacity to take responsibility when and where needed should be nurtured throughout the organizational system and among all of its members, despite the existence of a formal organizational hierarchy and various specialized functional units’. In this context, governance provides support rather than limits to develop a better organisation. The fact that different people can play a leadership role does not mean that no structure is required for leadership to be exercised (Painter 2008).

Leaders can fail, sometimes because of the rush to make decisions they relied too much in the intuition, or due to ethical or moral lapses in judgment. The ultimate goal of the strategic leader should be to build sustainable integrity programs into the strategic management framework that encourage positive self-regulation of ethical behaviour as a matter of routine within the organisation (Lussier & Achua 2010). Without ethic and integrity among the leaders, governance would be ineffective under this scenario. The key in successful governance relies in the role that leadership play in the organisations. As Lussier and Achua (2010 p.418) point out strategic leadership ensure that strategic management process is successfully carried out and yields the desired result for the organisations.

Effective followership and organisation outcomes
As defined previously, leadership is about influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organisation (McShane, Olekalns & Travaglione, 2010). When leadership in organisations is affected there is an immediate reaction in employees’ performance. For instance in some cases of merging there is a transition stage where employees lost the direction and leadership is replaced for uncertainty. When members of the community feel abandoned, trust in the organization and its new leader or leaders becomes an issue. During the change process, if the view of the organization becomes less positive,
association with it may become less appealing (Curry, 2002). The major influential factors related to job performance can be found in the aspects of social and organizational cultural contexts, but leadership is one of the most critical factors affecting individual job performance. (Baek-Kyoo, 2012). Leadership create an environment where subordinates are more satisfied and have higher effective organisational commitment. They also perform their jobs better, engage in more organisational citizenship behaviours and make better or more creative decision. (McShane, Olekalns & Travaglione 2010).

As stated leadership is one of the most important elements of organisation effectiveness. However to develop a culture of leadership in an organisation is not easy task. Effective leadership requires effective followership, because without followers there are no leaders. (Lussier & Achua 2010). In the way to success organisations need good followers to support and influence positively their leaders. In order to develop effective leadership in organisations there has to be a harmonic relationship between the leader and follower, this interaction is essential to reach organisational success. Regardless the structure or governance applies in organisations, the commitment between leaders and followers have to be clear and accepted in both sides.

As Derue and Ashford (p.643, 2010) suggest, whether that leadership-structure schema is hierarchical or shared its strength as a norm should facilitate reciprocal claiming and granting and allow for the rapid development of well-defined leader-follower relationships. These norms are the rules game that will make leadership flourish easily among employees, otherwise the organisation effectiveness could be compromised, organizations without such norms organisations going through significant changes might experience greater conflict over leadership and within leader-follower relationships (Kan & Parry 2004), which, in turn, may distract from effective work performance (Derue & Ashford 2010).

Today’s work environment is characterized for uncertainty, volatility and global competition; organisations have to change constantly in order to
survive and success. Thus nowadays organisations not only need managers, they need leaders as well. As explained leadership and governance in organisations are important for organisations success, leaders and managers have different roles but they are complementary. Basically the difference between leaders and manager is defined by their behaviour toward organisations goal, while leader’s focus is on their organisation vision in the long term; managers are looking how to accomplish firm’s goals in the short term.

It is clear the governance outcomes will define the success or failure of companies, in order to have effective governance, organisations need human resource capable of create, communicate and model a shared vision for the team or organisation, and inspire followers to strive that vision. Thus, governance has to provide the conditions to flourish not only good managers but leaders as well. Leadership is one of the most critical factors that affect job performance. It is important establish a scheme that promote followership among employees in order to develop a quality leadership culture in the organisation. To do so, leaders and followers roles have to be clearly defined and be accepted. Only if leaders and followers are committed with the organisation vision the organisation effectiveness would be enhanced generating a positive outcome for stakeholder benefit.

Albacete-Sáez, C, Fuentes, M & Bojica, A 2011,’Quality management, strategic priorities and performance: The role of quality leadership’, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 1173 – 1193. Baek-Kyoo, J 2012, ‘Leader-Member exchange quality and In-Role job performance: The moderating role of learning’, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 19, no. 1, pp.25–34. Caldwell, C, Hayes, L & Long, D 2010 ‘Leadership, trustworthiness, and ethical stewardship’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 96, pp. 497–512. Commonwealth of Australia 2009 Curry, B. K. 2002, ‘The influence of the leader persona on organizational identity’ Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 8, no. 4, pp33, Online Expanded Academic ASAP. Derue, D & Ashford, S 2010, ‘Who will lead

Ethical Leadership

Overview about Leadership Ethics

Leaders must understand the subject of ethics – what it is and why is it important. Ethics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the intent, means and consequences of moral behavior. It is the study of moral judgments and right and wrong conduct. Some human judgments are factual (the earth is round); others are aesthetic (she is beautiful); and still others are moral (people should be honest and should not kill).

Define Ethical Leadership Behavior

Ethical Leadership is leadership that is involved in leading in a manner that respects the rights and dignity of other. “As leaders are by nature in a position of social power, ethical leadership focuses on how leaders use their social power in the decisions they make, actions they engage in. And ways they influence others’ decisions. Leaders who are ethical, demonstrate a level of integrity that is important for stimulating a sense of leader trustworthiness, which is important for followers to accept the vision of the leader. These are critical and direct components to leading ethically. The character and integrity of the leader provide the basis for personal characteristics that direct a leader’s ethical beliefs, values, and decisions. Individual values and beliefs impact the ethical decisions of leaders.

Five Ethical Leadership Behavior

1. Be Honest and Trustworthy and Have Integrity in Dealing with Others. Trustworthiness contributes to leadership effectiveness. A perception that high-ranking business leaders were untrustworthy contributed to the spectacular decline in stock prices during the 2000-2002 period. An ethical leader is honest (tells the truth), and trustworthy (constituents accept his or her word). In other words, he or she has integrity. According to Thomas E. Becker, this quality goes beyond honesty and conscientiousness. Integrity refers to loyalty to rational principles; it means practicing what one preaches regardless of emotional or social pressure.

2. Pay Attention to All Stakeholders.

An ethical and moral leader strives to treat fairly all interested parties by his or her decisions. To do otherwise creates winners and losers after many decisions are made. The widely held belief that a CEO’s primary responsibility is to maximize shareholder wealth conflicts with the principle of paying attention to all stakeholders. A team of management scholars observes: “We used to organize corporations as both economic and social institution–as organizations that were designed to serve a balanced set of stakeholders, not just the narrow interests of the shareholder”.

A leader interested in maximizing shareholder wealth might attempt to cut costs and increase profits in such ways: laying-off valuable employees to reduce payroll costs, overstating profits to impress investors, overcharging customers, siphoning money from the employee pension fund and reducing health benefits for retiree. Although the aforementioned may be standard practice, they all violate the rights of stakeholders.

3. Build Community.

A corollary of taking into account the needs of all stakeholders is that the leader helps people achieve a common goal. Peter G. Northouse explains that leaders need to take into account their own and followers’ purposes and search for goals that are compatible to all. When many people work toward the same constructive goal, they build a community.

4. Respect the Individual.

Respecting individuals is a principle of ethical and moral leadership that incorporates other aspects of morality. If you tell the truth, you respect others well enough to be honest. If you keep promises, you also show respect. And if you treat others fairly, you show respect. Showing respect for the individual also means that you recognize that everybody has some inner worth and should be treated with courtesy and kindness. An office supervisor demonstrated respect for the individual infront of his department when he asked a custodian who entered the office: “What can we do in this department yo make your job easier?”

5. Accomplish Silent Victories.

The ethical and moral leader works silently, and somewhat behind the scenes, to accomplish moral victories regularly. Instead of being perceived as hero or heroine, the moral leader quietly works on moral agenda. Quite often he or she will work out a compromise to ensure that a decision in process will have an ethical outcome.

Typical Ethical Dilemma for Supervisors

Maintaining professional ethics in the supervisory process can pose unique challenges. The same ethical violations that can occur in a therapeutic relationship can be paralleled in a supervisory relationship. From performance evaluations to dual relationships, the supervisory relationship can be fraught with chances for uncomfortable, inappropriate, and potentially litigious situations. • “My supervisor uses me as a confidante and openly discusses another worker’s shortcomings with me, yet she never approaches the worker about it.” • “My supervisor degrades me and makes personal comments about me—usually negative—and sometimes in front of other staff.” • “My coworker reads all day long and doesn’t spend much time working with clients.

My supervisor is unwilling to address it and said to me, ‘Mind your own business. He gets his work done. That’s all that’s important.’ It drives me crazy that I end up picking up his slack with clients.” • “My supervisor passes work on to me even though I am overwhelmed with my own work. She dumps administrative duties on me that she should be performing. If I do them, it’s credit in the bank for me to get favors from her. I don’t like the game, but it does have benefits.” • “I used to be best friends with a person I now supervise. Do we have to give up our friendship? I don’t see why, as long as it is after work hours.” • “I’m a supervisor of a domestic violence agency with a shelter program. A new employee reported she is being abused by her live-in boyfriend. She feels she is in danger and would like to enter the shelter and receive counseling with us. What do I do?”

Define Leadership attempts and the influence of ethical and unethical behavior on leadership attempts In any thesaurus or dictionary, you will find that successful and effective are oftentimes used as synonyms for each other. On a fundamental level, they are very similar terms. However, when you break these terms down within the context of leadership, they can mean two very different things. So different, in fact, that the researcher Bass created an illustration (Figure 1) that demonstrates the difference. Leadership Attempts is an effort by any individual to have some effect on the behavior of another individual.

This leadership attempts can be measured successful or unsuccessful, depending upon production of the desired action or response. A good example of this is getting employees to complete tasks on time. Referring to the figure below, Person A (leader) attempts to influence Person B (constituent/employee) toward a desired outcome; Person A will be considered successful or unsuccessful along the continuum, depending upon the desired response of Person B.

To be considered an effective leader, one must take leadership to another level, past just being successful. If Person B does what Person A asks only because of positional power, influence, or guilt, then the leader (Person A) has been successful in this scenario, but not effective. If Person B does the task because he/she finds it personally rewarding, then Person A has been both successful (at getting the desired result) and effective (in affecting the attitude/motivation of Person B). The bottom line is that success has to do with how the individual or group behaves; effectiveness describes the internal state of the individual or group and is attitudinal in nature. An effective leader will usually generate personal power through follower acceptance and will use more general supervision. Both of these are great ways to empower group and community members.

If doing what is right produces something bad, or if doing what is wrong produces something good, the force of moral obligation may seem balanced by the reality of the good end. We can have the satisfaction of being right, regardless of the damage done; or we can aim for what seems to be the best outcome, regardless of what wrongs must be committed. This pattern of dilemma is illustrated in the chart.


It is an internal feeling or sense of obligation to do the right thing. It refers to judgement about what is right and wrong.
It has to do with the behavior specifically one’s moral behavior with respect to society.

It seems a negative term.
A situation requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives, any difficult or perplexing situation or problem.

It is a situation in which two or more deeply held values come into conflict It is a problematic situation whose possible solutions all offer imperfect and unsatisfactory answer. It occurs when key factors within a situation lead to different decisions and each of the decisions is equally valid. Is often Evoke powerful emotions and strong personal opinion. An ethical dilemma is a complex situation that often involves an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in transgressing another. The topics of ethics, integrity, compromise and corruption have to become as important as other critical areas of law enforcement training if significant changes can occur. This is also called an ethical paradox since in moral philosophy, paradox often plays a central role in ethics debates.

Ethical dilemmas are often cited in an attempt to refute an ethical system or moral code, as well as the worldview that encompasses or grows from it. Leaders have a tough time these days convincing us that they are honest. A US survey in 2011, for example, found that nearly half (48 percent) of those questioned rated the honesty and ethics standards. That is, few have developed their values into a moral compass pointing the way to comprehensive trading policies, robust structures and systems, and many other elements contributing to running an ethical business. In trying to shift their cultures towards a more ethical approach, many leaders will conclude that they need to develop their own skills in handling ethics. For example, some may neglect to ensure that nuts and bolts of what makes an ethics programme effective. This is seldom due to negligence, but to lack of awareness of what it takes to make a sustained cultural change in the right direction.

Consequently, many leaders will benefit from having their own ethics and values tune-up. This includes opportunities to examine their own ethical decision-making skills and the ethical environment of the company. Not sure if what you feel is an ethical dilemma? Here are the signs that may help you determine if you are experiencing an ethical problem. Discomfort – if something about a situation makes you uneasy, it is time to start finding out what is causing the feeling and why. Guilt – rather than deny the feeling, explore and respond to it. Stress – Putting off making a difficult choice, losing sleep and feeling pressured can be all signs of an ethical problem Anger – If you are feeling angry at being pressured, it could be a sign of an ethical problem. Embarrassment – If you would feel awkward about telling your boss, co-workers, friends or family about what you are doing, or thinking of doing, it’s a good chance that the issue is an ethical one. Fear – if you’re afraid of being caught, found out or exposed for what you are doing or thinking of doing, it’s almost certainly an ethical matter.

Training can help managers clarify their ethical framework and practice self-discipline when making decisions in difficult circumstances. According to the London-based Institute of Business ethics, which surveys UK companies every three years on the use of their codes of ethics, six out of ten UK companies provided training in business ethics for all their staff in 2010. However, this is a 10 per cent drop on 2007. ‘Although we are living in a time of austerity, cutting back on ethics training is a short-sighted thing for companies to do’, comments Simon Webley, Research Director of IBE and author of the survey. “Is this ethical?”

An ethical dilemma at work arises when there’s conflict between two possible desirable or undesirable actions. It is typically where the “rules” are unclear and with unacceptable trade-offs. For example, an employee may know something’s wrong – “it smells bad”, as one approach puts it. Yet the employee may be torn between loyalty to colleagues and commitment to the company. The eventual choice will depend on developing a uniquely personal view of the world, drawing on existing formal guidance but more significantly, also referring to individually held beliefs and desires. This is why rehearsals – the chance to practise with realistic examples of cases – is so essential for acquiring the necessary learning. Recognizing an ethical issue can be difficult, even when right in front of you.

In fact, people predict that they will behave more ethically that they actually do. When evaluating past unethical behaviour, they usually believe that they will behaved more ethically than they actually did. So there is a general tendency for people to fail to realize that they are making choices which affect others, with possible adverse consequences, and which should therefore be considered from a moral point of view. It is simply not a viable business strategy to claim that there is no such thing as ethics in business – this is a sure way of avoiding any personal responsibility for what is happening. If your only frame of reference for making choices is to “make a profit”, “maximize shareholder value”, “win this sale” or “meet the legal minimum requirements”, you will almost certainly miss the ethical dimension.

Given the complex socio-cultural milieu in which leaders operate, it is not surprising that they would find themselves, from time-to-time, faced with ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas are decisions “that require a choice among competing sets of principles, often in complex and value laden contexts” (Ehrich, Cranston, & Kimber, 2005, p. 137). These competing choices have been described as pulling leaders in different directions, and have been found to cause leaders great stress and anxiety. Difficulties are said to arise when leaders are faces with choices that are considered “right.” For example, Kidder (1995) states that many ethical dilemmas facing professionals do not concern right versus wrong options but right versus right. In other words, the choices could all be seen as right. Alternatively, when all of the options are deemed “wrong”, it would also potentially cause angst for leaders. How leaders interpret, respond to, and resolve ethical dilemmas is likely to depend on a variety of factors and forces both internal and external to the leader.

Two classification of Ethical DILEMMA

Ethical issues emerge when two core values come into conflict with each other. When one important value raises powerful moral arguments for one course of action, while another value raises equally powerful arguments for an opposite course, we must make a choice since we can’t do both.


Ethical issues emerge when a core moral value has been violated or ignored. When honesty is an important value to a person, and another person is found to be acting dishonestly, it is generally acknowledged that the action was unethical.

Question to ask help determine appropriate steps to take in an ethical dilemma

Ethics transcends everything we do. Think about it, most, if not all, decisions made by today’s leaders may have an ethical component. Consequently, a leader may choose to be amoral, which means he does not consider the ethical consequences of the component of his decision. An amoral leader functions as though ethics does not exist. A leader may also choose to be immoral and ignore the ethical ramifications of his actions. This leader consciously chooses to engage in the behaviour with complete knowledge that his behaviour is wrong. Finally, a leader may choose to be moral and consider the ethical impact of his decision. Of course, the latter is the desired course of action. Ideally, all decisions should be made taking into consideration the ethical ramifications of one’s actions. Whether a leader is deciding to lay off an employee, or promote an employee, the ethicality of the leader’s action must be considered. Here are seven questions asked as strategies for resolving ethical dilemmas. Is it legal?

When considering the ethicality of an action, the first thing the leader must do is consider whether the action is legal. As previously stated, one of the paramount concerns of a leader must be the long-term survival of the organization. Corporations are legal entities that can be sued and charged with crimes. When a leader engages in behaviour that is illegal, it opens up the organization for civil liability and, possible, criminal prosecution. Such actions can result in large fines and negative publicity, which may result in declining sales and market share and may ultimately lead to bankruptcy of the organization as what occurred with Enron.

Determining whether an action is legal or not is pretty simple. There are people trained to provide assistance in this area. They are called lawyers. In the US, all crimes are codified, so there is no excuse for a leader unknowingly engaging in criminal behaviour. If there is an area of doing, that so called gray area, you should err on the side of caution and not run the risk of violating the law, regardless of the benefits. Although ethical behaviour is not required, legal behaviour is so never straddle the line. Always follow the law, it is your duty to your organization. Does it harm others?

Although complying with the law is required, being ethical is not, it is a desired outcome. Therefore, when faced with an ethical dilemma and based on the ethical principles, one of the first factors that must be taken into consideration is whether the decision will cause harm to others. By incorporating this fundamental principle of ethics, showing concern for the interest of others, you may avoid making an unethical decision. However, it is important to make something perfectly clear, the ethical course of action does not necessarily mean that you will never cause harm. Sometimes, the ethical course of action may result in others being harmed.

For example, eminent domain results in harming the minority for grater societal good. The focus here is to minimize hard to others. The leader should always strive to seek the course of action that minimizes harm, while producing an ethical result. A decision to right size will inevitably harm the person being laid off. However, giving that person sufficient notice, providing them with severance of possible, and providing alternative-job training are all things that can mitigate the harm. The simple fact of showing concern for the interest of others may result in a decision being modified because upon analysis, the leader may discover that the perceived benefit does not outweigh the harm that will ensue. Does it pass the CNN test?

I (author of the book) had a former boss tell me that, “visibility is good, but exposure will kill you.” He was encouraging me to take the jobs that will bring visibility to my strengths and avoid jobs that will expose my weaknesses. There is also an old saying that transparency is the best disinfectant. Well, the same applies when it comes to our actions. When resolving an ethical dilemma, a leader should consider how he would feel if his actions were publicized to the entire world on CNN.

Would you be comfortable with your decision if it was the main topic of discussion on Anderson 360 and you knew you were being subjected to public disclosure and critique? I think (author of the book) if the former CEO and CFO of Enron had considered that their actions were going to be subjected to public disclosure, they probably would have chosen a different course of action. If the former CEO had known that it would have been publicly disclosed that he was dumping shares of Enron stock while encouraging others to buy, he probably would not have made that unethical decision.

Get a second opinion

In the field of healthcare, it is a common practice to seek second and sometimes third opinions. Although your primary physician may be a board-certified expert in his chosen field, seeking a second opinion is a form if validation. It also may provide other options that may not have been on the table. The same applies to resolving ethical dilemmas. A leader would be well served to seek the advice of a trusted advisor, who he feels will give him an unbiased, objective opinion. That person may be an expert in the field, who can point out factors you may not have considered, or it may be someone whom you believe to have a good moral compass.

Let me (author of the book) caution you here that getting a second opinion does not mean that you abdicate your responsibility because ultimately, as the leader, the buck stops with you. It is your decision, and you must bear the responsibility. However, the second opinion may reveal some factors that you may have not considered. In addition, if the person has a good moral compass, their confirmation can be reassuring that you are going down the right road. Does it pass the Ambien test?

Ambien is a prescription sleep aid used for the treatment of insomnia. Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. Now I’m sure (author of the book) you never though insomnia to be an ethical condition; however, if your decision agonizes you and causes you to stay awake at night, you have probably not made the right decision. By the same token, if you can lie down and go to sleep after making your decision without the need for Ambien, you may have made the proper decision.

Assuming that you are not a psycho or a sociopath, you should be troubled when you make a decision that is blatantly unethical. The physicians and scientists participating in the Tuskegee study should have been troubled that once penicillin was available, they refused to treat the subjects of the study. They should have had difficulty sleeping at night. They should have need Ambien to fall asleep! Now, assuming that they made the right decision, there should be no agonizing over it, and the need for Ambien for that decision should not exist—test passed! Does it pass the Socrates test?

Socrates us the ancient Greek philosopher who is given credit for setting the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking. I (author of the book) can recall my first year of law school and being exposed to the Socratic method of teaching, which is specifically designed to enhance critical-thinking skills. When faced with an ethical dilemma, a leader must ensure that the resolution is not reached based solely on gut feelings or the subjective desire to do the right thing. Yes, good intentions are important. Doing the right thing is important, but the process of getting to the right result must be based on the reason and objectivity. Does it make God smile?

At the end of the day, the final question the leader should consider is, does the chosen course of action make God or the higher power of your choosing, smile? I (author of the book) use God loosely here, and I’m not advocating any particular religion of faith. For those who may be atheist or agnostic, you may substitute God for your mother or any other figure you revere. I (author of the book) must point out that I’m speaking of an unconditionally living God, who is concerned with only good, not the God depicted in the Old Testament of the Bible, or the God who condones torturing souls in eternal damnation.

The point here is simply to look to a source beyond you that you feel reflects the characteristics of good and of being one’s best self. In legal parlance, we (author of the book) use the term the prudent or reasonable person standard. This is the person who goes through life exercising proper judgment and engaging in the right course of action under the circumstances. It is an objective standard that can be used as a benchmark for how one should act under certain situations. So if God would look at your decision and smile at your actions, you’ve probably done the right thing!


List the full range of alternative courses of action available to you.

Assume you have a variety of options. Consider the range of both positive and negative consequences connected with each one. (Who will be helped by what you do? Who will be hurt? What kinds of benefits and harms are we talking about?) After looking at all of your options, which of your options produces the best combination of benefits maximization and harm minimization?

Concentrate instead strictly on the actions. How do they measure moral principles like honesty, fairness, equality, respecting the dignity of others, respecting peoples’ right, and recognizing vulnerability of individuals weaker or less fortunate than others. Do anything of the actions that you’re considering “cross the line”, in terms of anything from simple decency to an important ethical principle. What you’re looking for is the option whose actions are least problematic.

Take both parts of your analysis into account and make a decision. This strategy should give you at least some basic steps you should follow.

Think about the circumstances which led to dilemma with the intention of identifying and removing the conditions that allowed it to arise.

Ethical Solutions

A model for examining and understanding ethical dilemmas

We now turn our attention to a conceptual model of ethical dilemmas we have been using for some time derived initially from the literature, but refined through various iterations from empirical research with leaders across three organizational contexts : schools, universities and the public sector. As can be seen from the figure above, the model considers of five core components. The first component is the critical incident that generates the ethical dilemma for the decision maker. Critical incidents are “issues or situations in [leaders’] work that produce ethical reflection and moral emotions”. The leaders who have participated in our (author of the book) research have identified a variety of critical incidents, including: Dealing with staff under performance or behaviour such as different interpretations of institutional policies;

Observing student actions such as breaking school rules or plagiarizing sources; Being given a directive from a supervisor that conflicts with their personal values and professional ethics or with their notions of wider accountability; Confronting institutional changes that conflicts with the ethos of the organization, such as the managerial imperative to make money versus maintaining standards of academic excellence; and Uncovering the misuse of public money.

A variety of factors (or forces) can highlight the critical incident and influence the choices a desision maker sees open to him or her (second component of the model). These factors are: The public interest or public good—what a community decides is in the best interest of its members as a whole as “expressed through the ballot box, interest groups and ongoing debate and discussion”. It entails ensuring that public officials are accountable to the community for making and administering policies. Any organization that receives public money (money collected through the taxation system) is accountable to the community for the use of that money. Thus, public officials must act in the public interest or for the public good. The political framework—the political ideology, system, and structure of a jurisdiction socializes people and enhances or constrains the decisions and actions they take.

The community or society—the multiple and competing stake holders (individuals and groups) that impact on and react to leaders’ decisions. Professional ethics—the ethical standards and valued held by members of a particular profession that guide their actions and that the community expects of a member of that profession Legal institutions are requires to comply with legislation and judicial rulings. Economic and financial contexts could develop from the impact of the dominant economic paradigm, on the policies and actions of an organization such the impact of preference of r neoliberal economic thinking leads to policies that result in the privatization of public sector goods and services. International or global social, political, cultural, and economic trends impact on institutions. The institutional context and factors beyond the immediate workplace—the operational milieu within which leaders work, which includes policies, procedures, and society.

Ethical Leadership


The topic Ethical Leadership is more complex than meets the eye. It means leadership that knows what is right and acting based on those guidelines. The question that should be asked then is “what is right?” Once the ethical course of action is determined the leader must then have the integrity and fortitude to proceed with that course of action. In addition to decision making ethical leadership also implies that a leader must be ethical in their attitudes and interactions. This essay seeks to inform about the practice of ethical leadership and its value to an organization

The Practice of Ethical Leadership

In order to understand the practice of Ethical Leadership it must be broken down to its constituent terms; Leadership and Ethics. Leadership is defined as a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others to accomplish a common task (Chemers, 1997). Ethical leadership is when the leader demonstrates integrity and trustworthiness to convince employees to buy his vision (Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). In order to demonstrate his integrity and trustworthiness the ethical leader is a people-oriented person (Resick, et. al, 2006) who motivates people towards accomplishing the goals of the group instead of personal benefit. Ethical leader must look within himself and upon reliable sources for guidance in determining what is ethical. Laws, Culture, Religion, and even personal upbringing can be sources of the framework for ethical leadership. The reason why the sources are so varied is because the ‘right’ in doing what is right is not always fixed in stone. While some ethics are immutable, such as lying to a business partner or stealing company materials, other are less so.

For example, dissent or talking back to superiors is strictly taboo in Oriental cultures but it calm disagreement is tolerated in western organizations. In order to have a clear set of ethical guidelines it is often preferable to have well-known company ethical standards. These standards can often be gleaned from a company’s mission vision statement. But it would be best practice if they were clearly spelled out and publicly available. Means of publication can include printing with the company handbook and / or placing copies of company ethics in frequented areas such as the pantry or reception.

By making the ethical standards clear and ubiquitous it will be difficult for leaders to derogate from them without consequences. The practice of ethical leadership requires that the leader adheres to the ethical standards of the company at all times even when no one is looking. If the leader is unable to follow ethical practices and his subordinates learn of this he will be viewed as a hypocrite and his attempts to impose ethical leadership will fall on deaf ears. A leader’s integrity must be beyond reproach if he is to expect his subordinates to follow his example.

Value of Ethical Leadership to an Organization

Recent events like the Enron scandal, the Sub-prime mortgage crisis, and the financial meltdown that followed are just a few examples of what happens in the absence of ethical leadership. In those circumstances the desire for profits overpowered ethical considerations. Of particular noteworthiness was that during the sub-prime crisis people who were likely not responsible enough to make housing loans were pressured to contract such loans by predatory leaders who were merely trying to meet their quota. Then the Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) were sold to a public that was not sophisticated enough to understand what the CDOs really were. Enron was scandalized beyond repair. The largest banks in America continue to bear the stigma of the subprime crisis. Their brands have been permanently afflicted.

Had their leadership been ethical then they would not have consented to such actions. A reputation for integrity and ethical leadership can only build up an organization’s brand. Known ethical acts can also increase the popularity of a brand in the eyes of the public such as when Costco pays its workers better than minimum wages. On a more down to earth level an ethical leader is respected by his subordinates and will be better able to coax performance from them. Subordinates are less likely to do unethical acts if their leaders are ethical. Hence, even just one ethical leader in the chain of command can have a ripple effect upon his fellow workers.


In conclusion ethical leadership is difficult because knowing the right and ethical course of action is difficult. Worse, the temptation to take the expedient or easy path that is unethical can be very strong. The lucrative and unethical is always an attractive choice for anyone engaged in business. But an ethical leader can have a multiplier effect upon his organization and help build its reputation to those around it.

Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership.
Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. In Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 611- 628. Resick, C. J., Hanges, P. J., Dickson, M. W., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2006). A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership in Journal of Business Ethics, 63, 345-359.

Organizational Culture and Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction Level of Managers in SME, Penang

The complex society today has its benchmark of goals and fulfillment that should be achieved by individuals. This set of goals and fulfillment includes securing a good job, preferably with a good pay and hopefully, with job satisfaction. What is job satisfaction? Job satisfaction is how content an satisfaction?

Small and Medium Enterprise Corporation Malaysia, SMECORP census report show in 2011, total have 645,136 SMEs in Malaysia. Penang occupied 6.3%from the total. In Malaysia SME total have 3.6million employees, which Malaysia, mployees, contributed a lot of job opportunities to Malaysians. 6.3% of 3.6million is about 3.6million 230,000 employees working in Penang SME.

SMEs play an important role in all economies in the world by contributing 80 percent of global economic growth (Jutla, et al., 2002). The importance of SMEs in developing a nation must not be taken lightly and be underestimated (Ragesh et al., 2010; Noor Hazlina & Seet, 2009). The contribution of SMEs on the various Asian nations’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is significant as shown in the Table 1 as follows: As indicated in Table 1, more than 90% of the business establishments (except Singapore) are mainly SMEs. These SMEs
provides job opportunities for more than 40% of their workforce.

Table 3: International SME Development and Growth
Source: Malaysia SME Annual Report 2007.

Research Gap

From the pass many studies (Aria Hassan, 2010; Block, L. 2003; Daft, R. L. 2005; Drucker, P.F. 1999; Harris, L. C. and Ogbonna, E. 2001), it showed some significant relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction; leadership style and job satisfaction. Not easy to find direct study three variable relationships together.

However, another gap to be observed job satisfaction research mainly is oversea research. Even in Malaysia research also didn’t find a very specific research on Penang, SME manager on their job satisfaction base on two independent variables, organizational culture and leadership styles (Harris, L. C. and Ogbonna, E. 2001; Hsu, H. Y. 2009; Kim, S. 2002; Lee, H. Y. 2008; Lee, T. W. and Mowday, R. T. 1989; Li, Y. C. 2004; Rashid, M. Z. A., Sambasivan, M. and Johari, J. 2003 )


Research Problem

In facing a variety of challenges, knowledge generation and dissemination are more critical than they had in the past. Drucker (1999) pointed out that personal know-how and tacit knowledge are not stored within an organization; in contrast, this knowledge is maintained by employees.

According to past research, managers presented a high turnover rate in the SME industry, for example, Hu et al. (2005) found that the managers in electronics SME had the second highest rate of turnover among all managers in other industry and the rate of turnover was 42% of SME managers expected to remain in their current job for 3 years, 28% anticipated that they would keep the same job for 3-6 years and only 6% planned to remain in the same job for over 10 years.

Past studies show that a positive corporate culture and effective leadership styles can enhance organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Lok and Crawford, 2004).

With a fit between positive organizational culture and suitable leadership style in the organization, a lasting success in business performance can be achieved.
Very few attempts have been made to examine the three variables (organization culture, leadership styles and job satisfaction) in an integrated way.

Therefore the fundamental issue guiding this study is to look more specifically on organizational culture and leadership styles and their effect on the job satisfaction of SME managers working in local Penang SME organizations in Malaysia.

Research Questions

This research attempts to examine the influence of organizational cultures and leadership styles on job satisfaction of SME managers in Penang, Malaysia. In examining the relations, the main research questions are:

1. What is the job satisfaction level of managers in the SME, Penang? 2. Are they satisfied with their current job?
3. To what extent the 2 factors affect job satisfaction of managers in the SME, Penang?
4. What is the moderating effect of age in the job satisfaction?

Objectives of the Research

The objectives of this research are to examine the association between different types of organizational cultures and leadership styles on job satisfaction of SME managers in Penang. The specific objectives of this research are to:

To assess the job satisfaction level of managers in SME Company in Penang.

To study the impact of these 2 factors affects the job satisfaction of the managers in SME Company in Penang.

To examine whether age has any moderating effect on the job satisfaction of the managers in SME company in Penang.

Significance and contribution of the study

This study intends to contribute to the existing knowledge base, in particular the influence of organizational cultures and leadership styles on job satisfaction of the SME Manager in Penang. It is noted that even with the literature found from various databases, only a handful looked into the relationship of organizational cultures and leadership styles on job satisfaction of professionals. Very few attempts have been made to examine the three variables in SME Penang (Organizational culture, leadership styles and job satisfaction) in an integrated way.

With increasing globalization, greater knowledge of the interaction of these factors on SME managers working in small and medium industry organizations can be beneficial. Thus, upon gathering the data, finding effective methods in managing SME managers are crucial in order to achieve a high level of innovation performance by SME organizations in Penang.

The significance of this research can be summarized per below: 1) Contribute to the literature review on the relationship of organizational cultures and leadership styles on job satisfaction SME in Penang. 2) Able to identify types of organizational cultures and leadership styles adopted by SME in Penang.

3) Determine job satisfaction level of SME manager in Penang. 6

4) Identify effective cultures and leadership styles in managing SME managers in Penang.

Definition of terms

1.7.1 Organization Cultures
There are a number of definitions of organizational cultures that refer to norms of behavior and shared values among a group of members in an organization. According to Conner (1992), organizational cultures can be defined as the “interrelationship of shared beliefs behaviors and
assumptions that are acquired over time by members of an institution”.

In fact, cultures dominate in a way that impacts employee interaction, organizational functioning and eventually influences all decision making (Graham &Nafukho, 2007). Schein (1985) integrated the concept of assumptions, adaptations, perceptions and learning and then comprehensively defined organizational cultures as patterns of basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaptation and internal integration that all works well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.

Culture can also be expressed through the organization’s myths, heroes, legends, stories, jargon, rites and rituals. Corporate culture is a key component in the achievement of an organization’s mission and strategies, the improvement of organizational effectiveness and the management of change 7

(Samuel, 2006). A corporate culture can work for an organization to improve performance or against it by creating barriers that prevent the attainment of goals. However, it can be corrected by providing guidance on what is expected by conveying a sense of identity and purpose of unity to members, facilitating the generation of commitment and shaping behavior.

1.7.2 Leadership & Leadership Styles
According to Stogdill (1963), different people will interpret leadership differently based on the individual perspective; there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept. Stogdill stated that the term leadership is a relatively a recent addition to the English language and it was used only for about two hundred years ago, although the term leader from which it was derived appeared as early as A.D1300.

Leadership has been defined in terms of individual traits, behavior, influence over other people, interaction patterns, role relationships, occupation of an administrative position and perception by others regarding
legitimacy of influence. (Yukl, 2006). Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of members. Some other definitions are as follows:

1) Leadership is “the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal.” (Hemphill & Coons, 1957). 8

2) Leadership is “an interaction between persons in which one presents information of a sort and in such a manner that the other becomes convinced that his outcome will be improved if he behaves in the manner suggested or desired” (Jacobs, 1970).

3) Leadership is “the initiation and maintenance of structure in expectation and interaction” (Stogdill, 1974).

Job Satisfaction

Locke (1969) defining job satisfaction as “the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values”. Spector (1985) defined it as “how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs. Schmidt (2007) stated that job satisfaction is a reflection of an individual’s behavior that leads to attractive outcomes and is typically measured in degrees of multiple perceptions using multiple constructs or categories.

Overall, job satisfaction is associated with an employee satisfaction from both psychological and physical perspectives. Thus, job satisfaction is recognized as a complex construct that includes both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. (Herzberg, 1959). He also identified the intrinsic as derived from internal job-related rewards such as recognition, achievement, advancement and responsibility. Extrinsic factors result from external
environment-related rewards such as salary, policies, and interpersonal relations in supervision and working conditions. Spector (1985) identified nine subscales for the Job Satisfaction 9

Survey (JSS): pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, co-workers, nature of work and communication.

1.7.4 SME Manager
SME manager can be explained in 2 parts- SME and the manager. SME is the industry and manager is the position in an organization.
Small and medium enterprises or SMEs, also called small and medium-sized enterprises and small and medium-sized businesses, SMBs. SMEs are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. The manager is an individual who is in charge of a certain group of tasks, or a certain subset of a company. A manager often has a staff of people who report to him or her.

Job Satisfaction underpinning theory

1.8.1 Herzberg Job Satisfaction Theory:
Herzberg developed his theory that there are two dimensions to job satisfaction: motivation and “hygiene”. Hygiene issues, according to Herzberg, cannot motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. In other words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygiene topics include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee’s environment. Motivators, on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals’ needs for meaning and personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, 10

recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Once the hygiene areas are addressed, said Herzberg, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production. (Christina M. Stello, 2011)


Literature Review

In this chapter, a literature review on the independent variable, organizational culture and leadership styles, also the dependent variable, job satisfaction.


Independent variable – Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is generally seen as a set of key values, assumptions, understandings and norms that are shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as correct (Daft, 2005). It is argued that organizational culture may be the critical key that managers can use to direct the course of their firms (Smircich, 1983). A culture creates distinctions between one organization and others, conveys a sense of identity for its members, facilitates commitment towards the organization’s goals, enhances the stability of the social system, reduces ambiguity and serves as a control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behavior of employees.

However, a culture can also become a liability when it becomes too strongly entrenched within the norms, values and mindsets of the employees and resist changes. A culture can also become a barrier to change, diversity and other transformations required for the organization to adapt in today’s dynamic, 11

globalized business environment. The study of organizational culture can take on a multitude of aspects.
Robbins (2005) elaborated that there are seven primary characteristics that, in aggregate, capture the essence of an organization’s culture: innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness and stability. Each of these characteristics can exist on a continuum from low to high. Daft (2005) discussed on the three levels of corporate culture, with each level becoming less obvious, i.e. visible, expressed values and underlying assumptions and deep beliefs.

Culture can also be determined by its strength, which is the degree of agreement among employees about the importance of specific values and ways of doing things. A strong culture is one which core values are both intensely held and widely shared, and hence have greater impact on employee behavior. Research has found that a strong culture is linked to high agreement among members, increases behavioral consistency builds cohesiveness, loyalty and organizational commitment and more importantly, reduces turnover (Robbins, 2005).

According to Wallach (1983), an organization’s culture can be a combination of three categories – bureaucratic, innovative or supportive – to varying degrees. Wallach’s (1983) framework is adapted for the purpose of this study. Wallach (1983) states that the Organizational Culture Index (OCI) profiles culture on the three stereotypical dimensions and can be derived from the combination of these three dimensions.


A bureaucratic culture is hierarchical and compartmentalized. There are clear lines of responsibility and authority. Work is organized and this culture is usually based on control and power. Such organizations are stable, cautious, usually mature, power-oriented, established, solid, regulated, ordered, structured, procedural and hierarchical.

An innovative culture refers to a creative, results-oriented, challenging work environment. It is characterized as being entrepreneurial, ambitious, stimulating, driven and risk-taking. A supportive culture exhibits teamwork and a peopleoriented, encouraging, trusting work environment. These places are warm and people are generally friendly, fair and helpful to each other. Supportive cultures are characterized as open, harmonious, trusting, safe, equitable, sociable, relationships-oriented, humanistic, collaborative and likened to an extended family.

Wallach (1983) further elaborated that an employee can be more effective in his or her current job and realizes his or her best potentials, when there is a match between the individual’s motivation and the organizational culture. For instance, by using McClelland’s three social motivators: a person with a high need of achievement will thrive in an innovative culture, an affinitive person will fare well in a supportive culture and a power-oriented person will perform best in a bureaucratic culture. This has significant implications in recruitment, management, motivation, development and retention of employees.

Few published studies describing the corporate culture of Malaysian companies, which are generally more or less similar to other fast-growing, competitive, 13

developing Asian countries. Government offices are generally considered to be bureaucratic, while publicly-listed and private companies are more

entrepreneurial in nature. This is exemplified in a study done by Rashid et al. (2003), where companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange were found to be predominantly competitive and value risk-taking, demanding goals and market superiority.

Another study by Rashid et al. (2004) showed that among manufacturers in the
country, many had mercenary culture, which emphasized on strategy and winning in the marketplace. To balance this, there exists to a lesser degree consensus, network and supportive cultures within Malaysian companies, consistent with the cultural values of Malaysian managers. Tradition, loyalty, teamwork and personal commitment are among some of the values prevalent in Malaysian companies.

Independent variable – Leadership styles

Daft (2005) defined leadership as an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes. Over the course of time, a number of dimensions or facets of leadership behavior have been developed and applied as researchers continue to discover what contributes to leadership success and failures. These included, among others, autocratic versus democratic, task-oriented versus peopleoriented, and the contingency approaches.

The first studies on leadership styles conducted by Kurt Lewin and his associates in 1970s, identified the autocratic, democratic and delegative leadership styles. An autocratic leader is one who centralizes authority and derives power from position, control of rewards, and coercion. A democratic leader style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process but the leader maintains the final decision making authority. A delegative leader style, on the other hand, delegates authority to others, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks and depends on subordinate respect for influence.

Subsequently, a series of studies on leadership styles (e.g. By Ohio State University, University of Michigan and University of Texas) were designed and conducted in the 1950s. This resulted in the development of reliable questionnaires (e.g. Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, LBDQ) and
models (e.g. Leadership Grid by Blake and Mouton) that would, in time, dominate much of leadership-related research and literature for years to come. Overall, the research into the behavior approach culminated in two major types of leadership behaviors – people-oriented and task-oriented.

People-oriented leadership, which is equivalent to the consideration (Ohio State University), employee-centered (University of Michigan) and concern for people (University of Texas) focuses on the human needs of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings and places importance on establishing mutual trust. Task-oriented leadership, which is equivalent to initiating structure (Ohio State University), job-centered (University of Michigan) and concern for production (University of Texas), focus on directing activities towards efficiency, cost15

cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goal achievements and work facilitation.
Theories of leadership then evolved to adopt a contingency approach when researchers failed to find universal leader traits or behaviors that would determine effective leadership. Following this school of thought, research focused on the situation in which leadership occurred. Leadership styles can be contingent upon situational variables, the nature of the followers and the leaders themselves. Many theories have been put forward, including Fiedler’s contingency theory, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory, the Vroom-Jago contingency model, Leader-Member Exchange theory and the Path-Goal theory. Depending on the researcher’s conceptions and preferences, most leadership studies have been carried out in various ways.

Nearly all leadership research can be classified into powerful influence, behavior, trait approach and situational approach. Currently, the most influential contingency approach to leadership is the Path- Goal theory (Robbins, 2005). This theory was developed by Robert House and extracts the key elements of the Ohio State leadership research on initiating structure and consideration, and the expectancy theory of motivation. The theory states that the main goal of the leader is to help subordinates attain the subordinates’ goals effectively and to provide them with the necessary direction and support to achieve their own goals as well as those of the organization (Silverthorne, 2001).

In this theory, the leader increases follower motivation by either; (1) Clarifying the follower’s path to the rewards that are available or 16

(2) Increasing the rewards that the follower values and desires. Path clarification means that the leader works with subordinates to help them identify and learn the behaviors that will lead to successful task accomplishment and organizational rewards. Increasing rewards means that the leader talks with subordinates to learn which rewards are important to them, i.e. whether they desired intrinsic rewards from the work itself, or extrinsic rewards such as promotions. The leader’s job is to increase personal payoffs to subordinates for goal attainment and make the paths to the payoffs clear and easy to travel.

The Path-Goal theory suggests a fourfold classification of leader styles:

directive, supportive and participative styles. It is assumed that leaders are flexible and that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors depending on the situation.
Directive leadership tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do. Leader behavior includes planning, making schedules, setting performance goals and behavior standards and stressing adherence to rules and regulations. Mehta et al. (2003) added that this leadership style provides specific direction to subordinate work activity by organizing and defining the task environment, assigning the necessary functions to be performed, specifying rules, regulations and procedures to be followed in accomplishing tasks, clarifying expectations, scheduling work to be done, establishing communication networks and evaluating work group performance. Directive leadership behavior is similar to the initiating structure or task-oriented leadership style.


Supportive leadership shows concern for subordinates’ well-being and personal needs in which the leaders are open, friendly and approachable. The leader creates a team climate and treat subordinates equally. Mehta et al. (2003) further elaborated that a supportive leadership style is one in which the leader creates a facilitative task environment of psychological support, mutual trust and respect, helpfulness and friendliness. Supportive leadership is similar to the consideration or people-oriented leadership described earlier. Participative leadership consults with subordinates about decisions. Leader style includes asking for opinions and suggestions, encouraging participation in decision making, meeting, discussion and written suggestions, similar to the selling style in the Hersey and Blanchard model mentioned previously. Various studies in organizational behavior have found that allowing subordinates to participate in decision-making leads to increased motivation (Mehta et al., 2003).

Achievement-oriented leadership sets clear and challenging goals for
subordinates. Leader behavior stresses high-quality performance and improvement over current performance. Achievement-oriented leaders also show confidence in subordinates and assist them in learning how to achieve high goals.
The two situational contingencies in the Path-Goal theory are the personal characteristics of group members and the work environment. Personal characteristics can include subordinates’ locus of control, experience, perceived ability, skills, needs and motivations.

Work environment contingencies can include the degree of task structure, the nature of the formal authority system and the work group itself.
Task structure describes the extent to which tasks are defined and have explicit job descriptions and work procedures. The formal authority system includes the amount of legitimate power used by leaders and the extent to which policies and rules constrain employees’ behavior. Work group characteristics consist of the educational level of subordinates and the quality of relationships among them.

The outcome of matching the right leadership behavior with the right situation while taking into consideration the various subordinate and work environments contingencies will result in favorable outcomes such as increased effort, improved satisfaction and performance (Daft, 2005). The study of leadership behaviors as conceptualized under the Path-Goal theory has been applied in many types of researches and has been generally accepted as a good measure of subordinate’s perceptions of leadership style based on participative, supportive and directive.

For example, in the context of international marketing channels (Mehta et al., 2003), small and middle-sized firms (Li, 2004), company managers (Silverthorne, 2001), steel industry (Downey et al. 1975), automotive industry (Chang et al., 2003) and market orientation of UK firms (Harris and Ogbonna, 2001).

Researchers of marketing channels in the distribution and logistics industry have attempted to show the path-goal theory’s usefulness as a strategy to 19

secure the compliance of channel members and have conceptually and empirically linked it to channel related phenomena such as manifest conflict, cooperation, channel efficiency and effectiveness, role clarity, role conflict, role ambiguity, and channel member satisfaction (Mehta et al., 1996) Not everyone agrees that a particular style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior.

Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needs to know when to exhibit a particular approach. No one leadership style is ideal for every situation since a leader may have the knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). Leaders affect their subordinates both directly through their interactions and also through the organization’s culture (Li, 2004).

Past research on corporate leadership in Malaysia frequently focused on its unique, multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and collectivist society. It is acknowledged that leadership in Malaysia is deeply entrenched and connected to its diverse Asian culture, traditions and values. Hence, commonly-accepted leadership theories from the west and how it is thought to affect other organizational behavior factors may not be directly transferable to the Malaysian context. Organizational success in obtaining its goals and objectives depends on managers and their leadership style. By using appropriate leadership styles, managers can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.



Many factors related to turnover have been identified by previous research to be significantly correlated with job satisfaction (Chang, Choi, & Kim, 2008; Moore, 2000). In a review of past literature, Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006) justified the need to investigate job satisfaction is exemplified in the seemingly observed relationship between the levels of job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, grievance expression, tardiness, low morale and high turnover. Thus, job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. Unsatisfied workers will leave their jobs more than their satisfied colleagues. Furthermore, more satisfied employees have more innovative activities in continuous quality improvement and more
participation in decisionmaking in organizations. 21


Relationship between organization culture, leadership styles

& job satisfaction
Research involving two or all three subjects of organizational culture, leadership styles and job satisfaction has attracted considerable interest from both academics and practitioners. Examples of a few key studies in the area are:

(1) Corporate culture and leadership style in United Kingdom (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000), Canada and Korea (Dastmalchian et al., 2000). (2) Organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and commitment (Lok and Crawford, 1999, 2004).

(3) Leadership style and organizational culture to effect change (Brooks, 1996; Smith, 2003).
(4) Leadership and organizational culture in a private organization toward performance (Block, 2003).
Despite numerous references to a relationship between organizational culture and leadership styles in many parts of organization theory and research, little systematic research has been conducted to investigate the link between the nature of the relationship of these two concepts and their effect on job satisfaction. Since these two concepts are important in the functioning of an organization (Lok and Crawford, 2002, 2004; Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Fiedler, 1996; Schein, 1992), further research is required to provide the insight information to the leaders and organizations.


On the other hand, previous research on corporate culture in Malaysia (Kamal, 1988; Jaina, Md. Zabid, Anantharaman, 1997) focused more on different ethnic backgrounds (Malays, Chinese, and Indians) and used
Hofstede’s model of organizational culture (Hofstede, 1980). Job satisfaction is recognized as an important topic in organizational culture because of its relevance to the physical and emotional health of employees (Oshagbemi, 1999).

Although a considerable number of researchers have argued that there is a constant interplay between organizational culture and leadership, there are limited empirical studies examining the relation between leadership and culture as well as their joint effect on important organizational outcomes (Trice and Beyer, 1993). More importantly, research has found that the harmonious combination of appropriate leadership styles with certain types of organizational cultures can positively influence employees’ performance (Harris and Ogbonna, 2000).

According to Yousef (2000), the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction has received a lot of attention in the past research however findings have been mixed (Savery, 1994; Yousef, 2000). Research therefore does not directly link employee satisfaction to a specific leadership style. Instead, many suggest that leadership style needs to adapt to the culture or situation as it attempts to reduce employee dissatisfaction.

Based on a comprehensive literature review by Yousef (2000), several researchers have also looked into the relationship between leadership styles and job performance. The findings were inconsistent as well. A couple of 23

studies in the steel industry and electronic meeting systems reported higher satisfaction and performance levels under directive leadership style when given a highly structured task, while supportive leadership style is preferred for unstructured problems (Kahai et al., 1997). Results from investigations of the antecedents of commitment have not been entirely consistent (Yousef, 2000).  Organizational culture plays an important role as well in generating commitment and enhancing performance (Lok and Crawford, 2001). In particular, studies in various industries and countries showed that innovative and supportive cultures had strong positive effects on commitment and job satisfaction, while bureaucratic cultures had a negative impact (Lok and Crawford, 1999; Rashid et al., 2003; Wallach, 1983).

Results from various organizations in the United Arab Emirates suggest (in support of many western studies) that those who perceive their superiors as adopting consultative or participative leadership behavior are more committed to their organizations, more satisfied with their jobs and their performance is high. When employees are dissatisfied at work, they are less committed and will look for other opportunities to quit. If opportunities are unavailable, they may emotionally or mentally “withdraw” from the organization. Thus the job satisfaction is an important attitude in assessing the employee’s intention to quit and the overall contribution of the employee to the organization. 24

Rashid et al. (2003) surveyed over 200 companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. Combining these findings with studies from other countries,
both western and non-western, it is reasonable to expect that different types of leadership styles and organizational cultures do affect organizational commitment, which in turn, influences both job satisfaction and employee performance. Samad (2005) studied 584 managerial-level of employees in Telekom Malaysia and reported that job satisfaction did play a positive moderating role in the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance.

However, Leong et al. (1994) found a weak correlation between the two variables, Lee and Mowday (1989) found negligible relationship and Wright (1997) reported a negative relationship between the two. In summary, many studies across different industries and geographical regions revealed strong correlations between organizational cultures with job satisfaction. There are very few relevant studies in the Malaysian context have been published to date but through our findings, no research being done on the relationship of organizational cultures, leadership styles and job satisfaction of SME managers working in SME industry, which has significant contribution to the Penang.


Theoretical Framework

For the purpose of this research proposal, Hsu (2009) conceptualization of the relationships between organizational culture, organizational commitment and job satisfaction together with Lee (2008) study on “Association between 25

organizational culture and leadership behavior and organizational commitment, job satisfaction and employee performance- A Malaysian Perspective” performance


partially adapted.
Based on the literature review, the theoretical framework per Figure 1 below; igure

Figure 1: Research Framework

From the literature and framework above, the following research hypothesis derived.
H1: Organizational Culture affects Job Satisfaction of the employees. Job
H2: Leadership Style affects Job Satisfaction of the employees. H3: Age has a moderating effect on the level of Job Satisfaction

Research Methodology

Research Instrument

This study adopts a quantitative approach and the data solely depends on the primary data. The instrument to be used to collect the data in this research is a set of questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of two main sections – Section A and B.

Section A is regarded respondent’s profile, such as Gender, Age Group, Position in this organization, Highest Level of Academic Qualification and Total Year of Working Experience in this company.
Section B is pertaining to the measurement of variables under studied. There are total three variables in this study – one dependent variable which is Job Satisfaction, and two independent variables which are Perceived Organization Culture and Perceived Leadership Style. The Job Satisfaction is measured with ten items, and Organization Culture and Leadership Style, they are assessed by 20 and 15 items respectively. This is self-administered questionnaire. Respondents will be asked to indicate their agreement on each item on a 5-points Likert scale. The scale points are 1=Strongly Disagree,
2=Disagree, 3=Neutral, 4=Agree, and 5=Strongly Agree. A set of questionnaire is appended in Appendix A for reference.


Population and Sample

The population for this study composed of all managers in the SME in manufacturing sector companies located in Penang. A two layer sampling method will be employed in selecting the respondents for this study. In the first layer, the companies that formed the respondents will be selected using a simple random sampling method. The list of all the SME in the manufacturing section publishes on the SME website will be used as the population. Each company will be assigned a number and random numbers will be generated to select 380 companies to form the participants. In the second layer, 5 sets of questionnaire will be given to the Human Resources managers of the 380 companies selected. The questionnaire will then be distributed to the managers in their company. The selection of managers is at the discretion of the Human Resources managers.


Pilot Test

Test Pilot is a trial run of procedures and instruments that you plan to use. Pilot test will be conducted with 50 managers of SME in the manufacturing sector randomly picked from the population to ensure that the instrument used is reliable. The returned data on the questionnaire will be entered into the SPSS statistical software. A reliability test will be run and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient value will be examined. It is suggested that Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.7 and above is considered good reliability of the measure. However, if the Cronbach’s Alpha value below than 0.7, then we will look further into the value of 28

“Cronbach’s Alpha if item Deleted”. We will screen through all the items to determine which item if this item deleted will improve the Cronbach’s Alpha value. If necessary, we will add in additional items to enhance the reliability of the measure.

In addition, we will also examine the value of “Corrected item-Total Correlation”. The value of 0.4 to 0.6 is considered acceptable. This statistic can be used to test validity of the measure. If the value is too small such as 0.05, it means this item is no correlated to other items. In other words, this item is not relevant in this measure. Contrary, if the value is too high such as 0.8, then it means this item is too correlated with other items or it is duplicated with other items. The pilot test will be repeated to achieve the acceptable level of reliability and validity.


Method of Analysis

This study will employ descriptive statistic and an inference statistic approach to test the hypothesis and achieve the objectives of this research. However, before we begin any actual data analysis, we will perform the goodness of measure test.

3.4.1 Goodness of Measure
Reliability is one of the elements to ensure the goodness of measure. It is suggested that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient should be above 0.7 for reliability to consider the scale as consistent scale. As presented in the Pilot Test, the


reliability will be assessed and enhanced before the actual data collection and analysis. In other words, the goodness of data has been pre-assessed.

3.4.2 Descriptive Statistic

A descriptive statistic table will be generated using the SPSS statistical software. The table will report the total numbers of respondent and the demographic statistics, mean values and standard deviation of Job Satisfaction, Organization Culture and Leadership Style. These are the basis statistics to describe the samples.

From this descriptive statistics, specifically from the mean score of Job Satisfaction, we will know the satisfaction level of managers of the SME manufacturing section in Penang. This statistic is able to achieve the first objective of this research – To assess the job satisfaction level of managers in

SME companies in Penang.

3.4.3 Inferences Statistic
Various statistical analysis techniques will be employed in this study. These techniques are multivariate analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Each technique has its own purpose in related to the objective of the research and hypothesis testing. To test the following research hypothesis, multivariate analysis will be carried out.


H1: Organizational Culture affects Job Satisfaction of the employees. H2: Leadership Style affects Job Satisfaction of the employees.

The outcome of this data analysis will help us achieve the second objective – To study the impact of these 2 factors affects the job satisfaction of the managers in SME companies in Penang. To test on the following hypothesis, we will carry out the hierarchical multiple regression analysis. H3: Age has a moderating effect on the level of Job Satisfaction. With the outcome of this test, the third objective of this study will also can be achieved – To examine whether age has any moderating effects in the job satisfaction of the managers in SME companies in Penang.

The above data analysis plan and its purpose of each test in regards to the research objective can be summarized in the table below.


Dastmalchian, A., Lee, S. and Ng. I. (2000). The interplay between organizational and national cultures: a comparison of organizational practices in Canada and South Korea using the CVF. Int. J. of HRM, Apr 1998. Downey, H. K., Sheridan, J. E. and Slocum Jr., J. W. (1975), “Analysis of relationships among leader behavior, subordinate job performance and satisfaction: A path-goal approach”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 253-62.

Drucker, P.F. (1999). Knowledge worker productivity: The biggest challenge.

California Management Review, vol. 41 no. 2, pp. 79-94.
Graham, C.M., &Nafukho, F.M. (2007). Employees’ perception toward the dimension of culture in enhancing organizational learning. The Learning Organization, vol. 14 no. 3, pp. 281-292.

Harris, L. C. and Ogbonna, E. (2001), “Leadership style and market orientation: An empirical study”, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 35 no. 5/6, pp. 744-64. C). Development of the leader behavior questionnaire. In R.M. Stogdill& A. E. Coons (Eds.), leader Behavior: Its description and measurement (pp. 6-38). Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values. Beverly Hill, CA, Sage.

Hsu, H. Y. (2009), “Organizational Learning Culture’s Influence on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention among R&D Professionals in Taiwan during an Economic Downturn”, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Minnesota, pH. D. Thesis

Jutla, D., Bodorik, P., and Jasbir, D. (2002). Supporting the e-business readiness of small and medium enterprises: Approaches and metrics.

Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 12 (2), 139-164. 34

Kahai, S. S., Sosik, J. J. and Avolio, B. J. (1997), “Effects of leadership
style and problem structure on work group process and outcomes in an electronic meeting system environment”, Personnel Psychology, vol. 50 no. 1, pp. 121-46. Kim, S. (2002), “Participative management and job satisfaction: Lessons for management leadership”, Public Administration Review, vol. 62 no. 2, pp. 23141. Lee, H. Y. (2008), “The association between organizational culture and leadership behavior and organizational commitment, job satisfaction and employee performance – A Malaysian Perspective”. Faculty of Business and Accountancy, Universiti Malaya, Dissertation (M.B.A.).

Lee, T. W. and Mowday, R. T. (1989), “Voluntary leaving an organization: An empirical investigation of Steers and Mowdays’s Model of Turnover”, Academy

of Management Journal, vol. 30, pp. 721-43.
Leong, S. M., Randoll, D. N. and Cote, J. A. (1994), “Exploring the organizational commitment-performance”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 29 no. 1, pp. 57-63.
Li, Y. C. (2004), “Examining the effect of organizational culture and leadership behaviors on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance at small and middle-sized firms in Taiwan”, Journal of American Academy of


Lok, P. and Crawford, J. (2001), “Antecedents of organizational commitment and the mediating role of job satisfaction”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 16 no. 7/8, pp. 594-613.
Lok, P. and Crawford, J. (2004), “The effect of organizational culture & leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: A crossnational comparison”, Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 4, pp. 321-38.

Mehta, R., Dubinsky, A. J. and Anderson, R. E. (2003), “Leadership style, motivation and performance in international marketing channels: An empirical investigation of the USA, Finland and Poland”, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1/2, pp. 50-85.

Mehta, R., Larsen, T. and Rosenbloom, B. (1996), “The influence of leadership style on co-operation in channels of distribution”, International Journal of

Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 26 no. 6, pg. 32. Noor Hazlina Ahmad, and Seet, P.S. (2009). Dissecting behaviors associated with business failure: A qualitative study of SME owners in Malaysia and Australia. Asia Social Science, 5 (9), 98-104

Oshagbemi, T. (1999). “Academics and Their Manager: A Comparative Study in Job Satisfaction.” Personal Review 28 (1/2): 108 – 123. Rad, A. M. M. and Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2006), “A study of relationship between managers’ leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction”,

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 11-28.
Rashid, M. Z. A., Sambasivan, M. and Johari, J. (2003), “The influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment to performance”, Journal of

Management Development, vol. 22 no. 8, pp. 708-28.


Rashid, M. Z. A., Sambasivan, M. and Rahman, A. A. (2004), “The influence of organizational culture on attitudes toward organizational change”, Leadership

&Organizational Development Journal, vol. 25 no. 2, pp. 161-79. th

Robbins, S. P. (2005), Organizational Behaviour, 11

ed., Pearson Prentice

Hall, New Jersey.
Samad, S. (2005), “Unraveling the organizational commitment & job performance relationship: Exploring the moderating effect of job satisfaction”,

The Business Review, Cambridge, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 79-84.
Samuel, O. A. (2006) – Library Philosophy and Practice Vol. 8, No. 2 ISSN 15220222. Retrieved from Savery, L. K. (1994), “Attitudes to work: The influence of perceived style of leadership in a group of workers”, Leadership and Organization Development

Journal, vol. 15 no. 4, pp. 12-18.
Schein, E. (1985), “How culture forms, develops and change”, in Kilman, P. H. Sekaran, Uma (2003). “Research methods for business: A skill building approach”. 4thedn. New York: John Wiley & Son
Silverthorne, C. (2001), “A test of the path-goal leadership theory in Taiwan”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 22 no. 4, pp. 151-8. SME

Smircich, L. (1983), “Concepts of culture and organizational effectiveness”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 28 no. 3, pp. 339-58. Smith, M. E. 2003. “Changing an organization’s culture – correlates of success

and failure”. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. Volume 24 No.5.
Stogdill, R. M. (1963), “Manual for Leadership Description Questionnaire Form XII”, The Ohio State University Bureau of Business Research, Columbus, OH. Trice, H. and Beyer, J. M. (1993), “The Cultures of Work Organization”, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Wallach, E. J. (1983), “Individuals and organizations: The cultural match.”

Training and Development Journal, vol. 37, pp. 29-36.
Williams, L. J. and Hazer, J. T. (1986), “Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment in turnover models: A re-analysis using latent variable structural equation methods”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71 no. 2, pp. 219- 31.

Wright, T. A. (1997), “Job performance and organizational commitment”,

Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 85 no. 2, pp. 447-50.
Yousef, D. A. (2000), “Organizational commitment: A mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 15 no. 1, pp. 6-28. Yukl, G. A. (2006). Leadership in Organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Leadership in organizations

Leadership is a term with a variety of definitions depending on the context that it’s been defined. One common definition of leadership is “the behavior of an individual directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal.” The following paragraphs would elaborate on one major approach of studying leadership, its strengths and weakness, and an example in which it was used in an organization. (Yukl, 2010) Participative Leadership style Participative Leadership is the most common leadership style in business settings such as hospitality. Participative Leadership “involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals and developing procedures or strategies to reach those goals.” It is also known as democratic leadership. In which the leaders often provide guidance to the group. There is active involvement on the part of everyone on the team. It also expands the range of possibilities for the team. (Yukl, 2010)

Strengths of Participative Leadership

Some advantages of participative leadership involve acceptance, morale, creativity and retention. Participative leadership allows employees to readily accept policies because they were involved the policy change, development one way, or the other. Morale of employees remains high because they feel that they are part of the team. It also helps bring a lot of creativity and creative ideas to the team. (Yukl, 2010) Weaknesses of Participative Leadership One potential disadvantage of participate leadership is the time factor. This leadership style does often involve the need for more time before action is taken. The disadvantages or weaknesses of participative leaderships are fewer than its advantages. Mostly employees are confused, with too much responsibilities and little guidance from management. There is room for major errors that can affect the organization at large. This leads to lower performance, high employee turnover, customer dissatisfaction and decreased profitability. (Yukl, 2010)

Organization Example:

Arizona Biltmore One example of participative leadership is at the front desk department of the Arizona Biltmore. Front Desk Agents are often involved in policies that pertain to the front desk. For example agents are given authority to resolve guest issues by rewarding them with dollar amount credit up to $100.00 based on the issue. Anything over $100.00 needs to be approved by a manager. In addition, employees are encouraged with incentives on room up sells. Thus, this motivates employee morale, brings about creativity with new ideas to improve their performance. On busy days the front office manager is at the front desk working with employees to assist guests.

There is active involvement with everyone on the team. One disadvantage that applies to this organization example is there are too many responsibilities for employees and little guidance. Sometimes when agents need a manager to be around with an unresolved guest issue, the manager is not around. Therefore, this type of behavior motivates guests to give negative ratings on line about service or give positive rating if their problems are resolved. Participative Leadership has its advantages and disadvantages, and would determine an organization’s improvement or downfall if used wisely. (Yukl, 2010)


Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in Organization (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

India needs leadership

India being a strong democratic country doesn’t really need a dictator. It may just lead to disruption. India is a big country. People live in harmony and are known for their unity. A dictator may not be able to maintain this. Few people may again misunderstand dictatorship and may think it defies the purpose of freedom. Dictatorship may bring very short term changes. A country needs a strong government. Dictatorship may introduce communal differences depending on the community of the dictator. Human rights can be certainly bypassed.

It may lead to disorganization and malfunctioning of the law and order system of the country. For
A dictator can easily help us get rid of the dirt in politics. A very small community of people actually understands the meaning of democracy and don’t make misuse of it. For over decades, India is trying to get rid of poverty, may be, a dictator can help in this aspect. A dictator can help the citizens realize the meaning of democracy and freedom. Whether a country has a dictator or not, freedom of speech and rights is what matters to any citizen. It is a myth that smaller countries usually need dictatorship. We cannot forget the smaller country has the same human species with the same human rights as in other countries.

Discussion board
though Dictatorship may banish dirty politics and corruption from india, I think that choosing is a dictator will end the right to speak ability which evrey indian has!! peole may lost democracy.. and ultimately dictatorship will give born to another hitlar or gaddafi or saddam where human right is was snatched. So india will be a heaven of silence. . India needs strong dictator

India doesn’t need a dictator but, it certainly need a strong democratic alliance, which can take some tough decision on the problems which are rising in India. India need a group of people who are not afraid to take some strict actions and go against the law if necessary to bring some
fruitful result. For example bihar , UP etc. are under lots of terrorism so if there is a good government which can take some measure to curb the corruption and terrorism then we don’t require a dictator.

Democracy should be above all the law, for example they should pass the LOKPAL which is being supported by democracy then lots of things can be done, but the government and the people in the parliament are not strong enough to see the viewpoint and not ready to make changes. India needs a strong dictator

There are various opinions of one but do we really want to go the middle east way? Do we really want another Gaddafi or Bashar amidst us? Democracy prevents wars from happening, promotes nThere are two kinds of reasons why India doesn’t need a dictator: strategic, and ethical. First strategic.

In a democratic country like India, divided into various layers and clusters based on caste, religion, gender, region, ethnic and other basis, democracy is a great leveler because of two reasons: each person’s value is one (as a vote) and secondly, most people feel that they have a stake in this system, particularly those who vote, and we have very high voting percentages across the world for democratic nations for our elections, particularThe only thing is whether they will justify it or like Thackeray, proudly say they did the wrong thing and ask others to challenge it if they dare to.

When Indian people feel they have no stake in a system (they really won’t have a stake, because there is no MLA or MP they can go to in case the bureaucracy strikes at their rights), they will take to protest. A dictator will not allow non-violent protests most certainly, so they will take to violent protests someday. That will only mean violence and secession. India’s experience shows us that it is extension of democracy which solves our problems, be it in Mizoram or to an extent now in Assam, not dictatorship or army rule as seen in Kashmir.

If India had a dictatorship earlier during the time of independence, states like Tamil Nadu and Assam as well as North-East would have done all to secede somehow. Thankfully, because democracy was there and Nehru believed
strongly in it, we accommodated regional aspirations and that is why those issues were solved. And our issues can only be resolved in this way.

Now ethical.

I agree that a dictator can take decisions quickly, and democracy is always messy, not just in India but in general anywhere. But development is nothing without equity, because development is for whom? Human beings. And it should be for all. Those who have no stake in such development will engage in violence sooner or at local and provincial levels.

Once you introduce dictatorship, let’s face it, the dictator will have a certain identity and do things as he/she likes. Indira Gandhi is a good example. It’s good in theory to think of benign dictators, but no dictator has ever been benign in the world, and no one can guarantee that someone will be a benign dictator.

Even Manmohan Singh, the most soft-spoken of Indian politicians will not be a benign dictator, forget anyone else. Dictators will relish the power they have and soon use it to do wrongon aggression and freedom of expression. A country like India needs a democratic government which can work together as a unit to unite people around them which would in return help the country to develop. And it’s their right to have such stake, every human’s right. So democracy will be messy when it takes into consideration every human’s right in each and every development issue.

But that equity in taking decisions is as much important as the decision itself. That is democracy. We have to accept it. It can’t be one man show or one party show. It has to be every person engaged in the decision. For-

A resounding yes!

As a common man i am ashamed to the stinking, shamelessly twisted ,grossly illogical and unimaginable twisting of democracy has taken this nation to. so called leaders who are better off cleaning ditches are rolling on the dirt of corruption, greed and power with their deaths no where in sight

Ok lets VOTE for change! Hell no Its voting for ONE ‘dirty excuse of a human being’ or the Other filthy B–t-rd

Fools (no… fools are decent) “pathetic excuse for the word fool” who are barely biologically human & who cant even manage themselves are trying to manage(make it mismanage and loot) ministries and states

What India needs a strong and well minded dictator (No Idi-amins) who will rebuild the nation execute/exile for ever(a hidden secret Guantanamo bay) the corrupted-septic-infected politicians ranging from Kerala to Kashmir and rule wisely till India matures to be democracy or till no descendants of filthy politicians remain.

What will it take to overcome India of its worst-in-the-world-corruption , its antique and grossly inefficient government ,judiciary & worst of all politicians who still ravage the nation….Any such movement i am ready to participate as a true patriot to the nation….I CARE but i don’t know how i can make a difference….we need a revolution and strong dictator (No maoists please)…..Will there be a way there a leader who we can support ……one among the clean poiticians who will have the guts……help us pls

Its a scream for help from a helpless citizen…….looking for a way to liberate his fellow Indians from the satanical clutch India is in….help us…help us help us patriots waiting to serve the nation For-

It’s been more than sixty-five years since India achieved independence. The effort, toil, blood and passion of our respected freedom fighters gave us the India of today. It was their ultimate dream to craft a nation whose members were free and an integral part of the country’s decision making. The Indian democracy with its much detailed Constitution was a result of their dream. Sixty-five years on, India might be free and those running the nation might be the elected representatives of the masses, but India continues to be plagued by the same old problems of poverty, economic inequality,
illiteracy, population, widespread corruption and the same old socio-economic issues. It is perhaps the time of an able, strong-minded, powerful dictator to take hold of the country and cleanse the entire system. Here is a look at 10 reasons why this might prove effective for the country:- • Dictatorship will breed development though straightforward decision making:

A dictator being the all powerful head of the state will face no opposition from other parties as in a democracy. He will thus have complete freedom to execute his decisions which might breed development. • Better control the variables of human development: One of the biggest examples is China (a Communist country) where the population has been brought under control by the government, through the one-child norm policy which is virtually impossible in the Indian democracy. • Dictatorship is a more economic institution: In a country like India where poverty is a lingering problem, it is but a luxury to spend lakhs on a single election. Dictatorship is thus a far more economic institution. • Dictatorships regimes can be a path for countries to move on from civil wars and focus on development:

China can be used as an example yet again, as the country has been almost absolutely insulated from wars and terrorist attacks. • Dictatorships have flexibility in economic policy that breeds growth: Democracy can often stagnate economic development. An example is West Bengal where the Tata group could not establish their factory in Singur due to stiff resistance from the opposition party in the government. • Dictatorship helps achieve social stability: Yes it does. • The longer lasting and biggest economic miracles have occurred under dictatorships : An example is Hitler’s reign in Germany. “The Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, at a time when its economy was in total collapse, with ruinous war-reparation obligations and zero prospects for foreign investment or credit.

Yet through an independent monetary policy of sovereign credit and a full-employment public-works program, the Third Reich was able to turn a bankrupt Germany, stripped of overseas colonies it could exploit, into the strongest economy in Europe within four years, even before armament spending began.” • Dictatorship breeds order: In a country like India where law and order is disrupted time and again, dictatorship is definitely going to help out.

Even in the 21st century Indian women are vulnerable and rape and molestation cases are reported throughout the country from upscale Delhi to the remote villages of Burdwan. India needs a really strong leader who can make the country safe enough for our women to move around fearlessly, with their heads held high. • Dictators have incentives to promote development and diminish social differences: A lot of readers might still be optimistic enough to feel that democracy will spell better days for India, but as a youth frustrated with the current situation of my country I feel that we really need a change and dictatorship may just be the way out for a better, brighter India.

Identify Leadership Style

As a leader, it sometimes takes a step back to look at oneself to realize what type of leader you are to understand your strengths and weaknesses, so you can lead an effective team to success. After lots of leadership quizs and readings, my leadership style is participative (Democratic) with an emphasis on the consensus view.

“A participative leader seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers’ whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team (Tannenbaum and Schmitt, 1958).”

Some of the characteristics of the participative leader and that of myself are: creating an atmosphere were creativity is wanted and rewarded, engaging in the group decision making process and while keeping the final say over decisions, allowing members to share ideas and thoughts.

A1a: Two Strengths

Using the participative leadership style gives me the most advantages when working and making decisions in a group. The main two strengths of my leadership style (participative) is: Empowerment and Better Team Decisions. Empowerment: as defined by, “v.–to give power or authority; to authorize, especially by official means. To enable or permit (, 2014).” How does it feel when you feel like you have a say in a group or team? You feel valued. I enjoy allowing my team to feel valued and employ their decisions to make for the best decision possible. The feeling that group members get from participating makes the final decision accepted much more. Personally, when team members have input in the final goal, they feel responsible and take it much more seriously.

Better Team Decisions: Since I don’t know all the answers, isn’t it better crucial to have lots of people helping find the answers. In my leadership style, since we have lots of people brain-storming on ideas, it makes for better team decisions. When a tough decision is ahead, its critical to have others helping make decisions. Employees input is invaluable in a group participating setting. When I allow others to help make decisions, the quality of those decisions will only increase.

A1b: Two Weaknesses

With this effective leadership style brings some cons. One of the cons of this style of leadership is time restrictions. When the team is liberated into making decisions, it takes awhile to come to great group decision. This type of leadership allows lots of discussions and hearing everyone’s opinions, which in-turn slows down the whole process. This style is a slower process, but the pro of making the best decision outweighs the con.

The second con for this leadership style is that there can usually only be one decision and we as a team/group can not use everyone’s opinion or decision. This can cause some team members to become upset or heated, but can be avoided with a good leader leading the discussions. When allowing this style to be in a group, the group must come to a consensus in agreeing on the best decision and all parties must agree with whatever outcome is chosen.

A2: Compare against two other styles

Lets look at two other leadership styles and compare them to the participative leadership style.

Authoritative (autocratic) which is a style that has clear expectations and usually makes decisions with little input from the team/group. In this style, the group makes fast decisions and the leader is usually the most knowledgeable team-member in the group Some similarities are that when the team is in a bind or time is no longer of essence, the team leader must make an autocratic decision for the betterment of the group. The contributions of the team will be much lower than that of my participative style.

Delegative (Laissez-Faire) is the opposite of the autocratic style in that there is little or no team guidance and the team is left to make all the decisions. This style is the least productive style because it offers no structure. The group is more likely to demand a lot from the leader and usually will not work independently. This style is used when all team members are over-qualified in the area of expertise, but also leads to lack of motivation for the group.

The participating leadership style that I am apart of uses both the autocratic and the delegative style aspects to achieve maximum group potential. Participative leadership is concerned about the group and that the group has input.

A3: Understanding to be more effective

To be a leader you must have a mix of skills, behaviors, value sets and knowledge. To be a more effective leader one must understand their abilities and understand others and their strengths/weaknesses. This understanding includes an apprehension for other leadership styles.

An impelling leader, understanding certain situations and leadership styles, can carry out different styles to lead different groups and teams of people. A great leader will supply assistance and encouragement to a group based on its needs and maintain the group by using its knowledge of different leadership styles.

An effective leader can not accomplish success exclusive of a team. Those teams will consist of lots of team members and different leaders. An effective leader will be able to understand other leadership styles to support and assist those leaders.

“The advantage to understanding your leadership style is that you understand your strengths and weaknesses. You can be proactive and more effective as a leader by strategically using your strengths and counteracting your weaker areas. Your style defines your values and perspective, and being aware of it will aid your communication those you work with. As the saying goes, knowledge is power. You can empower yourself and move forward in your career or interest by exercising this knowledge (Raines, 2011).”

When knowing yourself and your leadership style it helps you in the workplace. Knowing your work environment and workplace challenges helps to address appropriate solutions using your leadership style. By knowing your style and the areas around you, it helps you make sound strategies for solutions to the problems and you can succeed by steering the strengths of the leadership way.

Being a leader means that you must be able to know your strengths and weaknesses and the situations of the group and when to incorporate your style into the situation. Leadership is not a thing that fits all situations. The more leadership styles you are accustomed to, the more negotiable you will be able to be in the group.

A4: Two problems in workplace due to different leadership

Problem 1: An employee is always late for workplace. The schedule that the employee is on is one of rotating shifts (day and night). This involves different managers with different leadership styles. These different leadership styles has allowed this employee to continue its bad behaviors and continue to be late.

Problem 2: Personality Clash. Your style is to talk out problems and solutions (democratic leadership style) while a manager you work with is direct and to the point (autocratic style), and doesn’t want to hear about the solutions but just wants the problems fixed. “Spray gun in tablet bed has stopped working, most of the team wants to find root cause, but one of the managers wants a solution now and doesn’t want to understand what caused the problem.”

A4a: Two ways to overcome each problem

Problem 1: Late employee. The employee that is late knows that if LF (Laissez-Faire) manager is working that he allows an unstructured work environment. In other words, see nothing, hear nothing, speak nothing and all is correct in the work place. He has unclear expectations for this late employee and is more of people pleas-er that tackling the problem. This manager is fine if the employee is late as long as it does not effect production. This leadership style also allows him to play favorites. He has different rules for different people.

As long as production is not affected, whats to bother? If AA (Autocratic) is manager, this employee knows that she can not be late to work, as is not for fear of consequences of her actions. They know that action will be taken against them if they are late.

This causes a trickle down effect for employees, and their team morale. Since not all leadership team-members are on the same plane, things like this are always happening. We must fix this problem, before it gets out of hand.

Fix. LF manager should first follow the rules and make the employee accountable for her actions. If that employee is late, they should have consequences like everyone else. If that does not work, then managers of this team should be aware of all times that employees are arriving and leaving work. During a monthly meeting, management could review all badge in/outs to make sure times are consistent with when employees are arriving and leaving. At these meetings, employees are questioned and held accountable for their tardiness.

If this is not a viable option, management should have one manager that is responsible for all tardies/lates to work. This would be a dedicated job for the manager and take the responsibility off of the other managers and help alleviate the leadership style differences between managers.

Another quick fixer, would be to discuss this problem with LF manager and hold him accountable for allowing the employee to get away with tardies/lates. This one on one meeting would help to show him that there are consequences to his actions and that all employees need to be accountable for their actions.

Problem 2: Spray gun.

One way to fix this problem is to invite and have the said manager attend and hold discussions within the group to help him see that not all problems have immediate solutions. Allowing him on the team, helps him develop his leadership style and see there is not one leadership style that encompasses all problems. The leader must find it valuable for them to be on the team and to give input. Showing them that they are valued goes a long way to helping them develop as great leaders.

Have a one on one with the manager to discuss reasons for and against having this meeting. If both parties that are having trouble understanding meet, then they are more apt to understand where each other is coming from. If this doesn’t work, we can always call an upper level management manager to help diffuse the situation.

Another solution would be coaching. Maybe this manager/leader is insecure/uncertain about work environment or doesn’t want to make decisions because its not my job. Maybe this manager lacks creativity or innovation. Whatever the issue that they are dealing with, a great effective synergistic leader would see this as an opportunistic time to coach the manager in these areas to help alleviate stress, uncertainty and encourage teamwork, trust, expectations and cohesion amongst teams.

A5a: Three advantages that increase productivity on these advantages

“Taking a team from ordinary to extraordinary means understanding and embracing the differences (Bennicasa, 2012).” The joint vision enables all groups to have meaningful communications—business synergy.

Lets take a company that is going through a major brand transformation. The reasons not to change are abundant. The company was reaching goals and employee satisfaction was high. The company would lose brand identification through the proposed changes from upper management. The company would be dysfunctional because the whole team was not on board for the transformation.

The change was a challenge from all parties involved. The bottom line came when management and the team members realized that those concerns did not compare to the importance of providing the best product and customer service to the customers. The shared vision had to be recognized from all that was serving through the transformation. The important factor was understanding that it was not about us anymore, but about the company’s greater good and we had to embrace it.

Meetings were held, discussions were had about working together, being a better team, how to better serve our customers, and enabling team diversity. We had to see the team synergy to be able to grow and become a better productive team.

New logos and mottos and so forth did not create team synergy, but leadership had to add value to the team and show all the team members that they were required to make a better team—that is business leadership synergy. Once team synergy was found, this allowed the team members to be accountable for their actions and this included the quality of the new products. In return, this created a better product for the customer.

A second advantage of having a synergy leadership style could be used when different team members are not included in a process that affects them. When a team of engineers and managers are designing a new stream line approach to the production floor to help move along the packaging process of “M&Ms”. A synergy leadership approach to the stream line approach would be to include the actual workers from the packaging floor. These employees would be able to discuss best practices for help in designing the new approach.

This would speed up the meeting process and would speed up implementation of new processes because the packaging team members would be included in the process. Including these team members would allow for less trial and error and more time being productive in having the new packaging approach in a workable state.

Having a synergistic team is just as important than the actual packaging process because it stream lines the meeting, allows team-members to have certain expectations, keeps the meetings focused on the problems and develops and enhances rich collaborative discussions that are now easy to have—business success.

The third advantage of leadership synergy would be having all upper management in a participative meeting discussing the new vision for the company. After long discussions the team has selected the vision for the company. The team then selects an authoritative figure to disburse the new vision information to the whole company group—because its not up for debate anymore. Knowing when to use different leadership roles is very important.

In this model, a decision that has the absolute consensus of all upper management, will appear when all team-members is seeing the discussion directly through the same glasses – which includes the mission, the vision and the teams goals. Without these glasses, cooperative judgments can be challenging to accomplish. The hard part of making decisions and agreeing upon them in a multi-leadership style team –is that there is no common goal – changes in leadership styles will strangle the discussions, as more thoughts will only add to the difficulty in making a decision. Looking through the same lenses of the glasses permits a variety diversity into the debate and allows the group to succeed.

Once we see everything through the same lens, then the upper management group can be more productive in delivering a vision in a timely manner. This synergy of upper management leaders then starts trickling down to management teams throughout the plant and then onto regular teams and committees in the plant. This trickle down affect makes teams more productive, more efficient by allowing the meetings to flow better and to free up people to not be in meetings (to be on the floor being productive making the products).


Bennicasa, Robyn. (2012) 6 Leadership Styles, and When You Should Use Them.

Retrieved from

when-youshould-use-them. 2014. Empowerment Definition. Retrieved from


Raines, Stephanie. 2011. The Advantages of Knowing Your Leadership Style.

Retrieved from


Tannenbaum, A.S. and Schmitt, W.H. (1958). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard

Business Review, 36, March-April, 95-101.