Swiss style every life

Helvetica was created in 1957. It was named the Swiss style. As you look around at every day life, you will find time after time, that the typeface that is most prevalent is that of Helvetica. After viewing the film named the same, it was evident that although the vast majority of those interviewed were in favor, and some times in awe of Helvetica, there are still issues and controversy surrounding its use.

Many interviews, such as Massimo Vignelli, were indeed excited about the typeface. He explained that it had rightness about it; that the spaces between the letters were just as bold and important as the black. Proponents of Helvetica sight that the typeface is expressive, clear and legible. Some explained that it was good for “everything”.

Michael Bierut may have explained it best with his description of the late 50’s or early 60’s when many corporations where changing over their current ads and brochures to Helvetica. He described a scene where a company would feel as if they were drinking a cold, crisp glass of water after seeing what their new logo would look like in Helvetica.

Helvetica is the contemporary typeface of corporations, of science and many other industries as well. It has an ability to fit the style you wish to project. It was explained in the video, that when American Outfitters used it, it looks chic; when Crate and Barrel uses it, Helvetica appears clean and efficient. The video goes on to describe Helvetica as having a perfect balance of push and pull. It makes you believe it’s clean, it fits in, it won’t make you stand out.

But not everyone is on the Helvetica bandwagon. Others are morally apposed to the typeface. Paula Schuler is one of them. When she first started a career in design, it was shortly after the end of the Vietnam War. She associated Helvetica with the evil corporations that were sponsoring the war. In her way of thinking, if you used Helvetica, you were supporting the
war.

However, other views were shown in the video that also apposed the frequent use of Helvetica. It was explained that typography should have personality and that we need to get away from the horrible slickness of Helvetica. We need vitality. Helvetica represented modernism which they say equals boring. As you can see, there is a fine line between simple, clean, and powerful and simple, clean, and boring.

Whether or not you are for or against the use of Helvetica, it won’t be going away anything soon. We see it so often, that we don’t even realize we see it. It is in our print, on our walls, TV’s, and movies. Our records are labeled with it, our posters scream it. Like it or not, it is hear to stay; it is “unfixable”.

The most influential person in my life

The forms of expository and argumentative prose used by university students and researchers to convey a body of information about a particular subject. Generally, academic writing is expected to be precise, semi-formal, impersonal, and objective.  Central Values of Academic Writing

“When you write college papers, you need to remember that you are situated within an academic community [with] clear expectations for what your papers should do and how they should look.

While you cannot learn the particular methods and conventions of every discipline . . ., you can be aware of the central values to which its members subscribe:

– Truth. . . .

A successful college paper will demonstrate that its writer can use the knowledge and methods of the discipline in which it has been assigned to reveal something that is true.

– Evidence.

Scholars in all disciplines use credible evidence to support the truths they find. . . . Always document your sources for this evidence.

– Balance. . . .

Academic convention suggests that you present your inferences, assertions, and arguments in neutral, serious, non-emotional language and be fair to opposing points of view.

(Toby Fulwiler and Alan Hayakawa, The Blair Handbook. Prentice Hall, 2003)

 Methods of Academic Writing: “They Say/I Say”

“In our view . . . the best academic writing has one underlying feature: it is deeply engaged in some way with other people’s views. Too often, however, academic writing is taught as a process of saying ‘true’ or ‘smart’ things in a vacuum, as if it were possible to argue effectively without being in conversation with someone else. If you have been taught to write a traditional five-paragraph essay, for example, you have learned how to develop a thesis and support it with evidence.

This is good advice as far as it goes, but it leaves out the important fact that in the real world we don’t make arguments without being provoked. Instead, we make arguments because someone has said or done something (or perhaps not said or done something) and we need to respond: ‘I can’t see why you like the Lakers so much’; ‘I agree: it was a great film’; ‘That argument is contradictory.’ If it weren’t for other people and our need to challenge, agree with, or otherwise respond to them, there would be no reason to argue at all.

“To make an impact as a writer, you need to do more than make statements that are logical, well supported, and consistent. You must also find a way of entering a conversation with others’ views–with something ‘they say.’ . . . It follows, then . . . that your own argument–the thesis or ‘I say’ moment of your text–should always be a response to the arguments of others.”

(Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, “They Say/I Say”: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, 2nd. ed. W.W. Norton, 2010)

 Purposes of Academic Writing

“[Marilyn S.] Sternglass (1977), in summarizing her longitudinal study of 53 college students’ writing development, identified four general purposes of writing in university courses: to make knowledge conscious, to help remember facts, to analyze concepts, and to construct new knowledge. . . . Specifically, [students] used writing to translate concepts into their own language, move from gathering facts to analyses of them, and adjust themselves to the task demands of specific courses and fields.

Still Life in Landscape

“It was night, it had rained, there were pieces of cars and half-cars strewn” From here, we can tell that a terrible road accident has just happened. “a woman was lying on the highway, on her back, with her head curled back and tucked under her shoulders so the back of her head touched her spine between her shoulder-blades, her clothes mostly accidented off, and her leg gone, a long bone sticking out of the stub of her thigh” There is strong imagery used here as we can imagine a woman in a tremendously horrible shape, probably with a broken neck such that it seems to dangle among her shoulders. Her clothes are torn and tattered from the accident and “her leg gone” (her leg was probably run over) and her bone is showing out of her thigh. This imagery is rather overwhelming, however, it is the rawness of a VERY real and common happening.

Every single injury and death caused by drunk driving is totally preventable. Although the proportion of crashes that are alcohol-related has dropped dramatically in recent decades, there are still far too many such preventable accidents. Unfortunately, in spite of great progress, alcohol-impaired driving remains a serious national problem that tragically effects many victims annually. “my mother grabbed my head and turned it and clamped it into her chest, between her breasts” At this point, we realise that the poem is in the perspective of a child! Mind you, the child has seen the absolutely horrendous and gruesome scene earlier on. We can tell how the flow of the poem is going to come about: The child cannot undo what he/she has seen and this may traumatically affect her in growth. The child is exposed to the raw reality of life.

High School Life

High School, well i can only say that it’s the best experience while i am living in this planet, without high school, well, life is a bit of boring. Some person i met tells me that high school is the best, yeah i agree with them high school is the best, you know why i agree with them because today my college life is sucks, i think it’s too much intro, i will tell how my high school life changed me and why it’s one of the best part i’ll never forget.

Being High School is the best part in my school days, more friends is the more happiness you experience but there is always an antagonists that will ruined your day and sometimes they are your teachers but not all the teachers some are in other school, i mean when it comes to a contest proving that who’s the best school in your small baryo, and including some of your friends that will not complete their day without teasing you and bullying you.

Life through high school is an extraordinary feeling of every teenager that’s goes through it. People say that high school s the most exciting and happiest moments on a student’s life. I actually didn’t believe that before because I was in high school and doing many assignments and projects. I hated doing those because it took away the time that I suppose to be having fun. When I became a senior in high school that’s when I started to think that I guess those people were right. My parents to started to asked me about college and my plans after high school. I used to tell them “later” because I didn’t want to face the fact that I’m growing up. High school is a world where you no longer be treated as a child. This is the time when girls start to wear make up and boys turns into men. My high school life wasn’t always fun. I remembered those days that stayed up late to study for exams, tests and quizzes and writing research papers. It was also the time to meet new friends and build a friendship and shared laughter, cried together and had our moments.

Life of Paul Cuffee

More than for 500 years, people of African origin have shaped the course of not only American but the history of the whole world. We are proud of many African-Americans that had put so much hard work to make our society as good and developed as it is nowadays. There are lots of Blacks, who are very famous for their deeds and deserve to be remembered as honorable society members, such as Phyllis Wheatley, Benjamin Banneker, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Jacobs and others .

The main objective of this paper will be the analyses of life and work of Paul Cuffee. Paul Cuffee was born on the 17th of January on Chuttyhunk Island in Southeastern Massachusetts, as a free child and a son of an African father and Native American mother. His father, named Kofi, was a member of the West-African tribe known as Ashanti tribe in Ghana. He was captured there and brought to America when he was ten. He was made a slave of Ebenezer Slocum, a Quaker of Dartmouth, Massachusetts, but the skills of good carpenter helped Kofi (Cuffe) to buy his freedom. He even managed to educate himself and later married to Ruth Moses, who was a Wampanoag Indian from Massachusetts.

The Native Americans were not enslaved, so their children were born free. Paul did not want to take the name of his father’s possessor and chose his father’s name, which was Cuffe (or Cuffee). His family also owned a 116-acre farm in Westport, which was very rare at that time as most of the other African people were enslaved. The family was large and counted ten children: six daughters and four sons (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). After the death of his father, Paul Cuffee, at the age of 16 and with the knowledge only of an alphabet, already had many ambitious dreams such as getting an education and having a career in shipping industry. The boy always showed a kinship to navigation, boatbuilding and trade. When he was a teenager he constructed small boats.

This hobby ended in trading among the islands of Massachusetts (“Paul Cuffee (1759-1817)”, 2013). He started to do the job of an ordinary seaman on fishing and whaling boats – this was in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He was caught and held as a prisoner by British soldiers for three month during the Revolutionary War, but once he was released, he managed to start minor coastal trading. Paul bought some ships together with his sister’s husband Michael Wainer, who was a Native American. Because of his partner was afraid to sail big sea distances, in 1779 Cuffee tried to deliver the cargo to Nantucket alone, but he was waylaid by pirates.

He continued to ship aboard a whaler owned by the Quaker merchants, prominent Rotch family and whalers of New Bedford. Despite the fact that pirates were very active those days and have attached the local sailors a lot, Paul’s business was prospering (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Cuffe’s business started to grow and he had enough money to built bigger vessels and successfully traded north to Labrador and south to Virginia (“Petition for Relief from Taxation”, 2013). Paul gathered rather big capital that helped him to expand his ownership and to get a fleet of ships.

He commissioned the closed-deck boat, which could ship around 14-15 ton known as Box Iron. Just after that, another achievement that followed was a18-20 ton schooner. In the 1780s Paul already owned schooner Sun Fish and schooner Mary, which in total could transport cargo of approximately 65 tons. In 1796, just right after the mentioned schooners Sunfish and Mary were sold, Cuffee’s shipyard in Westport launched a 69-ton schooner known as Ranger. Eventually he could afford to buy a large farmstead and in 1799 he bought property in Westport for $3,500. Later he bought a half of the 162-ton barque Hero. Paul was so wealthy, that he maybe was one of the richest man among all Native American and African American of the in the United States of the 19th century (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Just a couple of weeks before the Revolution ended, Paul married Alice Pequit, who was also Wampanoag Indian, the same as Cuffee’s mother.

This marriage brought seven children to Cuffe’s family: David, Sarah, Jonathan, Mary,John, Phebe, Ruth, Lydia, Freelove and Paul. On the 17th of January the youngest son was born. The child was biracial, but born free, as the two parents were not enslaved (Cordeiro, 2004). The Roch family and other successful merchants have inspired Paul to build his own empire, which was very successful. The crews that he employed were mainly African American and Native American people. Eventually his ships were on both sides of the Atlantic. He opened an outlet in New Bedford, where he sold the goods that he imported (“Paul Cuffee (1759-1817)”, 2013).

Being a businessman with an African American and Native American crews, Paul managed to earn the respect of many white Americans through the relationships in the Quaker faith. When Cuffee was twenty-one he refused to pay taxes. This protest was done along with his brother and lasted from 1778 till 1780. The main motivation for that was that free black Americans did not have the right to vote, but according to the governmental laws of that time, African Americans were taxed. He even petitioned the council of Bristol County in 1780, Massachusetts to put such taxation to an end. Despite the denial, later his petition was one of key factors that led to granting voting rights to all free male citizens by Legislature in 1783 (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Cuffee built a schoolhouse for African American children on his own property.

He spent his money on that and it took him a couple of months to finish. After the school was built, Paul hired a knowledgeable teacher and opened the institution to the Westport residents. It was for kids, who were denied to visit other public schools. He implemented his own policy to the school’s administration, according to which children of all races were allowed to attend the studies, so the school was multiracial. This was just a beginning of a future fight against unfair treatment of the US and other governments towards the black people (Cordeiro, 2004).

The majority of Anglo-Americans and English origin people considered African as lower race in comparison to Europeans, even in principally Calvinist and Quaker New England. Unfortunately the slavery continued, but some decent men like James Madison and Presidents Thomas Jefferson thought that colonies emigration of Blacks outside the US was the best and the easiest way to the fight the race problem in America (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Cuffee was involved not only in local activities.

He played a crucial part in national and international events related Blacks in that time. Because of his successful business, Cuffee had contact all over the Atlantic seaboard, which connected the three important continents: Europe, North American and Africa (Cordeiro, 2004). Americans and Europeans put many efforts in all the parts of the world to colonize Black, but they were all unsuccessful. One of such attempts was related to Sierra Leone colonization. The Sierra Leone Company was a main sponsor of 400 people departure from Great Britain to Western African colony. The colony was rebelling and wanted to create a working and competitive economy and a government, which would be strong enough to resist the outside pressure. Eventually the Sierra Leone Company collapsed and another institution known as African Institution was offering migration to the released slaves, which have settled in London and Nova Scotia after the American Revolution.

The institution’s sponsors were hoping to get some economical benefit by fostering the educated trades of Blacks (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Despite the fact that it was very difficult to colonize Sierra Leone, Cuffee really believed that it was a vital option and supported the movement. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Paul started to cooperate with the mentioned African Institution, which was based in London (Cordeiro, 2004). In U.S. the organization was very active in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. This all started in March 1807, when members of the institution encouraged him to help them. The main objective was to promote the immigration to Sierra Leone, a colony of Britain in West Africa. Cuffee was among those who recruited African Americans so they can settle there; he transported a big amount of families and explored the local economy trying to find ways of its improving. This was all mainly done for his own funds (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”).

Paul Cuffee wrote in his letters, that he really felt like going to Sierra Leone, he wanted to see the situation in the country. He believed that the inhabitants of that colony were talented people, which, as well as he did, deserved to feel the true light of Christianity and be benefited thereby (“Captain Paul Cuffe’s Logs and Letters”). Paul obtained a bill, given by the Committee of the Whole from the Senate and the President of the United States, which gave him a right to leave US with the cargo and come back with a cargo from Sierra Leone. He was nominated by government and had all the privilege to be treated properly (“History of Congress”).

Cuffee studied all the logistics and the possible outcome, when finally on December in 1810 he left U.S. for his first voyage to Sierra Leone. He managed to get to the colony on the 1st of March in 1811. He was travelling all over the place to explore the local habits and economy in order to find the possibilities to development. He met the officials there, but they were against of the colonization idea, as they were afraid of American merchants, because this could create a lot of unfair competition. Moreover, the cargo, which Cuffee intended to trade off, did not sell well as the tariff charges implemented by British trading system were too high.

Eventually this did not stop Cuffee and on the 7th of April 1811 he made an appointment with key Black entrepreneurs. An outcome was that a special petition for the African Institution was written, which stated that people in the colony wanted to work in merchanting, whaling industry and agriculture. This indicated that those three areas were the main objective of the future growth and development of the colony. Cuffee together with the black businessmen set the Friendly Society foundation in Sierra Leone. Its main aim was to ensure further prosperity and industry development among all free peoples. Another area to work on was related to breaking the strong merchants trade established there by British. Cuffee decided to go to UK in order to make sure that colony will get further aid.

He arrived to Liverpool in July 1811. There he met the officials of the African Institution in London, who collected some funds for the Friendly Society. He also obtained further required governmental license and permissions to continue his delegation in Sierra Leone. Paul was happy to come back to the West African colony where he shared the ideas of the Friendly Society with the local merchants. Together they elaborated plans for Sierra Leone to grow by building a saw mill, grist mill, salt works and rice-processing factory. Later Cuffee was involved with similar venture, which was backed by Americans and let to creation of the American Colonization Society and colony in Liberia (Cordeiro, 2004). During that period of history the relations between the Great Britain and United States were strained, which led to embargo establishment on British goods in 1811.

This had somehow a negative outcome on Cuffee’s voyage, as when in April 1812 he reached Newport on his ship, it was usurped by U.S. customs officers along with all its cargo. This case was not being resolved locally, so Paul Cuffee left to Washington, D.C. to file an official appeal to his case. In the White House he met with the President James Madison and Albert Gallatin, who was a Secretary of the Treasury in that time. Cuffee was warmly welcomed and treated there. Madison was on his side and later ordered to release the goods, based on the information that Cuffee did not know about the political disagreements and did not deliver the goods with the intention to violate any laws. Cuffee shared his observations and experience, which he gained during his trip to Sierra Leone.

First the President seemed to be very interested in further expansion of the colony in Africa, but eventually he refuses to participate in Cuffee’s further investigations, as he saw this mission not possible because of too many problems and obstacles that U.S. will be facing during further attempts of Sierra Leone colonization. This was all related to the fact that it was initially fully British project. Still Cuffee obtained a legal permission to become an official authority on Africa in the United States. Cuffee had clear intentions to visit Great Britain’s colony of Sierra Leone on a regular basis, but his plans were interrupted because of the sudden War of 1812, which started in June and was a war between the British Empire and the United States. This prevented Paul from visiting the colony for a while.

Despite the fact that Cuffee was opposed the war because of his Christian beliefs, he was really against any interruptions that could have been caused by war and resulted as an impact on trading and goods delivery from Sierra Leone. The war continued, so Cuffee took a change to convince U.S and Great Britain to ease restrictions on trading. Unfortunately this was unsuccessful and he waited until the war ended in 1815 (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Meanwhile, Paul remained an active political life and paid a couple of visits to Philadelphia, Baltimore and New York, where he spoke to groups of free African Americans about the colony. He encouraged Blacks to create organizations within their cities, to talk to each other and to have a correspondence with the Friendly Society at Sierra Leone and the African Institution. A special pamphlet with the ideas of Paul Cuffee related to Sierra Leone was printed at that time and distributed to general public.

He rebuilt the Westport Friends’ Meeting House in summer of 1813, which was a meeting house for the multi-racial members of the Society of Friend, where Cuffee spoke and preached regularly on a Sunday meetings. Most of the money for that was coming from Cuffee’s personal funds. It is important to mention that war impacted Cuffee’s business and during that year he facial financial crisis. He has a number of unprofitable ventures related to ships. One vessel was considered unseaworthy and has never returned from Chile. Luckily the war ended and the Treaty of Ghent was signed at the end of 1814. After some time taken to recover, Paul was prepared to go back to Sierra Leone (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). The first ship with thirty-eight Blacks shipped from Westport on December 10, 1815. Among the passengers were 18 adults and 20 children (Cordeiro, 2004). The price of organization of that expedition was $5000. Eighty percents of those expenses were covered by Cuffee.

The rest was paid by passengers and with the help of donation by William Rotch from Massachusetts. The colonist arrived to the colony with their own belongings such as hoes, axes, wagon and a plow, but they were not treated as well as it was expected by Cuffee. This was related to the fact that Governor was facing difficulties in keeping the existing population in order, which could have even worsen the situation if more emigrant have arrived. Moreover, the act known as the Militia Act was imposed upon the colony and obliges males to swear of loyalty to the Crown. People had concerns, because it could have been an obligation to go to military service. Despite the negative outcome related to economical benefits and sales, the positive was the fact that colonist have finally settles in Freetown.

Cuffee spent lots of money by supporting the new inhabitants with money for the first year’s provisions. It was planned initially that Cuffee will be reimbursed by the African Institution, but due to heavy tariff duties there was a big deficit in the budget. Actually Paul was never given money by the African Institution in Britain. After coming back to USA in 1816, Cuffee searched for financial support from New York’ division of the American Institution and has eventually obtained $439.62 for further investments into Sierra Leone’s colonists (“A Paul Cuffe Biography”). Soon in1816, Cuffee proposed a newly-designed emigration plan for African Americans, which was related not only to Sierra Leone but also possibly to Haiti. Provide funds. Congress did not approve the petition to provide funds for that.

People all over U.S. have started to show more and more interest in immigration to Africa, believing that it would help to solve the racial problems. Cuffee was trying to find support from other institutions, but some of them were not honest, such as American Colonization Society (ACS) , which was alarmed as a racist organization. The ideas were supported by many other Americans, but later they turned in favor of emigration to Haiti, where the immigrants were welcomed and supported by the President Boyer Since 1817 Cuffee was not feeling himself well and has never visited Africa again. He died in September of that year surrounded by his family and friends. Cuffee was buried at the Quaker Meeting House near Westport (Cordeiro, 2004).

To conclude, it should be mentioned that Cuffee was and is considered one of the greatest persons in African-American history. He was a first African-American who had a success in implementation of ideas of Blacks. He fought the existing racism of that time with the help of tolerant and Christian methods. Not only he opposed himself, but he also managed to dwell public attention to the current situation with Blacks, which helped people a lot. He was a successful businessman, who could have had just a happy and calm life, but spent his time and effort to explore Sierra Leone, donated his own money to make the life of immigrants there as good as possible and helped in many other ways to people. I think this person is worth to be admired and remembered thought all future generations of the world.

References
A Paul Cuffe Biography. (n.d.) SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/rbgstreetscholar1/a-paul-cuffe-biography Paul Cuffee (1759-1817). (2013). Paul Cuffee School. Retrieved from http://www.paulcuffee.org/about/mission-history/paul-cuffee/ Petition for Relief from Taxation. (2013). Abstract. Pearson Education. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/cuffe-taxation-petition/ Cordeiro, B.N. (2004). Paul Cuffe: A Study of His Life and the Status of His Legacy in Old Dartmouth. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Boston. Retrieved from http://paulcuffe.home.comcast.net/~paulcuffe/Paul_Cuffe_Thesis_by_Brock_Cordeiro.pdf Captain Paul Cuffe’s Logs and Letters. (n.d.). Estimed froends John James and Alexander Wilson. Westport 6 mo 10th 1809. Paul Cuffee. Retrieved from http://atlanticslaverydebate.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/shared/ASD/Module2/InitialCrrspdnceCuffe1809.pdf History of Congress. (n.d.). A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 – 1875. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=027/llac027.db&recNum=221

Life Span Perspectives

There are many beginnings to the study of human development. The study of human developments is a science that strives to discern how people change over time (Berger, 2011). To do this, developmentalists study all types of people from different age groups, ethnicity, culture, background, nationality, income, and sexual orientation, among many other factors. To begin to understand this science, one must start by looking at what is being studied, some of the major theories that shape and guide these studies, and the interaction of heredity and the environment on human development (Berger, 2011).

Developmentalists seek to tackle the challenge of defining humans in a way that simultaneously describes the universalities of humans as well as their differences. Because development is not limited, the person is the result of interactions among all the systems known as microsystems, macrosystems, and exosystems (Berger, 2011). Another aspect of development is that it encompasses the changes and uniformities of people. A visionary in the study of development was Urie Bronfenbrenner, who introduced an ecological-systems approach to the study of development (Berger, 2011).

The ecological-systems approach recommends that human development should be studied by looking at the interactions and contexts that make up a person’s life. There are three levels that Bronfenbrenner proposes each person is affected by: microsystems, exosystems, and macrosystems (Berger, 2011). Microsystems are described as foundations of the person’s nearby surroundings, while an exosystem is described as the person’s local institutions. For example, a person’s family would constitute a person’s microsystem and their place of work would be their exosystem. A person’s macrosystem is their greater social settings, such as their cultural values and economy (Berger, 2011).

Bronfenbrenner understood that development changes over time and, therefore, included two other systems that interact with the original three; the chronosystem and the mesosystem. The chronosystem encompasses the historical conditions that affect the other systems and the mesosystem consists of the correlations between the three systems or parts of an individual system. In other words, the mesosystem refers to the connections between home and school, communication processes, and macrosystem factors that affect the microsystem (Berger, 2011).

Understanding the shared connections between one area of life to another led developmentalists to form five standards that are beneficial for understanding human life at any age. These five characteristics are multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plasticity (Berger, 2011). Development is multidirectional, meaning that change occurs in every direction, with gains and losses, predictable growth, and unexpected transformations being apparent. Every aspect of life, including, intellectual growth, social interactions, and physical health are multidirectional (up, down, constant, or irregular). Additionally, in late adulthood, during old age, people tend to center on the declines rather than the gains, placing a particularly important emphasis on multidirectional change (Berger, 2011).

Human lives are multicontextual, meaning life is made up of many situations, including past circumstances, economical limitations, family patterns, and physical surroundings (Berger, 2011). To put it another way, every context has an impact on the person. For example, the paths available to the individual are dependent on the historical and socioeconomic conditions. Developmentalists note that the socioeconomic status of a person greatly affects their opportunities and limitations, advantages and disadvantages, and past history and future prospects, which affect the person’s habits, knowledge, housing, and nutrition (Berger, 2011).

The development of humans is influenced by many cultures. The multicultural principle understand that cognition and behavior are affected by the cultural environment, which includes the person’s social group, ethnicity, race, heritage, and even income (Berger, 2011). It is important to note that culture is dynamic, and people are capable of accepting or rejecting culture values. The study of life span and human development is multidisciplinary; it is interrelated with various fields of academia. While psychology, biology, sociology, and education are major players, other fields such as neuroscience, anthropology, history, and economics play a role as well. (Berger, 2011) Multidisciplinary is important to the study of development because people grow in mind, body, and spirit simultaneously.

The final characteristic is plasticity. Plasticity plays a role in the other four characteristics of development. It is an important characteristic because it represents two corresponding aspects of development (Berger, 2011). Plasticity understands that humans are capable of being molded, like plastic, while still maintaining a sturdy identity. Plasticity is affected by both culture and upbringing, as well as genes and other biological influences. The five characteristics led developmentalists to one conclusion: humans are individuals, whether or not they come from the same cohort, culture, or economy (Berger, 2011). Even though scientists have concluded that every person is an individual, there are still many questions about human development left to answer, which led to five major theories of development.

Developmental theories offer structure for clarifying the patterns and problems of development. There are several theories of life span development such as the three grand theories: psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and cognitive (Berger, 2011). The grand theories of human development, which explain the collective development and processes throughout the entire life span, began in the field of psychology; observations and clarifications deriving in history, biology, sociology, and anthropology led to the emergent theories. The two emergent theories are not yet as coherent as the grand theories, but they draw on more academic disciplines providing a broader framework than the customary grand theories that rely only on psychology (Berger, 2011). Discussed here are the two emergent theories: sociocultural and epigenetic.

The main concept of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between a person and their society. This concept is based on the idea that the tools and principles for development are provided by not only customs, but society as a whole (Berger, 2011). The pioneer of the sociocultural perspective was a man named Lev Vygotsky. By studying the cognitive competency of his diverse society, he developed a theory of guided participation. Guided participation is a technique in which novices learn through shared involvement of an activity with instruction and the participation of a skilled mentor (Berger, 2011). Sociocultural theory places an emphasis on social interaction in learning. Gauvain (1998) stated, “cognitive development occurs in, and emerges from, social situations” (p.191).

Another concept of learning in sociocultural theory is the zone of proximal development (Berger, 2011). The zone of proximal development is the metaphorical zone encompassing a learner that contains all the concepts, skills, and knowledge that the individual is proximal to attaining but cannot yet master without assistance (Berger, 2011). By extension, whether a person is learning a language, social custom, or manual skill, people always learn in the same way, according to sociocultural theory. Although it is true that people do learn in social settings, sociocultural theorists have been criticized for neglecting developmental processes that are not predominantly social (Berger, 2011).

Epigenetic theory is centered on the notion that development is influenced by the interaction between genes and the environment. To develop this theory, researchers incorporated many disciplines including biology, chemistry, and genetics (Berger, 2011). Half of epigenetic theory looks at the genetics, referring to the entire genome, and looks at the specific genes that make each person unique and the genes that distinguish humans from other species as well as the genes that all species share. Genes influence all psychological traits as well as mood, metabolism, voice tone, blood type, and much more (Berger, 2011).

The other half of epigenetic theory looks at the influence of surrounding factors on genetic expression. These factors are what gives some genes extensive influence while others have no effect (Berger, 2011). As development continues, each person continues along the path established by earlier genetic-environmental interactions, which influences outcomes. According to epigenetic theorists, genes never function alone, their latent is not realized unless certain epi-factors transpire (Berger, 2011).

Furthermore, epigenetic factors also influence groups of people and entire species. One way this happens is through selective adaptation, which is the progression by which humans and other organisms slowly adjust to their environment (Berger, 2011). In other words, over generations, a certain genetic trait in a population will increase or decrease. This depends on whether or not the trait promotes the survival and reproductive capability of that population. The particular environment is what determines which genes are harmful, neutral, or beneficial. According to epigenetic theory, adaptation occurs for all living organisms, regardless of the environment. Unlike sociocultural theory, many facets of epigenetic theory are generally accepted (Berger, 2011).

To further explain the interaction of heredity and the environment on human development, one must look further at the role genes play in the development of a person. There are two major contributors to development: the genotype and the phenotype. The genotype is comprised of all the genes of a developing person. The genotype is responsible for the formation of the body and the brain (Berger, 2011). The phenotype is the appearance and behavior manifested in a person. The phenotype is dependent on many genes and the environment, with most traits being polygenic (affected by many genes) and multifactorial (influenced by many factors).

Other contributors that influence the phenotype are additive alleles, which can affect height and skin color. Other additive alleles, called epistasis, produce traits that were not previously found in their ancestors (Berger, 2011). Every aspect of human behavior is affected by genes, this includes cognitive and social behavior. Personality and cognitive abilities are affected by many genetic combinations, with the genes relying on the environment for expression. No behavior could exist without genes and without the environment, no gene could be expressed (Berger, 2011).

In conclusion, the study of human developments is a science that attempts to understand how people change over time. Developmentalists formed five characteristics that are beneficial for understanding human life at any age: multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plasticity (Berger, 2011). Additionally, theories of development present introduce organization for understanding the patterns and problems of development. Sociocultural theory suggests that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between a person and their society, while epigenetic theory is centered on the idea that development is shaped by the interaction between genes and the environment. Every aspect of human behavior is affected by genes and without the environment, no gene could be expressed (Berger, 2011).

References
Berger, K. S. (2011). The developing person through the life span (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. Gauvain, Mary. (1998). Cognitive development in social and cultural context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 188-192.

“The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life” by Marie Winn

In the essay “The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life” writer and media critic Marie Winn implies that “television addiction” can be a serious addiction and just as destructive and addicting as drugs and alcohol. The author explains how the word “addiction” is sometimes used in too often to or in a joking manner to describe hobbies such as gardening, reading books and eating too many cookies. Mary uses this quote “We are hooked and making an attempt to break the habit” by E.B about his gardening interest to support her argument (181). Marie argues that watching too much television falls into the more destructive category of drugs and alcohol instead of the less serious interest of reading books

Marie argues that like drugs and alcohol addiction to television lets a person escape from reality and once a person starts watching their favorite show the pleasure is so great it is hard to turn off the television. The author implies that interest such as reading books allows a person to escape from reality also but, it is easier to close the book than such off the television and this makes television way more addictive and similar to drugs and alcohol.

The author uses the comparison of an alcoholic who is unaware that they have a problem and has no self-control to a person who puts off meaningful task to get their television fix. Winn using the analogy of an alcoholic “I can cut it out any time I want- I just like to have three or four drinks before dinner”. People who suffer from television addiction know they could do more fulfilling and important interest but, still keep their eyes clued to the screen Winn argues that television addict’s lives are unbalanced because all they do is watch television instead of doing more important, self-filling hobbies and could gain a sense of pride from completing goals.

Winn believes that some people know that they have a problem but, they still find more enjoyment keeping their eyes glued to the television. She also argues that television weakens social bonds and makes people lose a sense of reality and time. Winn final point is that television much like drugs and alcohol can never quench a person thirsty for television and will never satisfy a person’s appetite because it lacks a true value for a person to gain.

I think you agree with the above and that consumption of television can have mental effects on the body. Your comments on the   Toxic Narrative  such as whether the acts that make us so silly or even hysterical, should be considered to be caused by YouTube.

Life Goes On

Life experiences bring knowledge to people. Having a lot of good and bad experiences helps us improve our way of thinking; it opens our minds and teaches us unforgettable lessons about life, lessons that we have to apply in the future. My parents taught me to be independent and self-motivated by providing me opportunities to learn by trial and error. I was given a remarkable amount of freedom at a young age. When I was 6, my parents bought me an old computer for $25 from a local yard sale with the intention of letting me loose on it . I was thrilled .Motivated by curiosity. I delved into it at once and learned how to use each and every feature of the computer. My intellectual curiosity is the result of a unique combination of early influences and childhood experiences which have fueled my passion for learning inside and outside of the classroom—learning from everything I do . I hope to apply this curiosity to all aspects of my life.

I have lived such a life experience in my last high school year. Along with 12th grade and turning up eighteen years old, I was going to become independent, ‘on my own feet’ as some would say. Time has taught me how to take fast decisions. Some of them were bad decisions, some were good. It was a very difficult period for me, as I was forced to fight against time, stress, hidden emotions and most important, I had to choose the road to follow for my career. The final exam was a hard challenge. There were times I felt I would quit; times of weakness when I searched peace in a cigarette without thinking it can make me dependent, all these times I was teaching a great lesson: maturity! I realized I wasn’t a kid anymore and that my own destiny can be influenced by a simple decision. This experience made me learn what truly means making sacrifices for achieving your goals.

I gave up to my free time to replace it with hard working, interminable tiredness and meditations. It wasn’t an easy sacrifice, as desperation said her word in some moments. But the most important thing is the positive lesson it taught me, that is, never gives up fighting, no matter what happens because there is a hope for everything in life, and loosing it doesn’t bring you close to your goals. I have lost some of my friends for being able to reach on top, and this thing taught me what true friendship really meant and that some people we see as friends can turn out to be our worst enemies. To me, change is something new and you experience changes throughout your life. However, I learnt that telling everything about yourself can only bring bad things, because you can never know how a relationship can turn out between people. I can say I found myself again in this last high school year, rediscovered my ambition and passion for the things I do.

Christian Life Education Reflection Paper

Prayer is a way of communication between me and God. It allows me to talk to Him and listen to Him so that I can establish a closer relationship with Him. As I went about my CLE classes, I learned that there were proper ways and intentions that are needed in order to make the most out of prayer, thus I reflected on my prayer life to see if I was praying according to the 4 keys.

First, I evaluated Rico’s prayer life since it is by doing this that I can better evaluate my own prayer life. Rico prays to God whenever he needs help like during tests, and he does good deeds in order to make sure that God will answer his prayers. Whenever he doesn’t need Him, he doesn’t set time for prayer since he believes that studying is already a form of prayer. How one sees God affects how he relates to Him. In Rico’s case, he sees God as a vending machine. In vending machines, buyers insert money into the machine and in return, the machine gives the product the buyer desires. Rather than seeing God as a God who loves unconditionally, he sees God as someone who demands that he do good deeds in order for Him to grant the petitions of Rico. Rico promises God to stop cursing, to stop backstabbing and goes to mass whenever there are tests because he believes that God demand he does these good deeds so He will answer Rico’s prayer. Just like a vending machine, Rico believes he needs to give “money” or good deeds in return for the “product” or petition he wants.

Ideally one should see God as an unconditional lover, who loves us despite flaws, since this allows the person to approach God with trust, honesty and love, making the relationship more real and genuine. Instead, Rico doesn’t believe in God’s unconditional love since he chooses to do good deeds to please love and make God love him. In reality, we shouldn’t do good to receive God’ love but we should be open to God’s unconditional love, which will then motivate and transform us to do good. How one sees himself also affects the way he relates with God in prayer since how we see ourselves shapes how we think others see ourselves. If we see ourselves as lovable, we will be open and honest since we know that the other person will love us the way we are. If we see ourselves as unlovable, we will be false and unreal since we will probably hide our true self to make others like us more. Rico’s image of himself is a mixture of both. He sees himself as lovable by God only when he does good deeds and religious acts. He does these acts to please God and to assure himself that God will answer his prayers since he believes that doing these acts make him lovable by God.

Rico doesn’t see himself as lovable when he indifferent towards others and when not doing good deeds. Because of this, he doesn’t find time to pray to God when he doesn’t need help or do good deeds. One assumption is that Rico is ashamed of the cursing, backstabbing and other bad deeds he has done, so he distances himself from God because he feels unworthy of his love. He only prays to God when he promises to do good deeds, so he probably thinks he is not worth listening to by God unless he does good. This will have a negative effect on his relationship with God since he chooses to distance his messy self from God rather than pray to God to improve their relationship because he feels unworthy due to his flaws and doesn’t think that God has unconditional love for him. Instead of all the prayer time he could have spent with God, he misses out on it because of his wrong perception of God and himself.

Reading Rico’s sample prayer, I’m not entirely sure if he is honest with God. He appears to be buttering God up so that God will grant his petitions. He tells God he promises to stop cursing and backstabbing, yet he goes back to his indifferent ways during regular school days. For me, it doesn’t seem that he seems sincere in what he is saying, so his relationship cannot progress and remains shallow. He should focus more on expressing what he really feels in order to break down barriers with God and in order to make the relationship with God more real and intimate. Rico also has a hard time integrating prayer with daily life. Rather than making everyday an opportunity to pray to God, he only prays to God when he needs him. This is similar to a relationship with a doctor, wherein one goes to the doctor for his services only without establishing a personal relationship with him.

Rico only goes to God when he needs something and doesn’t attempt to establish a personal relationship with him. Occupational prayer is about recognizing God’s presence in daily tasks, but Rico doesn’t do so since he only seeks God when he needs him. Other than those times, he studies and remains indifferent towards others, thus he doesn’t recognize God’s presence unless he needs Him. Spousal prayer is resting from work in order to be totally available to God. “My work is my prayer” is not an excuse since we all need to spend at least 15 to 20 minutes everyday to talk to God alone, which will deepen our relationship with him and make occupational prayer more meaningful. Rico is “busy” and believes that studying is a form of prayer, thus he doesn’t make time daily for spousal prayer, which prevents him from deepening his relationship with God. Rico doesn’t listen to God often during prayer. Prayer is irrelevant when one dominates the stage and keeps talking and asking for favors from God. Prayer becomes relevant when we use it to listen to God in order to discover what he wants us to do. Often times, what God has to say to us is more important that what we have to say to him, so we must be selfless enough to give him the stage and reflective enough to learn his message.

In Rico’s case, he always dominates the stage by praying only to ask for petitions. He doesn’t listen to what God wants of him and only prays for his own personal intentions rather than praying to improve his relationship with God. Rico needs to become more selfless and put what God’s trying to say over what he’s going to say. By listening along with talking to God, prayer becomes a two-way communication, which allows his relationship to flourish with God.

The Life of a Veteran with Combat PTSD

Battling war is something a Veteran knows all too well, but battling the demons in their mind after the war is something that they have to learn how to cope with. One of the most mentioned issues that Veterans face today is a disorder called combat post-traumatic stress disorder. Combat PTSD can easily be defined as a disorder that affects the mental state of the armed forces service member that has been through a difficult or shocking experience during their time served in the military. Experiencing war is not something that everyone can relate to, but it is something that can affect a Veteran, as well as their family and friends. Everyday Americans praise the men and women of our country that put their lives on the line, fighting for our country’s freedom. The least that can be done in return is to support our Veterans, and raise awareness within America’s society concerning the aftermath that a war takes on Veterans.

There are those that have no idea of what Veterans face after their time has been served, nor what the families face alongside their Veterans. Within this research paper, information will be provided to help raise awareness throughout society, and also educate society on how combat PTSD is being coped with. Coping with combat PTSD can be difficult since Veterans have to cope with or without medication, and their loved ones have to learn how to cope with their combat PTSD as well.

As more detail will be explained throughout this paper, it should be known that June is PTSD Awareness Month. For those of you who have little to no knowledge on PTSD, please take this opportunity to educate yourselves. Combat PTSD affect each differently, but the symptoms revolve around three main areas (Nebraska Department of Veteran Affairs, 2007, p. 2). Any reminder a Veteran may have of the trauma can cause him or her to become upset. An excellent example of this would be going to a movie theater and watching a film that is war related. Not only is the Veteran in a dark area, but all the memories come flooding back to the moment they were in a combat situation. Another form of symptom that comes from combat PTSD is withdrawal from people or places that might remind the Veteran of trauma they experienced. This can cause a series of problems in regard to the Veteran’s loved ones, causing the loved ones to feel as though they are being closed off from their Veteran. The most rising concern with this particular symptom is how it can lead to isolation of the Veteran.

If a Veteran displays signs of separation, one of the most important remedies is forcing themselves to be around a positive support system. The last of the three main symptoms of combat PTSD is a Veteran being easily startled, always being on guard, and irritability. Have you ever stood behind the door while waiting for a friend to enter the room, waiting to jump out and say “boo”, or have you been on the receiving end of this scenario when you were a child? Imagine that little skip of a beat you experience in your chest and greatly intensify that feeling. A Veteran suffering from combat post-traumatic stress disorder can experience that feeling of being frightened over the simplest thing, thus causing an increase in their anxiety level. There was once a man that suffered from PTSD so badly that his fiancé could not walk up behind him without announcing herself. Any time that she had done so, it had invoked irritability from her loved one causing him to become angry.

As these symptoms are displayed, not only does the Veteran themselves have to deal with what they are experiencing, so does their loved ones and their friends. The support system surrounding a Veteran with combat PTSD must also learn how to cope with all these symptoms to help avoid intensifying the symptoms. As the issues become more frequent the Veteran comes to a point where they react one of several ways such as denial that there is a problem, thus realizing that the symptoms could lead to a diagnosis of combat PTSD, coming to the conclusion that they need help, and all the while trying to grasp how to cope with all of it is added issues. Not just for themselves, but for everyone around them.

We all have those in our lives that we care for very dearly, we choose to endure a lot for those we love, and learning to cope with a loved one that is a Veteran suffering from combat post-traumatic stress disorder is not always an easy task. While Veteran’s loved ones learn to cope with the symptoms being displayed, encouragement and positivity are key factors for providing a sufficient foundation for the Veteran to start building back up on. Husbands, wives, children, siblings, parents, other close kin, and friends of Veterans have to learn how to work together in order to cope successfully with the way their Veteran is being affected by their PTSD. According to Tull (2014), it is advised “The first step in living with and helping a loved one with PTSD is learning about the symptoms of PTSD and understanding how these traits may influence behavior” (p.3).

The thought comes to mind that the more knowledge a person has about a topic, the better they can understand it as well accept it. There are many loved ones that expect for their Veteran to come home from deployment to be the same person they had been before they left, and, unfortunately, that does not always happen. Raising awareness across communities will only benefit society to having a better understanding of what combat PTSD is, what Veterans and their families are up against, and help bring support from society as a whole (not just those directly affected by combat PTSD). Have you ever heard the terminology “knowledge is power”? Well, this is a prime example of that statement, and our nation needs to be filled with more supporters of our Veterans. They made a choice to put their lives on the line to serve our country, the least the civilians of our nation could do is educate themselves, educate families and children, and teach friends on the subject of supporting all of our Veterans.

Statistics state that there were over 2.3 million American veterans that derived out of the Afghanistan and Iraq war. The percent of those Veterans that are suffering from PTSD (and/or depression) is 20%, and out of that 20% there is only half of those Veterans that seek treatment (Veterans and PTSD, 2012-2013, p. 4). With only half of the Veterans that are suffering are seeking a resolution for the diagnosis of combat post-traumatic stress disorder, maybe a rise in awareness and support could help encourage those going untreated to seek help.

During the past few years, there have been times of sitting in PTSD group therapy sessions where Veterans have stated they were convinced to try medications to help them cope with their symptoms. All the same, there are Veterans that refuse to use medications. Once, the question was brought up about what was the deciding factor in whether or not to be medicated in order to help the Veteran cope with their issues they were facing. Most of the Veterans in the group stated that a mutual agreement was made with their loved ones, as well as their psychiatrist; other Veterans expressed how utterly opposed to the idea that they were, as well as their loved ones. Sitting in the rooms, time after time, a thought came to my mind and I couldn’t resist the urge to stand up and be heard. I approached a weekly PTSD group therapy class with my theory of why it is psychiatrist believe everything can be resolved by just taking a pill. Unfortunately, that is not the case all the time, and medicating to cope with the issue may be a temporary cover-up, but who wants a Band-Aid over mental and physical battle wounds?

A young United States Marine stood up and very excitingly blurted out, “Thank you very much, Heather. Could you please come say that to my ‘pill pusher’s’ face”? The young man apparently agree with me wholeheartedly, and it began to make sense that these Veterans do not want a temporary fix. They and their loved ones want to get to the core of their combat PTSD to better overcome their symptoms, and work to get back to what they refer to as “normal life” for them and those surrounding them. Through personal experience and conversations with others that suffer with PTSD, the most brought up with being placed on medications were the side effects. There have been side effects of increased suicidal tendencies, increasing depression, and the overall alteration of the person’s mind. These issues are key factors as to why Veterans have chosen not to be medicated while coping with the symptoms of combat PTSD. The 20% of Veterans that do suffer from combat PTSD, as well as their loved ones, they just want to cope with these issues since they have such a significant impact on their lives. Spreading awareness and supporting their fight after the war is just as important as supporting our nation’s troops while they are deployed.

Have you ever had an experience in your life that left you with nightmares, caused anxiety, or that has raised your stress level so high that you feel as though you could lose control? Imagine facing that moment over and over in your mind, but not knowing how to cope with it. Every day, thousands of Veterans are faced with suffering from the symptoms of combat post-traumatic stress disorder, and learning how to cope with their disorder can be a difficult task to accomplish. Their families and friends are right by their side, supporting them and wondering how they can help them, and at the same time they are learning how to cope with the situation as well. America’s heroes have done their time during the war and continue to do their time battling the war that is not in front of them- but inside of them. Each and every Veteran, as well as their loved ones, face the symptoms recognize the possibility needing help.

All involved have come to a decision what they do to copes successfully and tries to continue on with their lives. Some have had to face coping with this condition by being medicated while others can manage to cope without it- either way they all carry the mental scars, and all deserve the support of every single citizen of The United States of America. Do you have a friend, family member, or loved one that suffers from combat post-traumatic stress disorder? If so, please continue to support your Veteran, and provide positivity as well as acceptance of the fact that their lives have been forever changed because they fought for American’s lives and freedom. If not, the time is now for each and every one of us to become aware of the daily battles that are by the men and women that have put their lives on the line for the country we call home.

REFERENCES
Nebraska Department of Veterans’ Affairs. (2007). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: What is PTSD? Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/what-is-ptsd.html Tull, Matthew. (2014). Coping with PTSD in Family Members: Understanding a Loved One’s PTSD. Retrieved from http://ptsd.about.com/od/infoforfriendsfamily/a/PTSDfamily.htm Veterans and PTSD. (2012-2013). Veteran’s Statistics: PTSD, Depression, TBI, and Suicide. Retrieved from http://www.veteransandptsd.com/PTSD-statistics.html

Quality of Life for the Patient and Family

Quality of life has a different meaning for everyone. Many personal thoughts and feelings can come into play when caring for others during the end stages of life. However as a nurse and caregiver, these opinions must be put aside at this significant time. For some health care providers, we may feel that keeping the patient comfortable and having them surrounded by family is most important. However, for the patient, personal culture, lifestyle and value for one self as well as a sense of independence in handling this time alone is most imperative. Therefor a nurse must consider the individual’s past experiences, present lifestyle and personal hopes in which they choose to live in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns at this stage.

One must meet not only the physical needs of the patient but the psychosocial demands in this sensitive time of need. Seeking aggressive medical treatment vs. palliative care is something that is very personal and differs from individual to individual. Nurses’ opinions and suggestions of the “best care” should not be voiced to the patient or family, even if asked directly. For Mrs. Thomas, time also plays an important role. She is young and may have many other worries than those of an older age experience in preparing for end of life. A nurse must consider what areas of life are important to her and what is the relative importance of each of these areas. Personal perception that counting on family support is huge, but may not be possible in Mrs. Thomas’ situation as her children live out of town.

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE

The nurse should look at several strategies that directly impact the patient as well as the family. Quality of life not only looks at the health status the patient but those directly involved in the care of the patient. This encompasses a broader set of planning including finances, housing, and employment. This will have a direct impact on the entire family.

Three important strategies that are helpful to relieve overall stress and promote optimal coping skills include: 1) patient awareness of disease process, 2) available support from healthcare providers and 3) addressing physical as well as the psychosocial needs of the patient. Healthcare professionals must be prepared and speak directly with the patient and family when it is determined best to the physician’s ability, that the identified disease of breast cancer will cause death. Advance planning and preparation may be helpful in dying well if Mrs. Thomas is more aware about her status of disease. Physicians and nurses must change the plan of aggressive medical treatments of curing the disease of breast cancer and concentrate providing support and a comfortable well being of the deteriorating disease process. This in turn should provide a plan of care for relief of pain, contentment to the patient and focus on the overall whole being of quality of life.

The homecare team can include doctors, nurses, home health aides, social workers, and clergy as well as trained volunteers. Most team members provide on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to deliver support. The patient and family should feel the comfort in calling these resources at anytime. The nurse must remind Mrs. Thomas and her husband that they are not “bothering” any team member by asking for assistance.

The team must always work together and communicate the patient’s goals for end-of-life care. It is important for all to realize this is very individualized for each patient and family member. Each individual strategy should include caring for the whole person physically, emotionally, socially and spiritually. It important for the team to develop strengths based perspectives of psychosocial interventions and listen to what the patient and family have to say to enable them to cope better. In doing so, the team must also communicate on each encounter with Mrs. Thomas and family as well as each other to assure that her and the husband’s needs are being met.

HOLISTIC CARE
A holistic nursing care plan in valuable in delivering care to the entire person in supporting the physical, mental, spiritual, emotional, social and environmental needs. With this approach, nursing care needs to move away from viewing Mrs. Thomas as merely a ‘diagnosis’ and treating her as a whole person. Nursing goals should be to develop immediate trust with the patient and family, provide comfort, supportive care, and symptom management. This can be achieved by effective communication and providing a calm, relaxed setting for Mrs. Thomas.

Allowing her to speak openly and honestly about her feelings and emotions of grief, physical complaints such as pain, nausea, and difficulty sleeping is a good way to start to develop a trusting nurse/patient relationship. As a nurse, one must be supportive and be willing to listen openly. Once Mrs. Thomas begins to express these types of things, the nurse must review and evaluate every visit to improve specific concerns with her. More importantly, healthcare providers must display an openness to hear new concerns and prioritize the needs of the patient and family.

FUNCTIONAL ABILITY
Assessments to maintain the self functional ability for Mrs. Thomas should include creating a plan to achieve realistic goals and allow self care as long as possible. This in turn can give control back to Mrs. Thomas, help raise confidence and value her quality of life. Mrs. Thomas’ physical, social and environmental conditions should also be considered to help her care for herself. Discussing the 24/7 availability of visits from registered nurses and social workers, involving family and friends or volunteers that can help with running errands and meal preparation for adequate dietary intake, and discussing appropriate medical equipment to assist with ADLs such as performing personal hygiene can prove to be helpful.

PROVIDING ADDITIONAL CARE
When self-care is no longer possible, the importance of more frequent nurse and/or social worker visits, and interaction of clergy is valuable. In addition, further involvement of additional family, friends, home health aides or volunteers to assist not only with running errands, meal preparation and assistance with ADLs but being present in the home for longer periods to care directly for Mrs. Thomas becomes more imperative. The nurse can assist in making sure appropriate DME equipment is in the home. In addition, this turns out to be a time when additional emotional support is of great concern for Mr. Thomas.

CHRONIC DEPRESSION
Mr. Thomas already suffers from chronic depression and now has to endure immense and continuous stress to care for his wife with advanced breast cancer. Over time this takes a toll his health, ability to work, finances, and their own personal and family needs. Involvement of not only the nurse, but also social worker and bereavement counselor can help Mr. Thomas tremendously. Encouraging him to take his medications will help both him and his wife. Also, reassurance that it is okay to want quiet time and allowing others to help to care for his wife should be verbalized to him in a caring manner.

Taking some of the financial worries away from Mr. Thomas may help as well. The social worker can discuss resources that are of no cost from community volunteer organizations and review the reimbursement of covered services from the insurance organization at the beginning and in ongoing care of his wife. Sharing the right information with the patient’s family is very important and can assist in better coping. Again, the home care team must offer an environment that provides the openness to hear all concerns and overall needs of not only the patient but also her family.

Its all about life

Life is beautiful but not always easy, it has problems, too, and the challenge lies in facing them with courage, letting the beauty of life act like a balm, which makes the pain bearable, during trying times, by providing hope

Happiness, sorrow, victory, defeat, day-night are the two sides of the me coin. Similarly life is full of moments of joy, pleasure, success and comfort punctuated by misery, defeat, failures and problems. There is no human being on Earth, strong, powerful, wise or rich, who has not experienced, struggle, suffering or failure.

No doubt, life is beautiful and every moment – a celebration of being alive, but one should be always ready to face adversity and challenges. A person who has not encountered difficulties in life can never achieve success.

Difficulties test the courage, patience, perseverance and true character of a human being. Adversity and hardships make a person strong and ready to face the challenges of life with equanimity. There is no doubt that there can be no gain without pain. It is only when one toils and sweats it out that success is nourished and sustained.

Thus, life is and should not be just a bed of roses; thorns are also a part of it and should be accepted by us just as we accept the beautiful side of life.

The thorns remind one of how success and happiness can be evasive and thus not to feel disappointed and disheartened rather remember that the pain of thorns is short-lived, and the beauty of life would soon overcome the prick of thorns.

Those, who are under the impression that life is a bed of roses are disillusioned soon and become victims of depression and frustration. One who faces difficulties with courage and accepts success without letting it go to its head is the one who experience real happiness, contentment and peace in
life.

Those, who think, that good times last forever, easily succumb to pressure during difficulties. They do not put in required hard work and efforts because they break down easily.

You can take the example of a student, who burns the mid night oil, makes sacrifices and resists temptations so that he can perform well. Similarly, a successful executive has to face the ups and downs of life, not forgetting that life is a mix of success and failure, joy and sorrow.

If he loses hope during difficult times, he would not achieve success and would be replaced by others. Even the strongest Kings and Emperors have had their cup of woes.

Life has not been a bed of roses for them. The adage ‘Uneasy lays the head that wears the crown’ has been rightly used for people, who are successful and are enjoying power and authority.

To sum up, life is beautiful just as roses but it has challenges which are like thorns and have to be faced and overcome by all. Those, who accept these, challenges and succeed, are the ones, who know how to live life in its true sense. Thus, enjoy life but also be prepared to bear the pricks of pain.

Building Blocks of Life

Part 1: Mitosis and Meiosis Short-Answer Response

Use Ch. 5 of BioInquiry and the “Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis” video as resources for Part 1 of this assignment. Write 75- to 100-word answers to the following questions.

Why are the process of mitosis and meiosis both important to a living organism?

Both mitosis and meiosis processes are extremely important because they are the division of chromosomes and without this division reproduction would not occur. Cell division plays an important role in the life cycle of a cell allowing the cell to grow, develop and then reproduce. If these processes did not occur then the cells would eventually die out and without the ability to be replaced by new cells then the host would die as well.

When would an organism need to undergo the process of mitosis? Meiosis?

An organism would need to undergo the process of mitosis in order to repair damaged cells or to start a new cell life cycle through cellular division. All cells need to be replaced on the regular basic within a living organism the cells divide and create new cells. An organism would need to undergo the process of meiosis when it needs to produce cells that are designated for sexual reproduction, such as egg or sperm cells within humans

What would happen if meiosis did not occur?

If meiosis did not occur then haploid cells would not be made resulting in the cell being unable to reproduce. Meiosis I reduces the number of chromosomes by half so that when fertilization occurs the number of chromosomes would be reestablished. During meiosis II the daughter cell is a unique variation of its parent cell while still only having one pair of chromosomes.

Part 2: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Matrix

Complete the matrix. Use the following questions to aid in completion:

What is the purpose of this pathway?
Reactants: What does this reaction need to proceed?
Products: What is produced because of the reaction?
The role of ATP: Does it supply energy or store energy?

Cellular respiration
Photosynthesis
Pathway
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Electron transport
Light-dependent reaction
Light-independent reaction
Purpose
Energy Harvesting or Sugar-Splitting
breakdown of glucose to single carbon molecules
Converts oxygen to water
Provide energy for the light-independent reaction
Produces food for cellular respiration
Where it takes place
Cell cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
Reactants
ATP, NADH, Pyruvates,CO2,Coenzyme A,PGAL
Acetyl Co-A, oxaloacetate, Citrate, Alpha ketoglutarate
NADH, FADH2
Sunlight, chlorophyll, and water
ATP, carbon dioxide, and NADPH
Products
H20, NADH, ATP
Carbon dioxide and ATP
36 ATP
Oxygen and ATP
Carbohydrates (sugar and starch)
The role of ATP
Energy used to breakdown Pyruvic acid into Acetyl Co-enzyme A for the Krebs Cycle Energy to drive the electron transport
High production of ATP produces energy for overall cell growth and repair Transports solar energy in the form of ATP to power other chemical reactions Fuels the formation of carbohydrates

Tertiary level education is necessary for a successful life

Tertiary level education is necessary for a successful life. As eschewed by, Dr. Eric Williams, the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago in the early 60’s, ‘The future of our nation lays inside the schools bags of our children.’ In those days it was very evident that the level of education in Trinidad and Tobago was little to none existent amongst the citizens. Therefore, it is fitting to say that a tertiary education is mandatory for a thriving life in today’s world. There are different levels of education namely, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Tertiary being the third and the highest level provides a more indebt wealth of knowledge as it is post-secondary education. Why is it important to seek greater schooling? Times are changing and a higher education will minister to great economic benefits such as decreasing brain drain, whilst increasing job stability and social factors.

Brain drain is the emigration of highly trained or qualified people from a particular country. Due to the lack of professionals at the tertiary level in the past, foreigners were imported to manage many entities and the majority of locals at that time held menial jobs all because of the lack of a higher level institutes. Having a tertiary level education would reduce the need to request external expertise. As certain fields would have trained professional within the country, so, there is no need to outsource the knowledge. This would be valuable as it would save the country money and increase the job stability as the entrepreneur is in demand for projects. Individuals that have a tertiary education attain the economic benefit of a meaningful job.

This job appears to be more interesting and allows freedom to make decisions at work. A wider range of work opportunities become available with a tertiary level education, as the skills learnt can be easily applied in different work settings which would not limit one, to a particular geographical place. In other words, they have many more work options, which helps stabilize their income in changing times. Every Society is driven by experts in their respective fields. These professionals are highly paid professionals who are mandated to grow their respective businesses and by extension the economy insure the economic growth of their country. In today’s world these executives are holders of at least one masters or professional degree.

Having this allows you to collaborate with people in a more prestige setting. There is also the appeal of having letters behind your name. The levels of employment by these executives are very intense but there rewards are great. Better salaries, bonuses, company car, housing allowance,and in general a better standard of living. Conversely though, societies also consist of obstinate people and they are of the opinion that tertiary level education is not imperative for a flourishing life. Many people believe that in order to get a superior job you need experience. Some of the billionaire business owners such as Bill Gates, and Steve Jobs did not attend tertiary education and their success was due to them learning from past mistakes and gaining experience. This then influences the youths of today’s world that a tertiary level education is not necessary.

In summation, the world has produced many successful and wealthy businessmen who do not acquire a tertiary level education, but by possessing a great deal of common sense and a positive attitude they were successful. Having tertiary level education tells the employer that the in individual has gone through certain disciplines and has the ability to learn more and progress. While in the workplace the people normally achieve success by a combination tertiary studies and experience.

Works Cited:
“STDirectory.” Importance of Tertiary Level Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2013. . Website

Nisen, Max. “These Charts Prove That College Is More Important Than Ever.” Business Insider. N.p., June-July 2013. Web. 01 Nov. 2013. . Website

My Goal in Life

At the age of 8 we change our minds about what we want to do when we grow up about every week. At the 18 and a few months away from graduating some of us still don’t know what we want to do or where we want to go in life. Excluding all of those soon to be high school graduates, I already know what I want to do after high and know where I want to go. Since the age of 10, I’ve always dreamt of being a police officer. I cant see myself doing anything other than patrolling the streets and keeping people safe.

After graduating high school, Im going to go to college for at least four years. When my four years is done and after I turn twenty-one, I’m going to join the police academy. Im going to work hard and do whatever it takes to get in and pass all my tests. My goal is to be the best police office on the force. When the time comes after a couple years of patrolling, I would love to work my way up to be a special agent or maybe even be a member of the SWAT team. I know a lot of people may doubt me and a lot of people may say, “A little girl like you can’t do a job like that.” but I will prove them wrong. I want to be able to say “I did it” instead of “I tried,” Failing is not an option, the key is to never give up and push yourself as far as you can go.

Memorable event in my life

Very often people don’t remember their day-by-day routine, but if something unusual or extra ordinary happens. It can be memorable and remarkablefor the rest of their lives.

For me, such remarkable event was the light show of dancing fountains. I saw this show for the first time when I was 10 years old. Since that time I saw shows like that several times, but the feelings of the very first time are still in my haert and they are unforgettable.

The show had to start during sunset, and since it was arranged on the bank of the rive on a hot summer day everything around bacame pink. Trees, river, air, people around -everything was paintad with a tender pink colour. That day was extremely hot but in the evening the air turned to be fresh and clean. The blowing breeze was very pleasent. The show was delayed. At first we were nervous about that, but now I understand that it was planned ahead and we were really lucky to see the sunset. Very soon it became darker and at last the show started.

The show was accompanied by modern music and the fountains really danced and people danced too. Everybody was so excited!

I convinced my freind to go with me, which was not easy because she didn’t want to join that “crowd”( as she called all the people at the show). But thanks to that evening we becam e much closer and that was an event we remember and recall very often.

I would recimmend to those who didn’t see dancing fountains to have a chance and see them! It was an unforgettable, remarkable event.

The principle underlying the Practical Life exercises

Discuss the principle underlying the Practical Life exercises and how it fosters independence in children. What is Practical Life exercise?

Practical life exercise means the basic everyday life, all the things we need to for daily living. Dr Maria Montessori felt that children need to be shown and given opportunities so that they learn how to do everyday living activities in a purposeful way.

“The child can only develop by means of experience in his environment. We call such experience work.” – Maria Montessori

Children prefer to work than to play and they can only be in their natural self, when their natural self is satisfied through work. It’s also through work they acquire concentration, co-ordination, control, independence and order. Purpose of Practical Life exercise

Dr Montessori observed that children need order at a specific sensitive period in their development. If not provided during this period the opportunity is foregone. A routine is important as well as a place for everything and everything in its place. This offers the child for orderly self-construction. Co-ordination refers to co-ordinating large and small muscle movements as well as eye-hand co-ordination that reflect the respective development of child’s mental life.

For example, a child who is pouring beans from one jug to another. As they pour, they become transfixed by the look of the beans emptying as well as the sound of the beans hitting the glass jar. It is a satisfying, almost calming sound that they strive to repeat over and over again. They focus intently on the task at hand, developing those concentration skills that are necessary to observe the world around them and to focus on later learning.

A degree of co-ordination is required to successfully pour those beans without spilling them. Balancing beads on a spoon, sewing a button, picking up rice with chopsticks, all require great dexterity and strong fine motor skills. All activities in the Montessori Practical Life exercise those finger muscles and develop fine motor skills. Co-ordination is necessary when learning writing and art skills, balancing while walking and performing everyday tasks like tying shoes.

An element of control is necessary in co-ordination skills. Control also encompasses the ability to manage the amount of force used when driving a nail into a piece of wood, tightening a screw, stopping when pouring liquid or shutting a door quietly. The child also needs control over their muscles as they walk across a room or around a mat, as they carry materials or a tray from a shelf, and as they roll up a mat.

“Man achieves his independence by making efforts. To be able to do a thing without any help from others: this is independence. If it exists, the child can progress rapidly; if it does not, his progress will be slow.” (The Absorbent Mind, 1967, p155)

It is very important that the child is given freedom to do these exercises at a time the child pleases; he should be allowed to try, make mistakes and correct his mistakes by himself without any help. The satisfaction of completing an activity drives the child towards independence.

Young children’s main goal in life is to develop independence. How often does one hear the cry of a young child, “I can do it myself!” Practical Life exercise teaches children how to perform everyday living skills that enhance their independence. They learn how to pour and use different utensils, prepare and serve food to themselves and others. Care of self-skills such as dressing frames, allow them to get themselves dressed. Care of the environment skills allow them to look after their own room and or toys.

Children crave order in their environment and lives. The Practical Life area is set up with a definite order. Activities are placed on the shelf from left to right and top to bottom. This is because one reads left to right and top to bottom. Activities themselves have a definite order in which steps are performed. Categories of Practical Life Exercises

Practical Life exercises are grouped into four different categories, development of motor skills, care of environment, care of self and social grace and courtesy. Exercises in each of these categories provide the opportunity to do purposeful work and are designed to teach the child life skills, so that they may became confident to do their daily chores at home.

Activities grouped under “Development of Motor Skills”, such as carrying, pouring, squeezing and twisting give the opportunity to exercise and co-ordinate body movements of the child. Movement is very important to the child because it contributes and spiritual development of the child.

“Through movement, he acts upon his external environment and thus carries out his personal mission in the world. Movement is not only an impression of the ego but it is an indispensable factor in the development of consciousness, since it is the only real means which places the ego in a clearly defined relationship with external reality.” (The Secret of childhood, 1966)

The child learns to ‘Care of the Environment’ from exercises like cutting, cleaning, washing, polishing, sewing and more. They learn that they are a part of the environment and learn to respect and develop a sense of responsibility towards the environment. Also the child will gradually learn how to gain greater control of his motor movements so that he would be able to perform more complex tasks later on. Some of the activities such as washing of table can be carried out as a group task, which helps the child to be socialized.

The exercises in ‘Care of Self’ category are designed to provide the child skills need for his sole independence. In order to gain independence, the child needs to establish will and discipline in order. Some of the activities in this category are on how to dress himself and stay clean by washing himself, hands, face, feet as well as his belongings, shoes, napkins and etc.

Between the age of 2½ to 6 years old, the child is in a sensitive period for the learning of good manners. The exercises of ‘Social Grace and Courtesy’ are focused on developing will power, establish a proper posture, greet people, excuse one and interrupt when necessary. Maria Montessori considers the social grace and courtesy activities as the most important exercises in the practical life curriculum. She felt that when children are first brought into a Montessori classroom, emphasis must be placed on social grace exercise.

Role of a Directress

The first stage of Practical Life exercise is the role of a Directress. The directress introduces the exercise by telling the child its name and purpose and showing the child where to find the materials, how to carry them to a workspace and how to lay them out ready to start.

The directress demonstrates how to do the activity, step by step. The sequence of steps is choreographed and rehearsed by the teacher beforehand. Each movement is well defined, very slow and clearly distinguishable from the next so the child can see exactly how it is executed.

While presenting the exercise, the directress’s attention focuses, not on the child, but on the activity, in this way modelling to the child where attention needs to be directed for the exercise to be successful. As the presentation unfolds, the teacher draws the child’s attention to points of interest, moments of challenge in the sequence that are critical to achieving the goal of the exercise.

In a Montessori classroom the directress plays a major role. She need to be properly trained, be a good role model and she should be able to develop and maintain a happy and rewarding teacher-child relationship.

“The first essential is that the teacher should go thru an inner, spiritual preparation –cultivate certain aptitudes in the moral order.” (Her Life and work, 1998, p298)

The teacher’s prime objectives are to maintain order in the prepared environment, facilitate the development of the child, encourage independence and self-sufficiency.

Independence work

The second stage of Practical Life exercise occurs when the child chooses the activity and independently imitates and repeats the steps presented by the teacher. This is the stage in which, Montessori educators believe, learning takes place. The practical purpose of the exercise may spark a child’s initial interest but the interest is sustained by the sequence of exact and precise movements. During independent work, many children talk to themselves as they concentrate on performing each step in the sequence.

The child’s desire to choose the exercise is a reflection of how well the teacher has matched the activity to the child’s interests. If a child shows no interest in following up a presentation with independence work, the teacher continues to observe the child’s spontaneous activity and presents other exercises that might be better matched to child’s current interests. How well an exercise had been pre-analysed, prepared and presented contributes to the child’s ability to complete it successfully.

The teacher observes each child’s independent work and might give a follow-up presentation at a later time to show how to refine some element of the exercise. If children are not successful at all, the teacher will redirect their attention to an activity they can complete successfully. The teacher might repeat the lesson at a later time, but always in a way that ensures the child has no sense of ever having been successful.

Montessori educators believe that the everyday know-how children gain through the exercises of practical life is a solid foundation for self-confidence. Because children become genuinely competent and accomplished in the tasks of daily life, their self-confidence is built on a reality they can verify for themselves every day.

Prepared Environment

It is important to provide the child an environment to work on activities of their own choice at their own pace experiencing freedom and self-discipline while developing towards independence. Even though materials in Practical Life area are the least standardized, exercises needs to be carefully though and designed. A prepared environment should consist of purposeful and meaningful materials and properly trained instructors.

When preparing materials the teacher needs to consider few principles of the Montessori Practical Life materials which satisfy Child’s development needs. Firstly she needs to make sure that each material given to the child should have a definite purpose, for example the mat is laid to mark the area of his workstation, handling the spoon develops child’s skill of spooning which leads to independence. Secondly materials should progress from simple to more complex design and usage. As a preliminary exercise for transferring solid objects we could give the child a spoon and later, it could progress to tweezers, chopsticks and etc.

Also it should be designed to prepare the child indirectly for future learning’s such as writing, mathematics and scientific concepts. We prepare the child for wiring by teaching them the pincer grip, using thumb, index and middle fingers to hold objects and by left to right and top to bottom concepts, so that these orders naturally incarnates in the child’s mind. The mathematical concepts such as judgement of capacity and volume, division, calculation and exactness includes in activities of spooning, pouring and sweeping. The activity, transferring water using a sponge gives the child the specific concept of weight. The child could feel the weight of the sponge defers when the water is absorbed and when the water is released.

Dr Maria Montessori said, “Each individual should become aware of his own errors. Each should have a means of checking, so that he can tell if he is right or not.” (Absorbent Mind, 1967, p247)

So she included the path to perfection, which she called “the control of error” within the materials itself so the child would be able to observe the activity he completes and understand his own mistakes. If a child has finished working on the dressing frame with large buttons, and he can see that buttons had gone through wrong buttonholes or buttoning halfway or seeing only half of the button come up the flap, these would be his control of errors. He has the opportunity to guide himself to correct his mistakes.

When preparing the activity in the Montessori classroom the directress need to make sure that all materials are kept together in a basket or a tray and grouped accordingly to the level of development. The activity should have its unique location and be reachable to the child so that the child could use the materials of their own choice and return the exercise, leading to independence and self-discipline. Also it is important to be providing attractive and clean child friendly and child size materials. Each activity should be limited in quantity.

In conclusion it is apparent that Practical Life Exercises refines movement, providing a foundation in the early learning, attitudes and dispositions. Practical Life exercises also provide children a sense of accomplishment as they engage in real, meaningful work with tangible results. The familiar home-like environment of the practical life corner allows children to gain independence, order, concentration and confidence as they carry out thoughtfully prepared activities. This lead to normalization.

References:

1) Maria Montessori, 1867, The Absorbent Mind, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston 2) Maria Montessori, 1966, The Secret of Childhood, New York, The Random House Publishing Group 3) Susan Feez, 2010, Montessori and Early Childhood, London, Sage Publication 4) E.M. Standing, 1998, Maria Montessori – Her Life and work, New York, the Penguin Group 5) David Gettman, 1987, Basic Montessori, New York, St. Martin’s Press

Childhood as key role in our life

Childhood plays a key role in our life, actually our character and personality builds up in childhood. Besides, we as adults have a lot of concern and we should face many stressful situations like finding jobs, getting married and so on, On the other hand, children are free of all them. I do agree with the statement which childhood is the happiest time in person’s life, I explain more about as follows. First, adults, they have a lot of responsibility. For instance I as mother and wife not only do I have to take care of my children and house but also I have to work as a teacher. Therefore, I am so busy but ,when I was a child my most concern was game. I just play with my friends all the time. I do not have any responsibility. I believe that childhood is the happiest time because you are care free, so children enjoy their life without any stress. They are not worry about the future. Second, as an adult I am happy in some especial events.

For example when I get promotion in my carrier or when I get high salary I feel happy, but children do not have big expectations they satisfy with toys and friends. I can remember when I was a child everything were new for me I ask about anything which I saw. child finds out what a beautiful, amazing world. I was just curious I wanted to discover new things, I can remember what a amazing time was when I saw sheep for the first time. Everything which seems usual and rotin but that time everything were new and wonderful. Taking everything into consideration, childhood is happiest time because children are care free and they do not have any responsibility besides everything are new and strange to children . their most concern is play and find out and understand new things.

On The Last Days of My Life

On The Last Days of My Life
The Fantasy of My Life

On the last days of my life, I want to thank God for everything, for taking care of my family and for my own safety as well. I know every second of our lives are so significant, so I want to make memories be unforgettable. Not every moment I’m here for my beloved family but towards my weaknesses, they still there for me and always encouraging me to stand and never say ‘’no’’. I want to thank them for giving their lots of love and care even sometimes I lose hope, they are diligent enough in explaining that life goes on whatever may happen at least I did my better than best. I also want to spend the last days of my life to those people who are very close to my heart, my gloomy friends.

I want to make a big sacrifice for them and that is to see that they are happy and contented enough for what God that has given to them. I want them to be still complete even my entire presence will not be able to be there. And that is what I want for my family to be happen as well. The third is to my special someone who deserves to change and improve my entire life. I want him to be with me on the last day of my life, enjoy the last hour while singing our favorite theme song and experience the last kiss on the last minute if my life. I want him to be happy so on the last second of my life, I’m giving his freedom to love another woman who will be able to continue my love and care to him.

And God will be my arms in finding the fantasy of Heaven.. :”)

By: Jelin..
11.08.11

Environmental pollution: its effects on life and its remedies

The term pollution refers to the act of contaminating ones environment by introducing certain hazardous contaminants that disturb the ecosystem and directly or indirectly affect the living organisms of that ecosystem. Pollution in general is the activity of disturbing the natural system and balance of an environment. The increase in the pollution over the years by man has caused severe damage to the earth’s ecosystem. It is responsible for global warming which is leading to the end if all the lives on earth. Over the years there is an extreme increase in the rate of human diseases, and death rate of various animals and plants on earth, and that is all because of the pollution caused by man himself. AIR POLLUTION:

According to the dictionary, air pollution is the contamination of air by smoke and harmful gases, mainly oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Some examples of air pollution include:
Exhaust fumes from vehicles
The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gas
Harmful off-gasing from things such as paint, plastic production and so on Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Air pollution is linked to asthma, allergies and other respiratory illnesses. You can more about how the environment affects human health here. LAND POLLUTION

Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth’s surface caused by a misuse of resources and improper disposal of waste. Some examples of land pollution include:
Litter found on the side of the road
Illegal dumping in natural habitats
Oil spills that happen inland
The use of pesticides and other farming chemicals
Damage and debris caused from unsustainable mining and logging practices Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Land pollution is responsible for damage done to natural habitat of animals, deforestation and damage done to natural resources, and the general ugly-ing up of our communities. Light Pollution

Light pollution is the brightening of the night sky inhibiting the visibility of stars and planets by the use of improper lighting of communities. Some examples of what causes light pollution:
Street lamps that shine light in all directions, instead of with a hood to point light downward toward the street. Unnecessary lights, especially around the home
Light pollution uses more energy (by shining more light up instead of down), may affect human health and our sleep cycles and most importantly, corrupts our kids telescopes and their curiosity. Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is any loud sounds that are either harmful or annoying to humans and animals. Some examples of noise pollution:
Airplanes, helicopters and motor vehicles
Construction or demolition noise
Human activities such as sporting events or concerts
Noise pollution is disruptive to humans’ stress levels, may be harmful to unborn babies, and drives animals away, causing nervousness and decreasing their ability to hear prey or predators. Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity. Warmer lake water from nearby manufacturing (using cool water to cool the plant and then pump it back into the lake) Included in thermal pollution should also be the increase in temperatures in areas with lots of concrete or vehicles, generally in cities These kinds of environmental pollution can cause aquatic life to suffer or die due to the increased temperature, can cause discomfort to communities dealing with higher temperatures and can even affect plant-life in and around the area. Visual Pollution

Visual pollution is what you would call anything unattractive or visualiing damaging to the nearby landscape. This tends to be a highly subjective topic, as we all find different things attractive and unattractive. Some examples of visual pollution:

Skyscrapers might block the view of a mountain
Graffiti or carving on trees, rocks or other natural landscapes Billboards, litter, abandoned homes and junkyards could also be considered among three kins of environmental pollution Mostly visual kinds of environmental pollution are annoying, although some may say they are also depressing (such as when they can’t see a view through a billboard). Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of any body of water (lakes, groundwater, oceans, etc). Some examples of water pollution:
Raw sewage running into lake or streams
Industrial waste spills contaminating groundwater
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Illegal dumping of substances, or items in bodies of water
Biological contamination, such as bacteria growth
These kinds of environmental pollution are linked to health issues in humans, animals and plant-life. You can read more about how the environment is affecting our health here.

Speech on life Experiences

When I think of life’s journey, I imagine a long road, a long grubby road that at times is surrounded by beautiful mountains and lakes, and at times is just layered through a hot dry desert. Sometimes, I just picture struggling people, as climbing up the mountains with their heavy bag packs. The abstract reality of life sometimes seem so vague as if whatever in front of me is just a reflection of another big reality.

Make A Dream was a very influential phase of my life. I was working for this private NGO as a volunteer when I found the true sour realities of life. Under this ngo we used t visit children hospital and meet innocent faces in childrens ward fighting from chronic diseases like cancer ,knowng they wuld die anytime soon. Still thse poor soules had a smile on their faces . onn each visit we used o interview ne child and ask him his biggest wis and all these kids used to wish fo were things like a mobile phome or tv or even small wrthless things like mangoes or color pencils, things which have becme commn neccesities for us. . A 6 year girl wished for a Red fairy dress and a 12 year old boy who could neither seak nor see wished for an mp3 to hear Surah Rahman and get good health. There wishes were so naïv We spend on luxurious and hundreds of children are waiing in that ward for their wishes t come true. Rayers good wishes self satisfaction.

Another significant phase of life was losing someone really dear to me. Watching my grandfather pass away was a sudden thing that changed my way of perceiving and looking at things. It happened two years ago. The death was not unexpected or came as a sudden surprise, but it just did not act the way I thought it would. I remember the phone call from the hospital regarding the news. I remember standing still and staring at those tears pouring down my eyes and getting hypnotized by those distraught cries. The feeling was so shadowy and I felt myself at incredible discomfort. My reaction was more of confusion than of shock. I was just standing there trying to realize what just happened.

Suddenly, amidst this whole catastrophic scenario, layers of pictures went across my mind. I stared at the door and pictured him coming back home after a busy hectic day at Sheikh Zayed hospital, where he served as a Dean of the hospital, and coming straight to me to share his day and in return asking about mine. I don’t remember a single wish that I uttered and he didn’t fulfill. He was more close to me than anyone else. I had always been one of the most obstinate kind of girls, who were unaware of how things work in the real world just because she had someone who would take care of anything she would want, need or even desire for.

It wasn’t many days after his death that I realized what did he mean to me and even to my whole family. I never before in life realized what does it mean to have someone to care about even your tiniest of things. He never made me feel how much he had been doing for me. Even during his last days when he was going through all the pain and operations, he did not let me have the slightest of ideas regarding his medical issues, so as not to get me worried. He did all he could do for me. When I think of it now, I realize that he always dealt secretly with all the situations that had the potential to offer me even the slightest of hardships or worries.

Have I had the slightest of issues, I would just let him know and free myself from all kinds of worries. But now, in any such crucial situations, it just feels as if I am climbing a cliff with a heavy load without that big support. I look back at those glittering memories I shared with him. On plenty of childhood occasions I would just run downstairs and wake him up in the middle of the nights and he would know already that I had a bad dream. He was one of the most successful and active doctors around and was also my source of inspiration. He was the one paving a successful path for me since the beginning and guiding me towards my, to be, career.

He even liked my designing skills and always encouraged me to dig deep into it. His death arose a sense of responsibility and hard work in me. I was no longer the carefree young kid I used to be. I started taking life more seriously. My aims and objectives became clearer. Even though I was blessed with a fully supportive family, his death left a big hole in my life which could not be filled by any other person and I am very sure my family felt the same way. I started thinking of myself as an independent being. Being the closest to him, I thought it was my responsibility to now fill this gap.

I wanted to live the way he did because each and every aspect of his life was truly inspirational. I starting believing in myself and taking my own decisions instead of relying on others. I just had a dream to achieve something and even I myself was confused as to what exactly. I wanted to make others proud and that for me was success.

It was after his death that I decided to launch my designers clothing brand.. I had a lot of planning but all of it was long term. At the age of twenty, all I could focus on was my degree. I was not ready to bare any risk but surety of success could never be guaranteed. I was skilled at art and designing and it was a God gifted talent. I wanted to channelize my interest into an achievement but I could not think of a right time. Something was stopping me, may be the fear of losing or my own insecurities. The day I started believing in myself, relinquished all the fears, risks and insecurities I could see myself coming close to my dreams. Just a few months back I actually started my own clothing brand named Sapphires. It was not planned but it was just destined to happen.

Today I am an entrepreneur and I consider myself lucky because I am one of the few people who get to pursue their interest. Even though Sapphires is just in its initial stages and there is still a long way to go, I still feel proud because for me this is something I dreamt off. I never thought it would happen so early and easily. Had my grandfather been here with me today, he would have been really pleased watching me successfully run ‘Sapphires’. Since the day I started there has been no looking back for me. Nothing has been able to demoralize me. I have done three exhibitions already and this is just the beginning. Although Sapphires happened out of no planning, it has carved a path for me to plan and accomplish a goal which is to position Sapphires to the Top. Every day I see it growing and it strengths my self-confidence.

Being born in the family where every one is a doctor, I was also forced to pursue medicine by all my family members. However, my grandfather did not let anyone control what I wanted to do. He appreciated my dreams and told me to do what I wanted to do and that is exactly why I ended up in LUMS pursuing my career in Accounting and finance and gladly owning a clothing initiative side by side.

Today, I try to follow all his given advices in every situation. Whenever I have to deal with anything I try to put myself into his shoes and figure out how he would have advised me to react to the given situation. His death taught me that life can take any turn drastically and we should never take our loved ones for granted. I feel that I have now become more mature, responsible and active person regarding all my work and activities. I believe that achieving success in life is the best thing I can offer to a man who played such a significant part in making me what I am right now. Start working for your dreams today because tomorrow never comes. Believe in yourself and don’t waste time planning and waiting. Just let go all your fears, and take everything positively. Only then you will grow and learn. Sometimes the downfalls in life teach you a lot. At times losing a loved one brings out the true person in you. Ups and downs are all part of life, what matters is how you rise after falling. Never lose hope because destiny might have something better planned for you.

How Smart phone impact on Human life

World is ever changing and advancing in the science and technology. These days it seems hard to escape the presence of technology. Most people will praise the many technological gadgets that they use in their everyday lives. Many of us depend on it to get us through the day, to do our work, to get around, and to be in touch with the society, family and friends. Technology is evolving at a very fast rate, and what most people did not even think could be real a few years ago is now becoming a reality. Some of the most important technological device is smart phones.

It has greatly affected many aspects of our lives. Today the Smart phones, high-end mobile phones built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone, are now replacing Personal Computers (PCs). They have now taken the world by storm, and a lot of people could not imagine what life would now be like if they did not have the internet, email, and chat features on their phones at their disposal.

According to the Guardian newspaper in U.K. (on 4 August 2011), smart phones (such as Blackberries, iPhones and Androids) sales increased from 4% in 2005 to 48% in 2011, 50% of people claim to use the mobile internet equally at home and outside their residence, 47% of teenagers admit using their smart phones in the toilet while only 22% of adults confessed to the same habit, and mobile-addicted teens are more likely than adults to be distracted by their phones over dinner and in the cinema.

Statement of the problem

Smart phones have become an attractive option for sensing human and social behavior. As phones are usually kept in relatively close proximity and contain many useful sensors that can record contextual and user activity cues (e.g. location, application usage and calling behavior). They can be effectively used in everyday life. This research focuses on Impact of Smartphone on human life

Objective of the study

The objective of this study is to find out how Smartphone‘s are impacting the human life as changing the life style and culture. And also to understand the positive and negative aspects of Smartphone on the society. This study will focus on impact of Smartphone on everyday life At the end, the study will summarize the impact and conclude based on wide range of impacts that Smartphone‘s have on society. This research will also recommend solutions, in order to reduce the negative impacts of Smartphone‘s and also realizes more benefits of this technology.

Keywords: Smart phones, human life

Research questions:
1
2
3

Research methodology

Research design

Sampling and sampling frame

Sample size

Survey method

Questionnaire design

Today‘s Smartphone‘s has been around since last six years when Apple introduced the Smartphone in mass consumer market, but in reality the Smartphone has been in market since 1993. The different between today‘s Smartphone and early Smartphone‘s is that early Smartphone‘s were predominantly meant for corporate users and used as enterprise devices and also those phone were too expensive for the general consumers [5].

The Smartphone era is divided into three main phases. First phase was purely meant for enterprises. During this phase all the Smartphone‘s were targeting the corporations and the features and functions were as per corporate requirements. This era began with the advent of the very first Smartphone ‗The Simon‘ from IBM in 1993. Blackberry is considered as the revolutionary device of this era, it introduced many features including Email, Internet, Fax, Web browsing, Camera.

This phase was totally based on Smartphone targeting enterprises [5] [6] [7]. The second phase of Smartphone era started with the advent of iPhone, the major breakthrough Smartphone market in 2007. Apple revealed its first smart phone in 2007. This was the time when first time ever industry introduced the Smartphone for general consumers market [8]. End of 2007 Google unveiled its Android Operating System with the intention to approach the consumer Smartphone market.

The emphasis during this time period was to introduce features that the general consumer requires and at the same time keep the cost at lower side to attract more and more customers. Feature like, email, social website integration, audio/video, internet access, chatting along with general features of the phone were part of these entire phone .

Third phase of Smartphone was mainly closing the gap between enterprise centric and general consumer centric Smartphone and improvement the display quality, display technology and on top of that also aiming to stabile the mobile operating system, introduce more powerful batteries and enhance the user interface and many more features within these smart devices. This phase logical started in 2008 with the upgrades in the mobile operating system and within last five year there have been several upgrades in Apple iOS, Android and Blackberry OS.

The most popular mobile Operating systems (iOS, Android, Blackberry OS, Windows Mobile) and key Smartphone vendors (Apple, Samsung, HTC, Motorola, Nokia, LG, Sony etc.) are concentrating to bring features both in operating systems and devices which will provide exciting feature to enterprise and general consumers. The role of Android has been tremendous during this time period as it provided a great opportunity to all vendors to build devices using the great open source Android technology [8] [9] [10].

3. Smartphone Growth / Usage
The adoption of Smartphone‘s has been tremendous in mainstream consumer markets all over the world. Surveys show that around 42% of mobile subscribers in US use Smartphone‘s, along with 44% of mobile users in 5 major countries of European Union (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK).

Media usage on mobile– including browsing the mobile web, accessing application and downloading content saw a major increase and surpassed 50 % in many markets; mobile users have not only adopted real-time social networking on their Smartphone at a growing rate but frequency of access has been also increasing day by day [12]. A UK telecommunications regulator Ofcom, released the following statistics as part of their study on Smartphone usage in the United Kingdom only

37% of adults and 60% of teens admit they are highly addicted to their Smartphone. 51% of adults and 65% of teens say they have used their Smartphone while socializing with others.
23% of adults and 34% of teens have used their Smartphone during mealtimes. 22% of adult and 47% of teens admitted using or answering their Smartphone while in the Bathroom

The social life has been drastically changed with the introduction of Smartphone‘s and this domain has encountered most of the impacts from use of Smartphone.

. Positive Impacts
Accordingly to research [32], around 15% of the current world population has some sort of disabilities and also the number of elderly persons increasing day by day. Furthermore, this research shows that, by year 2020 more than 1000 million people over 60 years age will be living on this planet [33]. Keeping this in mind and looking into the capabilities of Smartphone, it is apparent that in such a situation Smartphone will play an important role in the integration process of people with special needs and elderly age.

Smartphone‘s are capable to give this group of people the opportunity to live more independently. The more they can do by themselves, the better they will feel and enjoy the life. Impact of Smartphone‘s on Society 223 Smartphone features like, text to speech, GPS and social Websites are some examples, which can help this group of people to easily remain integrated with society. Using these services and many more features, the target group of people can easily communicate their needs, seek assistance from others and remain connected to society [32].

Even in today‘s busy world Smartphone had also made possible for us to remain connected with our friends and family all the time. Always connected to the Internet through a Smartphone provides a great instrument for individuals for constant communication resulting in great safety for children attending schools or going outside. The classic mobile phones provided this facility for long time but the Smartphone‘s utilizing the same and providing additional convenient capabilities to communicate with children and know their whereabouts anytime [19].

The Smartphone has given an opportunity to individuals to act as a journalist at any point in time and real-time information to society. Smartphone features like the camera, video capture, access to social Websites and nature of always connected to the Internet enable individuals to capture any video at any time and share it with friends and family using social Websites and other Internet based options. Even though the quality of video / image can‘t be that good but the features on social Websites and opinions and comments make it more absorbing and useful [34].

Negative Impacts
Addiction to Smartphone is major impact on social life. Surveys show that Smartphone addiction is interfering with our night‘s sleep. According to the survey, 33% of mobile workers admitted that they check their phones for email and message throughout the night. Nearly 50% of those surveyed said, they wouldn‘t even think of going to bed without have their Smartphone‘s tucked under their pillows.

This addiction to Smartphone is impacting the social and family life and creating frictions in our lives [34]. Another aspect is that applications installed on Smartphone enabling image and video editing, allowing individuals to manipulate the actual content and provide their version of the content. This shows that most of the time there will be issues with the authenticity of information received through these channels and it requires further research to ensure its validity and authenticity [34].

According to another research [35], the organizations expect their employees to respond to the emails immediately even after working hours, due to that employee feel compelled to respond to official emails. Many Smartphone users engage in continuous monitoring of their work related emails, which creates compulsive routines of chronic checking and in the long run it is responsible for increased stress. There are evidences that Smartphone usage is responsible to blur the distinctions between the work and family life. The Smartphone causes the employees to take the work into the home domain.

As a consequence, the blurring work and family life might lead to a worsened work–family balance. In short, the higher integration of the work and home facilitated by Smartphone result in work–home interference (WHI), which is considered as a potential source of stress that having negative effect on employee social and family life. Cyber bullying is another major issue the society is facing today. The advent of Smartphone and the nature of being connected to internet anytime and anywhere is adding to this issue and making it much severe.

It enables student to access irrelevant content while at schools, enables working community to access social Websites and other irrelevant content while at work, and enables youth to access the Internet for inappropriate contents. This highlights minimum control from parents and administration to prevent the users‘ access certain content on the Internet [19].

According to another report by security industries [36], Smartphone‘s and social networking site are likely to become the next target for criminal attacks. Security holes on several Smartphone‘s were exploited and malicious software was found on several Smartphone‘s from different vendors.

5. Conclusion & Future Direction
It is true that Smartphone has a sizeable impact on society and other aspects of life. Clearly the enormous usage of these devices by consumers demonstrates the volume of this impact. Consumers are in process of traversing away from the use of conventional cell phone as the Smartphone‘s are beginning the norm of the society.

Manufacturers and marketing can be blamed for this hype, but there is no doubt that Smartphone‘s are brining great features and capabilities to consumers. The key impacts like enable to be always-connected, addiction to phone, single device with all required features, business edge, convenient educational features, apps as new technology, entertainment, best utilization of time, disrespectful behavior, privacy issues, impact on culture, distraction at work & at education Institutes and many more provide us both positive and negative sides of the Smartphone‘s.

These positive and negative impacts are secondary, when we look at this existing technology from a different perspective and that perspective is interpretation and perception of Smartphone. There are several ways that we can control and minimize the negative impacts of Smartphone in society. ―Education and Guidance‖: In order to understand the positive and negative impact of Smartphone it is very important to educate the users on how to use Smartphone‘s smartly.

The education should emphasis to enhance the positive impacts and highlight the negative impacts clearly so that the users can take advantages of this exciting technology. ―Security and Access Control‖: There are several initiatives from different vendors to combat the misuse of Smartphone at workplace and at Universities. SAP, Airwatch, MacAfee and many other vendors provide solutions to control the access of Smartphone within the workplace and Universities. Such measures are very useful in environments, where security of information is the top priority.

These can also be useful in controlling the access of Smartphone‘s in Universities to minimize the use of social Websites, minimize the misuse of Smartphone‘s for cyber bullying, cheating in examinations and tests. These mobile management devices will also enable the administrators to remotely control the access of these devices check what services are running on a specific device. ―Polices and Procedure‖: Policies and strict compliance procedure should be in place at workplace and at Universities to ensure the proper use of Smartphone‘s‘.

This will enable users to use their phones if it is really required and when the use is really important. In summary, Smartphone can certainly be smart if the vendors, society and technologists understand their responsibility towards usage of these devices smartly in order to get more benefit in business, education, health and social life. It is apparent from above facts that the benefits of Smartphone are tremendous and negative impacts are minor. So it is important to concentrate on how to stop and avoid smartly the misuse of Smartphone rather trying to stop or avoid use to Smartphone‘s.

References
Nurfit, 2012,‖Smarphone Addiction and Impact on Society‖,

Wikipedia, 2012, ―Blackberry‖, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlackBerry

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2225149/Windows-8-phone-software-launch- Microsoft-hopes-Jessica-Alba-help-Apple-Google.html

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/opinon/2012/11/298_117506.html 226 Muhammad Sarwar and Tariq Rahim Soomro

System Development Life Cycle

Introduction

System development methodologies are promoted as a means of improving the management and control of the software development process, structuring and simplifying the process, and standardizing the development process and product by specifying activities to be done and techniques to be used. It is often tacitly assumed that the use of a system development methodology will improve system development productivity and quality. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this assumption. As we know that, Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it is includes the organization’s manual and also the automated processes. Here all the development of IS are referring to the useful of standard selection of system development methodology.

There are various types of information systems which successful implementation for the end users, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, registration system, payroll system, inventory system and office information systems. There are numerous types of system development methodologies such as AGILE, System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Prototyping, Rapid Application Development (RAD), Joint Application Development (JAD), Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE), Object Oriented or others.

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. A Software Development Life Cycle is essentially a series of steps, or phases, that provide a model for the development and lifecycle management of an application or piece of software. The methodology within the SDLC process can vary across industries and organizations, but standards such as ISO/IEC 12207 represent processes that establish a lifecycle for software, and provide a mode for the development, acquisition, and configuration of software systems. The intent of a SDLC process it to help produce a product that is cost-efficient, effective, and of high quality. Once an application is created, the SDLC maps the proper deployment and decommissioning of the software once it becomes a legacy. The SDLC methodology usually contains the following stages: Analysis (requirements and design), construction, testing, release, and maintenance (response).

SDLC can be defined as the conceptual process of developing, maintaining or altering an information system from the time that the project is started through maintenance of the completed application. The SDLC process applies to the information system. There are many different SDLC models and methodologies, but each generally consists of a series of defined steps or phases. For any SDLC model that is used, information security must be integrated into the SDLC to ensure appropriate protection for the information that the system will transmit, process and store.

The purpose of SDLC

Systems Development Life Cycle or one of many variations on the name. What most Business Analysts can agree on is that the SDLC is a structured, standardized set of processes for developing and maintaining business solutions through the development life cycle of a project.

Software development efforts go through a series of detailed and iterative processes that are divided into initiation & planning, analysis, design & development and QA testing. These activities are often referred to as the SDLC.

There are many variations to the SDLC but they all share the same core activities:

1. What deliverables must be created? Deliverables or artifacts are items, tasks, documents, modules, etc. that are created for a new project or are the result of an existing project or process. Deliverables will vary in size based on the scope of a project or process. Deliverables must be documented and tracked by the BA during the life cycle of the project.

2. How will the deliverables be created? A BA working with the development team or SME will identify how deliverables are created, assign tasks appropriately and determine what processes and methodologies to use to help complete each task and deliverable.

3. Who will create each deliverable? A project manager or delegate will identify individuals who will complete each task and deliverable. The BA will document the skill sets needed to complete the deliverables as part of the SDLC process.

4. When will the deliverables be created? A project timeline should be completed by the BA or a member of the management team. Tasks, milestones and deliverables will be determined and recorded in the project timeline. 5. Where will everything be documented? Documentation is a major part of the SDLC. A Business Analyst must document the answers to the four above questions. Stakeholders, developers and QA can all benefit from well documented and easily accessible requirements.

Phase of SDLC

The system development life cycle framework provides a sequence of activities for system designers and developers to follow. It consists of a set of steps or phases in which each phase of the SDLC uses the results of the previous one. The SDLC adheres to important phases that are essential for developers, such as planning, analysis, design, and implementation, and are explained in the section below. It includes evaluation of present system, information gathering, feasibility study and request approval.

Initiation

Begins when a sponsor identifies a need or an opportunity. Concept proposal is created. The need for a system is expressed and the system purpose and high-level requirements are documented. System concept development

Defines the scope or boundary of the concept. Includes System Boundary Document, Cost Benefit Analysis, Risk Management Plan and Feasibility Study.

Planning

Develops a Project Management Plan and other planning documents. Provides the basis for acquiring the resources needed to achieve the solution.

Requirement analysis

Analyst will analyze user needs and develop user requirements. Create a detailed Functional Requirements Document.

Design

Transform detailed requirements into complete, detailed Systems Design Document. Focuses on how to deliver required functionality.

Development

Converts a design into complete information system. Includes acquiring and installing systems environment:

a) Create and testing databases.
b) Prepare test case procedures, test files, coding, compiling, refining programs and so on.

Integration and test

Demonstrates that developed system conforms to requirements as specified in Functional Requirements Document. Conducted by Quality Assurance (QA) staffs and users.

Implementation

Includes implementation preparation, implement the system into production environment and resolution of problems. Identified in Integration and Test Phase.

Operation and maintenance

Describes tasks to operate and maintain information systems in a production environment. Includes Post-Implementation and In-Process Reviews.

Disposition

Describes end-of-system activities. System is disposed once transition to a new computer system is completed. Emphasis is given to proper preparation of data.

Benefits of SDLC

The benefits of SDLC based on the 5 phases are as follows. The first phase is Planning, will results on products or output with detailed steps or workplan for a project. Second phase is Analysis. During analysis process, we will able to know where problems or opportunities are, after that we can find a solution on how to fix the problem, enhance or replace the current system. Next is Design, so that we can see detailed specifications of all system elements. Fourth phase is Implementation, which comprised of coding, documentation, training procedures and support capabilities. The last phase is Maintanence, which will be a new versions or updates. The expanding role of software in the information world forced attention upon the need of software development at acceptable speed and cost and on traceable time schedules. Software products need to be developed with assurance of acceptably high quality that can be maintained over a long period of time for accommodating the changing requirements of the user.

SDLC are required to provide visibility into the projects. Visibility in turn aids timely management control and mid-course corrections against the expected errors and crisis. It helps developers to weed out faults quite early before they cause to entire failure. This also avoids cascading of faults into later phases where, accumulation of increased number of faults leads to failure. SDLC also helps to organize workflow and outputs to maximize resource utilization and to define everybody’s roles and responsibilities clearly. Individual productivity hence increases due to specialization and at the same time the team’s productivity increases due to coordination of activities. The adoption of a formal development process with well define unambiguous and complete policies will lead to the benefits of correct requirements to generate the correct product in order to meet the customer’s needs preciously and inclusion of necessary features that will in turn, reduce the post-development cost.

Conclusion

The increased of complexities and huge size of the software development projects make them tough to control without formal practices and standard measurements. Unorganized or informal development approaches in current huge developments cause disastrous outputs with ambiguous communications, imprecise observations, brittle designs, inaccurate risk assessment, insufficient testing, uncontrolled change propagation and subjective progress assessment. On the other hand, adoption of a formal development process with well defined unambiguous and complete policies will lead to the benefits of correct requirements to generate the correct product in order to meet the customer’s needs preciously and inclusion of necessary features that will in turn, reduce the post-development cost.

SDLC has many specific requirements which it must meet, including being able to support projects and systems of various scopes and types, supporting all of the technical activities, supporting all of the management activities, being highly usable and providing guidance on how to install it. The technical activities include: system definition (analysis, design, coding), testing, system installation (e.g. training, data conversion), production support (e.g. problem management), defining releases, evaluating alternatives, reconciling information across phases and to a global view and defining the project’s technical strategy.

Life without internet

What would life be like without the internet?
Many people say that the Internet is the most important invention ever, and I definitely believe that it is true. Since the first artificial satellite, the Sputnik, was launched to the space, the world has never been the same. Nowadays computer is so affordable that in every home you can find one. What is more, the Internet connects people all around the world. Computers didn’t exist a century ago and many people might have had happy lives without them. Life would stop without computers. You wouldn’t even stop to think about how many common products are operated by computers. Our cars, microwave ovens, wristwatches and thousands of other gadgets. Appearing on the internet you can search “WWW”-means World Wide Web-for information when you need to.

There are millions of websites storing an endless amount of data. You can find many dozens of information about everything on the internet. E.g. history, animals, plants, nature, music, famous people etc. There is countless number of services available on the net. What is more you can download music, films, listen to foreign radio stations, play games, read and subscribe newspapers and magazines and you can even purchase or sell various products , order food,. In addition you can transfer money through the Internet, and learn languages on-line on several web pages and practice English because most users speak the language. You can keep in touch with friends or other people from other countries to write them e-mails if you have an e-mail access and it is very fast .The list is endless, and I honestly like to use it because as I have experienced I always get to useful information through the Internet, and gain knowledge about healthy life.

Practical Life

“Any child who is self-sufficient, who can tie his shoes, dress or undress himself, reflects in his joy and sense of achievement the image of human dignity, which is derived from a sense of independence.” Maria Montessori

Practical life activities give the child an understanding of his/her environment and how it works. The child enjoys all types of work. Child also enjoys keeping the environment beautiful for all to use. This work builds the child’s self-esteem, making him feel of value. It may seem like they are “playing” when they are table scrubbing or polishing silver, but through these types of activities they are becoming prepared to do the “real” learning. Practical Life activities also have a strong fine motor component and so are valuable in developing and extending children’s fine motor abilities as well as their cognitive development.

During the Mid Year Conference if parents want to know 3 activities and the importance from the practical life shelves, then what might be appropriate for 3 year old child? First, I’ll choose one to one wet pouring with handle or without the handle depend on the child’s abilities. This activity helps to develops small motor skills, order, concentration, coordination, independence. Child needs the either whole hand grasp or pincer grip depend on the handle of cup. If child master with this material without spill anything then child can pouring own milk or water at the house. Second, I’ll choose buttoning frame. The Dressing Frames are enable children to learn how to manage common fasteners, such as zippers, buttons, snaps, belt buckles and shoelaces. To help them learn how to unbutton and button themselves. This activity helps to develops small motor skills, order,

concentration, coordination, movement and independence. With these skills, your child will soon be ready to take care of much of his daily clothing needs. Three year old child to dress himself from head to toe—if he’s given enough time. Third, I’ll choose cutting and serving bananas. 3-year-old children love to do real work they see us do. At home, child can become a true helper in the kitchen and participate in real cooking activities. This activity helps to develop fine motor skills using a knife to cut banana, order, concentration, coordination, and independence. Using a tool to
produce more work for

the child. Also, develop of gross motor skills when child carrying the tray and serving the bananas to their peers. For extension, child cans preparing foods using knife or cutting other kinds of fruits or vegetables.

Let your life speak

Questions for Reflection
During which moments/activities do you feel most alive?
What are your feelings about someone doing the right thing for the wrong reason?
In what ways do you hear from God?
What kinds of things most drain you? Stress you?

What activities give you the space to reflect on what is going on inside you? How often do you do them?
Consider the aphorism “Your greatest strength can also be your greatest weakness.” What is the connection between your strengths and your limits? Suggested Activity
Pray through St. Ignatius’ Prayer of Examen.

See www.marshill.org/groups/hc/ Select the link titled Prayer of Examen in the Practices section.
Parker Palmer
Let Your Life Speak
Chapter 2-Now I Become Myself
Quotes to think about
“What a long time it can take to become the person one has always been. How often in the process we mask ourselves in faces that are not our own” [p. 9]. “We ourselves, driven by fear, too often betray true self to gain the approval of others” [p. 12].

“But inspected through the lens of paradox, my desire to become an aviator and an advertiser contain clues to the core of true self…clues, by definition, are coded and must be deciphered” [p. 13].

“If you seek vocation without understanding the material you are working with, what you build with your life will be ungainly and may well put lives in peril, your own and some of those around you” [p. 16].

“In the tradition of pilgrimage…hardships are seen not as accidental but as integral to the journey itself” [p. 18].
“I saw that as an organizer I had never stopped being a teacher-I was simply teaching in a classroom without walls. Make me a cleric or a CEO, a poet or a politico, and teaching is what I will do” [p. 21].

“People like me are raised to live autonomously, not interdependently. I had been trained to compete and win, and I had developed a taste for the prizes” [p. 22]. “Because I could not acknowledge my fear, I had to disguise it as
the white horse of judgment and self-righteousness” [p. 28].

“Self care is never a selfish act-it is simply good stewardship of the only gift I have, the gift I was put on the earth to offer to others” [p. 30]. “They decide no longer to act on the outside in a way that contradicts some truth about themselves that they hold deeply on the inside” [p. 32]. “Some journeys are direct, and some are circuitous; some are heroic, and some are fearful and muddled. But every journey, honestly undertaken, stands a chance of taking us toward the place where our deep gladness meets the world’s deep need” [p. 36].

Questions for reflection
What role does gaining the approval of others play in how you live your life? As Palmer recalls his childhood, he is able to uncover clues to his true self. Parents, siblings, and even spouses are great sources of information to find out what you were like when you were younger.

What were your childhood fascinations? Were you an artist? Were you building forts in the woods? What sorts of things held your attention? Are there connections between the things that fascinated you then and the life that you want to live now?

Half-truths go hand in hand with fear. In our fear, it is much easier to look at another person, institution, or situation and point out shortcomings than it is to look at our own. Fear may motivate us to do the right thing for the wrong reasons.

What are some of the fears that “trigger” you to lash out at others? Palmer says that “self care is good stewardship of the only gift I have, the gift that I was placed on earth to offer others.” He goes on to say that a lack of self care hurts not only the individual but others as well.

What does “self care” look like for you? What restores you? What are the things in your life that make your soul tired?
Who are the Martin Luther King Jr.’s, the Rosa Parks’, and Gandhis: of your
life? Who are the people that you admire so much that you seek to model aspects of your life after them? Why these people?

Learning who you are doesn’t simply mean learning your strengths but also your limitations. “Who are you?” is a very broad and difficult question to answer. I may not be able to tell you “who I am,” but I’ve got a list of stories to tell you who I am not!

Finish the sentence “I could never_____ it’s just not me.” Suggested Activity
Palmer says that “clues are coded and must be deciphered.” Turn a blank sheet of paper on its side and draw a straight line from the left side to the right side. The line will serve as a chronological timeline of your life from birth until now. Place significant experiences and events that have shaped who you are today on the timeline. Examples: family of origin, deaths, births, school and work experiences, relationships, spiritual journey, great moments of joy, or great moments of sadness.

Take time to share with one another about what is on your timeline and why it is significant.
Parker Palmer
Let Your Life Speak
Chapter 3-When Way Closes
Quotes to think about
“There is as much guidance in what does not and cannot happen in my life as there is in what can and does-maybe more” [p. 39].

“If you are like me and don’t readily admit your limits, embarrassment may be the only way to get your attention” [p. 42].
“As Americans…we resist the very idea of limits, regarding limits of all sorts as temporary and regrettable impositions on our lives…We refuse to take no for an answer” [p. 42].

“When I consistently refuse to take no for an answer, I miss the vital clues to my identity that arise when way closes-and I am more likely both to exceed my limits and to do harm to others in the process” [p. 43].

“There are some roles and relationships in which we thrive and others in
which we wither and die” [p. 44].
“It took me a long time to understand that although everyone needs to be loved, I cannot be the source of that gift to everyone who asks me for it” [p. 48]. “When I give something I do not possess, I give a false and dangerous gift, a gift that looks like love but is, in reality, loveless-a gift given more from my need to prove myself than from the other’s need to be cared for” [p. 48].

“Our strongest gifts are usually those we are barely aware of possessing. They are a part of our God given nature, with us from the moment we drew first breath, and we are no more conscious of having them than we are of breathing” [p. 52].

“Limitations and liabilities are the flip side of our gifts…a particular weakness is the inevitable trade-off for a particular strength. We will become better teachers not by trying to fill the potholes in our souls but by knowing them so well that we can avoid falling into them” [p. 52].

“If we are to live our lives fully and well, we must learn to embrace the opposites, to live in a creative tension between our limits and our potentials. We must honor our limitations in ways that do not distort our nature, and we must trust and use our gifts in ways that fulfill the potentials God gave us” [p. 55]. Questions for reflection

Can you identify a moment in your life when God used a “closed door” instead of an “open door” to guide your life in the direction it needed to go? Discuss your experience. Palmer says that embarrassment is sometimes the only way we become aware of our limitations. Identify and discuss an embarrassing moment that helped you become aware of your limitations.

How does humor get used to avoid dealing with our shortcomings? In American culture, weaknesses and limitations are often viewed as things that need to be turned into strengths. Palmer seems to argue that in trying to turn our weaknesses into strengths we become something that we are not and end up living outside of ourselves. How does the idea that weaknesses should be identified and honored rather than turned into strengths strike you? If our strongest gifts are usually the ones that we are most unaware of, what types of things do people tell you are your strengths that you feel unaware of? Suggested Activity

Identify and write down two recent moments in your life. 1. A moment when things went so well that you felt confident that you were born to do whatever you were doing at the time. 2. A moment when something went so poorly that you never wanted to repeat the experience again.

Break into groups of two or three people and share these moments. In the groups, begin by helping one another see the strengths that made the great moment possible. After doing that, reflect with one another about the moment that went poorly. Instead of offering critiques, think about the strengths discussed in the first moment. Knowing that our strengths and weaknesses are often opposites, help each other identify if there is a connection between the strength of the first moment and the weakness of the second moment. How are they two sides of the same coin?

When everyone has finished gather back together as one group and discuss what you discovered.
Parker Palmer
Let Your Life Speak
Chapter 4: All the Way Down
*Before your discussion of chapter 4, it is very important to lay a framework for your discussion. Anytime people are discussing their brokenness, it must be done in a place of safety and confidentiality. Ask the group to be attentive to not try to “fix” one another as you interact. If you sense this beginning to happen, remind everyone that you are not trying to fix one another but to help one another hear. Also, be sure to communicate how important it is that what is discussed remains confidential.

Quotes to think about
“I had no choice but to write about my own deepest wound…I rarely spoke to him about my own darkness; even in his gracious presence, I felt too ashamed” [p. 57].
“Second, depression demands that we reject simplistic answers, both “religious” and “scientific,” and learn to embrace mystery, something our culture resists” [p. 60].

“I do not like to speak ungratefully of my visitors. They all meant well, and they were among the few who did not avoid me altogether” [p. 61]. “Depression is the ultimate state of disconnection, not just between people but between one’s mind and one’s feelings. To be reminded of that disconnection only deepened my despair” [p. 62].

“I heard nothing beyond their opening words, because I knew they were peddling a falsehood: no one can fully experience another person’s mystery” [p. 62]. “One of the hardest things we must do sometimes is to be present to another person’s pain without trying to “fix” it, to simply stand respectfully at the edge of that person’s mystery and misery” [p. 63].

“Functional atheism-saying pious words about God’s presence in our lives but believing, on the contrary, that nothing good is going to happen unless we make it happen” [p. 64]. “First, I had been trained as an intellectual not only to think-an activity I greatly value-but also to live largely in my head…” [p. 67].

“I had to be forced underground before I could understand that the way to God is not up but down” [p. 69]. “One of the most painful discoveries I made in the midst of the dark woods of depression was that a part of me wanted to stay depressed. As long as I clung to this living death, life became easier; little was expected of me, certainly not serving others” [p. 71].

Questions for reflection
Identifying our wounds is a critical part of the inward journey. Think back to the timeline you drew in the Chapter 2 activity. What are the wounds you have suffered?
In what ways does shame cause you to hide who you are from others? Discuss the following statement: Sometimes not having answers to some of life’s questions can be comforting. Do you agree? Why or why not?

Do you feel it is important to “show up” when others experience hardship or
tragedy? Why or why not?
Discuss Palmer’s suggestion that no one can fully experience another person’s mystery and misery.
How is the phrase “I know exactly how you feel” a positive statement between two people? How is it a negative statement?
How do you see “functional atheism” in the world around you? In your life? What does “the way to God is down” mean to you?
Palmer says “part of me wanted to stay depressed.” Why do you think we hold onto our pain despite the fact that we want it to stop?

Suggested Activity
Have someone read Job 2:9-13.
What can we learn about how Job’s friends respond in these few verses? Read Job 4:8 and then Job 13:5.
What is Eliphaz suggesting about Job in 4:8? What can be learned from Job’s response in 13:5?
Parker Palmer
Let Your Life Speak
Chapter 5-Leading from Within
Quotes to think about
“I lead by word and deed simply because I am here doing what I do. If you are also here, doing what you do, then you also exercise leadership of some sort” [p. 74].

“Why must we go in and down? Because as we do so, we will meet the darkness that we carry within ourselves-the ultimate shadows that we project onto other people. If we do not understand that the enemy is within, we will find a thousand ways of making someone “out there” into the enemy, becoming leaders who oppress rather than liberate others” [p. 80].

“But why would anybody want to take a journey of that sort, with its multiple difficulties and dangers? Everything in us cries out against it-which is why we externalize everything. It is so much easier to deal with the external world, to spend our lives manipulating materials and institutions and other people instead of dealing with our own souls” [p. 82].

“Why would anyone want to embark on the daunting inner journey about which
Annie Dillard writes? Because there is no way out of one’s inner life, so one had better get into it. On the inward and downward spiritual journey, the only way out is in and through” [p. 85].

“But extroversion sometimes develops as a way to cope with self-doubt: we plunge into external activity to prove that we are worthy-or simply to evade the question” [p. 86].
“the knowledge that identity does not depend on the role w e play or the power it gives us over others. It depends only on the simple fact that we are children of God, valued in and for ourselves” [p. 87].

“A few people found ways to be present to me without violating my soul’s integrity. Because they were not driven by their own fears, the fears that lead us either to “fix” or abandon each other…” [p. 93].

Questions for reflection
Palmer suggests that anyone who is alive is a leader. He broadens the typical definition of leadership to include things like family dynamics and relationships. Discuss your thoughts on this. What monsters do you need to “ride all the way down?” What might that look like? What activities have you been part of in order to prove your worth or value? Palmer finishes the chapter by saying that it is possible for communities to be with one another in a way that is safe and honoring. What do you think makes communities feel unsafe?

We are meant to support and journey with one another. What alternatives are there for journeying together beyond “fixing or abandoning?” Suggested Activity Read Matthew 15:2,10, and 11. Have someone wrap an empty box as you would a birthday or Christmas gift. Decorate the exterior with ribbons, bows, and other gift decorations.

Set the gift in the middle of the room and ask people to make observations about the wrapping: What can we tell about the person who wrapped the box based on the wrapping? After several minutes of observation, have someone open the gift to reveal the empty box. Jesus observes that the Pharisees are so concerned with the exterior that they neglect what is inside. How is this true in our lives? Parker Palmer

Let Your Life Speak
Chapter 6-There Is a Season
Quotes to think about
“Animated by the imagination, one of the most vital powers we possess, our metaphors often become reality, transmuting themselves from language into the living of our lives” [p. 96].
“We do not believe that we “grow” our lives-we believe that we “make” them” [p. 97].
“We are here not only to transform the world but also to be transformed” [p. 97]. “In my own experience of autumn, I am rarely aware that seeds are being planted” [p. 98].

“In retrospect, I can see in my own life what I could not see at the time-how the job I lost helped me find work I needed to do, how the “road closed” sign turned me toward terrain I needed to travel, how losses that felt irredeemable forced me to discern meanings I needed to know” [p. 99].

“There is in all visible things…a hidden wholeness” [p. 99]. “Until we enter boldly into the fears we most want to avoid, those fears will dominate our lives” [p. 103].
“If you receive a gift, you keep it alive not by clinging to it but by passing it along…If we want to save our lives, we cannot cling to them but must spend them with abandon” [p. 105].
“Authentic abundance does not lie in secured stockpiles of food or cash or influence or affection but in belonging to a community where we can give those goods to others who need them-and receive them from others when we are in need” [p. 108].

“Community doesn’t just create abundance-community is abundance. If we could learn that equation from the world of nature, the human world might be transformed” [p. 108].
Questions for reflection What season do you feel that you are currently in? Why?
In your mind, what is the weirdest most obscure animal in all of God’s good creation? Why do you suppose God is so detailed and extravagant with his creation?
What things contribute to the loss of imagination?

In what ways do you “make your life” rather than listen for what God desires to make of your life?
God asks that his people join him in redeeming and restoring the world. How are you joining God to redeem and restore the world? Remember that God is about details and extravagance. We can sometimes feel that the way we join God is small and insignificant compared to the way others do. But it isn’t. God created you to be a gift to Him and to the world and you have something to offer. What is it?

How is this process transforming you?
The way of Jesus, which is the way of the cross, compels us to use our freedom and abundance for the benefit of others. What does it look like for you to live for the benefit of others?
What does it look like for your community?
Suggested Activity
After discussing what it might look like for your community to live for the benefit of others, finish by holding hands in a circle and reciting the Lord’s Prayer. [Matthew 6:9-13].

Chemistry In Daily Life

INFORMATIVE SPEECH TOPICS

The main questions for picking out good informative speech topics are: What are their wishes, tastes, interests and needs? What is their level of education and knowledge about the topic? Is their a common ground between you and your audience? Can you surprise them with new information?

Can you excite their interest by expanding on what your listeners already know? Are you having trouble coming up with speech topics? This list of informative speech topics is only meant to stimulate your thinking. Of course many of these subjects are too broad and ought to be narrowed.

Advertising, Africa, Agriculture, Animals, Antarctica, Anthropology, Antique, Applied Sciences, Archaeology, Architecture, Aromatherapy, Artificial Intelligence, Arts, Asia, Astrology, Astronomy, Australia, Aviation, Backpacking, Beauty, Biographies, Biology, Bird Flu, Books, Cheerleading, Chemistry, Children, Cities, Climate, Communication, Cooking, Countries, Business, Cars, Celebrities, Culture, Dancing, Demographics, Design, Drinks, Ecology, Economics, Education, Engineering, Entertainment, Ethnic Groups, Etiquette, Europe, Family, Fashion, Finance, Food, Games, Geography, Government Hiking, History, Home, Industries, International Organizations, International Relations, Labor, Languages, Law, Lifestyles, Literature, Manufacturing, Maps, Martial Arts, Mass Media, Medicine, Military, Movements, Movies, Museums, Music, Mysteries, Mythology, Myths, National Parks, Nature, News, North America, Oceania, People, Performing Arts, Personal Life, Pets, Philosophy, Physics, Politics, Popular Culture, Psychology, Radio, Reference, Religions, Science, Society, Sociology, South America, Space, Sports, Sports Events, Technology, Telecommunications, Television, Tourism, Toys or Travel! Decision Time!

Review your short list of ideas for good informative speech topics. The main questions are: Is it not too simple or too complicated? Is it too broad or too narrow? Can you cover the speech topics in the given time-limit? Persuasive Speech/Debate Topics

The Day That Forever Changed My Life

July 26th, 2006 was a sweltering hot and humid summer day and I was scheduled to work from 12:00pm-8:00pm in the kitchen at Rutland House of Pizza, now known as Olympic Pizza, located in Rutland, Vermont. I dreaded going into work that day because I knew from experience that if it is already 90 degrees and humid outside, that it is going to get hotter and it will be hotter in the kitchen and only get worse through-out the night. When I arrived to work my boss, Tony, told me that the delivery driver didn’t show up and that I would be the delivery driver this shift. I was very happy to hear this knowing that I will not have to be in the sweaty almost unbearably hot kitchen, instead I was able to be in my refreshingly, cool and comfortable air-conditioned car for my eight hour shift. Around six o’clock I walked inside to get more pizza to deliver, and it was then that my life was changed forever in the best way possible. Something told me to turn my head and look towards the right where the employees were standing. Once I looked towards the right tunnel vision began, over by the soda machines was the most handsome man I had ever seen, he was an employee there also but our shifts had never crossed before.

He was wearing his apron covered in flour and sauce from making pizzas and he was sweaty as he grabbed the Pepsi cup and got a Fanta Soda to refresh himself. When I saw him, I got an unexplainable wonderful feeling and sensation throughout my body, I saw no one else around him or myself. When he looked over at me his luscious doe eyes locked with my eyes and I knew that it was love at first site. I walked over to him, not realizing that he was talking to another woman and he was just getting the courage to ask her for her phone number. I interrupted their conversation and introduced myself and learned his name was Joe, and we got to talking and wound up getting together after work. He was older than I, and immediately our relationship was full of potentially negative opinions from others, but I only saw the potentially positive outcomes.

Before my family met Joe they thought that because of his age he would influence me in ways that a woman my age with a man her age wouldn’t be influenced by. The age difference has allowed Joe to experience a lot more in this world and they thought that it would hinder me from having my own experiences in the world. Our age difference doesn’t bother me, to me age is just a number, but it is the maturity that counts. It didn’t hinder my experiences that I would have in the world, if anything he directed me to have positive experiences and steered me clear of the negative experiences.

Early Life and Introduction to Badminton

Saina Nehwal was born 17 March 1990 She was born in a Jat[8] family at Hisar in Haryana and completed first few years of her schooling from Campus School. She completed her schooling at Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s Vidyashram, NIRD campus, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Nehwal has a brown belt in Karate .She is an Indian badminton player who attained a career best ranking of 2 in December 2010 by Badminton World Federation. Her Father Harvir Singh initially worked in CCS HAU and they then had their residence in the University Campus.[9] He later shifted to Hyderabad & so Saina spent her growing years inHyderabad, India.

Both her father, Dr. Harvir Singh and mother Usha Rani were former State Badminton Champions in Haryana, so she got the game of Badminton in her genes Her Father encouraged her to pick up the game of Badminton. The 8 yrs old Saina followed a very tough training schedule right since the beginning, and would travel almost 50kms a day for the training. She practised Badminton in Badminton Court of Faculty Club of CCS HAU located in the University itself Further, Saina trained under S.M. Arif, a Dronacharya Award winning Badminton Coach, and now is receiving Coaching at the Pullela Gopichand’s Academy of Badminton at Hyderabad. She is India’s highest-paid non-cricketing sportsperson as on September 2012.

National Achievement :

Nehwal became the National Junior Champion in the year 2004, and won the title again in the year 2005. She was a runner up in the National Senior Championship 2005, and won the title in the year 2006, repeating the victory in the year 2007 again. Apart from these, she has won the All India Jr. Ranking Tournaments of the year 2005 held at Chennai, Cochin, Bangalore and Pune. She further won the All India Senior Ranking Tournament 2005 held at Mumbai, and also emerged as the winner at the National Games held at Guwahati. In 2006, Saina appeared on the global scene when she became the first Indian woman to win a 4-star tournament, the Philippines Open.[16] The same year Saina was also the runner up at the 2006 BWF World Junior Championships, She did one better in the 2008 by becoming the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton Championships

Saina is on the par with the likes of Prakash Padukone and her mentor Pullela Gopichand who both won the all England championships which are of similar status to the super series. In August 2009 she reached the quarterfinals of world championship losing to the second seed Lin Wang. Saina Nehwal was rewarded with Arjuna awardin August, 2009 and her coach Gopichand was also rewarded with Dronacharya award at the same time.

International Badminton :
Saina made her International Debut in the year 2003 at the India Satellite tournament where she reached the top-16 round. The same year, she won the Junior Czech Open tournament. Further, she reached the Quarter Final at the Cheers Asian Satellite tournament 2004 held at Singapore. She got her first International success at the India Satellite tournament 2005 where she emerged as the winner of the tournament. After this, she also claimed the Bingo Bonanza Philippines Open title in the year 2006, and the India Satellite tournament 2006. She played at the All England Open 2007, and reached the Pre-Quarter Final round where she lost to World No. 3 player from China. She also reached the Quarter Final rounds at the Macau Open tournament 2007 and the Dutch Open tournament 2007.

In the year 2008, Saina won the Chinese Taipei Grand Prix Gold tournament, and reached the Semi Final round of the LI NING China Masters Super Series tournament also. The same year, she created a history in the sport when she became the First Indian Woman ever to reach the Quarter Final round of the Badminton event at the Olympic Games. At the Beijing Olympic Games 2008, Later on, She became the first Indian to win a medal in Badminton at the Olympics. She is the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton Championships and was also the first Indian to win a Super Series tournament, by clinching the Indonesia Open with a victory over higher-ranked ChineseWang Lin in Jakarta on 21 June 2009.

Saina won her second career Super Series title by winning the Singapore Open title on 20 June 2010. She completed a hat-trick in the same year by winning the Indonesian Openon 27 June 2010. This win resulted in her rise to 3rd ranking and subsequently to No. 2. Saina Nehwal won 2010 Commonwealth games gold in the women’s singles badminton event held in Delhi, on 14 October 2010.Later in the same year she also won Hong Kong Super Series on 12 December 2010. After experiencing a poor 2011 season, On 17 June 2012 she successfully reclaimed the Indonesian championship by beating China. It is her third Indonesian open title, having won it twice before in 2009 and 2010. Saina became the first Indian singles player to reach the summit stage of year-ending Super Series Finals defeating two-time All England champion and former World No.

1 Tine Baun in the semi-finals, a feat she repeated in the quarterfinals in the London Olympics 2012 . Though she lost in the semi-finals of London Olympics 2012 to Wang Yihan, she created history as she became the first Indian ever to win an Olympic medal in badminton. On 21 October 2012 she became the second Indian to win the Denmark open by defeating Juliane Schenk of Germany. There were many Indian supporters in the crowd which loudly cheered her each and every point. She acknowledged their support by throwing two badminton rackets at them after her win. She thanked God and her fans for the win. This was her fourth title of the year. This second Super Series Premier title fetched her USD 30,000 from a total purse of USD 400,000. The victory was sweet revenge for Saina who had lost in straight games to Schenk the previous year.[24][25] Cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar presented a brand new BMW car to Saina Nehwal gifted by Andhra Badminton Association for winning a bronze medal at the London Olympics 2012.[26]

HONOURS AND TITLES :

Saina was named “The Most Promising Player” in 2008. Badminton champion Saina Nehwal was conferred with the prestigious Arjuna award for sporting excellence, in the year 2009 following her success at winning the Indonesian Open Super series title. The Arjuna award was handed over to Saina by the President of India, Pratibha Patil at the presidential palace in New Delhi. The Arjuna awardee is given a statuette, a scroll of honour, ceremonial dress and a cash award of Rs. 5 lakhs. Saina Nehwal won the prestigious Padma Shri award in Jan-2010 barely 4 months after receiving the Arjuna award in 2009. The award carries a medal, a scroll of honour and a cash prize of Rs. 5.00 lakhs.

Saina was awarded with Padma Shri award in January 2010. Saina was also awarded the highest national sporting award given to a player, The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award on 29 August 2010. The Khel Ratna award consists of a bronze statuette, citation and cash prize of Rs.7.5 laks for the award winner, and is handed over to the sportsperson by the President of India. [22] Saina is the brand ambassador of Deccan Chargers, an Indian Premier League team owned by Deccan Chronicle. She has also become one of the 8 brand ambassadors of 2010 Commonwealth Games held on New Delhi India.

An Influenced Life

An Influenced Life
As people grow and develop in their lives, many factors influence their trajectories. These factors manifest themselves in many ways, but some are more prominent than others. I believe that every person, depending the factors that influenced them most strongly, would place more importance on some factors than others. In other words, my essay will be different than other classmates, because I was raised differently than most of them and different things had impacts on my development. Individuals also probably think some are more important factors than others, and these viewpoints depend solely on their lives and their development thus far. My personal view is that some of the most important factors that influence an individual’s development are their innate temperament, the parents they are born to, the consequent family role they possess, the anxiety they bear in life, and the relationships they make – both forced and by their own volition.

Although I believe these are some of the most important factors, they are by no means the only things that influence a persons’ development over time. Also worth noting is the fact that these all impact each other as well as singularly influencing an individual. When combined, many factors cause other factors and all influence a persons’ development trajectory. One of these influences is inborn, not decided by outside forces. Temperament is something every human is born with, and it is shown from the moment they start breathing. My sister and I, for example, have somewhat opposite temperaments. As a child I was very loud and loved to talk (which hasn’t changed), and my sister was much quieter and listened much better than I ever could. She was more patient from birth than I will ever be. This chasm between our personalities provides some definition for our life development. Her calm, quiet manner led to little misbehavior and consequent punishment.

My quick, sarcastic temper led to much conflict with parents and occasionally teachers, and required containment. This put me in a different trajectory than my sister, as she became easy to deal with, and easy to please. My parents had to take a different approach with me, as my temperament led me to be harder to discipline, please, and control. The temperament of any individual greatly influences a person’s future life development. It influences the way a person reacts and relates to other people, the way they act alone and in company, and their view on the world.

Parents are one of the influences I think most would agree impacts development most. Even people who had parents that were not present might agree that the absence itself influenced their life and development. The techniques parents use vary and are quite different from family to family, and occasionally even within families. Parenting impacts development and views of the world because they restrict or allow activities, and provide moral ideas and values in differing strengths, passing on much to their children. As we grow out of childhood, impressions of our parents from a young age remain with us and impact the way we live, act, and interpret others’ behaviors. The two spectrums for parenting styles measure how demanding a parent is, and how responsive a parent is. To me, these can make or break a child’s development.

If either is too low, the child will have problems later in life, but if either is too high, there will also be consequences. High responsiveness may produce a needy, incapable adult, while low responsiveness will result in anxiety about love, and mattering. High demanding parenting may result in a high-strung, over-achieving stressed adult, while low demanding will produce an adult with little motivation and drive. Clearly, parenting impacts development and, if possible, should be controlled in order to help children develop correctly and well. As parents begin to treat children differently due to temperament, and children learn more about their parenting styles, the kids in the family begin to learn their roles in the family. These roles can range from simply the “quiet one” to “loud one,” or from “instigator” to “peace-maker.” Some of the roles can make children feel guilty, unworthy, or bad about themselves, while others make children feel proud, confident, and pleased. These differences start at a young age and continue through their lives, even into adulthood.

This will also influence relationships and life plans, causing each person to have a different filter per say, which they view the world through. If an individual follows these family roles into adulthood, individuals follow whatever mold they were shaped into as a young person. This can obviously impact development in frightening ways. One can imagine a forty year-old still following his instilled role of a meek, rule-following, shy six year-old, or a twenty-one year-old still behaving as a reckless, authority defying teenager, but with much more damaging and dangerous rebellions. The types of anxiety that a person deals with on a frequent basis derive from many sources. These factors come from both developmental sources and environmental sources. While environmental sources are inevitable and cannot be avoided, like natural disasters and wars, the developmental sources can be somewhat traced to other developmental factors. If a person carries too much anxiety, they can then begin to develop harmful relationships and tendencies. Some anxieties that can hurt a persons’ development are worrying about trust, competence, and mattering.

All three of these concerns can come from the way an individual is treated and affected by people close to them, and society as a whole, along with some of the traits they were born with. These main three concerns make or break relationships, another developmental factor. However, they also impact the way we develop in all strains of life, especially cognitive development. If someone has anxiety about not mattering or being competent, and this anxiety is reinforced by their relationships, they may truly begin to believe these things. This will begin to impact their work and productivity, starting to truly render them incompetent. Relationships also play a large role in development over time. Of all the factors discussed, I think this may be one of the most obvious, but also one of the most influential. Depending on the individual someone is relating to, and the impacts other developmental factors have on them too, relationships are the dynamic culmination of influences on human development. Relationship models range from secure to insecure, and someone who forms insecure relationships is unlikely to trust anyone, and consequently bear even more anxiety than what led to the insecure relationship. I think relationships influence development because relationships give us friends, role models, and comfort. Relationships make life worth living, but if they are not healthy and secure relationships, the zeal for life may degrade.

There are many factors that impact development in many different ways. These influences can have physical, social, cognitive, and emotional consequences, and help us to become the adults we do in life. They eventually all do interrelate and combine to influence each other and our development in many ways. This being said, it is crucial to development to have consistent, good, controlled factors. Although temperament cannot be controlled, parenting styles, family roles, and relationships can be objectively considered and helped, in order to ensure proper development and a productive, competent adult. If every child had these factors controlled and watched, in order to help them develop the best they could, there would be much less anxiety, unhappiness, and idleness in our society.