“Authenticity” Indigenous Media

“Authentic” is a double-edged sword. Discuss this assertion using at least 2 indigenous media examples. How can something be a double-edged sword? How can one thing be dangerous and at the similar time helpful? We are currently living in the 21st century; there have been many lives that lived on this earth before us. These lives have accomplished plenty of work that have gotten us to where we’re today. This being stated it is so exhausting to consider something new to provide you with when it has most likely been accomplished earlier than in the past in one way or one other.

According to dictionary. com authentic means “not copied, false, original. ” To the dominant culture being genuine means coming up with something new to level out the world but as a outcome of, typically phrases have a couple of definition, being genuine does not all the time imply inventing one thing new to point out the world. In reality, to indigenous teams it means preserving their beliefs, on a daily basis actions, culture, and so on intact.

It is keeping every thing they know their ancestors did and what their parents taught them to do with out improvements or change.

In this essay I will be comparing different indigenous teams and how the meaning of” Authentic” is often a double-edged sword to these indigenous groups. For indigenous teams being authentic is important. Not only because it is necessary for them to maintain their culture intact but in addition as a result of it’s an effective political tool. This political software may help them negotiate land, which is among the most essential things for them as a outcome of it is the main tool of survival.

Many critics argue that although these tribes are isolated they are not untouched by outsiders therefore they do not appear to be indigenous, they’re just isolated teams.

Video in the village’s project has been working with many tribes such because the Nambiquara, Caviao, Tikuna, Kijani Iakaha and Kaiapo. Their aim is to introduce them to the art of film to allow them to protect their culture and discover their id inside themselves. They have done this by giving cameras to various indigenous people themselves teaching them the fundamentals of tips on how to report. These people have been given the prospect to document what they need to see about themselves and what they assume is necessary to speak to the world. Although it was a protracted course of that took lots of work and

patience, many villages have had success. For example the Kijani Iakaha group recorded a regular day within the village the place at first of the film the ladies are lined up so they may get pat in their backs and their stomachs with a wood stick. This, to them, represents safety; it helps their ladies all through their pregnancy. They additionally show some of the habits they’ve such as choosing every other’s ticks out. They additionally observe the regular actions of other indigenous villages. They ship the children to fish, the ladies stay in cleaning, cooking and watching the smaller kids and the lads go out to hunt.

They make use of their land by planning and hunting so they can provide items for themselves and their household. Even though these individuals are wearing items that belong to the dominant tradition they nonetheless do what indigenous teams do. The solely distinction that could be taken out of the villagers is what they put on and a few of their traditions; ladies are wearing skirts and males are sporting shorts. When indigenous teams decides to make a change to their culture it turns into dangerous because it gives the government proof that these folks have had contact with the dominant culture.

In the article by Beth A. Conklin, Body paint, feathers, and VCRs: aesthetics and authenticity in Amazonian activism, he states, “The first, obvious idea is that outsiders (anthropologists included) are inclined to see complicated western know-how as a corrupting pressure that undermines traditional cultures. “Real” natives don’t use VCRs. ” Many individuals argue that if indigenous folks work with the camera their focus is no longer in trying to maintain their culture and origin as an alternative it is to attempt to look good for the camera that may doubtlessly lead to a change in their culture.

The cause why it is a massive deal if these tribes are up to date with the dominant world is because being indigenous provides them particular rights, corresponding to land proper and political rights. When uncovered to technology which basically means they’ve been uncovered to society they are no longer innocent and “original” they’re now uncovered and experienced. This, as quickly as again, creates doubts about their originality. To the eyes of the federal government if they’re updated with the dominant culture they’re just taking over land that real indigenous individuals could use.

According to the government and the dominant society an authentic indigenous group is that which does what the typical stereotype of an indigenous group does. They use paint to paint their our bodies in a means which they will specific themselves; a lot of the teams do it for special events corresponding to ceremonies and completely different rituals. They have completely different rituals that represent who they are changing into. This just isn’t all the time true. In the movie Signs don’t communicate the people within the group are carrying common clothes yet they still behave like other indigenous groups.

They nonetheless dislike white man as a result of based on them these solely bring hurt. One of the villagers quotes “My father informed me white man would come to take over our land. ” In this film the villagers speak about an encounter they had with the white man. They thought that they would solely keep and work for a brief time but they end it up staying longer, working exhausting and destroying their land. They are properly conscious of the stereotypes people have about them, they like to stay away from certainly one of their largest menace, white man.

In the other hand within the movie video cannibalism the villagers are strolling round bare, fulfilling the stereotypes, making vulgar jokes that to them haven’t any vulgar intention and with paint throughout their bodies. This group has no problems with the federal government as a outcome of to the government these are the true indigenous people. At greatest, indigenous teams begin to know how they are completely different from not solely the dominant culture or other indigenous teams but themselves as nicely. It can even confirm the stereotypes many individuals consider making it virtually impossible for these to be modified for future technology.

Being genuine may be dangerous as a result of it can restrict indigenous groups from self-determination and development. Authenticity can be helpful as a end result of possibly in some cultures having a primitive lifestyle restores a variety of the good interactions between individuals. There is not as much drama and people’s views can be heard extra easily. Stereotyping brings about hardship for certain cultures, nevertheless, a tradition may learn to embrace stereotyping and never be hurt as much as a result of the reality that they’re primitive and wouldn’t have to grasp what media says about them.

Their portrayal is to folks that they in all probability will never see. Technology might be what’s saving these cultures from many hardships which would possibly be in fashionable society right now. An authentic indigenous tradition does not have to bear the economic difficulties that fashionable societies do. In the tip, many cultures are indigenous, however according to what the modern society defines as authentic, modern society can have the facility to say that a bunch isn’t original and subsequently simply aboriginal, meaning they still have the technologically advanced capabilities, however choose to not use them.

Work cited Dictionary. com. Dictionary. reference. com. LLC. 2012. Web. 14 March 2012 Video in the Villages. Dir. Vincent Carelli. Documentary Educational Resources. 1989. Film. Conklin, B. A. Body paint, feathers, and VCRs: aesthetics and authenticity in Amazonian activism. JSTOR. org. JSTOR. 1997. Web. 14 March 2012. Signs Don’t Speak. Dir. Vicent Carelli, Dominique Gallois. Documentary Education Resources. 1996. Film. Video Cannibalism. Dir. Vicent Carelli. Documentary Educational Resources. 1995. Film.

Authoritative and Permissive Parenting in the Media

For Authoritative parenting Cam and Mitchell from Modern Family are an excellent instance, in the present they adopted a Vietnamese baby and raised her through authoritative parenting style as they established rules and pointers for her and expected her to comply with the principles. They are additionally very responsive and keen to listen any of her questions. Whenever she fails to fulfill the expectations, Cam and Mitchell are more nurturing and forgiving quite than punishing her harshly.

For instance when Lily their daughter says a swear word, somewhat than punishing her, they kindly clarify to her why the language is inappropriate and isn’t allowed of their home and school.

Their disciplinary methods are much more supporting quite than penalizing. They need her to be assertive in addition to socially accountable and self regulated within their society.

For authoritarian parenting Red from The 70s Show is an ideal instance, Eric his son and Laurie his daughter live with their Red and are expected to observe the strict guidelines established by him, Most of the instances after they fail to take action, He will get very angry and ends in punishment.

Many times when Red gets mad at his youngsters for disobeying he has no good purpose but typically says “my home my rules” These parents have excessive calls for, but usually are not conscious of their children.

He is a very exhausting father and demands excessive outcomes of his children and he can be getting very sarcastically offended at moments. A good example of permissive parenting would be Phil from Modern Family because although he cares for his youngsters very much, he nonetheless reveals many permissive qualities for example he rarely ever punishes his youngsters and has very low expectations and has small boundaries, and nearly the entire time provides into the children demands.

I undoubtedly suppose I shall be an authoritative parent as a end result of I would want my children to understand the proper and wrongs with this world with out being held back to the purpose the place they really feel like they don’t have any freedom. But the right quantity of punishment and freedom will hopefully result in profitable kids. I want my youngsters to utilize reasoning and work independently, but due to that I would also have high expectations of them. When my kids break the rules, I will self-discipline them in a good and constant method.

Also I need to act as role model and show the same behaviors that I anticipate from them, as a end result of hopefully my kids usually tend to study these behaviors faster and easier. I should present good emotional understanding and management, so my youngsters additionally study to handle their own feelings and study to know others as properly. But an important thing they will be to act independently, which hopefully teaches them that they are capable of accomplishing things on their very own, serving to to forward strong self-esteem and create self-confidence.

Assess the postmodernist views of the mass media

PM argue mass media are central to the PM theory, because the decline of traditional communities, time-space compression and flexible production – all derived via the media. PM argue the global society is media-saturated, making it more durable to tell apart between reality and hyper-reality, and making culture fragmented and unstable. PM problem viewing audience as passive and easily manipulated, as they use media photographs to construct individual identities. The main criticism of PM is that their argument relies on summary concepts and a lack of empirical proof.

Marxists criticise PM for ignoring inequalities in media access, and that the media messages can mislead the audiences, as the main effort behind them is maintaining revenue for capitalists. PM argue the society today is media-saturated. BAUDRILLARD argues the media messages dominate and deform the notion of the world. People live media-led digital lives, spending time on social networks (eg. Twitter) or enjoying such video games as Second Life. Media-saturated society had created increasing uncertainty on the earth by making it hard to discern actuality from fantasy.

BAUDRILLARD notes persons are bombarded with the mass media every day. As a result, the media outline our sense of actuality and self-perception. To assist, BAUMANN suggests individuals reside in a liquid modernity, the place we base our id round consumption, and decide n combine identities. BAUDRILLARD agrees that identification is driven my media-created pressure to eat. However, Marxists argue capitalism is behind media-created strain to eat, and the growth of consumerism represents the success of capitalism rather than diverse media messages.

Nonetheless, BAUDRILLARD nonetheless argues that identity is formed by media pictures, rather than class and imposed values. PM argue the media actively create reality. BAUDRILLARD argues media pictures have replaced actuality to such an extent that we stay in hyper-reality, i. e. actuality structured by electronic communication. In turn, the media current simulacra (artificial copies of real events), which is difficult to differentiate from actuality. There is no longer separate actuality for things like TV programmes, highlighted by media tales about fictional characters.

TUCKLE notes that the lives of TV characters have turn out to be more real to the audience than precise communities. For example, people felt so strongly about TV show Cheers that they created Cheers bars in America, similarly to creating Central Perk espresso outlets after popularity of Friends. Moreover, the media can create realities of such main events as wars. BAUDRILLARD argues that the First Gulf War was a simulation created by the media, noting that ‘the war solely occurred on TV’. While not denying the existence of battle, he criticised its portrayal in western societies.

However, the impression of hyper-reality and simulacra is uneven between social groups. They are solely vital to those that can access them. PM are criticised for ignoring that media images can improve notion of inequality. More importantly, PM ignore considerations over concentration of media possession and ideological function hyper-reality could carry out. Marxists counsel the RC may create the hyper-reality to strengthen their ideology, whereas Feminists suggest some aspects of hyper-reality, notably video games like GTA, reinforce patriarchy and misogyny.

PM spotlight the increasing importance of well-liked tradition promoted by the media. STRINATI notes the mass media have triggered a breakdown of distinction between excessive and in style tradition, making in style tradition dominate the finest way people define themselves. Popular culture has more influence on our existence than social structures, as opposed to Marxist view that the media house owners influence the media output thus affect our identities.

However, PM are criticised for not having the power to empirically show the hyperlink between well-liked culture and creation of identities. PM conducted small scale ethnographic research, as they reject possibility of discovering goal fact about social world. However, it severely undermines their argument. In support of PM, nevertheless, neo-functionalist PUTNAM found empirical proof to spotlight the breakdown of the actual world social interaction and declining social capital because of the influence of the media, and especially new media.

In conclusion, PM view of the media is influential in drawing attention to the impact of the media on creation of identities and how consumption influence people’s capacity to create their identities themselves. However, the major limitation of PM principle is reluctance to recognise the importance of the market forces and focus of media possession in understanding the media impact on the society. Moreover, PM don’t acknowledge the media’s function of selling and exacerbating inequalities amongst audiences.

Artificial Intelligence Influencing Media


Media is a very highly effective source and influencing in India which is regulated and managed by various legislations every so often. Biased reporting and outright lies in broadcasts had given a nasty popularity to the press. The Future of media law and ethics is instable as many pretend messages take roots. Even the digitization which appears to dependable and credible in computer which discovered to misguided and reliable. On other hand synthetic intelligence, the human intelligence processed by computer system, including studying and self-correction.

An artificially intelligence platform can analysis carried out in seconds whether it’s a type of 4 hundred attorneys or sing practising attorneys. It can stability the expenditure required. The Indian Constitution supplies freedom for media by article 19(1)(a). This Article ensures freedom for speech and expression. Article 19 offers with the right or freedom and particular person freedom of speech and expression which is the root of liberty. As a result of artificial intelligence gaining momentum to enhance sales and revenue technique.

It has found and paved method in audio-visual trade in a part of few days. AI which manifests works at regular TV station is creatively highly effective. The Netflix challenge is one other AI to predict future ratings. Artificial intelligence is a compromising challenge to remodel the media to it’s true value. Last however not least, social media aiming to ship good and desirable qualities to its people is striding India to an ‘Utopian media’. It has the resemblance to George Orwell’s dystopian world of 1984, where the ‘Newspeak’ turns into the language of media.

No doubt AI has loads of impact on media markets. It has potentialitics which is in a position to make goods for the customers to navigate the bewildering mass of on-line content material through personalised suggestions and manipulate them.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Media, Law, Freedom, Digitization.


Media is a powerful source and influence in India which is self-regulated and managed by varied legislations once in a while. Laws related to the mass media had been made because the beginning. In the time of British Raj, laws referring to the press had been enacted. Government has enacted many more media related legal guidelines, in the Post-Independence time. As media is a robust affect, on the society, numerous legislations have been enacted once in a while to regulate and management media.

Future of Media Law

Biased reporting and outright lies in broadcasts have given a foul reputation to the press. The Future of media laws and ethics seems instable as many pretend messages take root. Even digitization which seem like dependable and credible in pc discovered to be erroneous and unreliable. On the opposite hand, Artificial Intelligence, the human intelligence is processed by computer methods, include studying and self-correction. This in turn causes society to club all media outlets collectively, expounding them all with misleading, unreliable and unimaginable words. New media applied sciences such as blogs and microblogs, photograph sharing sites, digital storytelling, machinima, cloud computing, podcasts, writing communities and Google instruments have made it possible technological communications to advance past any of their creator’s creativeness.[footnoteRef:2] [2: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Mass_Media/Media_Law_and_Ethics]

What is Artificial Intelligence?

The stimulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially pc system is recognized as synthetic intelligence. These processes embrace studying [the acquisition of data and the principles for utilizing information], reasoning [using guidelines to reach approximate or definite conclusions] and self-correction. Certain particular applications of Artificial intelligence include expert techniques, speech recognition and, machine vision.[footnoteRef:3] [3: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/artificial-intelligence-ai]

Legal character of Artificial Intelligence

Recently, artificial intelligence is carried out to a small however highly efficient scale in varied industries, from robotic concierges in hotels to automated entertainment or in cell phones. The Indian legal sector has seen very little innovation by means of expertise. The lawyers of nowadays feel comfortable and rely on the methods designed years ago. Artificial Intelligence can play an enormous part in altering. With the vast use of Artificial Intelligence, legal professionals can get unparalleled perception into the legal domains inside seconds. An Artificially analysis platform for research can get the research accomplished in seconds whether or not it is a agency of 4 hundred lawyers or a single practising lawyer. It can provide lawyers with extremely efficient and advanced tools, helping lawyers become higher in advising purchasers and litigating.[footnoteRef:4] [4: http://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-631-impact-of-artificial-intelligence-on-indian-legal-system.html]

Constitutional Provisions

The Constitutional of India doesn’t provide freedom for media individually. But there is an indirect provision for freedom of media which is derived from Article19(1)(a) which ensures freedom of speech and expression. Article 19 of our constitution deals with the rights to freedom of speech and expressions which is the very root of liberty.[footnoteRef:5] [5: https://taxguru.in/corporate-law/media-law-india-overview.html]

Tata Press Ltd V. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd:

A three-judge bench of the supreme courtroom differed from the view expressed within the DawaKhadha case and held that industrial advertisement was positively a a part of Article 19(1)(a) which is aimed at the dissemination of knowledge relating to the product. The Court made it clear that the government might regulate business advertisements, which are deceptive, unfair, deceptive and untruthful.

Artificial Intelligence Assisting Media Operations

Artificial Intelligence applied sciences have gotten more and more obtainable. In spite of that media business nonetheless needs to take a quantity of steps to adopt them in full measure and interact them in digital transformation. A report from lotame asked why US publishers and brand entrepreneurs use audience knowledge, the place the next results had been highlighted.

  • 60% of people contemplate it to make content material or to message extra relevant.
  • Only 53% us it sells extra advertising stock.
  • 42% leverage it to win new business.

The fortunes for digital transformation are simply dawning. There is still miles to go and embrace artificial intelligence using massive information in full. Media firm want to accept the alternatives and spend money on training advertising operations professionals to make the most of them to improve their sales and revenue technique.[footnoteRef:6] [6: https://www.advendio.com/artificial-intelligence-impacting-advertising-sales-media-companies]

Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Media

Audio-visual trade has paved method for Artificial Intelligence prior to now few a long time and synthetic intelligence gained its importance within the broadcast and media industries. The variety of solutions for the event of modifying and media administration tasks, including artificial intelligence has increased and largely to be automated which are focussed on repetitive duties. The main use of purposes of artificial intelligence are cataloguing and metadata detection. The period of time wanted for content material cataloguing is reduced to real-time which is applicable for day-to-day TV station. However, the benefits of artificial intelligence aren’t unique to the generation of data directly from the media. The accuracy, velocity and quantity of knowledge generated with synthetic intelligence tools? Open the avenues to many different purposes in different trade areas. The most blatant positive aspects from synthetic intelligence is that it helps the customers easy, to seek out the media content material they need. The search downside encompasses not solely search applied sciences, but in addition recommendations, evaluations and an array of different applied sciences that assist customers navigate content material. The ‘Netflix, challenge’ helps to foretell future ratings and is a canonical use of machine learning. Google search, Amazon product suggestions and the Facebook information feed all on AI applied sciences. [footnoteRef:7] [7: http://web.stanford.edu/~gentzkow/research/ai_and_media.pdf]

Eliminating Bias and Fake News

Fake News is a crisis for media in plenty of nations. Sign up right here to search out our nation specific impacts in addition to other digital information reader behavior. Many organisations are working to combat this crisis for e.g. News which uses synthetic intelligence to analyse more than a thousand information sources on various matters collectively all particulars. It writes an neutral version of the story, bearing in mind the trustworthiness of every information supply eradicating potential and political bias by giving impartial headlines.

Transformation of Artificial Intelligence in Media Industry

Artificial Intelligence promises to transform the media and entertains business, impacting every thing from content material creation to the patron expertise, Artificial Intelligence will affect all elements of media, helping content material consumers content material editors and their pursuits and current scenario. The metadata created routinely by the synthetic intelligence by the bogus intelligence algorithms can then be used to drive content monetisation strategies.

Influnce of Artificial Intelligence Over Social Media

Social media keeps rising to the scenario emitting utopian vibes. Social media goals to ship good and describe qualities to its folks is striding India to an utopian media. It has the resemblance to George Onwells dystopian world of 1984, where the Newspeak turns into the language of media. Likes and Big brother turns into artificial intelligence itself. Statics present that social media person base as of the yr 2019 is estimated up to 2.77 billion. Artificial Intelligence must be correctly applied, maintaining the whole concentrate on the current need. Artificial Intelligence along with social media show to be extremely useful for business. Developed firms and advertising managers can make the most of artificial intelligence services by learning user behaviours and looking habits for their prospects. [footnoteRef:8] [8: https://yourstory.com/mystory/the-impact-of-artificial-intelligence-on-social-me]


This would facilitate in reaching the target market and helps managers in monitoring conversions efficiently. Artificial Intelligence may have profound impacts on media markets. It has potentialities which is able to make goods for the customers to navigate the bewildering mass of online context via personalised suggestions and manipulate them.

Are Violent Media Beneficial for Children

The writer is successful in attaining his objective of how violent media just isn’t always harmful or negative however rather can be positively useful. Gerard Jones makes use of ethos, pathos, and logos to support his perspective on violent media.

To begin with, Jones uses ethos by including his son’s anecdote and what he did to overcome the obstacles he had in class. Through his first few years of school for him, Jones’ son pretended he was various sorts of superheroes, villains and galvanizing cartoon characters.

Masking himself and performing like the ones he idolized helped Jones’ son to recover from the fears he had inside him. Jones doesn’t simply contain his son but he also introduced in Dr. Melanie Moore. She is a psychologist with a PhD who works with youngsters. Moore states, “Children need violent entertainment in order to explore the inescapable emotions that they’ve been taught to deny, and to reintegrate those emotions into a more whole, more advanced, extra resilient selfhood.

” (2). What Moore had stated just exemplifies how violent media could be turned for use as one thing great for children. Jones and Dr. Moore occurred to work on a three-year project relating to this matter. This project was a big leap ahead for Jones to prove how violence in media shouldn’t essentially be a bad factor to level out to your children.

In addition to ethos, Jones also applies the use of pathos in his stance by introducing his story as an expert comic guide writer.

He explains how violence in media allowed him to observe a character when he was young. The Hulk was his primary inspiration to turn out to be a writer and in a while produced comic books and scripts for motion films. In the article it states, “I followed him to new associates different delicate geeks chasing their very own internal brutes and I adopted him to the arrogant, self-exposing, self-assertive, superheroic determination to turn into a writer.” What Jones said confirmed that kids can use violent media as an outlet to discover the feelings which might be trapped in them. By telling his own expertise in addition to his son’s experience, this lets the viewers to be engaged with the creator and his writing. Jones realized that so as to reach out to his viewers, he needed to put in writing something that may bring them to an exposed state. This method, he gets to be in touch and connected to the audience’s emotions. Most mother and father teach their youngsters to hide these avoidable feelings however as a substitute ought to enable their children to better understand who they are. Jones hoped that by showing the vulnerable facet of himself to his viewers, it’s going to assist persuade them with the truth that violent media is a good supply.

Subsequently, Jones utilizes logos to accommodate his opinion on media violence. He did this by including young youngsters and their experiences. Jones had worked with a little woman, Emily, who had very violent fantasies that concerned different dad and mom. Emily would write tales comprised of individuals being stabbed with knives and reenact battle scenes portrayed by a character on the playground. The adults would try to calm her down and try to change the concept of her stories, however she would simply rebel and act more like her “angry heroes” (Jones 2). Jones and Emily’s mom had helped flip her tales into comics. This brought Emily extra joy seeing what may come out the concepts in her head. By drawing and writing down her artistic fantasies, she was more self-controlled within her peers. However, one side Jones could have included to support his assertion more was using statistics. Jones did add in several children’s tales, however not enough to essentially persuade all of his readers. If he did put in some percentages of how many children battle with this or what quantity of grew to become a socially better person, he might have amassed a bigger viewers who would agree with his point.

In conclusion, Gerard Jones achieved in attaining his function of how violent media can be a good thing for your kids. He did a suitable job of swaying his audience. He convinced them that violence in the media is able to getting used to struggle towards the hard problems children might find in life.

Annotated Bibliography for the Relations between Social Media and Corporations

This article is inclined towards the affect and importance of social media as a strategic software for communication for public and private owned companies across the globe. Nevertheless, irrespective of the numerous benefits that social media use, organizations nonetheless find it difficult to make the most of its benefits due to some components within organizations and the way the operations of the stated operations are carried out. This article displays on a examine that is keen on mentioning these conflicting components inside organizations and providing suggestions on how they are often remedied so that organizations can maximize on the use of social media as a communication tool effectively.

Davenport, Shaun W.; Bergman, M. Shawn, Bergman, Z. Jacqueline & Fearrington, E. Matthew: Twitter Versus Facebook: Exploring the role of narcissism within the motives and usage of various social media platforms. Computers in Human Behaviour: 32-(2014) 212-220.

This article displays on the research on the relationship between social networking websites (SNS) and narcissism via the lens of clear cut hypothesis analysis that is particular on solely integral aspects of such research.

In this case, Twitter and Facebook have been accessed as the first social networking websites with an inferred concentrate on their content material technology as opposed to the generally researched consumption of its content; this was in return related to as the precursor between narcissism and SNS usage. Motives for narcissism in each Facebook and Twitter were found to be diversified considering that each SNS’s had completely different components for communication.

Fischer, Eileen; Reuber, A. Rebecca; Online entrepreneurial communication: Mitigating uncertainty and growing differentiation through Twitter Journal of Business Venturing -Vol: 29 (2014) 565-583

Fischer and Reuber sought to reply the query of whether or not on-line communication streams have any influence on human beings uncertainty discount or enhancement of their differentiation.

Through comparisons of information from eight firms that utilize Twitter as their organizational growth tool, qualitative methods were adopted to help in answering of this question. In essence and after evaluation of these data, it’s evident that firms which have an existent multidimensional stream of communication usually tend to affect the perceptions of the public about them.

Leyland F. Pitt, Michael Parent, Peter G. Steyn, Pierre Berthon, and Arthur Money; The Social Media Release as a Corporate Communication Tool for Bloggers: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 54, No. 2, June 2011 122-133.

In this article, the examine focuses on the influence social media launch as a new communication software influence on bloggers. An estimated 332 bloggers are used as respondents who reply on the influences of social media releases on their personal selections of writing a few particular matter. From the examine findings it’s evident that bloggers ideas isn’t solely influenced by means of SMR’s but in addition their choices and thus fostering the best that SMR use has huge implications on communications of firms.

Wood, Lisa: Brands and brand equity: Definition and management; Management Decision Vol 38 No. 2 (2000) 662-669

Lisa Wood pens down a superb piece suggesting the need for model management as property of organizations which might solely be achieved via creating relationships between brand loyalty and value and linking the identical to the accounting system of an organization. The article mainly circumvents around the issue of brand management as a tool of efficient communication of a organizations equity.


Davenport, Shaun W.; Bergman, M. Shawn, Bergman, Z. Jacqueline & Fearrington, E. Matthew: Twitter Versus Facebook: Exploring the function of narcissism in the motives and utilization of various social media platforms. Computers in Human Behaviour: 32-(2014) 212-220.

Fischer, Eileen; Reuber, A. Rebecca; Online entrepreneurial communication: Mitigating uncertainty and rising differentiation by way of Twitter Journal of Business Venturing -Vol: 29 (2014) 565-583

Leyland F. Pitt, Michael Parent, Peter G. Steyn, Pierre Berthon, and Arthur Money; The Social Media Release as a Corporate Communication Tool for Bloggers: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 54, No. 2, June 2011 122-133.

Macnamara, Jim; Zerfass, Ansgar: Social Media Communication in Organizations: The Challenges of Balancing Openness, Strategy, and Management: International Journal of Strategic Communication Vol. 6:No. 4, 287-308

Wood, Lisa: Brands and brand fairness: Definition and management; Management Decision Vol 38 No. 2 (2000) 662-669

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Annotated Bibliography on Relationship between Social Media and Corporations

This article highlights the importance of corporate social accountability to companies and the way they should put the pursuits of the shoppers first. In the occasion of a recession due to this fact dictates that the managers of companies change their CSR primarily based on the customers’ diminished purchasing power as a result of recession. The corporations thus regulate their communication methods primarily based on the prevailing financial situations.

Gruber, Daniel, Ryan Smerek, C Mellissa Thomas Hunt, and James Erika. “The real-time energy of Twitter: Crisis administration and management in an age of social media.

” Business Horizon, 2014.

This article addresses the leadership and crisis management by the highest administration of corporations just about social media. The article offers plenty of information almost about the significance of transparency and the facility of social media. It highlights the function the different voices within the social media platform play in any organization and the role social media performs in a disaster scenario. Analysis of twitter as a source of real-time news is analyzed and the effect it has on organizations response to crisis situations going through them.

Reilly, Anne, and Katherine Hynan. “Corporate communication, sustainability, and social media: It’s not easy (really) being green.” Business Horizons, 2014.

This piece of labor is predicated on empirical analysis on several global corporations in varied sectors and the way they make use of social media platforms to move their message on sustainability to the lots. The corporations are ranked on their scope of their communication strategies on social media just about the sustainability initiatives and environmental sustainability.

The report goes a great distance in assisting corporations to make better use of social media in the sustainability communication.

Treem, Jeffrey W, and Paul Leonardi. “Social Media Use in Organizations:Exploring the Affordances of Visibility, Editability, Persistence, and Association.” Communication Yearbook, 2012.

This article examines the elevated use of social media platforms in the setting of organizations. The increased position it plays within the group to the managers is acknowledged. It nonetheless seeks to determine how the use of social media is totally different from laptop mediated communication. The increased position of social media in group is thus additional analyzed in the office.

Turban, Efraim, Narasimha Bolloju, and Ting Peng Liang. “Social Commerce: An E-Commerce Perspective.” n.d.

This article examines the spread of business initiatives on social media platforms. In the means of doing so, there has led to an improved business model that embraces social media on account of this there was an emergence of social media advertising. This article thus seems at social media from a commerce viewpoint and appears on the several points concerned in using know-how in commerce.


 Green, Todd, and John Peloza. “How did the Recession Change the Communication of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities?” Long Range Planning, 2014.

Gruber, Daniel, Ryan Smerek, C Mellissa Thomas Hunt, and James Erika. “The real-time power of Twitter: Crisis management and management in an age of social media.” Business Horizon, 2014.

Reilly, Anne, and Katherine Hynan. “Corporate communication, sustainability, and social media: It’s not straightforward (really) being green.” Business Horizons, 2014.

Treem, Jeffrey W, and Paul Leonardi. “Social Media Use in Organizations:Exploring the Affordances of Visibility, Editability, Persistence, and Association.” Communication Yearbook, 2012.

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Source document

Analyse the Political Implications of Concentrated Media Ownership and Control

The media is primarily used to disseminate information. It is a platform for communication between the individuals and those who hold authority. In today’s world the media has an immense function within the functioning of society and has the power to achieve a mass audience by way of technologies such as print, Internet, television, film and radio. There has been rising concern over the rising focus of media ownership as well as how this increased media management influences and shapes democracy.

Concentrated media possession refers to the variety of individuals or corporations who management an growing share within the mass media market, which at current could be very few.

For instance, eleven out of twelve major Australian Newspapers are owned by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation or John Fairfax Holdings (Independent Australia, 2011). Society has seen media moguls, corresponding to Rupert Murdoch, dominate cross-media ownership with corporations in print, television, movie and so on.

The media and politics are carefully intertwined and with a rise in concentrated media possession and management, issues such as political bias; the trivialisation and sensationalism of political issues within the pursuit of profits; and the reducing amout of editorial range and expression, have turn into issues of concern for the consumers of this mass media.

Street describes bias as “the idea that the practices of journalists and editors lead to articles and programmes that favour one view of the world over another, providing sustenance for one set of interests whereas undermining an alternative” (Street, 2011).

Bias is a big concern inside all media, and authorities enforce a myriad of regulations and restrictions on media corporations to try and eliminate it.

With an increase in media concentration, and the ability that the media yields, eliminating political bias throughout the media has turn into an essential problem. Since many of the media institutions are owned by firms, corresponding to Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, the commonest assumption is that the media as a complete may be influenced by its house owners.

For occasion, there are occasions when the owners’ decision could have an effect on the type of data that media would confide in the basic public. Wagner makes the point that “the information media distribute a lot of the knowledge we receive in regards to the world round us. Thousands of politicians, policy researchers and opinion makers wish to transmit info to the common public at giant. The information media function intermediaries in this information market, selecting to transmit a fraction of the tens of millions of potential messages to an audience” (Wagner, 1997).

For example, Rupert Murdoch’s Fox News channel was been criticised for its right-tilted news coverage. Murdoch has at all times been seen to favour the conservative aspect of politics and the Fox News channel has been seen to level out preference toward the Republican Government in America. Fox Founder and president Rodger Ailes was a republican political operative in Washington. He helped with The Nixon and Reagan campaigns as properly as the elder Bush’s media strategy for his presidentiary marketing campaign in 1988 (Ackerman, 2001).

David Asman, The Fox News Channel’s daytime anchor was recognized for his association with the right- wing Wall Street Journal. Another anchor for Fox News, Tony Snow, was a conservative columnist and also the chief speechwriter for the first bush administration (Ackerman, 2001). The Fox News Channel also hosted workers and presenters similar to Eric Breindel, John Moody and Bill O’Reilly, all of whom were recognized for his or her conservative, proper wing views (Ackerman, 2001). Rupert Murdock stated, “ “I problem anybody to indicate me an example of bias in Fox News Channel. (Ackerman, 2001)

However, looking at the people that had been in control of disseminating the news at Fox, it is hard to imagine that not considered one of the political stories covered by Fox did not favour the extra conservative facet of American politics. Media conglomerates, similar to News Corporation, have the ability to sway public opinion and with the increasing control they’ve entry to, it’s naive to think that they would not use this power to influence and sway public opinion to suit with their very own agendas and ideologies.

The measurement of the large media corporations of at present exceeds the size of the most important firms fifteen years ago by an element of ten. (McChesney, 1999). With this enhance in the measurement of the main media firms also comes the increased pursuit of earnings by these companies. Sometimes, this pursuit of revenue may be to the detriment of information and in flip democracy. Corporations look for stories that will attract and entertain readers and viewers, sometimes neglecting tales that maintain excessive info content material and reflect political policies and agendas.

McChesney refers to this must aximise earnings when he states “With the tremendous pressure to attract audiences however to maintain prices down and never take possibilities, the usual route of the media giants is to show to the tried and true formulation of intercourse and violence, at all times consideration getters” (McChesney, 1999, p34). With the elevated emphasis on revenue maximisation and the commercialisation of news media, there’s a danger that consumers of news media will cease to have entry to information concerning smaller points in society corresponding to local political policy/s and different extra localised issues.

Because these points are small and aren’t seen as income earners, or important issues, they may be sacrificed to make method for big stories and scandals. In other phrases, profit and revenue may turn into more essential, in the eyes of media conglomerates, than data. The pure dimension of the media and its affect over info has large impacts on democracy and politics. Meier (2011) sites Giddens in his work. Giddens talks in regards to the trivializing of political points and personas and states “ The media… have a double relation to democracy. On the one hand … the emergence of a global info society is a strong democratising pressure.

Yet, tv, and the opposite media, are inclined to destroy the very public house of dialogue they open up, through relentless trivializing, and personalizing of political points. Moreover, the growth of large multinational media corporations signifies that unelected enterprise tycoons can maintain enormous power” (p 298). In essence, Giddens is stating that whereas information media and media companies may broadcast political issues and policies, these views are somewhat destroyed with the constant emphasis on the politicians themselves. Because of this a substantial quantity of emphasis is taken away from the actual political issues.

An example of that is the constant criticism of Julia Gillard and her way of life. For instance, she is an single woman; her companion is a hairdresser. There can be constant analysis of her hairstyle, wardrobe, her figure and her voice. Gillard is constantly known for stabbing Kevin Rudd in the back. She has also been portrayed as untrustworthy in addition to a liar. Instead of the media evaluating and critiquing her insurance policies and looking out critically at her as a frontrunner, we see the media sensationalising the above trivial points as a substitute of concentrating on what she is doing for the nation politically.

As Media concentration and management increases, diversity of expression decreases. In all wholesome democracies, a wide range of assorted opinions are supplied, and media offer a big number of different positions, values and biases. No individual is obliged to simply accept any particular place or argument, but they’re encouraged to have put their very own views and criticisms forward. The core problem that comes with media focus is that it diminishes ideological variety within the media system.

Studies have been conducted that present that though there may be more media shops, there’s not essentially more info or variety in media. “Rather than the new platforms resulting in a diversity of voices, voices are actually being snuffed out… An evaluation of unbiased media confirmed that ninety six per cent of tales merely got here from recycling tales found within the mainstream press. However, The research additionally confirmed that the mainstream press was producing seventy three percent less information than 10 years ago” (independent Australia, 2011).

Curran states that “they can use their monetary power to drive new entrants out of the market by launching expensive promotional campaigns, offering discounts to advertisers or buying up key artistic personnel” (Curran, 2005) Because of the elevated energy of media companies, they have the ability to remove their competitors and therefore decrease the quantity of variety available to the patron. Robert W. McChesney outlines in his e-book Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy that there are three factors that allow democracy to work at its greatest.

The first is “ it helps when there aren’t vital disparities in economic wealth and property possession throughout the society” (1997, p5). The second requires there to be “ a way of neighborhood and a notion that an people well- being is set to no small extent by the community’s well-being” (1997, p5). Finally McChesney states “democracy requires that there be an efficient system of political communication” (1997, p5). Media concentration and control works to the detriment of each of those components.

Firstly the multi billion greenback media corporations, do not characterize economic equality inside the society, in fact they help to make the gap between the working courses and authority enhance. Media concentration disputes McChesney’s second issue as media moguls and companies have become increasingly centered on the pursuit of huge income and personal acquire, and aren’t heavily influenced around society’s wellbeing. Finally, an efficient system of political communication ought to be based round variety of reports protection and diversity of political issues, both domestically and nationally, large and small.

However, with the increasing measurement of firms the diversity of expression has steadily decreased. Australia has one of many highest media concentrations in the free world. With the growing control held by mass media conglomerates varied political points arise corresponding to political bias; the trivialisation and sensationalism of political issues within the pursuit of earnings; and the decreasing quantity of editorial diversity and expression. The above issues threaten democracy and the media have to be regulated and managed earlier than it threatens how the political system in Australia capabilities.

Governments need to handle media moguls, such as Rupert Murdock before they achieve an excessive amount of energy, and management, over political points and coverage. The key to a democratic society is freedom of knowledge, constructive political debate and communication. These key functions of a democratic society are being threatened by concentrated mass media and the rising control held by these corporations.

Aggressive Marketing in Social Media

The in depth utilization of social media as an aggressive marketing tool has been noticed in many fields over the earlier couple of years. It is extensively thought of to be a reasonable, accessible and acceptable methodology of reaching out to target viewers by varied companies. Customers and customers also use social media as a platform to put forth their reviews, publish their queries and search solutions to their issues since it is only a single click or contact away.

In a rustic like India with an ever-growing inhabitants, it is innocent to assume that the market for healthcare services is very competitive.

India is among the top few international locations well-known for medical tourism. It is established that India has an enormous deficit in the number of hospitals compared to patients, intensely growing healthcare costs and dynamic demographics. It is high time that the nation begins to focus on utilizing a powerful tool like social media advertising efficiently to bridge the gaps so as to ship enough healthcare facilities to each citizen throughout the nation.

The objective of this paper is to look into varied features in which hospitals and healthcare service providers can make use of social media handles to promote well being associated schooling, join well being professionals with the basic public and bring about a distinguished change in health-related habits amongst the folks. This paper additionally appears into the function of social media advertising in customer service, high quality of service and customer loyalty with respect to hospitals.

Advantages of mass media

Mass media refers collectively to all of the media applied sciences which are meant to reach a big audience via mass communication. There are numerous forms of mass media such as radio, tv, films, magazines, newspapers and the World Wide Web. Mass Media enjoys a really prominent role in our lives and thus, it is believed to affect our society. There are constructive and negative results of mass media on our society. This essay will discuss the benefits and disadvantages of mass media and state if the advantage or drawback outweighs the other.

The first benefit of mass media is that it promotes democracy. Talk exhibits and debates which are conducted on the radio provides folks chance to voice out their opinions and specific their views of ideas a couple of particular concern. This use of radios makes it a “free market place of ideas” the place folks get knowledgeable of the a quantity of ideas that can be learned a few subject. Also this benefit of mass media allows arguments to be otherwise of the mentioned perspective of an issue to voice out the contrasting emotions of individuals without the fear of being pointed to by the authorities if opinions are subjective.

Moreover, free press retains the federal government under fixed monitoring and checks. It helps most of the people to query points that highlight policy failures, maladministration, scandals and corruptions and this makes mass media the voice of the disadvantaged. A long custom of liberal theorists claimed that a free and unbiased press inside a nation can play an important position in the means of democratization by contributing in the path of the proper of expression, thought and conscience, strengthening the responsiveness of government to all citizens and offering a pluralist platform of political expression for a multiplicity of groups.

Thus, radio being an instance reveals the optimistic relationship between mass media and democracy.

Read extra: Advantages and Disadvantages of Mass Media

Furthermore, mass media promotes well being education. A means during which societies can develop is thru good health and studies assert that media has a duty to assist folks live a healthy life. In Uganda, for instance, FM radios conducted applications where medical doctors have been invited to a program to talk about common or particular illnesses, their causes, symptoms and how to avoid these illnesses or the place to hunt treatment. Namely, Radio-Wa carried out a program, Meet The Doctor, on which a health care provider from Lira Hospital appeared each Sunday from 5.00 pm and discussed popular medical issues, such as, current well being problems of reproductive health ailments and sexually transmitted ailments, for about an hour. Through one other analysis, it was found that radio listeners took lively half in these sorts of applications they usually were in a place to find out about many diseases that they were affected by unknowingly. Majority of the listeners were in a position to remedy their ailments. Thus, mass media assists individuals to keep knowledgeable about medical and well being issues.

In addition, mass media performs a really very important role in accounting for agricultural trade. Radio, one of the fastest forms of mass communication, has been utilized in communicating farm data to farmers for a protracted time and since then radio has been used as a mass communication for agricultural improvement. Rural communities want data on supply of enter, early warning systems for drought and diseases, new technologies and market value and details about their rivals. Such information through mass media contributes to the growth of agriculture. After taking a glance at issue such as the persevering with growth of market oriented agriculture and the increasing complexity of input requirements, research instructed that there’s a want for a continues training of farmers and extensions and thus concluded that radios and television would be a good way to disseminate information to them. Another analysis confirmed that fifty eight % of the respondents regarded radio as the simplest channel for dissemination of agricultural info. Thus information about commerce from mass media would likely result in benefiting the whole financial system alongside facet with the entrepreneurs of such buying and selling businesses.

On the other hand, mass media broadcasts adverse data to teen agers, particularly females, about intercourse associated matters. Movies and televisions are two examples of sources from the place teens take in details about sex and sexuality. These sources give unrealistic pictures of the portrayed subjects. A examine exhibits that a median teen ager is uncovered to roughly 14000 references of intercourse of which lower than a p.c of the references indicate details about abstinence, contraception, being pregnant risks, and sexually transmitted illnesses. In addition, mass media makes use of females as intercourse objects. In most music movies, females are approximately half the time dressed in clothes that expose their breast and rear ends. The sexual attractiveness of music videos and comparable imaged mass media encourages teens as nicely as adults to show themselves in public, inviting them to turn into victims of unethical crimes, corresponding to, rape.

Moreover, mass media depicts non realistic physique photographs. This disadvantage of mass media depiction leads majority of the viewers towards unhealthy consuming habits. Young people are getting inspired by skinny fashions on the TV to shed pounds and get their body into a horny picture. Researchers are claiming that males have gotten more insecure about their bodily look as advertisements are painting images of idealistic nicely constructed muscular physique. A examine discovered that women as young as eight years old are weight aware and are on strict diets. Many different females smoke to maintain their weight off and through analysis, it is discovered that there’s approximately 400% enhance in eating disorder since 1970.Like females, boys also tend to smoking to shed pounds. A survey by Teens Magazine reported that 27% of the females felt that media pressured them to have a perfect physique and 69% of women state that magazine models affect their thought of being slim and slender. Media’s position in portraying unrealistic photographs of physique figures can lead to severe well being problems and lethal illnesses as attendants to media are evidently being influenced by the false images.

In addition, mass media promotes gender and racial unfairness in a society. Women, via media, are treated in disrespectful manners and are referred by the use of unethical words, corresponding to, “a whore” or “a slut”. These kinds of words can be heard over the radio and seen in movies and televisions, for example, using the word “bitch” in reference to girls could be seen in wrestling packages exposed younger kids to witness it without supervision. Advertisements additionally promote gender biasness as they principally embrace girls in a sexual method to promote product. A examine on commercials confirmed that males are solely seen in 25% of the advertisements on scantily wears, for example, underwear advertisements. The similar research quoted that roughly 62% of white girls were noticed in the same kind of advisements and the figure for black ladies was 53% solely. Also, black girls had been mostly shown in animal prints and in predatory poses to focus on their powerlessness. Thus, mass media is brazenly bias towards the sexes and races of various varieties of people.

Besides its other disadvantages, mass media is understood to steer young kids to aggressive violence. Media violence is harmful to children as a outcome of of their incapability to distinguish between reality and fantasy. A research showed that by the age of 18, a mean teen ager has seen roughly 200000 acts of violence on television, ignoring other sources of mass media. These violent clips improve aggressiveness and anti social behavior in kids and it additionally increases their thirst for violence in the true life. Hence youngsters are traumatized by the violent pictures and consequently they end up committing violent acts themselves.

In conclusion, it is clearly argued that mass media has both advantages and drawbacks. The points which are mentioned in this essay evidently suggest that the disadvantage of mass media outweighs the advantages yet some of the disadvantages of mass media can be prevented.

Way of connecting individuals – Social Media

Social media is a method of connecting individuals or a medium for sharing ones concepts.

It’s applied sciences takes completely different varieties like internet, blogs, forums, social networks and so forth.

The qualities social media possess are attain, accessibility, immediacy, permanence.

Today’s youthful technology depend on social media fully as they like to be linked with the world via social networks like facebook, twitter and so forth.

If we look up the statistics 93% of youth are lively customers of internet and 73% own a cellphone.

They discover it as a place where they’ll share their ideas globally and the rising fascination for the devices like ipod, tab are as a end result of impression of social media.

It facilitates to have open communication leading to enhanced discovery and delivery.

Read extra: Speech about social media advantages and disadvantages essay

For college students social media provides lots of exposure and assist them to have updated information about varied applied sciences. It serves to kindle their ideas in their involved subjects.

One can even begin a weblog and discuss his views with everybody.

It helps so much for schooling where college students can refer data from ebooks, articles, shows and so forth.

And also they’ll browse about numerous job opportunities around the world through web sites like naukri, linkedin. They can addContent their resume and can view the company’s profile their applied sciences and may replace their information based on the present trends.

Advabtages and drawbacks of digital media

Electronic Medla Is a wealthy resource of services, provides, inventive and Innovative options to everyday domestic and skilled calls for. We are living within the period of digital media. None can avoid and escape from it. It is prevailing profound results on advertisement, training, data, politics and other social actions. If we glance around us what is there that’s unimaginable to? It is none apart from this electronic media that has made our life far more comfy and splendid.

Obviously this enhancement in know-how would have its banes and boons as well.

As far as the advantages of this advancement Is involved so they’re outnumbered. Electronic media has granted us with television, radio, computers, laptops, palmtops, mobiles and many more facilitating types of gear. Electronic media has not only benefitted us In single area however It has Its advantages In varied fields. Education has turn into far more convenient at present as printers, projectors, laptops and Internet has provided an unlimited alternative to get as a lot data as one can.

Now college students have an excellent alternative to boost their knowledge through accessing web. All he data in all subjects is much past one contact of a button. Teaching is made extra understandable through the use of projectors CD’s or DVD’s via this student develops more interest at school lectures. Learning by way of web can additionally be fairly useful you’ll be able to play the video or read the page once more till you’re able catch it. Electronic media has entirely changed the mode of advertisement. Different enticing and vibrant policies are made to encourage the customer to purchase the product.

Furthermore, It provides intensive options In selecting the specified product. Electronic media has revolutionized the Information system. Now everybody can be conscious himself with current Information and updates. So many TV channels In the nation and Internet web sites Justify the Importance and advantages of electronic media where everybody has a freedom to change his view level freely. You are bored then you have a great variety to supply u a supply of leisure one can play on laptops, computer systems, and so on or watch TV or can use social community.

This social network can be one of a great source of digital media it not only connects us to several peoples but also helps in advertising or much social and political information are additionally conveyed to us. The worldwide politics are tremendously influenced by the digital media. Notnlng In tnls world Is Ideal or perTect tnereTore wnen tnls Destowment 0T science has offered us with its benefits it surely has several disadvantages in it as well. No doubt it’s a source of leisure however people are rather waisting plenty of their precious time by way of this.

Internet the best assist of us right now can be an excellent help to very large number of frauds and theft on internet. One’s personal account may be hacked and their personal details can be viewed which is obviously dangerous and ofcourse nobody would need that to occur with them. Research evidence has amassed over the past half-century that exposure to violence on television, films, and most lately in video games increases the risk of violent conduct on the viewer’s half Just as rising up in an environment crammed with actual violence increases the chance of violent conduct.

Furthermore there might be big amount of contents of vulgarity both in form of such vulgar games or in type of such software, CD’s or websites which may result in crimes and bad mentality of our younger technology. Another facet of its disadvantages is that equipments are really expensive to buy nd even when one affords to buy it is once more difficult and costly to keep up. It is a media through which the West propagates in opposition to Islam and other opponents.

If training is being revolutionize then the authorities would absolutely cost good amount of fees which will limit a poor man to give his kids this modern schooling consequently poor or center class children are disadvantaged of this way of education. TV, computer systems, etc are giving rise to eye-sight and obesity problems. In this century digital media has gained preference over other issues it’s not Just used for any single purpose however have vast purposes. But for all what it could harm then that actually relies upon upon our usage to this bounty of science.

We can take some protective measures to be safe Just in case but if we are being careless in means we use digital media then that would be biased to say that this media has many harmful impact in its usage. It is alleged who will win the media war will be most successful. Concluding it may be said that if we need to be dominant in the world, we will have to merely accept the problem of electronic media in any other case we will be limping and looking at others. Amna Knan Biochemistry English 2042 B. S. II 12 months Submitted To: Miss Zunaira Sultan

A Gender Stereotypes in Media

A gender stereotypes is a generalized view or perception about attributes or characteristics, or the roles which are delivered to be possessed by, or performed by ladies and men. A gender stereotype is dangerous when it limits women’s and men’s capacity to develop their private abilities, it is also incorrect when it ends in a violations of human rights and fundamental freedom. (OHCHR 1996-2019) Media has an enormous influence in this world, it plays an important function in every people’s lives.

Through media we will connect and relate to the happenings in our surroundings and to the world. Televisions, magazines, web and any types of media are one of the several types of media. Media also impacts people’s thoughts and thoughts through some thing they’ve been see on any kinds of media which will perceived them. This also can give people a constructive and adverse effects on how they think on what they see using the media.

The media is embedded with promoting not simply on television, DVD’S. billboards and web. According to a pioneer media analyst and feminist activist Jean Kilbourne, the common of American is bombarded with approximately 3, 000 ads on a regular basis. Sut Jhally a founder of media education basis added that promoting is a very powerful form of social communication in trendy society. Gender roles in advertising are labeled as masculine and female where as it is continuously creating stereotypes.

Advertising and media in gender position stereotyping promotes all men as assertive, severe, strong, highly effective, and unbiased.

In girls promoting promotes them as passive, attractive, stunning, skinny and dependent. This move of images towards individuals normalize how gender function stereotypes happens. In advertisement, women are also portrayed in a sexual method and are extra objectified than men. Scholars found out that males are additionally increasingly being sexualized and objectified in media. Given the example here are how promoting and media promotes gender position stereotypes:

  1. When it involves work others imagine that man is succesful on something than lady.
  2. They determine that women are the weakest.
  3. Gender discrimination
  4. When it come to making use of to work some firms won’t settle for you because they think that you just don’t have the power to do what males can do.

Sexual objectification is how others view or deal with men and women as an object, or how the circumstances and influences behaviors that subsequently achieve the socially defined perfect of ‘beauty’ and how the person are treated as a sexual want. This exhibits that the body is represented by a merely objects that folks desire. The representation of sexual objectification and gender position in advertising are highly effective dynamic in our society. As you’ll have the ability to discover, women and men are sexually objectified by others to sell some merchandise and goal to impose values, pictures, sexuality, romance and so on. Advertising and media promotes sexual objectification by exhibiting that males are sexually objectified by the power and energy of their body that’s conveyed by their muscles and higher body.

In contrast, women are also advertise and promotes in media by conveying and focusing their sexual traits emphasis on the breasts and lower physique. In Media, sexual objectification portrays women and men in a sexual and demeaning method. According to Fredrickson & Roberts (1997), Objectification theory refers to the internalization, the idea of being valued as a sexual object for another’s pleasure. That’s why sexual objectification by a male involves woman being considered primarily as an object of male sexual need somewhat than as a complete particular person vice versa to the attitude of the ladies to men. Sexual objectification also can result in self objectification, which a men or a women are sometimes internalizing the observer’s perspective toward their selves. This occurs to men and women who internalize objectification messages as a half of their self price can even promotes the development of faulty understanding of how to build relationship between a man and a women.

In this case, lady are essentially the most viewed who’s been objectified on this world. Women are promoted always in commercials and media as a end result of they see them as a weak and fragile object to others. As a result of sexual objectification, increasingly advertisement use disrespectful images depicting violence in the path of ladies. Because of the relative dominance of the male in advertising pictures, and the illustration of ladies as passive sexual objects, these pictures typically indicate or overly display sexual violence.

Citing some examples in accordance with sexual objectification are:

  1. In a journal where there are women who show their bodies in bikini.
  2. A clothing line who’s exposing some photos of a men who’s half naked where people see his masculine physique.
  3. A sexual image within the media
  4. Advertisement that represents sexuality in media as a promoting pitch meant for viewers.

We are affect a lot by the media and we are also uncovered to it that our ideas may be perceived on how we should see and use the media correctly. According to Marshall & Sensoy, 2011, p 7 that ‘Critical media literacy requires that we should ask critical questions in regards to the relationship between power and media’.

A business proposal on direct marketing in social media

This paper is a research proposal about direct advertising within the social media. With the involvement with the error of computer systems, methods of managing advertising have been elevated. Each technique comes with its main benefits and constraints. This analysis proposal targets on evaluating the usefulness of social media in direct advertising.

The improvement of social media as a direct channel isn’t without its challenges. According to the examine, the highest two constraints for entrepreneurs came all the way down to in search of the most relevant techniques for gauging success and launching business aims.

Being capable of measure success is important for any direct advertising work, and that is why it is significant to not disregard this important step. With the right trappings, entrepreneurs can produce viral social media operations that can be track, restrained, and improved to maximise access and return on funding (Ellsworth & Ellsworth, 1994, p. 386). This analysis paper targets to establish how effective is managing direct advertising in social Medias.

(b) Scope of the study

        Social media is a treasured new instrument in a direct marketer’s toolbox, nonetheless it needs to be improved and utilised correctly to undertake the duties.

Creating it casual for purchasers to share publication or Web site content material over social grids is just the start. Direct marketers ought to enhance viral programs that completely exploit the system’s true capability. Finally, one must identify methods to measure their success, which can allow persons to fine-tune their exertions going onward.

Leveraging social media as a direct system additionally allows elementary tenure, which is crucial to capitalize on triumph across all sections.

Eradicating many homeowners not only rationalizes the follow, but also accelerates having one unified approach that can home the enterprise targets of a quantity of departments, corresponding to public relations, customer service, and gross sales. Clumsy management by numerous sections can result in diversified communications that hinder the company’s ability to draw followers, fans, or different influencers. Social media marketers comprehend the worth in directing targeted messages and gauging their success, which is why it’s not astonishing that many corporations are leveraging their e mail advertising departments to board on social media creativities.

2.zero How to conduct the study

(a) Methodology: Research Philosophy, Approach, Strategy and Methods

         There are various approaches of acquiring data while conducting analysis. These methods of acquiring information discuss with as analysis methods. Research methods include personal interviews, literature searches, focus groups, and e mail surveys, phone surveys, speaking with folks and mail surveys. Literature search entails going by way of already sourced materials to acquire data. Materials which might be readily available with info are similar to newspapers, magazines, related trade publications, company literature, online supplies and some other related and already revealed supplies. This method of conducting research is certainly one of the most cost-effective strategies for conducting research. Online information is a fast analysis course of that lies underneath this class of data research strategies. It is very fast in acquiring data. Talking with folks is one other good technique of gathering info for a project. It is most relevant at preliminary stages of conducting research for a project. It is generally most popular when looking for the knowledge that’s not publicly out there (Cohen& Morrison, 2003, p. 179). To obtain adequate info on the effectiveness of directing advertising in social media selected to make use of various methods for sourcing the data, each strategy of obtaining the information is analysed under and its effectiveness and effectivity on info ship.

The info to be research will be too new once more to be got in literature assets, therefore, preferring to search for it from actual persons. For example, speaking with folks shall be through seminars, affiliation meetings, customers, suppliers, and all other forms of business conversations. A focus group is worried with a examine to explore people’s attitudes and ideas. It will be used to acquire information about one thing new available within the market and effectiveness of social media in promoting its consciousness. Group focus technique obtains the data from a particular group of the people called the pattern. The information acquired could presumably be primarily based on the process of selecting a pattern. The most preferred technique for pattern selection is a random selection; that is most popular as a outcome of, all the characters stand an equal probability to be choose. Email and web analyses are comparatively authentic and few is on the market concerning the end result of sampling bias on internet surveys. While it is noticeable that internet survey most regards effective and quickest means of dishing out a examine, the demographic outline of the web handler will not represent the overall population, though this is altering. Before doing an email or web examine, One shall fastidiously contemplate the impact that this bias may need on the results. Social media embrace similar to Facebook, twitter, eBay amongst many others. They are pleasant in nature and this reduces the might processes of formalities needed. In social media, personal conduct with a client is ensured; a person can talk directly to the client and therefore reach him or her in a better way to clarify her or him about his merchandise.

Personal interviews are a way to get detailed and all-inclusive data. They engage one individual interviewing one other person for individual or comprehensive data. Personal interviews are very expensive because of the person-to-person nature of the interview. Normally, as an interviewer, I will ask questions from a documented questionnaire and list the solutions word-perfect. Occasionally, a questionnaire is merely a listing of topics that the examine wants to discuss with a business skilled. Personal interviews due to their expense are on principally used solely when subjects are not probable to react to different survey techniques. This will enable the researcher to get information about the effectiveness of direct advertising from individuals that I would not have got by way of another analysis methodology.

Telephone surveys are the fastest method of collecting info from a relatively cumbersome pattern. As an assessor, I will observe an organized writing that’s essentially equivalent to a written questionnaire. However, different from a mail survey, a phone survey would allow the prospect for positive judgement looking out. Telephone surveys usually last fewer than ten minutes. Typical costs are between four and six thousand dollars and they can be achieved in two to four weeks. Mail surveys are a price present means of amassing info. They are greatest for big sample quantities, or when the sample is sourced from a large geographical area. They cost a little less than telephone interviews, however they take over double as long to finish normally, eight to 12 weeks. Since there is no interviewer, there is not any probability of interviewer prejudice. The foremost shortcoming is the incapability to review respondents for more full information.

In conducting research on social media advertising, one wants to outline the target group nicely. The goal group shall be outlined clearly, as a result of the mode of promoting will be a framed in a approach to go nicely with it. By conducting good analysis, data that’s the most elementary for a set type of advertising will be acquired. It is nice to note that even time and the greatest way of selling chosen dictates the goal group of managing the advertising. Social media marketing offers a large geographical commercial. Social Medias is essentially the most essential boards the place a person can meet a really large variety of people from completely different ethnic groups. It may be very easy to seize the goal group inside a really short as opposed to all different channels of advertisement.

3.0 Why is there need to study this topic

3.1 Contribution to the field

       While some firms perceive social Medias as mere channels for building knowledge on merchandise, there is proof that direct entrepreneurs are competing to possess big demand era potential. The evaluation outlines the “land grab” that is going on in organizations over regulation of social media; with 29 per cent of respondents say social media is being shared by many departments. However, possession by direct marketing acquires the highest with 36 per cent of respondents. As the setting of reference, solitary 9 p.c of respondents suggest public relations sectors personal that social media. That social media is a workable and influential direct channel is vibrant. Nevertheless, the evaluate also exposes social media’s robust linking with e-mail promoting. In fact, 66% of salespersons plan to assimilate the 2 channels in 2009. This transfer wholly makes logic: Email is an important part of social media, as it is relied upon to keep members educated concerning the up-to-date news and informs. Additionally, assimilating the two networks permits entrepreneurs to get a extra opinions of the customer, which is necessary for conveying effective and related communications (Bird, 2000, p.126).

Direct mail is a posted mail that publicizes one’s business and its items and providers. There are many various classes of junk mail. For instance catalogues, postcards, envelope mailers. Direct mail operations are sometimes, despatched to all supply customers in a zone or to thoroughly clients on a advertising list. Telemarketing entails contacting viable customers by way of the phone to sell services or products. Telemarketing is skilful of generating new buyer prospects in huge bulks. Nevertheless, a fruitful marketing campaign entails scheduling and using right and well-researched buyer data to match buyer profiles to product profiles. Email advertising is a cost-effective, simple, and measurable methodology of reaching shoppers. It can embody e-newsletters and promotional emails to create new leads or deals for existing purchasers, or ads that can perform in different business’s emails.

3.2 The significance of the study

        The research is essential, as it might examine social media as a forum for conducting direct marketing. Through the examine additionally one gets to know a quantity of contributions of various strategies in giving information about social media. By researching on direct marketing and social media, one gets to appreciate its effort in rising the information of different merchandise of a business. The examine will permit entrepreneurs in selecting probably the most applicable methodology of product promotion sooner or later.

Social media can be used successfully as a advertising device for business as it gives somebody an opportunity to work together immediately with his/her clients and sometimes share vital services or products info. Consider growing a profile for a enterprise firm that allows one to promote your services while also cheering customers to ship feedback by leaving feedback; that is the recommendation from one of many social network house owners. It is of very nice significance to undertake direct advertising in social media (Sheehan, 2010, p. 45).

Taking a lesson from directing advertising, social media advertising is greatest served only by specializing in actions that end in measurable results. If individuals imagine that business page gathers fan with higher affinity to the brand, maybe researchers can even consider that we would not be able to measure the effects of that brand loyalty it in a way that is notably satisfying. It is for more productive to consider social media as a direct advertising system, and create campaigns and observe ends in a way that is related to direct advertising. Not all clients are created equal. Some customers fall into what entrepreneurs check with as ‘heavy user’ category. These prospects buy services or products with the very best profit margin or simply frequent one’s business more typically than the common. This important group is probably the most priceless asset and one in all probability wish you had extra like them. A business grows because of trusted customers and nicely crediting policies. Through direct advertising, it might be very simple to create consciousness of the existence of your small business establishment. Social media supplies an setting to conduct direct marketing that help to improve on gross sales (Zarrella, 2010, p. 109).

In direct advertising, we know that folks are most likely to befriend with others who’re much like themselves; they stay in the identical neighbourhoods, interact in related actions, and so forth. This tendency makes concentrating on profitable clients much simpler. Most buyer databases are transactional in nature. They capture sales, product numbers, and buyer names. They don’t, nevertheless, assist to create messages or track results. To make issues monitoring effectively, one will want to connect the nationwide area to your customer data, which makes note of their social media affiliation. As new clients are acquired, it is useful if coupons or specials that the new customer would possibly use are tracked again to a social media outlet, permitting you to see outcomes over time. In addition, one might be able observe results that provide some substance to the true contribution that larger model loyalty of social media followers offers to your business. This offers a glimpse of how direct advertising in a social media, is useful in monitoring customers (Kotler & Armstrong, 1991, p. 283).

4.zero Timeline of the study

         When the objective is to supply a fast response to a coupon or incentive, conventional direct marketing channels are one of the best. Coupons carry out well online, however conventional media guidelines up higher. Nevertheless, one can use social media to add significance to the customer interaction by lashing target customers to interactive and participative website or any other informational areas. This adds worth to the usefulness of direct advertising within the social media, based on earlier research proposal (Evans, 2008, p.19).

5.zero Effectiveness of undertaking the duty:

           The research proposal is ready complete enough to cater for calls for for a marketer in conducting research. The different methodology employed would ensure every detail concerning directing in social media is realized by the analysis. This analysis methodology lacks discrimination of standards or organizations to ensure that it might supply for the data from all teams and ranges of individuals in the world. The speed and accuracy of obtaining the information are ensured within the research proposal via using new technologies and electronic devices similar to computers within the analysis. These digital devices would guarantee secure storage of information for reference reasons. It additionally provides a fast accessibility of information for the reason that storage is convenient to retrieve quickly. This would guarantee researchers the boldness of carrying out the duty successfully.

Whichever means one approaches it, the usage of enterprise social networks may be very doubtless a side in some side of your advertising plan (Sargeant & West, 2001, p 113).

6.0 Ethical issues in advertising and social media

            The advantage of business making the product and to their prospects via using on-line support forums is evident. The difficulties are solved as a rule by different customers, lowering the overall support expenses. While product inventors do an honest career of testing and anticipating points, given the problem of real life, they only cannot match a span of utility environments which would possibly be prone to exist. Unexpected errors happen. Proceeding to on-line help, the one actual answer is a name to customer service. The difficulty is, although, that not solely is direct and personal customer assist crew is commonly unable to breed the issue for the precise purpose it occurred within the first place: they fail to have a specific set up or environment that their products have been deployed in (Hofacker, 2001, p. 831).

The extent to which direct marketing is beneficial to an organization growth could be very important. The main contribution of social media is that it facilitates to deliver awareness of services and products to people. Social media additionally serve to offer a large geographical coverage in advertising (Tuten, & Solomon, 2013, p 78). In the case of analysis on the enterprise, social Medias also present readily available information. Direct advertising is cost effective when accomplished in the social media relatively to when carried out by different channels (Zimmerman, 2013, p. 311). It’s was free to create an advert in a social media page and the data reaches many individuals inside much less time. Direct advertising in social media would additionally help to improve on clearing the present bias of a product. A bias a few product may quantity from false details about a product principally generated by the competitor. The list on usefulness of direct marketing in social media marketing cannot be depleting. For a profitable growth in market dimension, direct advertising in social Medias is the most applicable strategy (Raab, 2010, p. 99).


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Source document

The effect of media Globalization

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction2
2.0 Definition: Globalization & Digital media2
3.0 The Globalization of media: Switching to digital media3 4.0 Positive Impact of globalization on Digital Media3
5.0 Criticism / Negative Impact of globalization on Digital media5 6.0 Conclusion6

1.0 Introduction
Digital media is an obvious outcome of modern science and technology. Globalization of media discourse by establishing digital media, that is, virtual world space, has created new patterns of action and new ways of interaction and social relations, which led to a complex reordering of human interaction patterns in space and time, resulting in twentieth century, an increase in public space. Globalization is now a globalization of media and communications-information companies.

These large companies are concerned with growth, which means they must develop relations with other powers in the state. Therefore, can claim to act as the fourth power in the state, with a civic purpose and commitment to denouncing human rights abuses? Decisive factor that contributed to the expansion of globalization is undoubtedly the media. Mass media have recently taken a magnitude that has never met before. Internet, television, presses access to information of all people, regardless of what side of the globe they are, and with great speed. We begin today to speak more than a media culture, which compete with the traditional form of culture.

2.0 Definition: Globalization & Digital media

2.1 Globalization
Globalization is considered to be the movement of people, information, goods
and service from one country to another. Globalization has led to the spread of cultures around the world and has greatly impacted them. 2.2 Digital Media

In the definition of digital media it can be said that Digital media is a form of electronic media where data are stored in digital (as opposed to analog) form. It can refer to the technical aspect of storage and transmission (e.g. hard disk drives or computer networking) of information or to the “end product”, such as digital video, augmented reality, digital signage, and digital audio or digital art. This is the fast pace era through the use of technology. Home recording of television increasingly advanced this medium. Digital programming can be downloaded instantly.

This technology enables broadcasters to use the digital technologies available today to create numerous of channels. Service providers offer on-demand that gives people the opportunity to have the power of when and where they watch or hear their media. Digital technology has converged television and computers into one single medium. 3.0 The Globalization of media: Switching to digital media

Media globalization cannot be stopped. It is a result of new communications technology. It is also the prerequisite and facilitator for all other forms of globalization. Multi-national media is critical to global industries. Many feel that we ought to enjoy the benefits of media globalization, such as global communication, rather than fearing and attempting to avoid the consequences—which ironically include hindrance of free speech.

Communicating internationally has never been easier. Thanks to new media platforms, we can have a video conversation with a loved one who is 10,000 miles away or keep up-to-date on the stock market with our cell phones. The internet can also improve our health or save our lives. Your doctor may send an X-ray or MRI to another doctor in India or China for a second opinion and have it within hours. Through the worldwide web, endless amounts of information are readily available to us. (Hickman) Despite the benefits, there are also very real consequences. A majority of all media is owned by a very small percentage of wealthy corporations. Local media is being swallowed alive by conglomerations. Freedom of speech is threatened by these multinational corporations; they drown out the voice of local media with profit-maximizing formulas. Media moguls have the most to gain from globalization of media. Their power is concentrated; they have merged, often with companies that are unrelated to the field. 4.0 Positive Impact of globalization on Digital Media

The discussion about the impacts of globalization on digital media can be initiated with the positive impacts of globalization on it: In the modern world, digital media supplies a cultural menu for millions of individuals and shape their cultural experience; the actual age witnessing the modeling of mass culture and media culture, because of the cultural impact of media, as a complex system, with certain ways of social communication, certain languages, new cultural types. Therefore, in globalization process, digital-media is not only a vehicle of culture, but also an agent of its socialization and a producer of a new culture.

Expansion and multiplication of the social effects of special events occurring in an area of the world, to world-wide, are social effects which we consider positive, the main protagonist being media, the most powerful and wider multiplier effects producer radiant factor. Media globalization helped the information production and distribution; it is known that the production rate of information doubles every eight years. In addition, information is produced at a rate that is four times faster than the consumption of information [5]. Media globalization with increasing abundance of media text production has different effects, which are investigated by communication researchers; is a broad topic that includes television, radio, film, music, internet and other forms of digital media.

Figure 3 Digital media: medium to the information highway UNESCO published in 1978 “The Declaration of Fundamental Principles Concerning the Contribution of Mass Media”; article Vu refers to the mass media effectively contribution to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to the promotion of human rights, and to the establishment of a more just and equitable international economic order . (htt) The beneficial effects of digital media in the process of building a virtual reality may include: protective feeling, increasing human solidarity and social force, rebuilding the social networks and communities or public space, feelings of great intensity, the strengthening of collective memory, regular updating of the memories of society, acceptance of change, aesthetic education, consumer awareness in decision- making, etc.

On the information highways we are, for the first time in history, faced with an economy that focuses on a source not only exhausted, but more than that, it increases. (Cuilenburg, Schölten, & Noomen, 2004) In postindustrial society, information is a power factor – knowledge is power. Digital-media globalization helped the information production and distribution, especially that the information is produced in a certain rhythm which is fourth time bigger than the information is “consumed”; includes television, radio, movies, music, internet and digital media. All the instruments of mediate communication have become more and more significant in our daily life. 5.0 Criticism / Negative Impact of globalization on Digital media

The biggest criticism of the impact of globalization on digital media is that a few multinational corporations dominate the global mass-media. The multinational corporations become more and more integrated inside the national media, so that, through new companies, are able to distribute their own products. The free market policies have created a properly medium for foreign investments in mass media; the World Trade Organization is threatening local culture by encouraging foreign investments in local media, mainly in developing nations, as a form of cultural protectionism This researcher consider that the effect of spreading the mass-media multinational corporations lead to cultural imperialism, a loss of local cultural identity. In sum, the global commercial-media system is radical in that it will respect no tradition or custom, on balance, if it stands in the way of profits. (McChesney) Marketing, as distortion of the natural logic of cultural aesthetics in industrial production has resulted in destruction of authentic culture. By symbols, symbolic productions become real, that is pure goods.

The researcher believes that the handling is achieved through integration into a unified system of all productions, from music to movies and television and their structural homogeneity, so that all productions become equivalent and equal, resulting in a phenomenon of socio-cultural homogsization. The globalization of production, distribution and consumption of media has the paradoxical effect of social fragmentation, cultural and identity. Another point of view on globalization process concerning media activity: the news once was a good in limited quantity (and still is in countries run by dictatorships). But, in democratic countries, the news and the information overflow us from all the directions; the right stifles us. The Greek philosopher Empedocle [17] said that the world in composed of four elements: air, water, earth and fire; in our globalized world, information has become so abundant that can be considered a fifth element. (Ignacio)

Information and globalization, mixed, influence the way news are received by public. The researchers against globalization consider news as poisoning, polluting our brains, manipulating in order to inoculate us, as media consumers, subconscious ideas that are not our own. For this reason, the same researchers consider that is absolutely necessary to establish ecology of news, to sort real news from lies, to decontaminate the news we receive. Just as we can buy organic food less contaminated, we need biological news .The same authors insist that the news consumers should demand global owner media groups to show respect for the truth, because the news is legitimated only when are engaged in a search for truth. One of the oldest media theories against globalization is the cultural imperialism This theory is studied by John Tomlinson who sees the cultural imperialism as a modernity critique as an argument against the dominative trends of global development.

Frankfurt School, as an important methodology in mass communication study, is well known for its Marxist traditions, for harsh critique of capitalism and liberal democracy inside the media globalization study. Lastly, media globalization means the globalization of the communication & information companies; these are concerned with growth, which means they must develop relations with other powers in the state; therefore cannot claim anymore that arc acting as the fourth power in the state, with a civic purpose and commitment to denounce abuses on human rights. They are no more interested in correcting the malfunctions of democracy and creating a better political system They are no more interested to be the fourth power in the state and much less to act as a countervailing power; even when media is a fourth state power, this power is just an adjunct of the political and economic powers and operates as an additional power – media power, in order to influence people, not always in a positive way. (EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON MASS COMMUNICATION) 6.0 Conclusion

Digital-media and economic liberalization are now intimately linked. Therefore we believe it is important to analyze how people around the world could impose a more major media ethics and a commitment to truth and respect for ethic codes in order for journalists to operate according to their own consciences rather than the media organizations, media companies and editors interest. In international communication development of the last two decades, the most significant moment can be considered the increasing concentration of mass/media ownership within and across national borders. The worldwide trend toward deregulation and privation of the digital media sector has facilitated this process. There are two important implications for the way news influence our life, because of the concentration of mass-media ownership: first, news commercialization in a certain frame of aesthetic, technical and professional standardization at the global level; second, the increasing of soft media content, as a result of alliances between the international “media moguls” and political forces. These two influences are parts of the globalization process.

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://portal.unesco.org^en/ev.phpURL_ID=13 176&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_ SECTION=201.html Cuilenburg, J. J., Schölten, O., & Noomen, G. W. (2004). Humanitas. 59. EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON MASS COMMUNICATION. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2013, from www.readperiodicals.com: http://www.readperiodicals.com/201110/2561867691.html Hickman, M. (n.d.). Efects of Media Globalisation.

I. R. (n.d.). Set the Media Free, in Le Monde diplomatique, nr. 10, oct. 2003. Retrieved September 2013, from mondediplo.com: http://mondediplo.com/2003/10/ McChesney, R. (n.d.). The New Global Media. Living in the information age: A new media reader, 93.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior

Social media has increasingly become a constant in our lives. Many people reach out to friends or family through social media, sometimes on a daily basis. Through Facebook, people can view pictures and read status updates. Twitter allows others to read status updates that are limited to 140 characters. Each of these social media tools has its advantages and disadvantages but each opens up the doors to creating an online community with others that may not be possible offline.

George Herbert Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism states that our interactions with individuals and communities shape our identities and influence our actions. Is it possible that his theory could apply to the ways in which a persons’ social media community influences his or her purchase decisions? This paper will seek to find the answer. The following thesis will include an analysis of Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism, a literature review about communities in social media, the method used to collect data, an analysis of the data, and implications from the study.

Importance of the Study
As a professional marketer, I have always been fascinated with social media. At the very essence of human nature is a desire to be social. Social media has provided humans an outlet to create online communities making it easier to network with others, which satisfies some of our deepest social wants and needs. Additionally, social media has allowed users to increase the amount of people included in their personal communities, as social media is both viral, which is to say that information travels rapidly between social media users, and transparent.

Social media can be considered transparent as users of sites such as Facebook and Twitter post their thoughts, pictures, and locations to their followers, which often consist of people who are not close friends or family. Social media tools have become superb channels for marketers to reach consumers. The article titled, “Expand your Brand Community Online” states that social media is important for marketers because it allows them to dialogue directly with consumers, which in turn engages consumers directly with company brands (Hanlon, Patrick, Hawkins, & Josh, 2008). Many companies, such as Audi and Dunkin’ Donuts have used social media very effectively to reach consumers. According to Wasserman (2011), out of all other brands on Facebook, Audi’s fans are the most engaged of all major corporate brands on Facebook.

That consumers can reach out to companies and their personal communities via social media has created a power shift between companies and consumers. Lee (2010) contends that social media has become vastly popular for “normal people” because it allows anyone to interact with content or deliver it (p. 112). This model of communication is vastly superior to the traditional format of one-way communication between major media and its intended audience (Lee, p. 112).

A company that uses social media is more likely to create relationships with members of its target demographic rather than traditional media where conversations between the medium and the audience are unlikely. Now, social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter have made it easy for consumers to post product reviews and reach out to other like-minded individuals in their communities. As social media infiltrates our lives as consumers, before people make purchases, they are increasingly reaching out to their social media communities for opinions (Drell, 2011).
Consumers often want others’ opinions about items before they make a commitment to purchase. For example, they may ask about the color of a shirt, or if they should purchase a large or small purse. Social media communities provide an outlet for consumers to seek opinions, but how often and at what point in the purchase process do consumers reach out to their online communities for advice?

Do the opinions provided by social media communities actually impact consumers’ purchases? These are among the key questions I will seek to answer in this thesis, including the overarching question of whether social media communities impact consumers’ purchase behavior. An exploration of Mead’s concept of the “self” reveals how it can help a company realize its brand identity and ensure the “self” portrayed on Facebook remains consistent with its understanding, and the public’s understanding of the brand. In Mead’s theory of symbolic interaction he suggested we create our “self” by figuratively peering through a looking glass to see ourselves as others do, which leads to the creation of an identity (Griffin, 2009, p. 63).

As we interact with others, the “self” is constantly changing and adapting to further shape our identities, which, Mead contends, are ultimately based on how others view our “self” (Griffin, p. 63). Mead’s concept of the “self” is an apt metaphor for the process in which a Facebook profile is created and refined through communicative engagement with consumers in a digital marketplace. Using Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism, this thesis will attempt to identify how social media communities affect consumers’ online purchasing behavior.

To help answer the question of how people’s social media communities affect their online purchases, I will use numerous research methods to gather data relevant to my thesis topic. For the collection of literary sources, I will use two primary sources. First is the online databases offered through the Foley Center Library at Gonzaga. There, I will discover and collect academic peer-reviewed journal articles about the history of social media, the psychology behind the creation of personal communities and how people interact with them, and current trends in consumer purchase behavior. Another resource I will use is the online magazine Advertising Age, a primary resource for marketing professionals that includes articles about trends in digital marketing.

From Advertising Age, I will search for articles about new technologies that help consumers more efficiently reach out to their social network communities. ProQuest will be my main literature database source as it contains a wide variety of academic journals suited for a thesis. Advertising Age will be a complementary source while the databases Business Source Complete and Communication & Mass Media Complete will likely serve as complementary sources.

I will employ survey research to help collect data. I will create a survey instrument with a list of questions that pertain to people social media communities and how these communities affect their purchases. The survey will include a Likert-like scale of 1-3, and will allow for collection of data regarding people’s rankings of the influence their social media communities have over their purchases. Additionally, the survey will include situational questions, i.e., “If you were to buy a large purchase, would opinions from your Facebook friends impact your purchase?” Lastly, the survey also will gather information that could have an impact on the thesis question, including respondents’ age, other demographic data, and item amounts purchased online vs. offline. Organization of Remaining Chapters

The following thesis will be organized into the following chapters. The second chapter will be the literature review. This chapter will cover Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism and its relation to the creation of online communities. The literature review will also review the theory of hyper-symbolic interactionism as well as the benefits to online communities, how social media has transformed the power dynamic between companies and consumers, the differences in millennials’ and non-millennials’ use of the Internet, and gender differences in relation to Facebook.

The third chapter of this thesis will introduce the scope and the methodology used to gather data. The scope of the project will be limited to people who live in Western Washington, use social media, and purchase products online. The methodology will be a Likert-like survey distributed through the survey tool Surveymonkey.com. The fourth chapter will analyze the data gathered from the survey. Lastly, the fifth chapter will conclude the thesis. It will contain method limitations as well as future studies that should be considered.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 10


Symbolic interactionism theory was created by Mead to describe how humans form their identity and construct a reality of social norms through interactions with others. Although human interaction methods have changed over time, most recently with the digital age, Mead’s theory remains relevant in today’s world. Applying the theory of symbolic interactionism to online networks, it can be hypothesized that online communities shape individuals’ identity and reality, and provide a vast network with which to create relationships. This literature review will further explore Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism and its application to online communities within social networks. It will also explore how social network users create relationships that can influence their online purchasing decisions.

Overview of Symbolic Interactionism Theory

The theory of symbolic interactionism includes three core principles that describe how humans interact with each other through meaning, language, and thought to create our “self” (Griffin, 2009, p. 60). Mead believed that interactions are “central to the development of one’s social identity and functioning according to shared norms and values” (Tormey, 2007). Meaning is found in how a person constructs a social reality (Griffin, p. 60). The way one interacts with others, verbally or nonverbally, derives from the meaning one assigns to various interactions (Griffin, p. 60) For example, a person may see a protestor on the street picketing very loudly. This person may view the protestor as obnoxious and intrusive, whereas another person may view this person as progressive and inspirational. Each of these people has assigned a meaning to the protestor, which in return constructs a reality.

The protestor’s true meaning, however, cannot be concretely defined, for each person will assign a different meaning to the protestor and interact based on the meaning he or she has constructed. The meanings one assigns to another is created through the use of language (Griffin, 2009, p. 60). When the first person sees the protestor, he or she uses language to assign a certain meaning to the protestor. Calling the protestor obnoxious assigns a negative meaning to the protestor through language.

To Mead, “naming is the basis for human society” (Griffin, p. 61). Lastly, thought occurs when we refer to our inner dialogue to interpret symbols and their meaning (Griffin, p. 62). According to Mead, a person needs language to create this inner dialogue (Griffin, p. 62). Without symbolically interacting, one cannot think and create this inner dialogue, which in turn allows a person to assign meaning to others (Griffin, p. 62). When the three principles of meaning, language, and thought occur, the idea of a “self” begins to emerge (Griffin, p. 63). Mead believed we had to look outwardly to truly understand our inner selves (Griffin, 2009, p. 63).

This occurred when the concept of the looking glass self was used (Griffin, p. 63). When the looking glass self is applied, people construct their identity based on how others view them (Griffin, p. 63). One’s “self” is created through interactions with others involving the
use of language (Griffin, p. 63). Thus with each new interaction, a person’s self can change, which is how we evolve and create our identities. When we interact on a one-to-one basis with another we create a self based on how another views us, but when people interact within an entire community, their self is created based on the expectations and responses of the community (Griffin, p. 65).

When interacting with a community, a person creates a “generalized other” based on what expectations and responses the community is perceived to have, Mead noted (Griffin, 2009, p. 65). This generalized other is our guide to behavior when interacting with community members (Griffin, p. 65). It helps a person assign meaning to actions, and to act based on the meaning one wants to assume within the community (Griffin, p. 65). As interactions become more frequent within communities, norms and boundaries are created (Lynch & McConatha, 2006, p. 89).

To Mead, a community consists of, “individual actors who make their own choices. Yet they align their actions with what others are doing to form healthcare systems, legal systems, and economic systems” (Griffin, p. 65). Although Mead formed this theory long before the Internet was created, it also applies to online social network interactions. Using Mead’s concept of the lookingglass, one can see how a Facebook page is actually a creation of our “self.”

Symbolic interactionism theory plays an important role in the creation of Facebook profiles and how individuals identify themselves through engaging in online communication. “When Facebook users communicate ‘what’s on their mind’ or update their status, they are offering a representation of the ‘self,’ which is based on their social interactions with others” (Ellis, 2010, p. 39).

According to Ellis, there is a three-step process in which a Facebook profile reflects one’s identity in light of Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism (p. 39). First, a Facebook user, through actions, allows other Facebook users to become aware of his or her intentions. These intentions are made clear in a person’s Facebook profile picture and profile name (Ellis, p. 39). Secondly, communication occurs, as the profile picture becomes the user’s “self.” This image is what they would like others to perceive to be their identity (Ellis, p. 39). For example, if a

How Socil Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 13

veterinarian laboratory chose a picture of a smiling veterinarian and a happy dog, this lab is portraying to the world via Facebook that the company is not only a veterinarian laboratory with happy veterinarians, but one that caters to dogs, and in return, the dogs will be happy. Lastly, in the three-step process the profile picture means something to Facebook users who use it to decide what their identity will be (Ellis, p. 39). The user has created a “self” through this profile picture as it brings about an identity utilizing the symbolic act of communication (Ellis, p. 39).

Hyper-symbolic Interactionism Theory
Hyper-symbolic interactionism is a revised theory of symbolic interactionism for online networks (Lynch & McConatha, 2006). Theorists like Mead who used symbolic interactionism to describe socially constructed worlds did so before the invention of the Internet. The classic application of symbolic interactionism theory needs to adapt and evolve to fit today’s digital society (Lynch & McConatha, p. 88). Additionally, advancements in sciences require symbolic interactionism theory to be re-analyzed (Lynch and McConatha, p. 88). Advancements in such subjects as neuroscience and psychology have allowed us to learn more about the human mind than Mead knew when he created symbolic interactionism theory (p. 88).

The generalized other, as Mead explained, forms when one creates his or her “self” based on a community’s expectations and responses (Griffin, 2009, p. 65). Thus, the “self” one creates is constantly changing and evolving based on interactions with others (Griffin, p. 65). One can assume that the creation of online communities, which use different means of interaction, allows one’s “self” to evolve even more than Mead ever thought one could (Lynch & McConatha, 2006, p. 89). Lynch and McConatha propose that the creation of a generalized other still exists, but exists differently online vs. offline (p. 89). While the generalized other still helps one form a “self,” the generalized other in the digital space is different than the one Mead described (Lynch and McConatha, p. 89).

Lynch and McContha (2006) claim that the generalized other humans perceive today is different than Mead’s because of technology (p. 90). Due to the decrease in varying methods of human interaction, such as phone calls and verbal communication, and an increase in similar digital interactions, we are creating our self based on a different generalized other than Mead described (Lynch & McConatha, p. 90). The generalized other that impacts one’s self in the digital age is based more on consumerism than the generalized other described in the classic theory of symbolic interactionism (Lynch &McConatha, 2006, p. 90).

Hyper-symbolic interaction is Lynch and McConatha’s (2006) solution to the immediacy of the Internet (p. 91). Hyper-symbolic interaction theory explains the creation of a new type of reality based on symbols found digitally.

The theory “comprises the smallest symbols such as the l’s and O’s of computer language and the tiny pixels of digital imagery, as well as the complex contemporary imagery of advertisements and commercials produced daily” (Lynch & McConatha, p. 91). The larger symbols and imagery that these details create lead to new values and norms different than other nondigital communities (Lynch & McConatha, p. 91).

This digital community is filled with marketers and advertisers, which in turn affect the reality humans’ construct, including the norms and values we abide by, as well as the meaning we give to symbols. We socialize very differently in digital reality than we do in real life (Lynch & McConatha, p. 91). Additionally, the increase in digital advertising causes us to perceive marketers and ads as reality (Lynch & McConatha, p. 92). Neuromarketing is a new term to describe marketing that has emerged from this shift in reality.

Neuromarketing involves the study of how consumers react to marketing messages and is based on the idea that we have three brains, the new brain, the middle brain, and the old brain (Lynch & McConatha, 2006, p. 93). There are claims that neuromarketing actually drives consumers to purchase more products through a process of discovering consumers’ needs and then integrating them within their reality (Lynch & McConatha, p. 94). Neuromarketing also taps into what is believed to be a human’s old brain, the decision-maker that makes choices based on what will help one survive (Lynch & McConatha, p. 94).

A human’s reaction to the decisions made by the old brain creates a constructed reality of what we essentially need and should react to (Lynch & McConatha, p. 94). Recently, Delta Airlines used neuroscience marketing to create a budget airline called “song.” The word “song” had no meaning to the airlines, but they used neuroscience marketing to discover the word “song” produces a pleasant feeling for consumers (Lynch & McConatha, p. 94). Delta Airlines is tapping into meaning consumers associate with symbols. Do consumers realize this or is it so engrained within our newly digitally created realities?

Social Network Communities
The article “Consumer Behaviour in Social Networking Sites: Implications for Marketers”(2011) identifies how humans use social media and how marketers should approach users of social media (Diffley, Kearns, Bennett, & Kawalek, p. 47). Its authors assert there are two methods marketers can use to reach consumers via social media: push


For a week, I collected survey results through Surveymonkey.com. After asking co-workers in Seattle, people on Facebook and Twitter, and others in the Gonzaga community to take the survey, I amassed 154 responses. The survey responses came from Western Washington residents who use social media, and purchase items online. Survey questions asked were specific to Facebook and/or Twitter to gain more insight into how the two social media tools affect consumer behavior online (Appendix A). Data Analysis

Of the 154 total individuals who answered the survey, the majority of people were 30-39 years of age (34%), 64% were female, 57% used both Facebook and Twitter, 55% used Facebook daily and 53% never used Twitter. The majority of individuals had 200299 Facebook friends (24%) and 52% of individuals had met all of their Facebook friends. In comparison, 40% had 1-99 Twitter followers and 40% had never met their followers in person. From these data it can be
deduced that those who use Facebook typically “friend” others (meaning they are added as friends in their Facebook profiles) they also know offline while those who use Twitter tend to follow or be followed by strangers.

Of all Facebook and Twitter respondents, 60% responded they purchase items online and offline at the same rate. These respondents noted they typically purchased clothing and accessories online (70%). Additionally, 68% of respondents bought travel accommodations online, 50% bought housewares, 32% buy electronics, and 10% buy insurance online. When asked if they would be more likely to listen to a stranger’s online review over that of a friend, 65% said they would be somewhat more likely while 30% said they would not be likely.

To determine whether a person’s Facebook or Twitter community impacts their likelihood of online purchases, I asked a series of questions in the survey regarding Facebook and Twitter. From the results of these questions, I was able to gather enough data to indicate that Facebook communities have a higher impact on how consumers purchase products online than Twitter users. These results vary slightly from my hypothesis, which posited both social media tools would influence consumer behavior. Fifty-four percent of Facebook users said that they sometimes reach out to their Facebook communities before purchasing a product. This is a large percentage of Facebook users who view their Facebook communities as a trusted source for product opinions. Overall, How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, based on the survey results, the majority of Facebook users sampled in this study said they are open at times to the influence and opinions of their Facebook communities, while Twitter users say their communities rarely influence their purchase decisions. When asked how often they reach out to members in their social media communities for opinions about products before they purchase them, 47% of respondents said they never reach out to Facebook friends before purchasing an item. Ninety percent said that they never reach out to Twitter followers before purchasing an item.

Two sets of questions asked in the survey reveal the point in the purchase funnel in which people reach out to others on Facebook or Twitter. Fifty-two percent of individuals never gather opinions from Facebook friends at any point during the purchase funnel. However, 20% reach out to Facebook friends before researching products to buy, 26% while they are comparing products after the initial research phase, and 2% directly before purchasing a product.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 30

Ninety-two percent of Twitter users never reach out to followers during the purchase process. Only 2% of Twitter users reach out to followers before researching products to buy, 5% before comparing products after the initial phase and 0% directly before making a purchase.

When asked how likely it was that Facebook friends would influence one’s online purchases, 48% said that it is not likely, while 51% said that it is sometimes likely. Only 1% said that it is always likely.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 31

Twitter appears to have significantly less of an effect on one’s online purchasing behavior as 92% said that Twitter is not likely to affect their purchase decisions. Six percent of Twitter users said that other Twitter followers will sometimes influence their purchase decisions and 1% said that other Twitter followers almost always have an influence.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 32

Fifty-seven percent of Facebook users said that they have later purchased an item they heard about on Facebook, while only 17% of Twitter users said the same. The majority of Facebook users (54%) believe that Facebook is sometimes useful when looking for opinions about what products to purchase while 41% said it is not useful. Twitter is even less useful according to respondents as 79% said Twitter was never useful when looking for opinions about what products to purchase and only 19% said it is sometimes useful.

When filtering the data to discern the difference in millennials (younger than 30 years of age) and non- millennials (30 years of age and older) it appeared that millennials were more open to influence from Facebook communities than non-millennials. The majority of non-millennial respondents used Facebook everyday but never used Twitter. Sixty-four percent of millennials used Facebook every day and 27% also used Twitter on a daily basis. Millennials were more likely than non-millennials to have both a Facebook and Twitter account (61% of millennials have both compared to 53% of nonmillennial). Sixty-one percent of non-millennials purchase about the same amount of products online as they do offline and 73% of their purchases are for travel accommodations. In comparison, 57% of millennials purchase about the same amount of products online as they do offline and the majority of their purchases (77%) are for clothing and accessories.

Fifty-four percent of non-millennials say that they never reach out to Facebook friends for opinions before they purchase products online, while 51% of millennials said they sometimes reach out to Facebook friends for opinions. A large majority of both millennials and non-millennials said that they never reach out to Twitter followers for How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, opinions before purchasing a product. Millennials were more likely than non-millennials to reach out to Facebook friends before researching products to buy. Additionally, 24% of non-millennials stated that they reach out to Facebook friends to compare products after the initial research phase, and this was around the same amount for millennials (29%).

Seventy-eight percent of millennials said they hear about products on Facebook that they later buy 51% of non-millennials said the same. Forty-eight percent of nonmillennials believe that Facebook is not useful when looking for opinions about products to purchase online while only 35% of millennials believed that it is not useful. The majority of millennials (61%) believe that Facebook is sometimes useful when looking for opinions about what products to purchase. Both millennials and non- millennials agreed that Twitter is not useful when looking for opinions about what products to purchase.

The majority of male and female respondents who took the survey were 30-39 years of age. Sixty percent of males used both Facebook and Twitter while 36% only used Facebook. In comparison, 54% of women used both Facebook and Twitter while 43% used only Facebook. Forty-seven percent of males used Facebook daily while a large percentage (50%) never use Twitter. Women tend to use Facebook and Twitter more often. Sixty-two percent of women use Facebook daily while, like males, a large majority never use Twitter. When asked the question, “About how many of your “friends” on Facebook have you met in person?” Forty-four percent of men responded that they knew all of them, whereas 53% of females stated that they knew all of their Facebook friends offline.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, Sixty-four percent of men said that they typically purchase the same amount of items in store and offline with 65% of purchases being travel accommodations. On the other hand, 59% of women typically purchase the same amount of items in store and offline with 73% of purchases being clothes and accessories. When asked how often they reach out to Facebook friends to provide opinions about products they may purchase online, 57% of men and 51% of women said they never do.

Fifty percent of men also said that it is sometimes likely their Facebook friends will influence their purchases and 53% said that they often hear about products that they later purchase on Facebook.. Whereas, only 47% of women said that it is sometimes likely their Facebook friends will influence their purchase decisions but 59% said that they hear about products on Facebook that they later purchase. Both genders saw Twitter followers as having only a small influence on their purchase decisions if any at all.

Results of the Study

Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism states humans are influenced by community members (Griffin, 2009, p. 65). Using Mead’s idea that communities impact our perception of what is a norm, I hypothesized that social media communities would impact consumer online behavior. My belief was, that if Mead believed that communities impact our perception of reality and what is normal, then by default social media communities should influence what one purchases online. One would purchase based on what the community believes to be the best purchase.

The survey results showed that Twitter communities tend to not significantly impact social media users’ online purchase behavior, but Facebook
communities typically do and have the potential to become even more of influencers for consumers.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, Facebook results seem to fall right in line with Mead’s idea of communities as influencers. While for Twitter, the survey results indicate that Twitter communities behave differently than offline communities and Facebook communities. As the majority of Twitter users stated that their followers are strangers, they may not feel the same type of intimacy and companionship as those who use Facebook feel. This is something Lynch and McConatha (2006) touch on when introducing the theory of hyper-symbolic interactionism. Lynch and McConatha believe that due to the marketing-based reality constructed on the Internet, we no longer have the same type of community interactions as we do offline (2006). If this is so, then it is plausible that one’s Twitter community has less of an influence, especially for those who are avid Twitter users. For marketers, this study can be interpreted in two ways.

First, it implies that marketers who focus on the sharing of products among social media communities to boost sales should rethink their strategy, especially if they use Twitter more than Facebook. Second, the results of the survey should inspire marketers to find a marketing method that will increase the influence online communities have on other social media users. My study showed that Facebook communities typically influence some users and have the potential to influence even more in the future. Many Facebook users surveyed seemed to value their Facebook friends’ opinions when it came to purchasing items online, and sometimes these opinions impacted their purchases. Marketers should use community influence on Facebook users as a way to increase sales and/or brand awareness.

Another takeaway for marketers is the difference between Facebook and Twitter. Most of the respondents use Facebook on a daily basis and Twitter was not used nearly as

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior,  much, if at all. Out of the two social media platforms, Facebook communities are more of a community than Twitter. More people on Facebook know their Facebook friends offline, while many Twitter users did not know most of their Twitter followers offline. When comparing all of the questions pertaining to Facebook and those pertaining to Twitter, it is apparent that those who use Facebook have more of a relationship with their friends than Twitter users do with their followers. For marketers, this information is beneficial when deciding what channel would be the best to focus their attention on. Cărtărescu (2010) stated that online communities create places for members to “share a sense of belonging, have a specific culture, a specific set of norms (‘netiquette’), affective ties that bind them together and a sense of shared history” (p. 82).

These elements appear to be lacking in Twitter as most respondents to the survey answered that their Twitter communities were typically comprised of strangers who did not impact their purchasing decisions. Based on Cărtărescu’s definition of an online community, and the lack of survey participants that use Twitter, it is questionable if Twitter constitutes a community, especially one that influences. Rather, it can be identified as a communication tool to reach out and converse with strangers but probably is not able to build relationships like Facebook does.

In my opinion, Facebook feels more like a community than Twitter. Answers from the survey support this notion, as many of the respondents stated that they knew Facebook friends offline, while Twitter followers are comprised mostly of strangers. Based on Mead’s concept of a community as an influencer, I assumed that people would reach out to their Facebook communities to help shape their opinions, more than they would on Twitter. What my survey discovered was a good portion of Facebook users felt

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior,

like Facebook was a good method of gathering opinions before purchasing a product, as 50% of survey respondents used Facebook communities this way. Respondents seemed to regard Facebook as a community full of influences, which could help shape not only the Facebook users’ identities, but their purchasing opinions. Greenleigh (2010) found that 84% of millennials turn to online communities before purchasing an item. The survey results from my study found the opposite. On average, 50% of millennials who responded to my survey said that Facebook influenced their purchasing decisions. In particular, when asked how often they turn to Facebook communities before purchasing an item, only 51% of millennials said that they sometimes do and 47% said that they never do. Greenleigh also found that millennials were 51% more likely to trust strangers when purchasing products, over family and friends.

Again, my study contradicts Greenleigh’s notion. Sixty-five percent of millennials said that they would sometimes listen to a stranger’s online review of products over their friends. While 29% said they would not be likely to and a small margin of 6% said they would always listen to a stranger’s online review. According to Thompson and Lougheed (2012), women are on Facebook more often than men and due to this have increased anxiety. While my study did not measure the amount of anxiety one feels from social media, it did find that women tend to spend more time on Facebook than men much like Thompson and Lougheed stated.

Forty-seven percent of males used Facebook daily while 62% of women use Facebook on a daily basis. What is surprising about the results when comparing men and women’s Facebook tendencies, is the smaller influence Facebook communities have on women than men. Although women said that they used Facebook more often than men on a daily basis, they How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, were less likely to be influenced by Facebook communities when purchasing a product online than their male counterparts. However, women tend to contradict this statement when they are later asked how often they purchase items after hearing about it on Facebook and 59% say that they sometimes do. In comparison, a smaller percentage of men say the same.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior,

Limitations of the Study

While my study produced interesting results, I believe there is room for my improvement within my study that would have produced better results and more reliable data. One such issue that I would have changed was my desire to limit the location of participants in the survey. My study focused solely on Western Washington individuals with the belief that they would believe an adequate sample size to study. While my sample size provided reliable data and provocative insights, I am curious whether a larger sample size would have impacted the results I received.

Would people in Eastern states view Facebook and Twitter differently than people in Western Washington? I think my sample size was drawn too narrowly to make a conclusive statement. A second problem with my study is due to time constraints. I was only able to gather data using one method. With more time, I would have implemented an additional method. Another data source would have provided more insights on how social media communities impact consumer behavior online. While my survey, provided adequate enough data to analyze and make a prediction, a method, such as an in-person user research study, would have provided additional results to analyze. Further Studies or Recommendations

For further evaluation of how social media impacts consumer behavior online, other studies should be explored. While my thesis only looked at the impact of social media communities on consumer behavior online, another avenue I would have liked to pursue would have been the impact of a company’s Facebook page on consumer behavior

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, online. For instance, if an online consumer likes or interacts with the Nordstrom Facebook page, are they then more likely to purchase from Nordstrom online? Additionally, another study that could provide interesting results would be how Facebook advertisements impact consumer behavior online. Many companies purchase these ads hoping that they will entice Facebook users to visit their company page, purchase their product, or recommend the product to others. While data are available on these advertisements to the companies that purchase them, such as number of clicks on ads, a study could help indicate if they actually influence Facebook users to perform the wanted action. The data only show numbers, but a study could help identify the psychology behind the numbers and why a person may click on one company’s Facebook ad over another.

Social media continues to play a role in many people’s lives. From finding information about friends to perusing a company’s Facebook page to gain insight into their products, many of us use social media constantly. While our purposes for using social media may vary, we all have created communities we interact with within our social networks. According to Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism, the way we interact with individuals shapes our identity. Thus, it can be thought that how we interact with others on social media also can shape our identity. Mead also described the importance of a community’s influence. My thesis seeks to understand if a social media user valued their social media communities’ influence when it came to purchasing products online. I hypothesized, based on Mead’s rationale, that if offline communities

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 41 impact our identities and actions, then social media communities should perform the same way.

To obtain this information I distributed a survey to respondents in Western Washington who use Facebook and Twitter as well as purchase items online. When analyzing the results, many interesting insights were noticed. The respondents of the survey interacted more with friends and family on Facebook than they did on Twitter. The majority of Twitter followers one had were strangers. Thus it can be deduced that Facebook is more like an offline community that Mead describes than Twitter. When it came to answering my overall thesis question of whether or not social media affected consumer online behavior the survey showed surprising results. It was found that Twitter had very little influence on consumers and more than likely they never reached out to Twitter followers at any point during the purchase process for opinions.

Facebook friends, on the other hand, had more of an influence on Facebook users. Around 50% of Facebook users reach out to their Facebook communities before purchasing an item. Thus, results for Facebook align with Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism. In conclusion, the survey I distributed found that social media communities in general, do have an influence on what products social media users purchase online, with Twitter having a very minimal amount of influence and Facebook communities having a relatively high level of influence.

How Social Media Communities Impact Consumer Behavior, 42

Budzanowska-Drzewiecka, M. (2011). Social conditioning of purchasing decisions of 9-11 year-old consumers. Journal Of Customer Behaviour, 10(2), 143-160. doi:10.1362/147539211X589555
Cărtărescu, I. (2010). Utility of online communities — ways one can benefit from one’s online life. Journal Of Comparative Research In Anthropology & Sociology, 1(2), 79-91. Retrieved from
http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/detail?vid=54&hid=110 &sid=9a83f789-ffbb-4d09-ad3369f906fba08e%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d# db=sih&AN=55558221
Dellarocas, C., Gao, G., & Narayan, R. (2010). Are consumers more likely to contribute online reviews for hit or niche products?. Journal Of Management Information Systems, 27(2), 127-157. doi:10.2753/MIS0742-1222270204 Diffley, S., Kearns, J., Bennett, W., & Kawalek, P. (2011). Consumer behaviour in social networking sites: implications for marketers. Irish Journal Of Management, 30(2), 47-65.

Drell, L. (October 25, 2011). Social consumers and the science of sharing. Mashable. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2011/10/25/social-consumersharing-infographic/ Ellis, K. (2010). Be who you want to be: The philosophy of Facebook and the

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construction of identity. Screen Education, (58), 36-41. Retrieved fromhttp://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/l ogin.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=51533387&site=ehost-live

Garfield, Bob and Levy, Doug. (January 2, 2012). Ignore the human element of marketing at your own peril. AdvertisingAge. Retrieved from
http://adage.com/article/news/dawn-relationship-era-marketing/231792/?page=1 Greenleigh, Ian. (January 24, 2012. Talking to strangers. How social
influences millennials shopping decisions. Retrieved from ‘

http://www.bazaarvoice.com/blog/2012/01/24/infographic-millennials-willchange-the-way-you-sell/ Griffin, Em. (2009). A First Look at Communication Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hanlon, P., & Hawkins, J. (2008). Expand you brand community online. Advertising Age, 79(1), 14-15. Retrieved
http://proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login. aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=28225980&site=ehost-live

Lee, D. (2010). Growing popularity of social media and business strategy. SERI Quarterly, 3(4), 112-117.
Ligas, M., & Cotte, J. (1999). The process of negotiating brand meaning: a symbolic interactionist perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 26(1), 609-614. Retrieved from
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Lynch, M. and McConatha, D., (2006). Hyper-symbolic interactionism: prelude to a refurbished theory of symbolic interaction or just old wine? Sociological Viewpoints, Spring 2006, Vol. 22, p87-96, 10. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy.foley.gonzaga.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?si d=9a83f789-ffbb-4d09-ad33-69f906fba08e%40sessionmgr14&vid=44&hid=110 Tormey, P. (2007). The thursday speeches: how coach don james used words and mental images to build a college football powerhouse. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA.

Wasserman, T. (2011). Audi has the most engaged fans on Facebook. Mashable. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2011/04/22/audis-facebook-bieber/.

Social Media and Relationships

Social Media and Networking Relationships
Social media and networking gives individuals the power to connect and interact with each other. Social media enables open communication, and allows individuals from different geographical locations to express and share their opinions. Networking is an element that is used with Social media. As mentioned, “Networking has potential to open doors and establishes connections between individuals, with access to information one might not normally have (Carpenter, M. 2013).”Social media and networking play an imperative role to foster business growth, and personal relationships.

Social Media and Networking Relationships
Professionals and people can experience global connection through social media use. First, you have to understand how social media can work, so that you can use its benefits to your advantage. For example, social media can help aid in promoting a new business venture. Facebook offers business advertising for business professionals.

Facebooks business advertising, gives business professionals a connection to people and businesses worldwide for business exposure (Entrepreneur Media, 2013). However, there are some disadvantages to social media. For example, social media opens a gateway for illegal hackers to commit immoral crimes. Illegal hackers can gain individuals credit card information without a person’s authorization. Criminals can use credit card, banking and email phishing to purchase cars and homes for illegal personal gain.

On the other hand, irate employees may use social media to discredit an organizations good reputation. Employees are not always positive about their company. The employee can use social



media channels such as Twitter and Facebook. The result may lead to negative comments that are exposed to customers, and potential customers. Moreover, managers that desire to expand company growth through social media should ask thereselves a series of questions. How can social media gear my company towards further growth? Is my company growing fast as I think it should without social networking? Managers and employees use a principle of reciprocity in working environments.

As discussed, “managers have the ability to get things done by providing services to others in exchange for the services they require (Carpenter, M.2013)”. Managers and employees can both benefit to help a companies success.

Employees can use their social connections to help their leaders with more department sales. In particular, employees can use Facebook or Twitter to inform their followers about company quality products. Clearly, managers should not rely on one social media strategy. Managers should be self-sufficient using their own efforts expanding in different social networks.

Personal networking can be done through networking outside of the company. Personal networks can create more value for managers in gaining more business. Friends, close acquaintances and immediate family can help assist managers with business referrals, because of mutual trust and close connection.

In addition managers should question if social media could expand their business opportunities. For example, how much of a successful impact will social media have on my companies progress? I have 180,000 young employees that appeal to social media frequently. Since my employees are involved in social media, how many use social media more than others? Social Media is a fortified tool for networking and communications worldwide. As mentioned, networks provide managers with access to information, knowledge, access to diverse



skills and power (Carpenter, M. 2013). Successful managers can use three types of networks, personal, operational and strategic networks. These networks allow managers to get task accomplished by close connections, and also help managers obtain key organizational objectives (Carpenter, M. 2013). However, social media can help leaders face communication barriers. But, the leaders must come up with a plan of action.

The corresponding action would be researching products most customers use through the internet. Managers can use online community blogs and Twitter for customer product ratings and feedback. This will entail what products customers like to buy. Humans are made to be social beings, it is a genetic makeup and what makes us different from other beings.

Networking with individuals is an imperative interaction of human beings lives, and the social networking sites available today, make this collaboration even easier. Nearly, everyone uses social networking sites for different communication lines, like staying associated with peers and friends. Social Networks keeps us connected and updated with the world’s news and society. Social media also offers individuals a way to share images, videos and information with people globally (Entrepreneur Media, 2013).

Social media can also be used to network for professional, or business-related deeds. “Joining online communities will help you meet new people in your field, which enables individuals to widen and increase knowledge (Entrepreneur Media, 2013)”. Social media should in details inform end users about privacy rules. Social Media should use detailed and specific fine print regards to contextual content. This content will give clear options to end users of what information is being exposed and soled to third parties.



Further, Social websites informing end users of what information is shared and why it is shared is significantly important. This lets the end user decide whether or not in opening a social networking account. Social media and networking is technology used to communicate with others across the world. Without social media technology, the world would not be as competitive and efficient.

Social media and networking connects professionals and individuals globally. Through social media people share end express different perspectives.Social media and networking opens doors of communication for social interaction.Through social media people can find out various information about almost anything in the world.Networking is a vital element that fosters business relationships for business expansion.


Carpenter,M.,Bauer,T.,&Erdogan, B. (2010). Principles of Management. Irvington, Flat World Knowledge.
Entrepreneur Media. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/topic/facebookadvertising.

Convergence in Media


By convergence, I mean the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences – (Jenkins 2006)

In today’s technology focused world, convergence plays a very important part. It allows us to connect more efficiently between media platforms and technology. Throughout the in depth of study of convergence, it has become evident that convergence greatly affects to the relationship between media technologies and audiences. Technology and its devices are becoming increasingly intelligent and clever everyday, and this is because we as humans are doing the same, which can be linked to the rise to the concept of prosumption.


The relationship between technology and it’s audience is as strong as it’s ever been at the present time, with us as humans constantly surrounding ourselves with it and being so dependant of it. With this growth in convergence, and the clear shift in technology, some concepts and concerns have been raised. This includes the concept of ownership, and copyright issues that so often emerge in the technology world because of the rapidly growing flow of information through channels and platforms.

Introduction to Tinder

The phone application called Tinder uses this theory of convergence. Tinder was created in September 2012, to originally increase social interaction between students at a University in Southern California (Empson 2013). The application uses it’s audience’s Facebook profiles to collect information such as age and the user’s photos to create a type of online dating profile. The application then uses the user’s GSP device in the phone to track other Tinder users located in a certain range to match.


As mentioned before, another concept that has arisen because of convergence is “prosumers”, which plays an important part in the relationship between technologies and their audiences. This concept relates to Tinder relatively closely. Tinder is an example of an application that improves the more that it is used.

Alvin Toffler explains the concept of a “prosumer” to be a common consumer who actively helps improve or design the goods and services of the marketplace, transforming it and their roles as consumers. Within the application of Tinder, changes are constantly being made. This is because with the fast paced market of applications and the demand of new and better-improved technologies that society is showing. Companies such as Tinder need to keep up with the demand of its audience. For example, Tinder will monitor the habits and behaviour of its users, and make it easier and more pleasant for them to continue. This relates back to the importance of the relationship between the audience and the industry, as the main objective for companies such as Tinder is to keep the customer happy and satisfied with the product and service provided. At the same time, the concept of produsage can be included in the use of Tinder.


Produsage is defined as the shift of users from audiences to content creators (Jenkins 2008). This concept is defining technologies such as Tinder, where the audience is technically the producers. What is meant by this is that the content that is on the application, is uploaded by the users of Tinder; photographs, information and profiles. Another aspect of produsage is that the produces of the content, which we distinguished can be the audience, are also the ones who obtain the information or material. Produsage is another aspect that enhances the relationship between technologies and their audiences.


Tinder has brought many positive aspects and concepts to the dating world of today and this mainly falls under cultural convergence. The traditional idea of “online dating” has been transformed, and this is all because of the every changing world we live in. Since around 2002, online dating has originally been restricted to a computer, and users would each have a full profile stating all about their interests and hobbies, as well as pictures. However, on a Tinder profile, each user is allowed a maximum of 500 words to describe themselves, and a limit of 5 photos of their choice. This change in restrictions that Tinder has opted for is a reflection of the ideologies of its audience.

The average of Tinder users is 27 (The Weekend Australian Magazine 2014), a clear indication that the market that Tinder is targeting is the younger generation. The creation of this easy to use app really emphasizes the culture so present in the younger generation of today of “hookups” or “casual sex”. The want for long-term relationships using online dating is slowly dying, and the demand for quick hookups is becoming increasingly evident. The whole concept of Tinder, simple and shallow has proven to be very popular with the younger generation because of this. Tinder saw a hole in the market for quick hookups, and filled it. Another feature of Tinder that makes it so much more appealing to traditional online dating is the fact that it is a mobile application, and can be used anywhere. This feature works well in the fast paced lifestyle the younger generation seems to live.


As there have been mentioned, Tinder has bought many positives to the online dating market. However, there are a few issues and concerns that have been brought up about Tinder since it’s been released 2 years ago. A main issue was brought up about the security of the application. Interlude Security are a company who discovered a flaw in Tinder’s production that resulted in user’s being able to locate other people’s almost exact location, information that is supposedly kept a secret in the application (News.com 2014).

This discovery caused a lot of panic through many of Tinder’s users, and also members of the general public. The flaw was eventually fixed by Tinder, however concern was still present that another security flaw could easily be found. This whole saga affected the relationship that Tinder had created with its audience and users, which could have easily, in turn, affected the popularity and success of the application. This hole in Tinder’s system meant that the users location could be seen, which in turn, is potentially putting Tinder user’s safety at risk. As a result of the increase of flow of content within platforms, it’s easy for flaws like this to occur.

Another security issue with Tinder is the on going concern about basic online safety. We as a fast paced culture are constantly looking for the fastest and easiest way to do things. Hence why Tinder was so popular so quickly, people were looking for an easier way to date. The simplicity of being able to interact with complete strangers on mobile devices is far too appealing and hence why many security issues arise. The whole idea of “catfish” has recently been brought to attention in the media recently, with many cases of fake profiles and unsafe meetings occurring from online dating.

Again relating back to generational differences, online safety is a much more relaxed issue that it was 3 years ago. The fact that people are willing to allow an application to show their location to complete strangers is an indication of this.


Convergence is an on going process in today’s society and it will never end. It affects us as the audience, as well as the producers and the technologies we surround ourselves with. Whole platforms are being transformed, for example the dating world, to suit the wants and needs of the audience. Technologies are become increasingly intelligent, as its creators are which can affect us both positively and negative. Convergence will always lead to negative things such as security and copyright issues, but also the positives must be noted.


Jenkins, H 2007, Welcome To Convergence Culture, The Offical Weblog Of Henry Jenkins, weblog, 19 July, viewed 3/6/14, http://henryjenkins.org/2006/06/welcome_to_convergence_culture.html

Rouse, M 2005, Definition: Convergence, WhatIs, web page, April, viewed 4/6/14, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/convergence

Tinder (Application), Wikipedia, web page, viewed 3/6/14, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinder_(application_software)

Empson, R 2013, Tinder: Finding Traction on Campus, Techcrunch, web article, 3 Jan, viewed 5/6/14, http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/03/tinder-finding-traction-on-campuses-hatch-labs-new-dating-app-makes-it-easy-to-break-the-ice/

Ayers, C 2014, Tinder: the app that’s setting the dating scene on fire, The Australian Magazine, web article, 31 May, viewed 5/6/14, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/tinder-the-app-thats-setting-the-dating-scene-on-fire/story-e6frg8h6-1226933263450

Moore, C 2014, BCM112 Lectures, viewed 02.06.14 https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/152352/mod_resource/content/2/6623.pdf

Ronald, L 2014, “LucyRonald”, WordPress, viewed 03.06.14, http://lucyronald.wordpress.com/

Freedom of speech from the perspective of mass media, to what extend it has been practiced in Malaysia?

Mass media are means of communications (as newspapers, radio, or television) that is designed to reach the mass of the people1. Besides playing the role to inform individual with news, the media together with a sound legal system and an independent judiciary is part of a triumvirate that is essential for a well-functioning democracy2. In a democratic system of government, mass media is performing a number of essential functions. First, they serve on information or surveillance function. Second, they serve an agenda-setting and interpretation function.

Third, they help us to create and maintain connections with various groups in society. Fourth, they help us to socialize and to educate us. Fifth, they persuade us to buy certain items or accept certain ideas. Sixth, they entertain us. Freedom is the power or right to act, speak or think freely. We are now living a media culture and its influence is become very pervasive. The number of hours we spend on the media is mind-boggling. Although the freedom of the media should not be in toto, yet the degree of the freedom of the media will affect the function of the media.

Citizens of countries that are democratic see media freedom as a right, not a privilege. Nevertheless, there is no mention of freedom of the press or freedom of the electronic media in our Constitution. However, freedom of media to exercise its role and functions in society has been enshrined as a fundamental human right by way of recognition for the right to freedom of speech, expression and opinion.3

In 1930-1940, there are nearly 80 newspaper and magazines published in the Malay State, such as Utusan Melayu, Saudara, Warta Malaya and Majlis. In Warta Malaya, it published article that talk about the social and economic problems faced by the Malay. However, it did not ask for the British to be chased out. The newspaper, Majlis, discussed the political issues. Majlis not only brings to the awakening and fights for Malays right, their office became the place for the nationalist to meet up and exchange their thoughts.

In the newspapers Saudara, there was a column named ‘Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena’ where the Malay readers exchanged their point of view. British was worried on the development of this column and therefore took the step to overseen those who involved in the said column.

In view of the number of publications that existed during the time and the situation whereby those newspapers are free to discussed any issues, and the fact that the newspapers has played a vital role in the movement towards independence, we can conclude that under the administration of British, the media was enjoying the freedom of speech.

The law on the freedom of speech became clearer during the time prior to independence. Certain law has been introduced to the Malay State. One of the laws which governed the freedom of speech at that time was the Sedition Act 1948. Section 4 of the Act makes it an offence to make, prepare, or to conspire, to do a seditions act, to utter seditious words, and to propagate or import any seditious publications. Section 3 provides that a seditious tendency is one which tends to (a) bring hatred or contempt to the government or excite disaffection against any Ruler or government, (b) excite the countrymen to revolt, (c) bring into hatred or contempt or excites disaffection against administration of justice, (d) raise discontent or disaffection among the countrymen, or (e) promote feelings of ill-will and hostility amongst the inhabitants of the country.

Besides, there were two ordinances specifically deal with the printed media at that time, i.e. Printing Press Act 1948 (Ord 12 of 1948) and Control of Imported Publications Act 1958 (Ord 14 of 1955). The former deal with the publisher in the Malay State while the later governing the printed material from other country.

Those laws were limiting freedom of speech of the media at the British colonial the light of the freedom of speech only shine at the colonial since 1956, when an attempt to draft a Federal Constitution started. The recommendations were submitted by Reid Commission in 1956-1957 Reports. In the report, there were two paragraphs provides under the title ‘Fundamental Rights’ 161.

A Federal Constitution defines and guarantees the right of the Federation and the states; it is usual and in our opinion right that it should also define and guarantee certain fundamental individual right which are generally regarded as essential conditions for a free and democratic way of life. The rights which are recommend should be defined and guaranteed are all firmly established now throughout Malaysia and it may seen unnecessary to give them special protection in the Constitution. But we found in certain quarters vague apprehension about the future. We believe such apprehensions to be unfound, but there can be no objection to guaranteeing these rights subject to limited exceptions in conditions of emergency and we recommend that this should be done….. 162.

our recommendations afford means of redress, readily available to any individual, against unlawful infringements of personal liberty in any of its aspects… we further recommend (Art 10) that freedom of speech and expression should be guaranteed to all citizens subject to restrictions in the interest of security, public order or morality or in relation to incitement, defamation or contempt of court… For the Malaysian citizen, the objectives of those who framed the Federal Constitution were but little affected by the epidemic of human rights in the Western world4. It has been observed that the commission’s recommendation on the freedom of speech has been vague, particularly on the importance of the rights. The commission only devoted two paragraphs. The reason why it was so was clear in the paragraph itself. The draft Article 10 in our Constitution was as follow:

10 (1) every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, subject to any reasonable restriction imposed by federal law in the interest of the security of the Federation, friendly relations with other countries, public order, or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation, or incitement to any offence.

Mr. Justice Abdul Hamid on his note of dissent stated that “the word ‘reasonable’ wherever it occurs before the word ‘restrictions’ in the three sub-clauses of Article 10 should be omitted. Right to freedom of speech, assembly, and association has been guaranteed subject to restrictions which may be imposed in the interest of security of the country, public order and morality. If the Legislature imposes any restrictions in the interest of the aforesaid matters, considering those restrictions to be reasonable, that legislation should not be challengeable in a court of law on the ground that the restrictions are not reasonable. The Legislature alone should be the judge of what is reasonable under the circumstances. If the word ‘reasonable’ is allowed to stand, every legislation on this subject will be challengeable in court on the ground that the restrictions imposed by the legislature are not reasonable.

This will in many cases give rise to conflict between the views of Legislature and the views of the court on the reasonableness of the restrictions. To avoid a situation like that it is better to make the Legislature the judge of the reasonableness of the restrictions. If this is not done the legislatures of the country will not be sure of the state of the law which they will enact. There will always be fear that the court may hold the restrictions imposed by it to be unreasonable. The laws would be lacking in certainty.” Later, when the Constitution comes into force, the Article 10 provides that: (1) subject to clause (2):

(a) Every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression; (2) Parliament may by law impose: –  (a) on the rights conferred by paragraph (a) of clause (1), such restrictions as it deems necessary or expedient in the interest of the security of the Federation, friendly relations with other countries, public order or morality and restrictions designed to protect the privileges of Parliament or of any legislative Assembly or to provide against contempt of courts, defamation, or incitement to any offence; There are one case regarding to press reported prior to independence i.e. Public Prosecutor v. The Straits Times Press Ltd5 In this case, upon the application of the Public Prosecutor, the Respondents, who are the proprietors of the Straits Times Press Ltd, were alleged contempt in publishing a report of the trial of Tan Seng Ann of the Straits Times dated 5 August 1948.

The report appeared which, it is now admitted, was misleading and inaccurate in that it gave the impression, contrary to the facts, that the first step in the proceedings in that case was a voluntary confession by Tan Seng Ann that he was in possession of a fire-arm and that his arrest was made solely as the result of such voluntary confession in the issue. The Notice of Motion having set out the terms of the letter complained of went on to allege inter alia that the criminal case referred to in the letter was sub judice when the letter was published in that an appeal was pending; that the terms of the letter did not constitute a fair or accurate account of the trial nor fair comment thereon; and that its publication tended to prejudice the fair disposal of the proceedings and tended to bring into contempt the administration of justice by that Court.

Spenser-Wilkinson J held that: “…I would hesitate to follow too closely the decisions of English Courts on this subject without first considering whether the relevant conditions in England and this country are at all similar. Quite apart from the present emergency in this country, I do not think it could be suggested that the development of the Press, the general standard of education or the composition of the general public in the two countries are at all comparable and it may, therefore, be necessary to take a stricter view here of matters which pertain to the dignity of the Courts and the impartial administration of justice than would be taken at the present time in England.”

Newly Independence (1957-1980)
At this period, Art 10 Federal Constitution has been amended twice. The first amendment was on 19636 where the words ‘Clause (2) and (3)’ had been substituted for the words ‘clause (2)’ of clause (1) with effect from 16 September 1963.and the words ‘or any part thereof’ were added to the Art10(2)(a). Further, clause (3) which provides that: “Restrictions on the right to form a associations conferred by paragraph (c) of clause (1) may also be imposed by any law relating to labour or education.” The second amendment was made on 19717 after considering the trouble of May 1969.

This time, Clause (4) was added with effect from 10 March 1971. Article 10(4) provides that Parliament may pass laws prohibiting the questioning of four sensitive matters: right to citizenship under Part III of the Constitution; status of the Malay language; position and privileges of the Malays and the native of Sabah and Sarawak; and prerogatives of the Malay Sultans and the Ruling Chiefs of Negeri Sembilan. The constitutional changes enable Parliament to amend the Sedition Act of 1948 in order to add a new definition of ‘seditious tendency’8. The amended sections were: Section 3 (1) A seditious tendency is a tendency

(f) To question any matter, right, status, position, privilege, sovereignty or prerogative established or protected by the provisions of Part III of the Federal Constitution or Article 152, 153 or 181 of the Federal Constitution
Section 2

“seditious” when applied to or used in respect of any act, speech, words, publication or other thing qualifies the act, speech, words, publication or other thing as one having a seditious tendency; Official Secrets Act 1972 is a new law that be introduced at that time. This is the most important statute on government secrecy. The gist of the law is that ‘official secrets’ cannot be received, retained, released or used without prior authorization.9 The Act is drafted in the widest possible terms and is not limited in its operation to spies, saboteurs, traitors and mercenaries.

The term ‘official secret’ is not defined in the Act. The courts have given the term the broadest possible definition, and on the generally accepted construction any communication pertaining to the Executive would constitute an offence.10 The right to free speech can be further eclipsed by the special provisions of Art 149 and 150 relating to subversion and emergency. Art 149 authorises legislative action designed to stop or prevent subversion, organized violence and crimes prejudicial to the public.

Art 150 permits any legislative action required by reason of emergency. The grounds enumerated above permitting curtailment of free speech are so broad and comprehensive that in 49 years no Act of parliament even been found by the courts to have violated the Constitution. Besides printed media, television was introduced in Malaysia in 1963. The television was under the control of the Department of Broadcasting (RTM). What is apparent is that television and more generally broadcasting in Malaysia was form its inception closely aligned to the government. Both the RTM channel were established via decisions made by the then Alliance coalition government. Because of the circumstances at that time, there was no any specifics rule to govern the broadcasting.

One of the cases that being heard at that time was Melan bin Abdullah v Public Prosecutor.11 The fact of the case was that On 6 April 1971 the Utusan Melaya newspaper published a report of a talk given by given by Inche Musa Hitam, a prominent Malay leader and member of Parliament, at the National Education Congress held in the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.. In the report was an editorial sub-heading, which in the English translation reads: “Abolish Tamil or Chinese medium schools in this country.” The first appellant was the editor-in-chief of the Utusan Melayu,
and the second appellant the author of the sub-heading inserted in the report. Sanction for their prosecution was given under s 5(1) of the Sedition Act 1948, and they were tried in due course in the special sessions court on a charge of publishing a seditious publication in contravention of s 4(1)(C) of the Sedition Act, punishable under the same section.

The learned special president held the publication to be seditious, that the first appellant “was responsible for all publication in the Utusan Melayu”, that the second appellant was the author of the impugned subheading, and that consequently they were both guilty. They were convicted and fined the sum of $500 and $1,000 respectively, in default one month and two months’ imprisonment, both appellant appealed. CJ Ong, on hearing of the appeal accepted the first appellant evidence that he had organised seminars and discussions, relating in particular to the “sensitive issues” and had instructed his staff on the relevant law as he understood it. He had sponsored a talk to journalists given on this subject in February 1971 by the Attorney General as well as the Solicitor-General. Therefore, the first respondent appeal was allowed. But the court dismissed the second respondent appeal.

Another case is Public Prosecutor v Straits Times (Malaya) Bhd.12 The Public Prosecutor applied in this case for leave to issue a writ or writs of attachment for contempt of court on the respondents for publication of articles in The Straits Times. The grounds upon which relief was sought was that “the publications of the said articles contain matters which are tendentious and constitute contempt of court, because they are prejudicing and embarrassing the applicant in the exercise of his statutory functions and also prejudicing a fair trial concerning the circumstances of the death of one Robert Lee.”

Abdul Hamid J held that: ‘I do not think that it is reasonable to construe these words as having any special meaning. There is no dispute that the reports do reveal that there had been an assault, a commotion and firing of a shot and that allegedly, a police officer was involved. But these facts are not challenged. As regards the previous episode encountered by Robert Lee there is nothing to show that this was not true.

Further it is not uncommon for newspapers to publish matters concerning scholastic achievement of and other good deeds rendered by a person on his death particularly if the dead person enjoys a certain standing in the community or he is in one way or another related to any prominent personality. For that reason it is unreasonable to isolate certain passages from the reports and construe them unfavourably or to impute improper motive on the publisher. What may appear to be an embarrassment or prejudicial if that part is read in isolation may not be so if the reports are read as a whole taking into account the circumstances surrounding such publication particularly if it relates to a matter which will promote public sensation or a matter of unusual occurrence.” The application was therefore dismissed.

Malaysia under Tun Dr. Mahathir (1981-2002)
Over this period, more laws are introduced and come into force to govern the media. In 1984, Printing Presses and Publications Act came into force on the 1st of September 1984 as a consolidating Act, and in turn repealed the Printing Presses Act 1948 and the Control of Imported Publications Act 1958. The Act is designed ‘to regulate the use of printing, presses and the printing, importation, production, reproduction, publishing and distribution of publications and for matters connected there with’.

Through such control, the government uses it power to determine what it is the public has a right to know, or exactly what form freedom of speech should take13. This is an Act designed clearly to ensure that the press does not get out of line, imposes both a system of licensing and censorship14. Section 3 of the Act makes it mandatory to obtain a license to own a printing press. The Minister has absolute discretion on giving, refusing, and revoking a license15. Further, judicial review of the Minister’s discretion is not allowed16 and the Minister is not required to give the parties a prior hearing17.

The period of the license is 12 months or shorter period as minister specifies18. This means that all publishers in this country must suffer the pangs of uncertainty about whether their permit will be renewed for the following year. There is less control of what may be written in foreign publications, controls have been exercised through deliberate delay in distribution and sometimes outright ban on their sale where officials deemed reports to be offensive or inaccurate19.

In 1988, another law governing the media came into force on 1st August i.e. The Broadcasting Act 1988. The preamble to the Act states: ‘An act to provide for the control of broadcasting services and for matters connected therewith’. The Act is both stringent and inflexible. It bestows enormous powers on the government to determine the type of television made available to the Malaysian public. In the midst of the supposed ‘deregulation’ of broadcasting, the Act now gives the Minister of Information virtually total powers to determine who will and who will not broadcast and the nature of the broadcast material.

Under the Act, any potential broadcaster would need to apply for a licence from the minister beforehand. Later, the Act was amended on October 1996. By the amendment, this already-stringent piece of legislation were aimed at taking into account the introduction of new services, such as cable and satellite television, satellite radio, pay TV and video-on demand.

Due to the drastic development in the electronic media, the Legislature has to repeal the old Telecommunication Act 1950 and the Broadcasting Act 1988 and introduced a new law which is the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. The Act’s breakthrough was to bring together the previously disparate industries of broadcasting, telecommunications and internet services combined under legislation and more importantly, one regulator the Communications and Multimedia commission.20 The Communication and Multimedia Act brings to the creation of Communication and Multimedia Commission Act 1998. the Communication and Multimedia Commission performing several functions including advising the Minister all matters concerning the national policy objectives for communication and multimedia activities and implementing and enforcing the provisions of the communications and multimedia law.

Interestingly, Information Malaysia 1980-81 and Information Malaysia 1985 revealed that between 1981 and 1985 alone, the number of titles of local newspapers, magazines, and journals in circulation increased from 56 to 10221. However, the increase in number cannot be the proof supporting the allegation that during that time, the media was enjoying freedom of speech. There are some facts that we should not forget. In 1987, during the Operasi Lalang, a number of newspapers were closed by the government22. Later, Harakah being categorizes as publications of political parties meant for party members and there is law forbids the publication being openly sold to the public. Besides, Barisan Nasional owned and controlled major Malaysian media organization.

Further, prior to Dato Seri Anwar’s sacking, expulsion, and detention, the editor of Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian, and the director of operations of TV3 were forced to resign because they were allied to Anwar. In 1990, there was a case of Aliran Kesedaran23 In this case, the respondents had applied for a permit under s 6(1) of the Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984 to print and publish in Bahasa Malaysia a magazine under the name and style of Seruan Aliran. The application was refused by the Minister of Home Affairs. The respondents applied for an order of certiorari to remove into the High Court for the purpose of quashing the decision of the Minister and for an order of mandamus directing the Minister to hear and determine the application for the permit according to law. The High Court made an order quashing the decision of the Minister and ordered that the Minister shall hear and determine according to law the application for the permit.

The appellant appealed. The court allowing the appeal and held that; ‘Section 12(2) of the Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984 gives the Minister of Home Affairs ‘absolute discretion to refuse an application for a license or permit’. So unless it can be clearly established that the Minister for Home Affairs had in any way exercised his discretion wrongfully, unfairly, dishonestly or in bad faith, the High Court cannot question the discretion of the Minister.” One of the significant cases during this period was the case of Irene Fernandez.

The facts were that in 1995, Tenaganita released a report documenting beatings, sexual violence against detainees by prison guards, and inadequate food and water in Malaysia’s immigration detention camp. Irene Fernandez was arrested and charged with malicious publication of false news under the Printing Presses and Publications Act. Magistrate Juliana Mohamed found Irene guilty and was sentence to one year imprison.

Current Situation (2003-2006)
Between these periods of time, there is no any new law designed to control the media. However, recently, Government has released the Media Council Bill (2006) which seeks to ameliorate some of the worst excess of the Printing Presses and Publications Act in regard to the local media. On page 4 of the Bill, it was stated: “An

Act to establish the Malaysian Press Council for the purpose of preserving, promoting and protecting the freedom of the Press, of maintaining and improving the ethical and professional journalistic standards of newspapers, press publications and news/press agencies in Malaysia.” Nevertheless, there is fear in public that this piece of legislation will create another unnecessary public body with wide powers to curb press freedom despite its apparent duty to uphold that right. It might also act as a censorship board, only dealing with complaints against the press organisations and journalists and not against denial of freedom of expression by other entities such as ministers or organisations whose actions effectively suppress the right of freedom of expression.

Besides, bear in mind that all the laws governing the media before this are still firmly in place and the main stream media also continue to be owned by interests directly or indirectly tied to the main component parties of the BN, especially UMNO and MCA.

Some incidents happened during this time of period, showing to us that despite of the changes of the head of the Government, the media are not freer compared to the years before. The government shut down the Sarawak tribune for the editors made a mistake of reprinting caricatures of Prophet Muhammad following Muslim protests of a Danish paper that first published them.

Another incident was that the Minister of Information, Datuk Zainuddin had sought the sacking of top NST editor at a meeting of UMNO’s information bureau because he was unhappy with the way the NST had played up certain issues such as the religious rights of minorities and the government’s policy on bumiputras.24 The government also delays in reviewing the publishing permit of the Oriental Daily and censor certain news that the government were not comfortable with.

Moreover, the debate on Ninth Malaysia Plan was given wide publicity in the media, but it was the official view and rationale for the Plan that enjoyed one-sided coverage. The leader of the opposition who spoke foe six hours on the Plan did not get any substantive coverage.25 Another issue was that Tun Dr. Mahathir had called a press conference to express his deep disappointment after Datuk Seri Abdullah dismissed the ‘crooked bridge’ project. However, the mainstream media hardly covered it.

The freedom of the media has seen become more restrictive from the time prior to independence until now. At the early day, the British Colonial has a freer media compare to the media after independence. This might be because of the British regarded the individual freedom as up most important. When came to the early day after independence, the laws being designed were more restricted. However, this was understandable as the situation at that time, where Malaysia was in an Emergency. Unmindful speech might cause riot to the nation. Therefore, the government had to take step to prevent this. In 1970-1985, there was more cases on freedom of speech, after the stand of the courts are clear in these issues, there was lesser cases.

During the time frame from 1981 to 2002, many laws were designed and many existing laws were amended. Tun Dr. Mahathir tried to justify this by saying that: ‘the truth is that there is no absolute press freedom anywhere in the world, be it in a liberal democratic country or in countries governed by dictators.”26 He further claimed that journalists and foreigners read a few newspapers which support the government and immediately concluded that there is no press freedom in Malaysia. This was in conjunction with his view points that: “Malaysian newspapers are free. But this freedom does not mean freedom to criticize the government alone. It also means freedom to support the government.”27

Further in Tun Dr. Mahathir speech at the national union of Journalists dinner on 15th June 1990, he stated that: ‘According to an old English proverb, power corrupt and absolute power tends to corrupt absolutely. If there are restrictions on press freedom, especially pertaining to reports on violence, sex and obscenity, then they are imposed because no one should be given absolute power. This is to prevent the possibility of ‘absolute corruption’. This constraint no way suggests there is no press freedom in Malaysia. Government leaders in this country have no absolute power. The people can change the government while the courts can reverse government decisions. Therefore, newspapers in Malaysia must accept these restrictions. This is done in the national interest and not aimed at destroying press
freedom”. It is true that freedom of the media has to be limited but over limiting will only result to a closed society.

Looking at the current situation, many are thinking that the new government would promote media freedom in view of the government transparency policy. However, one should bear in mind that since Datuk Seri Abdullah took over the government until today, it was only three years passed. It is unfair to judge him at this moment. Whether or not there is free media under Datuk Seri Abdullah, we shall wait and see.

Comparing to our nearest neighbor, Singapore, media in Malaysia enjoy more freedom. Singapore as a police state, the press is mobilized to explain and support the policies of the Singapore government, as an aid to development rather than assuming a counter-checking posture.

In Chee Siok Chin case28, the Singapore court held that: “it bears emphasis that the phrase ‘necessary or expedient’ confers on Parliament an extremely wide discretionary power and remit that permits a multifarious and multifaceted approach towards achieving any of the purposes specified in Art 14(2) of the constitution. In contrast to the Indian Constitution, there can be no questioning of whether the Legislations are ‘reasonable’. The court’s sole task, when a constitutional challenge is advanced, is to ascertain whether an impugned law is within the purview of any of the permissible restrictions.”

As for electronic media, the media Corporation of Singapore, an evolution from a series of government owned broadcast Corporations, dominances the broadcasting media. The PAP government guards the broadcast turf with rigour, grudgingly allowing foreigner broadcasters to operate for commercial and public relations reasons but legislating them off local politics.

Today, Malaysian society has an economic level of existence which provides for basic needs, health facilities, adequate housing and equal opportunities to education. Therefore, there is no reason why freedom of speech and free media should be restricted. Values of freedom of expression, exposure to
critical thinking and the importance of a civil society should be emphasizes. After 49 years of independence, Malaysian should not only concern with earning a livelihood and basic quality of life issues. Society shall have desire to acquire knowledge especially in social concerns such as freedom of speech.

1. “A Case of the Media Freedom: Report of the SUHAKAM”, Workshop on Freedom of the Media at Kuala Lumpur, Aug. 1, 2002. (Kuala Lumpur: Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia Malaysia, 2003). 2. Abdul Aziz Bari, ‘Freedom of Speech and Expression in Malaysia After Forty Years’, (1998) 27.3 INSAF 149-161. 3. Abraham, C.E.R., “Freedom of Speech for Whom? The Malaysian Case”, (1998) 27.3 INSAF 1-8. 4. Asian Human Rights Commission, homepage, 10 Sept. 2006

5. Asian Human Rights Commission, homepage, 10 Sept. 2006
6. Broadcasting Act 1988 (Act 338).
7. Centre for Independent Journalism, 10 Sept. 2006
8. Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 (Act 588).
9. Communication and Multimedia Commission Act 1998. (Act 599). 10. Constitution (Amendment) Act 1971 (Act A30).
11. Control of Imported Publications Act 1958 (Ord 14 of 1955) 12. Cyrus V. Das, “Press Freedom & Contempt of Court”, (1986) 19.3 INSAF 61. 13. Faruqi, Shad Saleem, “Access to Information”, [1993] 4 Malaysia Current Law Journal xxiii. 14. —, “Curbing Excesses of Free Speech”, Sunday Star, 10 Feb, 2002, Focus. 15. —, “Cyber Challenge to Freedom of Speech”, Sunday Star, 27 Jan, 2002, Focus. 16. —,”Keeping A Tight Lid on Official Secrets”, Sunday Star, 17 Feb, 2002, Focus. 17. —, “Life-blood of Free Society”, Sunday Star, 20 Jan, 2002, Focus. 18. —, “Pifalls for the Unwary Media”, Sunday Star, 3 March, 2002, Focus. 19. —, “Principles That Govern Free Speech”, Sunday Star, 3 Feb, 2002, Focus. 20. Federal Constitution.

21. “Freedom of the Press? A Quick Look At the Borneo Mail Affair and the Question: How Free Is the Local Press?”. 1994 (June) Malaysian Law News, 36-37. 22. Hashim Makaruddin, ed., Ensiklopedia Dr. Mahathir Bin Mohamed: Perdana Menteri Malaysia, (Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Masri, 2005). 23.
Hickling, R.H., Hickling’s Malaysian Public Law, (Petalng Jaya: Longman, 2003). 24. “I Know How The People Feel”, (1986) 19.4 INSAF 18.

25. Kanesalingam, A., “Democracy and the Law”, (1998) 27.4 INSAF 105-115. 26. Mahathir Mohamed, “Freedom of the Press: Malaysian Perspective”, 1990 (Aug) Malaysian Law News, 521-522. 27. Malaysia Act 1963 (No.26/63).

28. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary 3 Sept. 2006
29. Mohamad Ariff Yusuf, “Freedom of the Press in Malaysia”, 10th Law Asia Conference, (Kuala Lumpur, June 21 – July 4, 1987). 30. Mustafa K. Anuar, Anil Netto, “Malaysian Ready for Press Freedom”, 5 Sept. 2006, 31. —, Joint Coordination, Charter 2000, Aliran Online, 6 Sept. 2006 32. Officials Secrets Act 1972 (Act 88)

33. Officials Secrets (Amendment) Act 1983
34. Officials Secrets (Amendment) Act 1986
35. Padmanabha Rau, “Federal Constitutional Law in Malaysia & Singapore”, 2nd ed., (Singapore: Butterworths Asia, 1997). 36. “Press Council Bill A Farce”, Aliran Online, 5 Sept. 2006 37. Printing Press Act 1948 (Ord 12 of 1948)

38. Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984 (Act301).
39. Printing Presses and Publications (Amendment) Act 1987 (Act684) 40. Reme Ahmad, “Malaysia Former Media Bosses Duel Over Press Issues”, Asia Media News 22 Feb. 2006, 9 Sept. 2006 41. Ruslan Zainuddin, Fauziah Soffie, “Sejarah Malaysia” (Selangor: Penerbit Fajar Bakti, 2001). 42. .Salleh Buang, “The Broadcasting Act 1988”, 1994 (April) Malaysian Law News, 5&14. 43. Shafruddin Hashim, “The Constitution and the Federal Idea in Peninsular Malaysia”, (1984) Journal of Malaysia and Comparative Law, 139-178. 44. Sheridan, L.A. & Groves, Harry E., “The Constitution of Malaysia”, 5th ed., (Singapore: Malaysian Law Journal, 2004). 45. Sedition Act 1948 (Revised – 1969) (Act 15).

46. Sopiee, Mohamed Nordin, “Freedom of the Press”, 10th Law Asia Conference, (Kuala Lumpur: June 29 – July 4, 1987). 47. Tan, Kevin & Thio Li-Ann, “Constitutional Law in Malaysia & Singapore”, 2nd ed., (Singapore:
Butterworths Asia, 1997). 48. “The Officials Secrets (Amendment) Bill 1986: Why Are They Taking Away Our Rights?” 1986, 19.4 INSAF 1. 49. Tun Mohamed Suffian, ed., “The Constitution of Malaysia: Its Development: 1957-1977”, (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1978). 50. Wong, Kok Keong, “Propagandists for the BN (Part 1)”, 2004 Vol. 24 No. 5 Aliran Monthly, 14-17. 51. —, “Propagandists for the BN (Part 2)”, 2004 Vol. 24 No. 6 Aliran Monthly, 13-17. 52. —, “Freer Media Under PM Abdullah?”, Aliran Online 3 Sept. 2006 53. Zaharom Naim, Mustafa K Anuar, “Ownership and Control of the Malaysia Media”, World Association for Christian Communication, homepage, 10 Sept. 2006 54. Zalina Abdul Halim, “Media Law”, 2000 Survey of Malaysian Law, 411-439. 55. —, “The media System and Co-operative Regulatory Systems in the Media Sector of Malaysia”, Hans-Bredow-Institut, 2 Sept. 2006

Effects of News Media

Throughout the years the use of the media has become such a huge part of life across the world. The media has taken over and had such a drastic effect on the American culture as a whole. Americans today look to the use of technology to learn information about any and everything. The old way of life is no more the digital age is rapidly evolving and growing, it is becoming such a huge part of the lives of all Americans and the information and news media plays a huge role in this evolution.

When it comes to the role of information media, it is very useful for most Americans. Most Americans only watch television for entertainment purposes, therefor using the internet as a platform to release and provided information to the people is a positive thing. The use of information media definitely has a social responsibility because, just like any other form of media there are some boundaries that should not be crossed. I believe that the information media should be used for just that to inform the people and provide them with accurate reports and articles regarding the news.

When individuals decide to create false news or report inaccurate stories it then becomes a debate of whether or not these individuals and or reporters have a responsibility to the people to be authentic in their work. It then becomes a matter of whether these information media platforms are socially responsible for what the public is being provided. The information media is used to connect the public to the world by displaying and reporting the happenings of the world, this should be done unbiasedly and all the information provided should be accurate and credible. So in a since the information media has a few social responsibilities. The information and news media also can be very influential to the American culture.

In the American culture people tend to look for clarity and verification from outside sources, this is where information and news media can be very influential to the opinion of people. When political parties are concerned we look to the news for information about these parties to give people clarity as to who may be the best candidate for the position. The news and information media plays such a huge role in the way that people form opinion of political parties.

The role of the new is to inform the public about politics and provide background information about each party. What it is not meant to be used for is to be bias and put out information that could hurt the candidates. Although this is what should not be done it generally is done very often, political parties use information and news media to release information that could impact and influence the opinions of the people. The modern era of news and information media has transformed so many aspect of life.

Electronic media and their convergence has transformed journalism and news consumption in such a drastic way. Due to the constant evolution of technology electronic media has become the way of doing everything. This has transformed the way of journalism and news consumption, because over the years consumers have gradually gravitated towards the internet for their information. The information provided on the internet is in much more detail then is it were to be written in a newspaper or broadcasted on a news channel. The way the internet is set up there is such a platform for reporters and journalist to include so many different elements into their writings or news reports that they would not be able to do if it weren’t for the internet.

The way that the American culture is in this current time every aspect of life is somehow connected to the internet and the consumption of news and reports are no different. The way people consume the news on the internet is a completely different experience then it is watching the news. Some news channels even offer more in depth details about a story that way aired on television on their website. They also use the website to provide the citizens with news that did not make the airing of the broadcast as well. When journalist and news reporters take advantage of the media they reach a broader audience because this is the age of the internet. The way we consume and take in news is constantly and rapidly changing with the growth of technology.

2010. Media Culture: Mass Communication of the Digital Age

Social media impact on todays youth communication

Social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional media, which delivers content but doesn’t allow readers/viewers/listeners to participate in the creation or development of the content. There is a wide variety of social media, ranging from social sharing sites such as YouTube and Flickr through social networks such as LinkedIn and Facebook. In my opinion, social media has shot to the forefront of people’s attention because it’s fun. Thanks to social media, it’s easy to share your ideas, photos, videos, likes and dislikes, with the world at large – and find out what they think of them. You can find friends, business contacts and become part of a community or a bunch of different communities. Social media gives you what TV never could – a chance to be engaged and engage others.

A New Definition of Social Media
by Anthony J. Bradley | January 7, 2010 | 16 Comments
I have been reading in the blogosphere and in the general press about the need for a better definition of social media. Indeed, my discussions with clients have validated this need. After having spent 10 months of 2009 hand collecting and analyzing 200 cases of successful social media implementations (I actually looked at over 400 cases but weeded out those that were not social in nature or were not successful), I feel that I have gained considerable insight into what is unique about social media. I recently published, “The Six Core Principles of Social-Media-Based Collaboration” (available to clients or for a fee) to help clients distinguish between social media and other forms of communications and collaboration. Here are some brief excerpts. At its foundation, social media is a set of technologies and channels targeted at forming and enabling a potentially massive community of participants to productively collaborate.

IT tools to support collaboration have existed for decades. But social-media technologies, such as social networking, wikis and blogs, enable collaboration on a much grander scale and support tapping the power of the collective in ways previously unachievable. Six core principles underlie the value of social-media solutions, and, in combination, serve as the defining characteristics that set social media apart from other forms of communication and collaboration. 1.Participation

Successful social-media solutions tap into the power of mass collaboration through user participation. The only way to achieve substantial benefits from social media is by mobilizing the community to contribute. You can’t capture the “wisdom of the crowds” if the crowds don’t participate. Collective

Varied definitions and applications of the term “collective” abound and cover a wide spectrum of meanings. Here, as a core principle of social media, the use of the term “collective” is tightly aligned with its root origins “to collect.” With social media, participants “collect” around a unifying entity. People collect around the Facebook social graph to contribute their profile information. People collect on Wikipedia to add encyclopedia articles. People collect on YouTube to share videos. In these examples, as in all social media, people collect around the content to contribute rather than individually create the content and distribute it. Transparency

With social media, it is not enough to collect participant contributions. A social-media solution also provides transparency in that participants are privy to each other’s participation. They get to see, use, reuse, augment, validate, critique and rate each other’s contributions. Without transparency, there is no participant collaboration on content. It is in this transparency that the community improves content, unifies information, self-governs, self-corrects, evolves, creates emergence and otherwise propels its own advancement. Independence

The principle of independence means that any participant can contribute completely independent of any other participant. This is also called anytime, anyplace collaboration. Participants can collaborate no matter where they are or whoever else may be posting content at that time. Generally, there is no workflow or document check-in/check-out that can bottleneck collaboration and impact the scalability required for mass collaboration. No coordination between collaborators is required. Persistence

With social media, the fruits of participant contributions are captured in a persistent state for others to view, share and augment. This is one of the more obvious principles. It differentiates social media from synchronous conversational interactions, where much of the information exchanged is either lost or captured, most often only in part, as an additional scribing activity. Emergence

The emergence principle embodies the recognition that you can’t predict, model, design and control all human collaborative interactions and optimize them as you would a fixed business process. It is the recognition that one benefit of social media is as an environment for social structures to emerge. These structures may be latent or hidden organizational structures, expertise, work processes, content organization, information taxonomies, and more. I’m interested in your take on this definition and differentiating principles. Also see my subsequent post on a simpler definition of social media. BTW, I will spend the next few months publishing on my analysis of these 200 cases. I’ve put together some interesting social media use case patterns.

Because of this, social media is of particular interest to businesses. Currently, businesses of all sizes are experimenting with social media marketing, grappling with the question of how to get in on what appears to be an especially viral way to get their message (and their products) out there.

The History of Philippine Media

The Republic of the Philippines was under Spanish rule begining March 16, 1521, when Ferdinand Magellan landed on the island of Cebu and claimed it for Spain. In 1565 the first permanent Spanish settlement was founded, and later the islands received their name from Philip II of Spain. In effect, Spanish rule ended in 1898 when the U.S. Navy’s Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet anchored in Manila Bay.

In December 1898 the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, handing control of the Philippines over to the United States. Although Filipinos revolted against American rule, the United States oversaw the islands until the Philippines was granted its independence on July 4, 1946. The archipelago that is the Republic of the Philippines covers around 300,000 square kilometers, of which 298,170 square kilometers is land.

The waters of the South China Sea to the west, Philippine Sea to the east, Luzon Strait to the north and Celebes Sea to the south lap against the nation’s 36,289 kilometers of coastline. The terrain is primarily mountainous, with coastal lowlands varying from narrow to extensive. Natural resources include metals such as gold, silver, copper, nickel and cobalt, plus timber, petroleum and salt. About 46 percent of the land was made up of forests and woodlands, according to 1993 estimates. Manila, the capital, has almost 10 million residents in the metropolitan area and is located on the island of Luzon.

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Philippines had an estimated population of almost 83 million, of which about 40 percent lived below the poverty level, according to 1997 government estimates. The top 10 percent of the population held 39 percent of the income, while the bottom 10 percent held a paltry 1.5 percent. The majority of the 48 million Filipinos in the workforce were employed in agriculture (almost 40 percent), with 19.4 percent working in government and social services, 17.7 percent in service, 9.8 percent in manufacturing, 5.8 percent in construction, and 7.5 percent in other industries, according to 1998 estimates.

Life expectancy in 2001 was estimated at about 65 years for men, and 71 years for women. The 1995 estimated literacy rate (defined as those age 15 and over who can read and write) was high, at 95 percent for men; 94 percent for women. The overwhelming majority of Filipinos are Roman Catholic (83 percent), with Protestants (9 percent), Muslim (5 percent), and Buddhists and others making up the remaining 3 percent. English and Filipino, based on the Tagalog dialect, are the two official languages, with around 85 dialects also spoken. Tagalog, Cebuano and Ilocano are perhaps the most prevalent of the dialects.

The 1987 Constitution sets up a presidential system of government with a bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consisting of a 24-seat Senate (Senado) and a 204-seat House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan). The president can appoint additional members to the House of Representatives, although the constitution prohibits more than 250 representatives. The president appoints justices to the Supreme Court upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council. The judiciary is independent. Media Overview

Highs of the media’s history in the islands include the Philippines’ Constitution guaranteeing freedom of the press and the freedom of the press access to official documents. In contrast to these lofty ideals, the Philippines press from the time of its inception has faced American influence, confiscation of assets for those papers not among the ownership of a former leader, and mistrust of reporters due to shoddy reporting. Newspapers were being published on board American ships as they first entered Manila Bay in 1898.

The Bounding Billow was published on board Dewey’s flag-ship, and other on-ship U.S. papers included the American Soldier, Freedom and the American, according to the Philippine Journalism Review. These early papers followed U.S. attempts to “civilize” the Filipinos. American journalists in the Philippines went so far as to characterize the natives as “little brown soldiers who enjoyed parading before the patient Americans,” and as “a group of warlike tribes who will devour each other when American troops leave.” The Americans wasted no time in establishing a press system in the Philippines modeled on that of the one in place in the United States.

The Manila Times published its first issue in October 1898, making it the first English-language newspaper in the islands. Newspapers published in the Philippines were under strong American influence and went so far as to champion the annexation of the islands by the United States. Among the newspapers taking this stance were La Democracia and Consolidacion Nacional. Among the papers holding out for independence were El Renacimiento, Muling Pagsilang, El Debate, La Opinion and Los Obreros.

Another influential newspaper was the Bulletin, which originally was established by H.G. Harris and Carson Taylor in 1900 as a shipping journal and to encourage shipping and commerce in the islands. The Bulletin used as its primary sources the news agencies Associated Press, United Press International and the Chicago Tribune Service.

For its first three years the Bulletin was published free of charge; it became a full-fledged paper in 1912. In 1917, Manuel Quezon purchased the Manila Times and held it for four years. Ownership changed hands a few times after that until the Times joined the press holdings of Alejandro Roces Sr.

Among Roces’ other newspapers at the time were Taliba, the Tribune and La Vanguardia. Cable News, founded by Israel Putnam, was another renowned daily during the early part of the twentieth century. Later the paper joined with the American, and in 1920 the combined newspaper was purchased by Quezon.

Although founded on the principle of freedom of expression, newspapers in the Philippines were subjected to strict censorship by American military authorities, and later by American civilian administrators, according to the Philippine Journalism Review. Under Gen. Arthur McArthur, the military worked to keep propaganda against American forces out of the news as well as prevent communication between those opposing America’s presence in the islands. Stories detailing resistance by Filipinos to American rule were suppressed, as well as stories that would help Filipinos learn what was happening beyond the Philippines’ borders.

Journalists were deported or imprisoned for exercising freedom of the press, and papers such as La Justicia, and the Cebuano newspaper El Nueva Dia, were suspended many times for championing nationalistic views. Historians say El Renacimiento was the only true independent newspaper during these dark days, and its light was later extinguished by a libel case brought against the paper by an American official. English-language newspapers dominated the press in the early part of the century until then Senate President Manuel Quezon established the Philippines Herald to represent the Filipino viewpoint in the fight for independence.

In August 1920, disgruntled former Manila Timesjournalists left their jobs and formed the backbone of the Herald. Early staff members included Narciso Ramos, Antonio Escoda, Bernardo Garcia and Jose P. Bautista— names that would become among the most revered in the history of the Philippines’ press. The 1920s also saw the birth of English-language women’s magazines, which were primarily the products of women’s clubs. Women’s Outlook was published 10 times a year and was the official publication of the Women’s Club of Manila, according to the Philippine Journalism Review.

Another prominent publication was Woman’s World, the publication of the Philippine Association of University Women. In 1935 Woman’s World joined Woman’s Home Journal to become Woman’s Home Journal World, and the combined magazine featured sections on food, fashion, beauty and gossip. In April 1925, Alejandro Roces, who would also own the Manila Times and other papers, established the Tribune.

Under the editorial leadership of Mauro Mendez, the Tribune tackled topics such as the alleged misuse of government funds; a plan to potentially cut the jobs of about 2,000 low-income government employees in order to save money; the merits of English being the language of instruction in schools; and a proposal to hand members of the House of Parliament a large lump sum for travel allowances, postage, stationery and clerical help with no accounting for how the money was spent. Mendez later transferred to the Herald and his journalistic attacks continued, this time venturing into topics such as peasant unrest in the 1930s, women’s suffrage and the threat of Communism.

After the Philippines were granted independence, newspapers threw off their shackles and proceeded to write about wrongdoing in high places. Their motives may have been pure, but they tended to use unsubstantiated or one-source stories. As time went on, elite families took over newspaper ownership in Manila. In 1972 then-President Ferdinand Marcos imposed martial law. He confiscated the assets of those newspapers not in his own coalition. Between 1972 and 1986, newspapers were under the rule of Marcos’ friends, family members or others close to him.

The press remained under these unfriendly conditions for 14 years. The assassination of presidential hopeful Benigno (“Ninoy”) Aquino Jr. in August 1983 united Filipinos, and eventually helped spur a return to a freer, more independent press. His growing unpopularity led Marcos to flee the country in 1986. After his departure the Commission on Good Government confiscated newspapers and their assets from Marcos’ allies. The press rejoiced as it regained control; some newspapers were even returned to the families that had owned and operated them prior to Marcos’ takeover.

By the early 1990s, there were about 30 daily papers of all sizes, types and political perspectives. News was offered by about a dozen English-language broadsheets, while around 14 tabloids—primarily in Tagalog and Cebuano—featured sensationalism as a staple. Papers were diverse, and four were published in Chinese. At the turn of the twenty-first century, national newspapers numbered eight from a high of 22 in 1986, according to the World Press Review.

Slightly more than 400 community newspapers, most weeklies or monthlies in English are found amid the nation’s 7,100 islands. National dailies have circulations of between 10,000 and 400,000 while their provincial cousins have circulations between 500 and 45,000. Grouped by circulation, there are about a dozen newspapers with a circulation between 100,000 and 300,000; about a dozen with a circulation between 50,000 and 100,000; three with circulation of between 25,000 and 50,000; one with circulation of between 10,000 and 25,000, and two with circulations below 10,000.

Publications are printed in a variety of languages. In English the three top are the Manila Bulletin (circulation of around 320,000), Philippines Star (222,900) and Philippines Inquirer (148,800). In Filipino they are People’s Tonight (320,900), Pilipino Ngayaon (272,000) and Taliba(226,800). In Taglish, the top three are People’s Journal (372,500), Headline Manila (105,100) and News Today (75,000). The top three Chinese papers are the World News (36,000), United Daily News (32,000) and China Times (30,000). Economic Framework

The Philippines’ economy is built primarily upon agriculture, light industry and services. About 40 percent of the population was living below the poverty line in 1997, according to U.S. government figures. The Philippines was making headway in growth and poverty reduction until the 1997 simultaneous shocks of an Asian financial crisis and the El Nino weather pattern.

Growth domestic products (GDP) growth dropped to about -0.5 percent in 1998 from five percent in 1997, and then recovered to about three percent in 1999 and in 2000 to about four percent. In 2001 the Philippines’ government hoped its GDP growth would hit a little more than three percent. In an effort to keep pace with newly industrialized East Asian countries, the Philippine government has undertaken a strategy of improving infrastructure, boosting tax revenues through an overhauled tax system, a continued move toward deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade with regional nations.

Although estimates indicate poverty may have increased from 25.1 percent in 1997 to 27.8 percent in 1998, a recovery in 1999 is estimated to have reduced the rate to 26.3 percent. Further declines were expected in subsequent years. Many believe the outlook for the future of the Philippine economy is good as recent administrations have opened up the economy through market-based policies and liberalization.

Although the economy hit a few bumps amid scandals involving the Philippine Stock Exchange and ties between government officials and business, legislation in electronic commerce, banking reform and securities regulation is expected to improve the business climate. Press Laws

Owing to American influence, much press ideals of the Philippines are based on those of the press in the United

States. The Philippine Constitution, Article 3, states “no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.” Section 7 guarantees the right of the people “to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized.

Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitation as may be provided by law.” In the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States in September 2001, the United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization hosted a conference on Terrorism and the Media in Manila in May 2002.

A resolution crafted by participants said, in part, that any strategy to address the threat of terrorism “must promote greater respect for freedom of expression and of the media, rather than imposing restrictions on these fundamental rights.” In addition, the media has “both the right and a duty” to report on terrorism in the interest of the public’s right to know. State-Press Relations

The Philippines’ press was modeled after that of the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. In its early days, the Filipino press was under the control and censorship of American military authorities, and later, American administrators. In the 1920s and 1930s the press was characterized by a “high degree of professionalism,” according to the Philippine Journalism Review.

Journalists analyzed public issues and encouraged open debate. Despite the law and lofty ideals of total press freedom, the press was repressed during the reign of Ferdinand Marcos, particularly after he declared martial law in 1972 and confiscated newspaper assets.

In more recent times the press is subject to pressure from newspaper owners as they try to protect their interests, according to the World Press Review. Community papers face feuding political clans, “patronage politics,” and resistance to change. In an early 2002 report on the state of the press, Professor Luis Teodoro, executive editor of the Philippine Journalism Review, pointed out a lack of government regulation does not necessarily equal a free press, according to the Philippine’s Business World. Teodoro called press laws “fairly liberal,” but pointed out that newspapers are primarily driven by commercial and political interests, which often are tied to government interests.

Vital to those interests, Teodoro said, is government favor or disfavor. Despite these things, he said, there still “exists a core of practitioners who detest the political and ideological limits set by the existing system and who hunger for a relevant journalism that owes its allegiance first— and foremost—to the Filipino people.” Debate abounds concerning if a free press and free economy can co-exist with economic growth. In recent years business owners have blamed the Philippines’ slowing economy on the free press and the growing democracy.

When one prominent businessman said the press should be gagged “for the sake of the economy,” his view was opposed by President Gloria Arroyo who said “the cure might be worse than the sickness.” Yet even Arroyo has tied the media’s hands. On May 29, 2001, Arroyo slapped a blackout on the media regarding the conflict between the army and Abu Sayyaf rebels in the southwest portion of the Philippines. Using military secrets as her justification, Arroyo said it was important to keep secrets to “surprise the enemy,” according to Reporters Without Borders.

She also accused journalists who had interviewed the rebels of “antipatriotic” acts, although an official later said reporters were not forbidden from entering that area of the nation. The Philippines media—perhaps surprisingly so for many journalists—was generally in favor with Arroyo’s decision, as evidenced by editorials. An exception was Mindanao radio network Radio Mindanao Network (RMN), which said it would continue interviews with rebel leaders. On June 6, 2001, the offices of the radio station dyHB were bombed.

The blast wounded a guard and two passers-by when a wall around the building collapsed. The RMN station airs reports on organized crime, and the alleged complicity of police officers and soldiers in the area. However, the dyHB’s managing editor said the attack was related to interviews with the rebel group after the government-imposed media blackout, according to Reporters Without Borders. Early police reports after the attack said the bomb used was of military origin. Filipino journalists are not strangers to danger in the recent past.

Since 1986 at least 39 journalists have been killed, according to information gathered by the International Press Institute. In 2001 three radio station employees were killed, placing the Philippines second only to Afghanistan for journalist deaths that year. Among those killed in 2001 was Rolando Ureta, program director for dyKR radio station, an affiliate of Radio Mindanao. Ureta was shot on Jan. 3 while riding his motorcycle after airing his nightly program. Press reports after his murder told of his receiving death threats for his coverage of alleged political corruption and drug trafficking.

On Feb. 24 DXID Radio commentator and Islamic Radio Broadcasting Network member Mohammad Yusop was shot and killed in the southern Philippines. On May 30 DXXL radio announcer Candelario Cayona was shot and killed. In 2000 he had angered police after airing interviews with members of Muslim extremist group. On May 31, Joy Mortel, a reporter for the Mindoro Guardian, was shot several times and killed after an argument with two unidentified armed men in her home in Barangay Talabanhan, Occidental Mindoro Province.

Although the motive for her killing is not clear, the police had not ruled out her journalism, which included the questioning of the finances of local cooperatives she had organized. Another radio journalist was abducted in August 2001 and found blindfolded, dehydrated and badly beaten. The kidnappers allegedly were punishing him for reports on illegal logging, drug trafficking, and other criminal activities. In August 2001, former President Joseph Estrada asked his lawyers sue the Daily Inquirer for publishing an interview with a soldier that implicated him and Senator Panfilo Lacson, chief of the national police, in a money laundering scandal.

Before he was ousted from office, Estrada had asked his partisans to no longer buy advertising space in the Inquirer. Yet the Philippines’ press continues to expose wrongdoing. In 1989 nine Filipino journalists founded the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) as they realized that newspapers do not have the time, money or manpower to tackle investigations. PCIJ believes the media plays an important role in examining and strengthening democratic institutions, as well as be a catalyst for debate and consensus. To play its role, the media should provide citizens with the information necessary to make informed decisions.

PCIJ funds investigative pieces for both print and broadcast journalists, as well as puts out books and publishes an investigative reporting magazine. PCIJ organizes training seminars for journalists and provides training personnel for news organizations at home and in Southeast Asia. Over the past decade PCIJ has published almost 200 articles in Philippines print media, launched more than a dozen books and produced a handful of full-length documentaries. A 13-person staff runs the PCIJ, and is headed by the executive director, who administers the day-to-day operations.

The staff includes five journalists who write investigative reports and oversee components of the center’s work. A researcher and librarian also are employed. Fellowships are offered to train and keep quality journalists in the Philippines, and fellowships are available for investigative reporting to full-time reporters, freelance journalists and academics. PCIJ has gained clout in its less than 20 years of existence. When PCIJ reported on March 11, 1996, that the former health secretary was reportedly skimming off up to 40 percent on government contracts, he was forced to resign two weeks later.

When in July 1995 PCIJ reported on the torture of two 12-year-old boys suspected of being involved in a kidnapping by the then-Presidential Anti-Crime Commission, the story was followed two days later by a probe of the incident. Charges were later filed against the commission. Other instances of PCIJ clout include a Senate investigation of the former house speaker for unpaid debts, and the resignation of a Supreme Court justice after a faked authorship of a legal decision in favor of a Philippines telecommunications giant.

However, the government has fought back. PCIJ wrote on Oct. 11, 1993, about an alleged presidential par-amour and her supposed influence on state affairs. Although only one newspaper, the Philippine Daily Inquirer, ran the story, three days later the Securities and Exchange Commission took over a disputed one-third of its shares. Censorship

Although the Philippines’ Constitution guarantees freedom of the press, that ideal has been subject to various forms of censorship throughout the history of the nation. Perhaps the most glaring example of censorship— although through use of libel laws—took place during the United States’ time in the Philippines. The result of that case was the closing of a newspaper some considered legendary. El Renacimiento was the lone independent newspaper in the early part of the twentieth century, along with its sister publication, Muling Pagsilang.

El Renacimiento was sued for libel by then Secretary of the Interior Dean C. Worcester after the paper printed an editorial titled “Aves de Rapina” (Birds of Prey). Although Worcester was not identified by name and his office not mentioned, Worcester was allowed to prove through testimonial evidence that the editorial was aimed at him when it referred to a “vampire,” “vulture” and “owl.”

The Taft Commission’s passing of strict libel laws in 1901 were so tightly enforced by the courts that criticizing a public official meant time in prison, and a fine so high (P3,000) it was considered a fortune for the times. When Worcester won his case, El Renacimiento ‘s publisher and editor were sentenced to jail (although in 1914 before they went to prison they were granted a full pardon by Governor General Francis Harrison) and El Renacimiento was closed.

As mentioned earlier, military officials under Gen. Arthur McArthur barred the Filipino press from printing articles against American forces, as well as stories thought to be communication between belligerents and their agents in other Asian countries. That censorship extended to not allowing stories which might alarm Americans on their home soil. It took about two decades under the watchful Americans before Filipinos began to enjoy any sort of press freedom, according to the Philippine Journalism Review.

Prior to that, Filipino journalists often were punished for stories seen as un-American. For satirizing Americans, Apolinario Mabini was among those imprisoned or banished, and publications such as La Justicia, and the Cebuano newspaper El Nueva Dia were suspended several times for their nationalistic views.

As mentioned earlier, in 2001 President Gloria Arroyo imposed a press blackout on the activities between the army and the rebel group Abu Sayyaf, and in August that same year, former President Joseph Estrada asked his lawyers to file suit against the Daily Inquirer for publishing an interview with a soldier implicating him and the chief of the national police in a money laundering scandal. The United States no longer controls the Philippines, but the threat of censorship has never left. Broadcast Media

Since the Philippines are spread over a vast area and poverty is prevalent in outlying areas, radio is the more popular medium. Approximately 600 radio stations are found in the Philippines, of which 273 are AM, according to the Worldwide Press Review. Television has cut into the popularity of newspapers, particularly in urban areas. Major television stations include ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp.; GMA Network Inc.; Radio Philippines Network; Allied Broadcasting Corp.; Interisland Broadcasting Corp.; and People’s Television Network, Inc.

Electronic Media
The Internet is increasing its role in Philippine journalism, as many print publications offer an online version of their product, including the Philippine Journalism Review ( http://www.cmfr.com.ph/pjr/ ), which is published by the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility.

A partial list of online publications includes the following: Balita News ( http://www.balita.org ) offers news from the Philippines News Agency, and is the homepage of the long-established Balita-L news digest; Bankaw News ( http://www.geocities.com/bankaw ), an online weekly featuring stories on Leyte, Samar and Biliran, plus opinions and features; Business World http://www.bworld.com.ph/current/today.html ), the online edition of Business Day ; Chinese Online Newspaper ( http://www.siongpo.com ), the Philippines’ first Chinese online newspaper; Diaryo Pilipino ( http://www.diaryopilipinon.com ), based in Los Angeles, Calif., this is a weekly Filipino-American publication; Malaya ( http://www.malaya.com.ph ), the national newspaper covering news, sports, business, entertainment, living, travel and more.

Other publications offer news of the Philippines to Filipinos no longer living in their homeland, such as Philippines Today ( http://www.philippinestoday.net ), which bills itself as the longest running, most widely read newspaper for Filipinos in Japan. News Agencies

The Philippines has one news agency, the Philippine News Agency, which was established March 1, 1973, during the Marcos martial-law era. The Philippine News Agency calls itself on its Web site http://www.pna.ops.gov.ph/ ) “The Biggest News Organization in the Philippines,” and Philippines’ first government-owned news agency. Education and Training

Established in 1980, the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication (AIJC) in Manila is a non-stock, non-profit foundation for the management of communication and information for national development. Recently it has joined with other press organizations to present the Child-Friendly Newspaper and Journalist Awards, to honor those who serve as advocates for children’s rights. It also offers graduate studies and online courses. The University of the Philippines in Quezon City offers both bachelors’ and masters’ degrees in journalism and broadcast communication, among other communications offerings.

The University of the Philippines Los Baños in Laguna offers degree programs in communications, including journalism. The Philippines Press Institute (PPI) is a non-stock, nonprofit organization. Its principal aim, according to its Web site, is to promote ethical standards and provide opportunities for professional development of Filipino journalists. The institute was founded in 1964, went out of business for a period of years during the years of martial law, and reinstituted in 1987. It also represents the interests and concerns of the newspaper sector in the Philippines’ media. Members include the major national and provincial daily and weekly newspapers, and news magazines.

Membership is granted only by organizations, with individual memberships given only to honorary members and incorporators. PPI organizes training and educational activities for the Filipino journalists, seeks to protect their rights and freedoms in their work, and creates opportunities for the development of journalists. PPI is governed by a 15-member Board of Trustees made up of editors and publishers from national and community publications. PPI works in partnership with the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF), and manages KAF’s Annual Community Press Awards program for excellence in community journalism.

PPI plans and implements regular seminars and workshops on writing and newspaper management, and coverage of special interest activities such as the environment, business and economy, health, science and technology, children’s rights, women’s issues and ethnic conflicts. PPI also publishes the Press Forum, a quarterly journal that chronicles events pertaining to the Philippines print media. It also publishes books and manuals by Filipino editors for journalists’ use and for student reference.

Among its regular features, PPI conducts the “Newsmakers’ Forum,” an interaction between journalists and journalism students from the print and broadcast disciplines. It also presents “NewsMovies,” full-length features concerning the media, journalists and their profession. PPI also has developed a Code of Professional and Ethical Conduct that sets parameters for journalists and sets the same ethical standards as similar codes for free presses around the world.

The Philippines’ history in terms of a free press is a checkered past. In the beginning, the news was censored by the Americans. Later under the Americans, the Philippines press was open and free-wheeling before being reigned in when martial law was imposed under President Ferdinand Marcos in 1972. After Marcos fled in 1986, the press threw off its shackles and returned to its aggressive reporting methods. While established under the ideals of a free press, the Filipino media has often suffered censorship and pressure from governments.

Although many journalists from nearby nations might envy the freedom of the Philippines’ press, as recent as 2001 Filipino journalists were killed for their aggressive stances. As further testimony of the back-and-forth fight for a free press, President Gloria Arroyo has said that a free press is the right of its practitioners and critical to the operation of a democratic society. Later that same year, Arroyo instituted the media blackout on reporting the actions of rebel forces.

Clearly the battle for a truly free press continues in the Philippines, although with dozens of publications, radio stations, broadcast entities and their staffs in operation, the Philippines appears to have one of the better media climates in Southeast Asia. Significant Dates

October 1898: The Manila Times becomes the first continually published, English-language daily newspaper in the Philippines. December 1898: The Philippines are ceded to the United States by Spain. 1900: H.G. Harris establishes the Bulletin, first published as a shipping journal. It became a full-fledged newspaper in 1912. August 1920: Disgruntled employees leave the Manila Times because they believe the paper is misrep-resenting the view of the Filipino people.

They start the Philippines Herald in order to give the Filipino people a more representative voice. July 4, 1946: The Philippines attain their independence after being occupied by Japan during World War II.

1964: The Philippine Press Institute is founded to advance the professional development of the Filipino journalist. 1965: Ferdinand Marcos comes to power.
1972: Marcos establishes martial law and confiscates newspapers. 1986: Marcos’ regime is ousted through the efforts of “People Power.” Marcos flees the country. 1989: The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism is founded. 2001: President Joseph Estrada declared by Supreme Court as “unfit to rule” in the face of mass resignations from his government..

The Supreme Court administers the Oath of Office to Vice President Gloria Arroyo. January to August 2001: Three broadcast journalists are killed by unidentified gunmen, allegedly due to the fashion in which they approached reports exposing corruption and illegal activities among government agencies. Bibliography

Code of Professional and Ethical Conduct. The Philippine Press Institute. Available from . Consular Reports. The U.S. State Department. Available from http://www.state.gov . Country Study, the Philippines. The U.S. Library of Congress, 2002. Available from http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/phtoc.html . Encanto, Georgina R. “The Philippine Press Before World War II.” In Philippine Journalism Review. Available from http://www.cmfr.com.ph . “The Manila Times Editorial Guidelines.” In Manila Times. Available from http://www.manilatimes.net .

“The Philippines,” 2002. Available from http://www.asiatravelinfo.com . “Philippines.” Central Intelligence Agency. In The World Fact Book 2001. Available from http://www.cia.gov . “The Philippines.” In The World Press Freedom Review, 2001. Available from http://www.freemedia.at . “Philippines annual report 2002.” Reporters Without Borders. Available from http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=1443 .

Philippines Journalism Review, June 2002. Available from http://www.cmfr.com.ph . “Resolution on Terrorism and Media.” Southeast Asia Press Alliance, May 2, 2002. Available from http://www.seapa.org . Sison, Marites N. “Philippines: Elusive Access to Information.” In World Press Review, December 2001, vol. 48, no. 12. Available from http://www.worldpress.org/specials/press/phil.htm .

Read more: Philippines Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers – television, circulation, stations, papers, number, print, freedom, online http://www.pressreference.com/No-Sa/Philippines.html#ixzz22OHYh719

Media issues in india

The Indian media display certain defects. These should ideally be addressed and corrected in a democratic manner. But if the media prove incorrigible, harsh measures may be called for.

The time has come when some introspection by the Indian media is required. Many people, not only those in authority but even ordinary people, have started saying that the media have become irresponsible and wayward, and need to be reined in.

Only a couple of days back I read in the newspapers that the Union government has issued some regulations regarding licences for news channels, to which there was a lot of reaction. Under the Constitution of India, freedom of the media is part of the freedom of speech guaranteed by Article 19 (1) (a).

However, no freedom can be absolute, and reasonable restrictions can be placed on it. One of the basic tasks of the media is to provide truthful and objective information to the people that will enable them to form rational opinions, which is a sine qua non in a democracy. But are the Indian media performing this role properly?

I may only mention certain defects in the functioning of the India media today.

Twisting facts

One of the defects is that the media often twist facts. I would like to give an example.

One day, a leading English newspaper published on its front page a photograph of Justice Gyan Sudha Misra of the Supreme Court with the caption: “Supreme Court Judge says that her daughters are liabilities.” This was a distorted and fallacious item of news, published on the front page.

Supreme Court Judges have to disclose their assets and liabilities. Against the liabilities column, Justice Misra had written: “two daughters to be married.” Strictly speaking, it was not necessary to mention this because liabilities mean legal liabilities, for example, housing loan, car loan, and so on. Justice Misra’s intention was obviously to say that she would have to spend on her daughters’ future marriage.

She has three daughters (no son), only one of whom has been married. Justice Misra never said, nor intended to say, that her daughters were liabilities. The news was false and defamatory, with the obvious intention of creating a sensation.

Paid news

A second defect concerns the issue of paid news that has become prominent of late. In the 2009 elections, it was a scandal. How this vicious practice could be stopped needs to be discussed. Incidentally, in compliance with an order of the Chief Information Commissioner dated September 19, 2011, we have placed the 71-page report of the Committee consisting of Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Sreenivas Reddy on our website, www.presscouncil.nic.in with the disclaimer that the Press Council had rejected this report at its meeting held on April 26, 2010.

Non-issues as real issues

A third defect is that the media often portray non-issues as real issues, while the real issues are sidelined. The real issues in India are economic, that is, the terrible economic conditions in which 80 per cent of our people are living, the poverty, unemployment, lack of housing and medical care and so on. Instead of addressing these real issues, the media often try to divert the attention of people to non-issues. Such as that the wife of a film actor has become pregnant, whether she will give birth to a single child or to twins, and so on. Are these the real issues facing the nation?

At a Lakme India Fashion Week event, there were 512 accredited journalists covering the event in which models were displaying cotton garments, while the men and women who grew that cotton were killing themselves at a distance of an hour’s flight from Nagpur, in the Vidharbha region. Nobody told that story, except one or two journalists, locally.

Is this a responsible way for the Indian media to function? Should the media turn a Nelson’s eye to the harsh economic realities facing over 75 per cent of our people, and concentrate on some ‘Potemkin villages’ where all is glamour and show biz? Are not the Indian media behaving much like Queen Marie Antoinette, who said that if the people had no bread, they should eat cake?

No doubt, sometimes the media mention farmers’ suicides, the rise in the price of essential commodities, and so on, but such coverage is at most 5 per cent to 10 per cent of the total. The bulk of the coverage goes to showing the life of film stars, pop music, fashion parades, cricket and astrology.

Tendency to brand

Here is a fourth defect. Bomb blasts have taken place near the Delhi High Court, in Mumbai, Bangalore and so on. Within a few hours of such a bomb blast, many TV channels started showing news items that said that the Indian Mujahideen or the Jaish-e-Mohammed or the Harkatul-Jihad-e-Islam had sent e-mails or text messages claiming responsibility.

The names of such alleged organisations will always be Muslim ones. Now, an e-mail can be sent by any mischievous person, but by showing this on TV channels and the next day in the newspapers, the tendency is to brand all Muslims as terrorists and bomb-throwers.

The truth is that 99 per cent of the people of all communities, whether Hindu, Muslim, Christian or Sikh, and of whatever caste or region, are good. But the manner in which such news is shown on TV screens and published in newspapers tends to create the impression that all Muslims are terrorists, and evil — which is totally false.

The person who sends such e-mails or text messages obviously wants to create hatred between Hindus and Muslims, which is the old British divide-and-rule policy continuing even today. Should the media, wittingly or unwittingly, become part of this policy of divide-and-rule?

No doubt there are defects not only in the media but in other institutions also, for example, the judiciary, the bureaucracy, and so on.

There are two ways to remove these defects in the media. One is the democratic way, that is, through discussions, consultations and persuasion — which is the method I prefer. The other way is by using harsh measures against the media, for example, by imposing heavy fines on defaulters, stopping government advertisements to them, suspending their licences, and so on.

In a democracy we should first try the first method to rectify the defects through the democratic method. For this purpose, I have decided to have regular get-togethers with the media, including the electronic media, so that we can all introspect and ourselves find out ways and means to rectify the defects in the media, rather than this being done by some government authority or external agency.

I propose to have such get-togethers once every two or three months, at which we will discuss issues relating to the media and try to think of how we can improve the performance of the media so that it may win the respect and confidence of the people.

If the media prove incorrigible, harsh measures may be required. But in my opinion, that should be done only as a last resort and in extreme situations. Ordinarily, we should first try to resolve issues through discussion, consultation and self-regulation. That is the approach which should be first tried in a democracy. I, therefore, request the Union government to defer the implementation of its recent decision regarding news channel licences, so that we can ourselves discuss the issue thoroughly, and ourselves take corrective measures.

Till now the function of the Press Council was only adjudication. I intend to make the Press Council an instrument of mediation in addition, which is in my opinion the democratic approach. For this purpose, I need help, cooperation and advice from the media.

India is passing through a transitional period in its history, from a feudal agricultural society to a modern industrial society. This is a very painful and agonising period. The media must help society in going through this transitional period as quickly as possible, and by reducing the pain involved. This they can do by attacking feudal ideas, for example, casteism and communalism, and promoting modern scientific ideas.

Social Media Paper Essay

The advantage of obtaining information easily is to have the information fast and without a hassle. Before the Internet people had to request information from other sources by mail. In return the information would take up to a month before they could receive a response. A different method would be to research. Students would visit a nearby library to research for a school project. The disadvantage with obtaining information easily is that not all information will be creditable. People need to put in practice a basic skill to think critically. This way the information been request over the Internet will be narrow down to your needs. Thinking critically will help to find reliable sources and the sources will be creditable. The advantage of social media is no News and Media the world will not work properly for so long. The news provides a real life image of the world around us. The media helps us to know and grow with our knowledge. We learn to think critically to search for information in Internet, newspapers, and all sources of media. If media would disappear no one will know what is happening in their country and the world. People will be surprise if a natural disaster would happen in their community or city.

The disadvantage of social media is people lose interest in the real world because of social networking. Another disadvantage is that people’s attention span shortens due to the lack of thinking critically. People now a day does prefer to stay in doors to do social networking like Face book, Twitter, and YouTube. They lose interest in knowing about their daily activities. Knowing these advantages and disadvantages can alter the way people can use social media because they would use this source to hack computers and have access to sensible information. Other people use social media like Face book with cyber bullying. A few people will use this social media to find old high school friends, and college friends. This source also helps reunite family friends and find friends and family. The credibility issues that can rise from information found on the Internet are trustworthy, bias and conflict of interest. People need to check for trustworthy information. Is the source reliable? How many reviews has this source received? People will need to learn how to avoid having a bias mentality in regards to their reading. They need to read and learn from both sides of stories to maintain a neutral side and make the appropriate decisions.

The Media Impact on Youth Violence

When we were children, there were only thirteen channels on television, only one house phone, there was no cellular phones and no computer but a typewriter in the house. We played outside, hopscotch, jump rope and stickball. Was not allow to watch primetime Television including the news, we was told it’s was for grown-ups. My, how times change from then to now, everywhere you turn you have access to some sort of media outlet, television with over hundreds channels in every language, almost everyone has a smart cellular phones, hand held video games, computers are made portable as laptops, tablets and iPads.

Not to mention every social media you can think of, Facebook, twitter, Instagram, Myspace, and so forth. In today`s world the media is like a double edge sword and has been blamed for numerous of society’s down falls including youth violence, that has become one of the largest discussions in America. The media outlet have been accused for starting street arguments among rap artist, youth homicides, gun violence in schools and street gangs’ wars. Even though society shouldn’t be held accountable for the behavior of youth people, the media increases violence behavior because of the availability of media access and lack of parental control on the media.

Youth violence can start at a very early age and continue onto adolescence and young adulthood. This behavior can be harmful to the youth involve in the violence or the victim. Youth violence is define in the CDC report, bullying, slapping, hitting, and causing physical and bodily harm to another person with or without weapons. Rampantly, youth violence is sweeping across United States becoming the second largest killer of youth (Prevention, 2012) ages 15 to 24.

According to the recent study done by the CDC, “Understanding Youth Violence” (2012): “4,828 young people aged 10 to 24 were victims of homicide—an average of 13 each day—in 2010.1” “Over 707,000 young people aged 10 to 24 years had physical assault injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments in 2011—an average of 1,938 each day.1” “In a 2011 nationwide survey, about 33% of high school students reported being in a physical fight in the 12 months before the survey.” “About 5% of high school students in 2011 reported taking a weapon to school in the 30 days before the survey.” “In 2011, 20% of high school students reported being bullied on school property and 16% reported being bullied electronically.” “Each year, youth homicides and assault-related injuries result in an estimated $16 billion in combined medical and work loss costs.” “Understanding Youth Violence” (2012):

In the past, the two famous rap artists were victims of violence that led to their murders because of propaganda that generated finance in the music media and taken serious by the listening audience, which was mostly adolescence and young adults. The two victims were Christopher “Biggie Smalls” Wallace and Tupac Shakur. These artists lived two coast apart. Tupac was from the West Coast and Christopher was from the East Coast, which turned into an “East Coast and West Coast Beef.” As we take off the vial of truth, of how this started the bottom line is gang related. These artists used the music media as a source for their personal turf war. Music, a weapon for the war to fuel the misrepresentation and represents their gangs, “Bloods and Crips.” Street gangs are the response to direct interferences and indirect factors. People react differently to gangs; most people are in denial or in shock (Justice, 1999).

Gangs are the urban answer to the community trying to solve an economic and demographic problem that they think, can be solved with violence. Their community is in a state where children grow up with no father and seek male guidance from the gang leader that in their eyes seem like the answer because he has money, and respected in the streets; this is what children in the urban community thinks is the way of life, money, power, and respect. Behind this concept, violence seems to be the answer to all problems. As, stated above the media would take this economic problem and call it “Black on Black Crime” and make it look like the people are just killing each other and the media sometimes glorify
and make the gangs look like the thing to be because the street credit the media created for the person/s is rampant.

Recently, school across the country in suburban America has been face with the increase in school violence. Let us look at the recent school shooting in Sandy Hook Elementary, CT, a community that was not affect by the inner city demographic such as impoverish neighborhoods, but are not invincible to the social and public media as this tragic news went viral throughout the airwaves.

Cyber bullying also has become a source of youth violence, through the Internet, and cellphones, young people has found ways to hurt their peers by sending threating messages, posting rumors and harassing messages on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. Cyber bullying can cause anxiety, depression, and been link to suicides. Young people has found this new platform in the media to humiliate there friends and impose emotional violence on another (Prevention C. f., 2012). My son was victim of cyber bullying that was also gang related. Facebook was as the medium to instigate and carry out actions that resulted in my son being shot. He was victimized electronically, which made him react with words in a rap and the counter-reaction resulted in gun violence.

The media can be blame for the increase in youth violence especially, living in today`s cyber revolution, with ready available wifi and news at your fingertips. It difficult to block out and stay ignorant to the violence in the world around us, children’s cartoons, movies, video games and music videos has become the entertainment for adolescence and young adults, with action fights, aggressive behavior, and foul language which basically co-sign the glamorous world full of acceptable bad behavior.

The violence in the media has because an enormous entertainment business, from Monday Night Raw on cable television to Assassin’s Creed, one of the top ten bestseller video game. The video games industry in the past decade only has become one of the largest part of world entertainment industry. The numbers tell us in grossing over twenty something billion dollars in 2011 in American sales alone, which make it clear that this industry is one of the key player in media entertainment environment. From the first release of Atari, game system in the early in the mid-70s to Nintendo Wii, Sony PlayStations, and Microsoft Xbox, video games has definitely come a long way.

The household entertainment budget show over forty percent of American households has a gaming system and because of the inappropriate and violence content, such as shooting, murders, theft and fighting. Some experts like David Welsh believes that video games can be bad for children`s health increasing the heart rate and blood pressure in children who spend more than eight hours a week on the game console.{The impact of Media on Children and Teens}. As well as increasing aggressive behavior among youth, for example the recent story in Washington in the media, about a fourteen-year-old boy shooting his parents, because they took away his video games.

Most parents today toil to find a suitable balance between keeping up, and staying ahead of the children`s entertainment agenda with an ever-growing worlds of technology and media this has become quite difficult. With devices like smartphones and video game console that can access the Internet like a computers, and with the constant availability to media, parents are face with the struggle of not know whether or not their children is being exposed to appropriate content. This twenty first century has become more difficult to raise a child than the nineteen century, back then society was about up bring, decency and respect.

Today`s society has though out yesterday`s value and is focus on what sells, indecency, profanity, sexuality and violence makes money and that’s the bottom line. This new society, most parents are single and overworked, lacking the resource of childcare, are force to use the media as a 24 hours babysitter. We do needs to protect our children from the money hungry media that is victimize our children at the expense of lining their pockets, by setting limits of television, gaming and not give a children a cell phone until they are mature and responsible enough to use it, but how can we be without being in two places at once.

In conclusions as the media impact on youth violence will continue to be an ongoing discussion in America, whether it`s lack of parent superior or the media has no consideration and has no respect for society. We trusted the media for years and have brought them into our living rooms to entertain and some cases educate our families. Simply, due to evolution they have fell short of that responsibility, the constant changing technology of electronic gadgets and the overwhelming access to the media via the worldwide web giving entree to social networks, video games and cyber bullying and unlimited access to movies.

With this new age society, we have forgotten how to raise our own children and left them in the hands of technology. As well as myself, have been guilty of handing my toddler the iPad to keep her quite at times. If we continue to depend on technology to raise our children, not spending that one-on-one time that is needed, our children would not have any social skills and a lack empathy for others which; leads to actions without thinking logic of consequences, which is not learned on television and the video games. A parent has to take the responsibility back to raise his or her own children and not use technology as babysitters. Furthermore, wasn’t that the way our parent was raises fifty to sixty years ago and there was very low crime and little to none youth violence, because there was limited or no media access.

Gentile, D. A., Humphrey, J., & Walsh, D. A. (Jun 2005). Media Ratings for Movies, Music, Video Games, and Television: a Review of the Research and Recommendations for Improvements. Adolescent Medicine Clinics. Walsh, D. (2002). A Normative Study of Family Media habits. (Parentfurther.com, Interviewer)

Justice, U. D. (1999, August ). Addressing community gang problems: A model for problem solving. Retrieved from Office of Jusitce Programs: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/programs/yvp_gangs.htm

Prevention, C. f. (2012, October 23). Electronic Aggression. Retrieved from CDC.gov: www.cdc.gov/volienceprevention/youthvolience/electrionicaggression

Prevention, C. f. (2012, Oct 19). Understanding Youth Violence. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/voilenceprevention: http://www.cdc.gov

Social Media Communication – Risk and Benefit

You’re dammed if you do, and you’re dammed if you don’t. Communication in the 21st Century has given corporations a global audience, using the ever growing, and easily accessible interaction of social media. Like many other corporate leaders, Best Buy CEO Brian Dunn accepted his trusted Chief Marketing Officer’s suggestion to use “Twitter” as a form of communication, which could be used to broadcast information to both his employees and customers.

Like any form of communication there are basic and fundamental requirements that should be adhered to regarding the publication of a message, whether written as a letter, e-mail, or “tweet”. Once a stamp is placed on an envelope and dropped in a mail box, or the “send” button is pressed for an e-mail or tweet – the message then travels on to its intended audience for their review and interpretation. In the case of Best Buy’s use of Twitter, the company was pleased with their ability to reach close to 180,000 thousand employees, and customers alike.

The idea of a major corporation reaching so many employees and customers collectively and quickly with the click of a button brings together a community of interest. Communicating via a hand written letter and placing it in the mailbox, allows for the writer to pay special attention to the message. The writer has the ability to draft a message, and carefully edit the letter before sending off the message. The writer has control of the communication before it reaches the intended audience.

However, this type of communication in today’s business environment is not practical with regards to the time it takes to reach all stakeholders. There are additional problems with using this style of communication for instance, the mail may never reach the target, perhaps getting lost in the mail, or stolen. With electronic e-mail the writer has the same level of control regarding the ability to carefully construct the message as well as use of the editing process.

While the use of electronic e-mail and social media are expeditious and broad in delivery, there are also risks associated. With e-mail there are distribution lists to maintain, and the threat of spamming problems among others. The important and most common problem of emails is the use of proper etiquette. “One embarrassing email is usually all it takes for you to triple check your outgoing messages for years” (Stibel, 2011). By now everyone has heard of the growth of electronic “hacking”.

This is where an individual or group of people, are deliberately disrupting, or intruding on the privacy of a personal electronic web-based system for personal gain (theft), or for pure malicious activity. For the purpose of this essay, the discussion is based on electronic communication systems. Best Buy leader, CEO Brian Dunn’s twitter account was hacked, and his twitter account produced an offensive message that was communicated to all his followers.

This required an immediate response and damage control activities by the Best Buy executive team. “With each new technology, there are always a great many mistakes made, at least until we get the hang of it” (Stibel, 2011).

Careful measures should be taken in protecting and monitoring for cyber threats to a company’s electronic communications system. It’s not to say that Best Buy does not have protections in place for these systems, but also considerations should made regarding the ever increasing threat of harmful malicious electronic predators. This raises the question as to whether or not the benefit outweighs the risks associated with continuous electronic tweeting.

Aside from corporations using twitter as a form of communication, there are other forms of social media that can provide the same speed and range for communications. It may be hard for some to understand how business was conducted without social media, and that perception is growing. Social Media allows for unprecedented access for individuals to express themselves as they desire.

This ability to express himself via twitter caused the downfall of former representative Anthony Weiner of Queens, New York. “Weiner initially claimed he’d been hacked; then issued a bizarre nondenial denial about whose genitals were in the infamous picture he accidentally sent to his 50,000 Twitter followers; then held an even more bizarre press conference that was hijacked by the late conservative activist Andrew Breitbart.

And only then, thoroughly humiliated and disgraced, did he resign” (Green, 2013). Any information that someone posts to a social media source can be viewed literally by anyone. Leaders and managers should provide advice to employees regarding the use of social media, to protect the integrity of the company. While there are debates as to whether policy or rules should be used to govern social media’s use by employees, common sense advisement should help employees understand the risks taken when using social media, while being a visible representative of an organization.

“It’s in all of our interests to ensure that a good chunk of online conversation remains outside the editorial purview of managers who are policing content for its brand and message alignment” (Samuel, 2012). Social media allows corporations to instantly advertise their business to a global market place. As in every form of communication careful attention to the message that is being communicated and to what audience is extremely important.

Particularly with social media, the audience can be larger than anticipated, so the risk can be greater. Like in the case of Best Buy, where the CEO’s twitter account was hacked, instantly the offensive message became a serious crisis for the company’s reputation. References

Green, J. (2013, April). racy twitter pics aren’t anthony weiner’s only problem. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-04-11/racy-pics-arent-anthony-weiners-only-problem Robbins, S. P., Decenzo, D. A., & Coulter, M. (2013). Fundamentals of Management Essential Concepts and Applications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Samuel, A. (2012, October). the high price of social media risk management.

Retrieved from http://www.blogs.hbr.org/samuel/2012/10/the-high-price-of-social-media.html Stibel, J. (2011, August). the simple way to avoid social media failures. Retrieved from http://www.blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/08/the_simple_way_to_avoid_social.html

Effects of Media Globalisation

Summary of the Effects of Media Globalization by Mary Hickman The world, in many ways, has been benefited from media globalization. However, the lurking dark side of media globalization that threatens us, as audiences of the media, has to be acknowledged and cogitated. Undoubtedly, media globalization has transformed our lives in many ways. Friedman (2005) asserted that the seamless information sharing have brought nations closer in the facets of businesses, personal communications and medical industries. Unfortunately, media globalization has brought about many drawbacks to the world.

Firstly, it is a question of the motivation behind media corporations. According to Chomsky (1996), profits are the primary motivation behind every multi-national media corporations. Overwhelming media businesses have swallowed the essence of journalism. As a result, media corporations have the ability to manipulate the media, creating their ideal audience of a certain kind. Due to the small pool of competing media corporations, the existing powerful media corporations have been dominating the media content.

Through various underhand methods, the media corporations have effectively influenced and gained favor by the government. Friedman acknowledges that American media corporation, as leaders in the media globalization arena, are leading the media world into a dangerous position; posing a great challenge to media liberation. In addition, Siochru (2004) postulated that intervening American media has damaged cultures amongst countries. While the voices of the audiences are suppressed, proliferation of unhealthy media content such as cognitive content of greed has been appalling. Due to the minimum participation of media content from the audiences, we are vulnerable to any form of ideologies that are intentionally displayed by the media monopoly.

Cause and Effect of Social Media

The 21st century is defined by its obsession and advancements in technology, the younger generation in particular. Technology plays as a key factor in most lives, social media especially. Among the most popular of social media are Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, all with the main purpose to share or view personal information and experiences, communicate with others and meet new people on social or professional grounds. There are several positives and negatives effects associated with social media, making it a topic of debate whether it is creating more good or harm for today’s society.

We use technology as the number one means of communication, and social media has made communicating with each other even easier. We have the ability to stay linked to the world and available at all times with a simple email, text message or social media post. Because most of our conversations are through a tablet, cellphone or computer, face to face interaction is decreasing. More and more people are isolating themselves and losing the ability or desire to interact with real people in real life. It is becoming easier to go through life with less personal confrontations and conversations. This is a problem because we are social creatures and as human beings, that face to face, in person interaction is necessary.

One of the main reasons social media was created was to link up with old friends near and far. In present day times we also use social media to form connections with new people. Through the use of forums and specialized pages on Facebook, you can connect with people who have interests similar to your own that you would not necessarily meet in real life and business connections also. Many people go on to build real friendships and even relationships with people they have met on social media. Only negative to this is that you never really know who you are talking to. Someone can claim to be one person, but in reality are lying to you about their identity the whole time.

This has become such a common practice that the term “catfish” was created. A catfish is a person who invents a persona, or impersonates a person online through social media. There have been situations where people have been lured to meet up with who they’d consider a friend under false pretenses. Getting catfished can put one in a dangerous situation.

Facebook, twitter and instagram are all methods used to share your life with others. You’re able to post pictures and type statuses to inform your friends, followers, etc., what you have been up to and how you have been living your life. Adults usually post pictures and statuses focusing on their family, trips and special events in their lives, while the younger generation takes social media a lot more serious. Every moment of their lives are put out there for the world to see, sometimes without the realization. Teenagers on social media are always trying to impress and one up each other. They sometimes post inappropriate material to try to look as cool as possible without realizing that ultimately employers, teachers, parents, law enforcement and strangers all have the ability to see. The problem is once something is on the internet it is there forever, and if caught you can find yourself in major trouble.

Often when we’re bored we turn to social media for entertainment. We can check up on family friends or see what the hottest celebrity is up to. Then before we know it, our simple amusement becomes a huge distraction. The amount of people we can connect with on social media is endless and they are all so unique, we can spend an infinite amount of time browsing social media without getting bored. Many people have become addicted to social media and find themselves online way more often than they should.

This creates a problem when it comes time to do schoolwork and study and even in the office for some. When trying to tackle tedious tasks, it is easy to get distracted and venture onto Facebook, twitter or Instagram. You may not have the intention to stay on for long, but before you know it hours have passed and no work has gotten done. For social media junkies they may have to turn off their phone and block these websites to focus all their attention on the task at hand and get anything done at all.

Endless positive and negative effects of social media affect our society today. On one hand social media creates an easy way to communicate with one another, connect with people on a social and business level, share our lives with others and entertain us when we need it. While on the other hand social media comes with the possibility of causing isolation in many situations, putting ourselves in danger when we don’t know who we’re talking to, causing trouble for ourselves and distracting us from school and work related tasks. Every person who uses social media needs to set limits for themselves to ensure their experience is much more positive than negative. Once that is completed social media can be used as a tool to do great things.

Abnormal Psychology in the Media

The film “A Beautiful Mind” (Grazer, 2001) tells of the true life of John Nash, a Nobel Prize winner who has struggled the majority of his life with paranoid schizophrenia. This essay will evaluate John Nash’s exhibited behaviors, and how therapists from the 5 perspectives of abnormal psychology would have treated his illness.

At the beginning of the movie “A beautiful Mind” (Grazer, 2001), John Nash is moving into a dorm room at Princeton University in 1947. John Nash appears slightly strange by exhibiting social withdrawal by avoiding people, along with a drop in school performance as he does not attend his classes. Soon visual hallucinations become apparent as Charles; his roommate makes appearances with his niece Marcie throughout the movie, along with Parcher, the head of the Department of Defense, who appears later in the movie as John Nash’s hallucinations become worse. John Nash begins to believe that he is employed by the Department of Defense, deciphering secret codes from the Soviets. As John’s hallucinations peak, he is admitted to a mental hospital under the care of Dr. Rosen, who diagnoses him with advanced schizophrenia. During the hospital stay, John received Thorazine injections, rendering him unconscious.

John is seen during his stay at the hospital restrained to a chair, as well as a bed. During the time that he is restrained to a bed, Doctor Rosen is seen administering insulin injections, resulting in seizure activity as John’s wife is viewing the procedure through a window. Doctor Rosen tells Johns wife, Alicia that John must have insulin therapy several times a week in order to get well. Once John has returned home, he is seen taking two pink tablets several times a day. John appears to be keeping to himself while trying to deal with the effects of his medication; he decides to stop taking it without anyone knowing. Soon Alicia discovers that John is again having hallucinations of working for the department of defense requiring John to return to Doctor Rosen.

After John resumes his medications, he begins to realize that Charles, Marcie and Parcher are not real. John goes to his friend Martin, who is in charge of the math department at Princeton University, asking for permission to sit in classes in order for him to get back into society which results in John gaining a teaching position after learning to deal with his illness by ignoring his hallucinations. The five perspectives of abnormal psychology are: biological, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, and sociocultural. The biological model of abnormal psychology “focuses on genetics, neurotransmitters, brain changes, and other physical factors” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012 Pg. 23). Treatment through this model would begin with a “diagnostic interview along with images of the brain structure from an MRI” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25).

After these evaluations, a therapist would decide on the treatment necessary to treat the disorder such as therapy, social training skills, vocational rehabilitation, and medications. John Nash would possibly be given dopamine which “generally has antipsychotic effects easing the symptoms of schizophrenia” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25) and therapy. According to Saul McLeod (2007) the biological approach believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive function. Biological factors such as hormones, chromosomes, and the brain have significant influence on behavior, in the case of John Hall having schizophrenia; biological psychologists believe that levels of dopamine are the cause (Pg. 6).

The psychodynamic model of abnormal psychology “focuses on internal personality characteristics” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25). Treatments from this perspective would begin with a “therapist exploring the patients past for unresolved conflicts” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 30). “Other treatments would be the use of free association, or dream analysis” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 31). In John Nash’s circumstance, the psychodynamic model therapist would be looking into his past for the answer to his hallucinations. According to Laura Saunders (2011) the goal of the psychodynamic model therapist is to enable the patient to gain access to their repressed ideas and conflicts encouraging them to face up to whatever emerges from their unconscious (Pg. 1).

The humanistic model of abnormal psychology “focuses on personal growth, choice, and responsibility” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23), that “Assumes the person’s behavior is determined by perceptions of themselves and others” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 33). The humanistic models treatment begins with “qualitative assessments to find out the unique characteristics of the client, and their perceptions of the world. The therapist will then engage the client in conversations so that the client can develop solutions to their problems” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 34).

Treating John Nash with this type of therapy would include conversations about his hallucinations in order for him to develop his own solutions. According to Kendra Cherry (2013) therapists from the humanistic model of abnormal psychology are focused on the individual’s potential and stress the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of the humanistic model is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from natural tendency (Pg. 1).

The cognitive-behavioral model of abnormal psychology “focuses on specific thoughts and learning experiences” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Treatment from the cognitive-behavioral model would include a “functional analysis, evaluating antecedents and consequences of behavior, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy to change patterns of thinking and behaviors that are contributing to the patients problems” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 38), and “exposure treatment, which involves directly confronting the patients problem, or token economy, which reinforces certain behaviors with rewards” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 39), which John Nash, would possible be involved in, earning points for positive behaviors, and attending therapy.

According to Jean Galica (2013), the cognitive behavioral model is an approach designed to change mental images, thoughts and thought patterns in order to help the patient overcome emotional and behavioral problems. This model is based upon a theory that behaviors and emotions are caused in part by cognitions and cognitive processes that the patient can learn to change (Pg. 3). The sociocultural model of abnormal psychology focuses on “external environmental events and includes the family systems perspective” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Therapy within this model would consist of an “assessment of the patient’s culture, family structure, dynamics, and environment in order to understand the person’s mental health” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 44).

As therapists from this model focus on addressing the patients problems in order to decrease or prevent stress, along with having family and couples therapy in order to include multiple family members into the therapy” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 44). Within this model, John Hall would have attended both individual therapy as well as couples therapy with his wife. According to Sheila Grant (N.D.) therapists from the sociocultural model believe that abnormal behavior may be found in the failures of society rather than from within the person, and that psychological problems can be rooted in requiring the therapist to look deep within the person’s relationships and social life (Pg. 7).

This writer feels that the biological method of abnormal psychology is the best to treat John Nash’s schizophrenia since it “focuses on genetics, neurotransmitters, brain changes, and other physical factors” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Along with the fact that treatment begins with a diagnostic interview containing MRI brain images (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25) before a treatment plan for schizophrenia would begin. According to NIMA.Gov (2013) it has been long known that schizophrenia can be inherited, that there are several genes associated with the disease (Pg. 1) resulting in treatments being based upon eliminating the patients symptoms by using medications such as: “antipsychotic medications to help normalize the biochemical imbalances, controlling hallucinations, delusions and confusion, along with supportive therapies” (Grohol, J., 2011, Pg. 1). References

Cherry, K. (2013). Humanistic Psychology. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/hist_humanistic.htm?p=1 Galica, J. (2013). Behavioral/Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.theravive.com/research/Cognitive-Behavioral_Therapy Grant, S. (n.d.). Introduction and Methods of Research. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.csun.edu/~hcpsy002/psy310_Nevid_cho1_Lecture_Handout.pdf Grazer, B. (Producer) & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A Beautiful Mind [Motion picture]. United States: Universal. Grohol, J. (2011). Psych Central: schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from
http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm Kearney, C., & Trull, T. (2012). Abnormal Psychology and Life A Dimensional Approach. Belmont, California: Wadsworth. McLeod, S. (2007). Psychology Perspectives. Retrieved 2/18/2013, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html Saunders, L. (2011). The Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://alevelpsychology.co.uk/as-psychology-aqa-a/psychology/the-psychodynamic nimh.gov (2013). What Causes Schizophrenia?. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.nimh.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/what-causes-schizophrenia.sht

Role of media in education

The education of our children has always been emotive and when the mass media is added to the mix, volatility is inevitable. Hardly a country in the world is spared controversy in education, but when one looks behind the sometimes anarchic scenes, there is a lot about which to be optimistic and hopeful.

Traditionally, the mass media and education have enjoyed a love-hate relationship. On one hand television and newspapers particularly, have provided extensive and extremely useful education content. On the other, however, their newsrooms never seem to hesitate when controversy rears is ugly head.

In theory, it is absolutely vital for the mass media to keep an eye on the way in which governments administer and develop education, but it has to be said that in this day and age of a battle for survival within the mass media industry, the watchdog does tend to become somewhat rabid at times.

Like most businesses the mass media often takes a line of least resistance when problems occur and a first step always seems to blame the trades union movements.

In South Africa the South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) inevitably faces tremendous criticism from the mass media when its members protest the enormous challenges and deprivations they face in the classrooms. Many of those challenges having very little to do with actual teaching.

Regrettably, the relationship between the mass media and education involves a lot of indulgence in blame-games and reaction by both sides to superficial symptoms.

There is undeniably an urgent need for the education authorities and the mass media to join together in improving the lot of our youngsters and young adults. The media cannot just be a watchdog and nothing else and the national and provincial education departments cannot work in isolation or
out of the public eye.

It is no good the mass media simply reporting on “delinquent learners burning classrooms” without delving into the underlying causes. Understanding perhaps, that after years of promises for proper school buildings to replace dilapidated, unhealthy, decades-old temporary structures, the only option left was to destroy the old building so that a new one would have to built.

There is no question that the only way in which the mass media can continue to perform its role as an education watchdog but at the same time become involved in helping build an efficient education system, is through improved communication.

This probably sounds extremely glib, but when you think about it, bad or non-existent communication has been the cause of everything from wars between countries to divorces between married couples.

In simple terms, this communication would mean the mass media and the education departments talking to each other a lot more. I have to say, though, that this is a wild hope and probably entirely over-optimistic.

However, I believe that two innovations will force this essential communication to take place.

The first is the involvement by private sector companies in the education environment and the second is new media.

Argo, for example, is a good example of a private sector media company that is successfully creating bridges between education authorities, unions and affiliated and non-affiliated teachers. Companies such as these are becoming vital links in improved communications among stakeholders.

The private sector is pioneering the use of new media, specifically social media in the education environment with for example, websites such as ed.org.za and increasing activity on interactive social media platforms such
as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Mxit.

The importance of social media among education authorities, educators, unions, private sector stakeholders as well as schools, pupils and parents, cannot be emphasised enough.

Communication is one thing, it is a vitally important thing, but it is not enough.

Conversation is what is going to ensure increased collaboration by all players in education and the beauty of the social media conversation is its endemic role as watchdog. Not a one-sided watchdog but one that has sufficient information at hand to ensure an even-handed approach.

It would be a grave mistake for anyone in the education sector to assume that things like FaceBook, Twitter and Mxit were strictly for children or young adults. They are extremely efficient creators of conversations among all parties, providing not only information and advice but most importantly able to address misconceptions and wrong perceptions almost immediately.

As technology makes farther inroads into education, as the iPad has already done in private school classrooms, the ability for pupils, teachers, parents along with education authorities to communicate instantly will be an absolute boon in terms of increasing the efficiency and efficacy of education.

There are those that might feel that all this might be a little too transparent and instant.

But, when you think about it, the future of education rests on being as transparent as humanly possible.

And it will be the private sector that leads the way – Twitter, YouTube, FaceBook, Mxit, online forums and pioneers such as Argo.