Authoritarian Methods of Control in Brave New World & V for Vendetta

People shouldn’t be afraid of their authorities. Governments must be afraid of their folks. The proper to rule. What offers somebody such a power you ask? Well there is a variety of various factors and qualities one will need to have such as strength and leadership however there is a single item that each one need and that’s control. Without the obedience and submission of the people governments will fail. The movie “V for Vendetta” and the novel “Brave New World” each touch upon the difficulty of misuse of know-how and the management of the individuals.

V for Vendetta is the 2006 movie adaptation by the Wachowski’s of the comic book of the same name created by Alan Moore. It is about in a futuristic dystopian world by which Britain is ruled by a totalitarian-fascist party, and follows the events triggered by a masked shadowy revolutionary recognized only as the letter V. Brave New World is Aldous Huxley’s controversial masterpiece, revealed in 1932 and is about a futuristic-dystopian world the place the government has outlawed free-speech and individuality and makes use of psychological conditioning to control the individuals.

Now let me refocus on the theme at hand: control. The Norsefire celebration in V for Vendetta rises to power by providing the solution after a string of biological attacks on various institutions: a college, water plant and an underground train station. The concern impressed by these assaults was what made folks give them the power to rule. The Wachowski’s have in contrast and likened the Norsefire celebration to the Nazi’s the world’s most well-known fascist regime.

The image of the Norsefire uses the same colours and an analogous symbol to that of the standard swastika. The Norsefire also had a similar rise to power as the Hitler regime. First Chancellor Sattler was seen as the saviour before revealing his true colours as a villain “fear grew to become the tool of this government”. The Norsefire additionally engaged in genocide of homosexuals, Muslims, and ethnics. Rather than concentration camps these captured were positioned in detention centres with the aim of testing biochemical and viruses. The Norsefire government represents what V is rebelling in opposition to and that’s oppression and the abuse of power.

Similarly in Brave New World, the World State is built upon from the devastation of the Nine Year War, fear and confusion had been the help of both these governments and allow them to create and enforce their ideals. Both governments have destroyed and banned any material that goes against celebration coverage. Brave New World has taken this to the acute with all literature and arts having been destroyed since the beginning of the World State. The software of management used by the World State is science, kids are born from laboratories and are conditioned, and their lives are predetermined to create a unified machine. The motto of the World State accurately displays this ideology “Community, Identity, Stability”; it calls for every class to establish inside their rating and to support the neighborhood with the purpose of achieving stability. Characters like John and Valorie rebel and detest the notion of conformity.

John needs to expertise the world as it really was meant to be “But I don’t need comfort. I need God, I want poetry, I want actual hazard, I need freedom, I want goodness. I need sin.” He hates the protected and sheltered state of the people of the world state and their dependency on soma. “Valorie is proud of being a lesbian and was captured due to it all through her time on the detention centre she continues to struggle whilst attempting to remain true to herself and her identity. She leaves a note which turns into a source of inspiration for each V and Evey as she says “it was my integrity that was important…we must never lose it, or promote it, or give it away. We must not ever let them take it from us”. By using the variety of his room at the Larkhill detention centre V becomes a living symbol of Norsefire’s genocide and a motive for his vendetta past V’s rebellious goals, he also needs to remind the individuals of Valerie’s message about their identity, their integrity and that they’ve the freedom to be themselves, no matter what anyone tells them they’ll or can’t be.

Assessment Tools and Methods

Assessment is a device used in the classroom every single day. It is used to measure a student’s mastery of a ability or knowledge of a given topic. It can be what demonstrates to the teacher what the scholars have realized. Educators use that information to determine if they should re-teach to a particular scholar, group, or the whole class. They also can use that information to discover out the rate of their educating. Assessments are necessary as a result of, as academics, we have to know what difficulties our students have and what needs to be refined for them.

While I do believe in evaluation and feel that it is certainly one of the key components of instructing, I am extra involved with a child’s strategy of studying somewhat than the general product that comes from it. This is where grades are obtainable in for me. Grades determine the students’ degree of mastery on a subject, nothing more. Grades shouldn’t be the unique indicators that a pupil has realized the knowledge that is presented to them.

It is the things a scholar learns alongside the way that truly matter and generally cannot be measured.

Prior to teaching a unit, I imagine it’s useful to include surveys and diagnostic assessments to determine what your students understand earlier than instruction.

Observation, combined with anecdotal records, is crucial, particularly in the early grades. By observing and keeping monitor of those observations, lecturers are in a place to inform lots about their students. For example, they can see how they interact socially with different friends as nicely as how well they perform a given task.

I am inclined to be an early elementary instructor, in grades K-3. The first years of college are my ideal age group. The early childhood stage is a time when youngsters develop the most. They are developing physically, cognitively, and psychologically. Due to this, I really feel it might be extra beneficial to assign performance tasks quite than checks. By having college students perform efficiency duties, college students can reveal they have learned what has been taught and also present they are studying real life abilities that may assist them all through their day by day lives. To obtain this, I plan to develop and conduct both formative and summative assessments regularly.

Formative assessments are ongoing assessments similar to information of students’ efficiency, observations, checklists, and ranking scales. These are ongoing data which are used by academics to enhance instructional methods in the classroom and direct instruction. According to our textbook, these assessments monitor students’ progress throughout instruction and learning activities that embody feedback and alternatives to enhance. Some informal assessments could additionally be within the form of regular classroom actions similar to class work, journals, essays, play-based assessment or scholar participation. I plan to utilize them to determine the place college students are at the time of learning. The results will indicate the pace of my instruction and I can modify the way in which I current the information. Informal assessments include a teacher’s.

Summative assessments are used to gauge the effectiveness of the educational packages taught. They can be utilized to determine whether or not college students have mastered specific abilities or grasped sure ideas. During this semester I discovered that summative assessments are administered on the finish of instructing a lesson or a unit as an indicator of what the scholars know and are able to do after the instruction is completed. These assessments will differ in kind such as quizzes, checks, presentations, essays, and progress portfolios. I like to include a big selection of assessments in my instruction as a outcome of it gives college students a chance to demonstrate what they know on account of the lesson, not based mostly on the sort of assessment.

While one child will not be good at exams they may be good at shows and vice versa. This various outlook on assessment is what allows my college students to be the profitable learners. As a trainer, I even have some control over the types of assessments, formative and summative, that I administer to my students. However, there are different forms of formal assessments that are knowledge pushed and primarily based on statistics. These assessments embody norm-referenced exams and criterion referenced exams used by the District, State, and/or Nationwide. Formal assessments can be given to college students to test their performance in opposition to other children of their age group and grade degree. They may also be given to identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses compared to friends. These large scales checks might have some benefits, but in my perfect world, they might not exist. These exams are introduced in one way and doesn’t enable for faculty kids to demonstrate their mastery or understanding however only their capability to ‘fit a mold’.

During the teachers’ panel, both visitor audio system admitted that, at current, the classroom revolves around assessments. Everything college students do within the classroom at present ultimately results in progressive assessments and ultimate evaluative assessments. It saddens me that faculty has turn into this evaluation ‘bubble’. I consider that we are surrounded by evaluation and since it’s a crucial a half of our schooling system, we need evaluation in the classroom however do it in a means that’s strictly meant to observe student’s progress and whether or not we are successfully educating or not.

The panel additionally talked briefly about grading. Often, academics have a hard time agreeing on what practices are moral in relation to determining a grade. It is a general consensus that grades are a powerful image and have the capability to influence students in a positive or adverse method since they’ll symbolize different things for different individuals. The use of rubrics and checklists are essential to me. These checklists and rubrics should be shared with the students continuously and discussed at length in order that college students are aware of what they are going to be graded on and what each side of their grade relies upon. Grades, as I said earlier, should be limited to the level of information within the topic that has already been taught, not in regards to the college students capacity to read the directions. I also imagine there must be completely different grades for different things, for example, in a grade for a language arts efficiency, I mustn’t embody factors for non-related gadgets.

On a school course syllabus we have a section that features all of the elements needed for a ultimate grade with a total worth for every section. Each of those elements has a rubric of its own that composes the general ultimate grade for that task. This methodology of grading is what I would like to incorporate for my students, making the required modifications based mostly on their age group, grade level, school policy, and district coverage. I imagine that academic abilities are a separate grade from social, emotional, and community expertise. If students know what to expect, a grade will not come as a surprise to them. Students will be capable of know what’s required of them to get a passing score or a mastery score.

I also believe in giving students a possibility to redo an project in the event that they consider they’ll do better. With the redo, however, they will also include a proof as to why they believed they may do better the second time around. I will not take factors away with a redo as a outcome of the objective is not to penalize college students for making an effort to succeed but rather to help them see the place they might enhance and noticing said improvement.

If I assess what I educate, my grade results must be valid. If my results are reliable, they usually point out that the class did poorly on one examination, the evaluation indicates that there’s something that my college students didn’t understand and, subsequently, something I didn’t successfully train. In this instance, I ought to re-examine my grading coverage and regulate it to replicate what the students were in a position to do, not what I was not in a position to teach. My philosophy just isn’t solely that assessment is vital for the classroom, but utilizing the outcomes appropriately is essential to the persevering with of efficient educating.

It is my goal to make assessment and grading a optimistic element to my classroom for both my college students and me. I want to give many opportunities for my students to do properly and obtain mastery in addition to become the best pupil they are often. Students shouldn’t just be measured by the tip outcome. Learning is a process and I believe that it is in this course of that true learning happens. Aside from being graded on the essential facts, students have to be measured on how nicely they apply their knowledge. Assessment might be a huge part of my classroom; nevertheless, I will maintain extra importance for a student’s efficiency and progress rather than a factual check. Down the highway, these college students will want the skills realized during their early years. A multiple alternative query isn’t what goes to assist them in the long run. However, the method they used to be taught and determine upon the reply will.

Assessment Methods in the Learning Process

Diagnostic assessment is a pre evaluation that determines a difficulty for the coed in a precise area. This kind of assessment supplies lecturers with information of the student’s earlier awareness of the topic, their curiosity and angle earlier than instructing a lesson (McMillan 2011, p 6). Diagnostic assessment data could be collected from Summative assessments of the previous lesson. It is necessary to note the expectation of what the scholars should know, perceive and have the ability to do on the finish of the lesson as that is an integral part of an effective lesson (McMillan 2011, p 8).

Formative assessment happens during instructions, giving feedback to students on their work to assess their degree and decide the next stage of labor activities (McMillan 2011, p 6). This kind of evaluation takes place during studying and helps to enhance the lesson as the learning is monitored and the progress of the coed is noted (McMillan 2011, p 8). The pupil has the opportunity to enhance studying through the lesson by way of the feedback and ship them in the right direction of studying.

Learning problems are in a position to be distinguished during the lesson and actioned accordingly, and tutorial changes can be made (McMillan 2011, p 8). Summative assessment takes place on the completion of the lesson to find out the student’s degree of understanding, their data and might bodily do (McMillan 2011, p 6). This is the aim of the lesson to resolve if the teaching has been constructive and that the students have achieved at the anticipated level of learning. Students are graded, teachers and lessons are evaluated to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan (McMillan 2011, p 8).

The three evaluation varieties that kind the assessment cycle are an integral a part of a major classroom studying construction. Students with studying disabilities need to be assessed within the early levels of their studying to find out the methods of tailor-made learning to be applied. Using Diagnostic assessment “effective teachers were found to have tailored instruction to students’ distinctive needs and interests, discovering just the proper supplies to reach their students” Robinson, G. (2008).

Teaching numeracy skills a Formative assessment is then used to enhance learning throughout the lesson. A summative evaluation is then required to find out the student’s numeracy capabilities. Assessment is a vital part of the schooling curriculum, to allow an efficient studying environment for the students. It also allows the instructor to ensure the lesson is tailor-made to the scholars learning disabilities and there needs to achieve the training end result desired. References McMillan, J. H. (2011).

The methods to write artwork historical past essays

An essay is a brief scholarly synthesis on a solitary theme that introduces the perspectives of the author. The French creator Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) first introduced the form in his 1580 guide Essais, which gathered his musings on recorded, philosophical, particular person, and social points. The French word “essai,” from which “essay” is determined, really means “endeavor” or “preliminary.” Montaigne concept was that the essay could be an approach to aim to construction his contemplations in a significant, composed method, and each “essai” accommodates a specific declare about human instinct and uses verifiable sources, (for instance, old writers like Homer and antiquated Greek and Roman rationalists) to strengthen his contention.

At the school level, journalists to a great extent create essays and not reviews.

An artwork history essay, be that as it could, makes a contention—your rivalry, to be appropriate. An essay incorporates a focal declare that you settle for and enables you to exhibit to the pursuer, why such a conviction is correct or if nothing else coherent by utilizing realities and proof and circumstances.

Essays demonstrate an author’s brain on the web page, which is the reason it is a mainstream sort of appraisal at school level coursework. Contention appears at first like the gathering of people and the essayist are battling about something—not really so. While it is conceivable to contend over one thing extremely dubious (regardless of whether or not capital punishment should be canceled, for example), contentions are all of the extra generally characterized as a claim upheld by causes.

Anything that might be a claim (e.g., an understanding in regards to the significance of a gem) could be on a elementary degree of an essay.

Most writing in art historical past includes formal investigation of at least one masterpiece. As it had been, an understudy manufactures a translation (a contention) round an paintings and utilizations perceptions of that artwork to help her or his understanding. For instance, on the off likelihood that I decipher a selected painting to suggest that individuals are ending up increasingly secluded from each totally different as innovation keeps on propelling, I should point to specific elements inside that murals which have pushed me to that understanding. Since translations are claims, we could differ what an art work actually implies; that is alright! The high quality of an investigation is the manner by which properly the author can discover show (perceptions) to help his or her view.

At its most fundamental level, examination is a kind of primary perusing. Investigation is a typical scholastic task since it energizes fundamental perusing, requires primary reasoning, and reveals to a instructor that you have connected with a content material on its solid level (the real content itself) and its theoretical level (“finding for some hidden meaning,” conceptualizing the creator’s expectations). It is additionally a broadly prevalent task since people utilize examination consistently; maybe they don’t utilize it in an identical sense that a faculty requires its understudies to put it to use; nonetheless people look at, face off relating to, select, and problem solve daily. By measuring outcomes and taking a gander at the larger, extra profound, extra complete image of something, a man is directing investigation. One well-known level for examination is art.

Think concerning the film The Godfather (1972). You’ve presumably observed it. It’s typically thought to be top-of-the-line films at any point made, but why? The vast majority may state that it’s a “bundle bargain”— which means the film all in all is simply superior. Be that as it might, a basic pursuer is aware of something with so 2 numerous pieces, for example, a movie, can’t merely be extraordinary “all in all” and abandon it that. There are components contained in the movie that add to its enormity. The goal of examination is to acknowledge what those elements are and make clear why these components make the movie incredible.

Thus, The Godfather sets up two altogether totally different “families”— the natural family (the blood-related Corleones) and the business household (The Corleone Family as a legal syndicate). Those are connected in imperative scenes, for example, Vito taking solicitations at his girl’s marriage ceremony and Michael’s last arrangement amid his child’s dedicating. At that time the film units up a connection between a dad (Vito) and his children (Sonny, Fredo, and Michael). Vito is from numerous points of view the film’s saint; he’s honorable, adjusted, sensible, affordable, nonetheless merciless when required. He has an honest modify of family and enterprise. Sonny is so uncontrollably imbalanced towards household that he can’t preserve the business; Fredo is so centered round enterprise achievement that he relinquishes commitments to his organic household. Michael seems at first to have an identical regulate his dad does, but the film proposes a darker current going through Michael, who won’t have the capacity to adjust it like his dad and whose defeat shall be unlucky.

Furthermore, once you have the instances, you can attain an inference relating to what they mean: The Godfather delineates that finding a concord amongst enterprise and household is essentially critical, nonetheless simply Vito Corleone appears to see how to uncover this adjust, as every of the three of his children neglect to fulfill his case. This understanding you attain known as your proposition clarification, and it has a spot towards the beginning of your investigation paper. You need to inform the pursuer as right on time as conceivable what your translation is and how you’ll bolster it.

The proposal articulation right here recommends that after a tad of examination, the account of The Godfather—notwithstanding being a particularly marvelous movement picture—really appears to imply something on a extra intricate level. We can worth the film dapperly, and that is the factor that investigation is extraordinarily about. Frequently, art historical past papers will request that you just completely analyze in excess of 1 art work in formal or iconographic examination. Formal right here doesn’t mean exquisite or favor, but rather worried about shape—line, shading, floor, area; iconography alludes to the method in which particular artworks utilize pictures and what those photographs imply. (A case of iconography could be an paintings that delineates a naked woman in a garden with an apple and a snake. This is obviously a reference to Eve in the Genesis creation legend.)

Art essays are usually to comment on the work of a quantity of artists, here I use more because often to describe the standard of an essay, especially in term of artwork, to reinforce the magnificence of an artwork piece there must be a comparison between another art piece, to ascertain the explanation as to why the previous is a a lot better and more artistic and intellectual piece than the latter. And as thus, because this is art and the devil is in the detail, the extra common ways of comparison and/or describing the artist; his likes and character, are all to be carried out by carefully trying and evaluating the strokes that the artist has used to color his masterpiece, and the metaphors hidden in the drawings.

More chronicled occasions, unexpected adjustments, and turbulence happened from the finish of World War II until the point when the stature of the Vietnam War than in whenever period. Prior to this time, types of artwork had endured ages. In the 1960’s various crucial art developments were happening in the meantime. There have been minor departures from varieties, developments within different developments.

And as we start in another millennium, we want to ask ourselves what would be the following awesome improvement in art? Is it potential that there might be anything again as compelling as the circumstances that existed here? The fact will floor ultimately.

References:

  • Essays | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum
  • Art History and Theory essay – Research & Learning Online
  • Formal Analysis Paper Examples – Department of Art and Design

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Analyze the goals, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation

In the early sixteenth century the Protestant Reformation had occurred and made the recognition of Catholicism to decline. In response to the Protestant Reformation the Catholic Reformation was issued to reestablish the ability and recognition of Catholicism and the Roman Catholic church. The Catholic Reformation created new societies, while fixing problems of the Roman Catholic church. Through the Catholic Reformation

The major reasons for the Catholic Reformation was a response to Protestantism and a response to reform the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was riddled with corruption and scandals corresponding to simony(sale of church offices), absenteeism(priests not showing as much as services), and the sale of indulgences(paying the church to absolve sins).

Many priests had been illiterate and a few abused their powers for absolution of sins To reform the construction of Catholic church Pope Paul III had established the Council of Trent which consisted of Catholic cardinals who were responsible for handling the reforms of the Catholic Church.

The Council of Trent is considered to be one of many Catholic Church’s most important councils.

The Council had 25 sessions from 1545-1563 that may handle the problems of the Catholic church. The result of these 25 periods had been the validation of all 7 sacraments and the reaffirmation of Monasticism, celibacy of clergy Transubstantiation, and purgatory. Basically The Council of Trent fixed issues of Catholicism.

Another outcome from the Catholic Reformation is the religious order of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus). Founded in 1540 by St. Ignatious Loyala the Jesuits had 3 targets reform the church via training, spread the Gospel to the Pagans, and to battle Protestantism .

Jesuit colleges have been extremely regarded as the finest schools for education in Europe. The Jesuits had been organized in a army fashion following rules from Loyola’s guidebook Spiritual Exercises. The book would inform Jesuits the method to have less attachment of physical items and knowledgeable Jesuits on how “to grasp the soul to control the body”.

Analytical and Critical Skills Research Methods Utilised in Social Science

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate advanced analytical and significant skills, exhibiting understanding of the undisclosed ideas for each primary analysis methods utilised in social science. One of the core principles of this written inquiry will be to search out the evidence of the application of the analytical strategies used for given analysis question; design and knowledge and critically examine the statistical analysis of qualitative data used in psychological analysis. When conducting refined research within social analysis in certain side an act of artwork as no statistical test is prepared to tell the analytical success when obtained significance as that is only typically valid to the investigated population at the specific moment of time (Babbie, 2016).

For the purpose of this evaluation, two papers specializing in perfectionism (P) from different methodological stand level had been chosen to demonstrate how those two approaches can work extra as fulfilling rather than as antagonistic tools aiming for higher understanding the phenomena of perfectionism.

Starley (2018) for example delivered comprehensive analysis utilizing qualitative pragmatic strategy where the principle consideration was targeted on understanding the roots of the P by gathering systematic review of up to date information surrounding perfectionism and creating a very powerful message that P is a coping ability, “a method of coping with nervousness arising from unmet need”.

When on the opposite hand Ferrari, Yap, Scott, Einstein, & Ciarrochi (2018) were utilising the qualitative method of self-report questionnaires to investigate maladaptive perfectionism, self-compassion and depression in the course of the lifespan between two samples and resulting in the conclusion that self-compassion acts as a buffer when approached by dysfunctional P on despair.

When going through the dilemma of choosing the methods “appropriate” for the aim of investigation of the phenomena it might be problematic, because the qualitative-quantitative debate continues to be an actively open topic for the constructive argumentation. The topic itself isn’t new, rooting as far as 1894 with Dilthey been closely criticized for his reductionism method of explaining psychological processes (Collican, 2017). For the aim of this paper, two chosen articles investigated of their perused of understanding the perfectionism. This paper will produce evidence how each approaches can deliver completely different useful insight into the topic as properly as they can work in a synergistic method to be able to deliver a complete understanding of the phenomena, and that is the major aim of this paper.

Ferrari et al. (2018) delivered fascinating research utilising application of quantitative principles when exploring perfectionism though they research confronted multiple limitations as well and strengths by the chosen enquiry to research the phenomena by numbers and statistics. Despite the precise fact pattern, dimension was spectacular as 541 (99males, 442 females) with males age of 14 years and one month and obtaining significant outcomes, it is still important to say that the dimensions of the examined inhabitants was comparatively small when aiming for generalisation of the results because of biased pattern. In order to assert for generalisations it could be very important conduct comparable research but with heterogeneous inhabitants; greater than 541 members with out utilizing comfort sampling on this case – college students of personal schools usually are not the illustration of the entire inhabitants, and they need to adopt homogeneous convenience samples to stop poor generalisability by using standard comfort samples (Jager, Putnick, & Bornstein, 2017).

Another limitation of the quantitative investigation the use of the self-report surveys, rising critical questions about validity of the obtained outcomes because of the subjective nature of the participants in the means in which they approached the questionnaires (Fonagy et al., 2016; Spector, 1994;). In terms of creating claims of generalisability, it goes to be troublesome as the members for the examine were not a reflection of the population as they had been recruited from five Australian private schools, and all participants completed the questionnaires as a fraction of a a lot bigger wellbeing intervention study, as a half of baseline assessment (Ferrari et al., 2018). Study utilised standardised scales; The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS, Flett et al., 2016) to measure perfectionism; The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ, Sharp, Goodyer, & Croudace, 2006) to measure depressive mood, and The Self-Compassion Scale-Short form (SCS-s, Raes, Pommier, Neff, & Van Gucht, 2011) to measure self-compassion. Research project granted moral approval; participation was voluntary, nameless and solely students who returned completed information and consent types were allow participating in the study.

There have been state of affairs in the study after they wanted to break the confidentiality for the scholars who identified very depressed mood with the necessity for future referral; however this manner of dealing with knowledge was clarify in the information and consent type. Study clearly offered details about dependent variable – despair, and predictor variables included maladaptive perfectionism and self-compassion. In total 1,249 members were invited but solely 541 returned the signed consent by parents and college students and picked up information was analysed using hierarchical multiple regressions. This research has multiple strengths, considered one of them was to establish a moderating function of self-compassion, and suggesting for future clinical interventions to evaluate the benefits of practising self-compassion based mostly intervention for depression and perfectionism (Ferrari et al., 2018). Research confronted few limitations; due to investigating two unbiased age unit, obtained knowledge was cross-sectional and it is not clear whether self-compassion was the trigger or the results of depression. One of the best contributions delivered by the analysis is the acknowledgement of the excessive price of perfectionism on people in holistic method especially linked to psychopathology. This paper delivered evidence that self-compassion acts as a buffer to the impression of maladaptive perfectionism on despair subsequently further analysis into these interventions should be explored additional utilising different approaches.

Starley (2018) explored perfectionism from qualitative standpoint by synthesing the present related literature and research within the subject of psychology to have the ability to face perfectionism as a challenging but worthwhile analysis space for educational psychology, when truly exceeded the expectations and managed to produce an evidence for the causation of perfectionism. One of crucial benefits of the article is a complicated conceptualisation of the phenomena by exploring analysis gathered in New Zealand, Australia and Asia, which was thought-about as one of many limitations of the study. Research and data on P in UK faculty college students are restricted to a small sample of research targeted on P in relation to sporting somewhat than educational achievement and this was one of the reasons Starley (2018) carried out the pioneering analysis in this challenging area. As a lot as the subject was troublesome to investigate in a quantitative strategy, the findings can ship the reply for growing issues in psychological well being not only in the United Kingdom but globally. United Kingdom is certainly one of the top international locations with the highest rate of mental health issues amongst children, adolescent and adults, with suicide as a number one explanation for dying in young peoples. Globally suicide is the second most typical reason for death among adolescents after road visitors accidents (Mental Health Foundation, 2018) that analysis exploring the phenomena should be learn by the folks liable for the adjustments on the government and govt level. The prices and the burdens of psychological illness for the people and for the society are super and it’s a time to look not only for efficient treatments however for the roots of the issues and give attention to the prevention (Goodwin et al., 2018). Growing interest within the phenomena indicates hopefully wholesome pursuit to “treat” in disciplines such as schooling, psychology, counselling and well being or to successfully help people effected by perfectionism as a substitute of solely making an attempt to “measure” it using self-rating scales.

As reported by Starley (2018) when conducting a evaluate of literature of childhood perfectionism, they had been a number of challenges, starting from conceptualisation, with broad definitions of the assemble with only one settlement made on multidimensionality of perfectionisms by Hewitt & Flett (1991). This generosity of the views mirrored in scales attempted to rate perfectionism, with assessments displaying contrasting constructs (Morris & Lomax, 2014) with ambiguous, subjective and highly difficult quality to measure. Concepts of healthy obtain and perfectionism lacks clarity, in addition to the scales to “measure” the phenomena this can current the barrier to ship an efficient therapy through approaching life with development mindset somewhat than a need for perfection, however people need to feel ok, well attached as a baby and so on.

One of the biggest arguments towards quantitative analysis is the subjectivity, ambiguity and the significance of crucial reflexibility Mitchell, Boettcher-Sheard, Duque, & Lashewich (2018). Author was emphasising the dominant theme inside the current literature surrounding perfectionism, making clear-cut that there’s nothing healthy about perfectionism and linking perfectionism with improvement and upkeep of mental health problems as nervousness Jensen et al. (2018), obsessive-compulsive disorder Melli, Bulli, Doron, & Carraresi (2018), and eating problems Drieberg, McEvoy, Hoiles, Shu, & Egan (2018). Despite the actual fact, there’s very limited literature about the perfectionism in addition to and the world is a challenging due to lack of settlement on its nature Starley (2018) made sure that each one the paper cover all aspects together with making a classy distinction between perfectionism and striving for achievement or healthy pursuit for excellence. Author in small steps clarify the ethology behind perfectionism, introducing the concept of ‘roots and leaves’ proposed by Shafran, Egan, & Wade (2010) conceptualised the concept of perfectionism as a root of variety of mental well being conditions, and perfectionism must be addressed first than for instance focusing on melancholy or nervousness. This model has more practical utility, looking past a diagnostic label and shifting to extra positive, systematic considering, solution-focused psychology and exploring this assemble as a method of speaking something about the individual’s wants.

Regardless of the operationalisation chosen for exploration of the perfectionism, each research got here to very related conclusion that perfectionism is a negatively charged idea. Despite the fact they have been in a place to ship distinctive set of data in numerous varieties, one as numbers, second wanting into the depth of the concept linked with nervousness and arisen from unmet wants, having own operate, as a coping talent Starley (2018). On the other hand, Ferarri et al. (2018) argued that improving self-compassion lead to vital reduction of maladaptive perfectionism on the people. Both chosen methodologies to explore analysis matter have they limitations and strengths, however, deliver an encouraging message for further analysis in search of an efficient method of coping with negative influence of perfectionism on the people particularly children as they have been influenced by mental well being points linked on to perfectionism.

Based on the knowledge provided in both articles quantitative approach seems to ship the answer and potential effective remedy for perfectionism. Both forms of researcher as a end result of different methodological stance were capable of ship completely different type of information through the use of different method. This is why within the social science the concept that some methodologies are extra scientific than others ought to be very cautiously exercised. The social science faced over-representation of positive exams of hypotheses. Ioannidis (2005) reported that more than 50% of printed “significant” research findings in pure science (medical and psychological) have been false, when seven years later this went nearly up to 95% (Ioannidis, 2012).

Psychology was consumed for very long time by positivism paradigm that factor worthy of scientific consideration are those which can be observed and measured, supported by realism advocating unbiased and goal strategies while investigating and discovering out the truth (Collican, 20017). It is important that scientific rigorous is without any doubts greater than lip-service, specializing in dependable and unbiased findings (Stahl & Pickles, 2018). Psychological pursuit to be totally scientific made psychology to over-react and continue with this want to be a “true” science, and focused a lot power on the issues which even “hard” scientist aren’t inflexible about. This is why when conducting analysis inside psychology should utilise extra various sampling as by now psychology samples virtually completely are generated from convenience industrialised, Western, rich, nations, threating the generalisability as for positive they are not a transparent cut representation of the general population (Cooper, 2016). This is why scientific aura of qualitative psychology can idiot so many people who are merely unaware in regards to the “politics” inside social science and making people imagine and accept the very fact in regards to the world based mostly on speculative and very particular findings from restricted pattern (Coolican, 2017). Especially in 21st century overtaken by social media with compromised ethical and moral values the place the revenue and fame is the main concern and politics attempting to corrupt social science by masquerading the truth and manipulating the findings by selectively choosing population for the aim of the inquiry.

To conclude this crucial review it is important to remind that psychology is an accumulative, iterative, self-correcting endeavour and like all human activity, psychology research can be a social course of, and the methods to discover the social phenomena not define the thing in terms of defective methods of present pursuit or social expectation. As reported by Stahl & Pickles (2018) social science face certainly an actual challenge to cut back the proportion and impression of false positives and possibly it’s time to look for more complete, unbiased exhaustive collation of research by giving extra credit and encourage formal quantitative combination as already has become the accepted foundation for suggestion from organisation similar to National Institute for Clinical Excellence. This way will encourage not only scholar but publishers to concentrate on these scientifically anticipated from the stance of the validity and reliability perspective and completely neglecting this subject of analysis the place quantitative approach could be the one approach to not solely answer the nurturing question however to search out the answer to essentially the most troublesome and problematic dilemmas.

Analytical Essay: Transportation Methods in nineteenth Century

The nineteenth century marked a dramatic change in the United States. Through the manufacturing of many new developments, this time interval allowed the US to grow economically whereas permitting many middle-class workers to profit from these alterations. The 19th century was additionally able to create better transportation strategies to extra efficiently transport items and to gain higher value for his or her products. Throughout this essay, we will discover essentially the most memorable expansion of the United States throughout this time. We will analyze the number of transportation choices that helped the US develop economically, as properly as the “socio-economic classes” which defines a person’s class status and solely their revenue in society whereas analyzing the consequences of what seems like a great evolution for the United States that negatively affected some people during the 19th century.

Before the transportation expansion in the nineteenth century, farmers, manufacturing facility employees, and native businesses struggled to find affordable and environment friendly ways to move their goods and merchandise across the world.

During the earlier centuries, these employees have been compelled to make use of certainly one of three transportation strategies by horse, boat, or most dangerously, walking. These methods brought on trips to be months lengthy. It put the goods and the employees at risk, however this was their solely means of transportation during that time. In 1869 the first transcontinental railroad was established. This railroad allowed these goods to be transported in a faster means than before. Another creation that allowed transportation to be faster was the steamboat which was created by Robert Fulton, nonetheless many viewed the steamboat as too costly to build and operate which led to the downfall of the steamboats.

The rise of labor unions shortly grew as the nineteenth century continued to broaden. During the time, many immigrants and US citizens sought various economic alternatives within the United States.

The railroad expansion promoted the vast majority of the industrialization. While these immigrants moved from poverty, judgment, and mistreatment, to come back to America for the perceived idea of financial alternative and freedom, they began to face the identical issues in the US. In the midst of social problems, these immigrants, in addition to US workers, started to expertise a a lot bigger problem that affected them mentally and bodily. The work conditions that had been placed upon them were a lot worse than how they lived and worked prior to the nineteenth century. Factory workers have been in want of many employees through the manufacturing enlargement. This need prompted them to rent any and everybody who needed a job. These workers have been required to work on common 10 hours daily for six days. These long work hours brought on many workers to be drained physically from the hard work and lengthy labor. Not only were the hours a difficulty but also the working situations in these factories. Their work surroundings turned a harmful and unsafe place for them to work in. These conditions weren’t acceptable to them particularly for the pay that they were receiving, nonetheless, as a result of want for employment for them and their families, the most effective decision for them was to continue working despite these dramatic issues.

Most immigrants came from engaged on farms with better situations and less labor nevertheless they experienced lower pay which is why they sought to work in these factories. While farmer’s manufacturing price was going up, their prices had been going down. Before the railroads had been created, farmers and their items were in high demand. They have been capable of transport their items without the restrictions and necessities that the railroads placed upon them. Once they were created, these farmers had been starting to have to use new machinery to maintain production at a gentle price. However, this began to turn into too expensive for these farmers, especially since they weren’t making as a lot cash as they should’ve been, because of the expenses that the railroad charged them. As a end result, these farmers would lend money from banks, finally putting them into debt.

These events happened through the Gilded Age, which was a time period that occurred after the Civil War. Many wives lost their husbands on this war. It has been estimated that about 364,000 girls grew to become widows post-civil warfare. These girls depended on their husbands to offer for their household throughout this time, nevertheless, once they became widows, they needed to change their role, which consisted of them staying house and caring for his or her family by cooking and cleaning, to them now being labeled as working women. They were now forced to enter the workforce to have the ability to present for his or her family now that their husbands have been gone. The Gilded Age primarily focuses on the economic progress as properly as the fast inhabitants expansion that occurred. This and the progressive period, which centers around the social and political points that society created which later turned into a movement, performed a significant function in United States history. While the Gilded Age focuses extra on economic progress, the Progressive Era puts its attention on the needs of society. It includes the working situations of those that have been positioned in a harmful work surroundings with harsh hours, urbanization problems, and child labor.

In conclusion, throughout this essay, we had been capable of explore the nineteenth century and its effects on society. Although some could view this as a good time interval for America, others might even see this time as a rough and unfair to those who came to seek nice economic alternatives for them and their household. The nineteenth century created a big selection of New industries and transportation methods that we’re capable of help in the exportation of products and productions from one space to another in a quicker and extra efficient means. This era will proceed to be remembered for its numerous adjustments to the United States.

Sources

  1. https://www.theclassroom.com/cost-analysis
  2. https://www.austincc.edu/lpatrick/his1302/agrarian.html

Analyse the methods in which Speilberg builds up pressure and suspense in the hit movie jaws

Jaws was a movie, which from its first release reeled in and captivated the creativeness of audiences worldwide on its launch in 1975. Nothing fairly like it had been seen on the cinema. It remains considered one of Steven Spielberg’s biggest films thus far and likewise one of the classics of the silver screen. It was a field workplace smash and wad deservedly nominated for lots of awards and arguably assured Steven speilberg as one of the elite directors to the fashionable day.

Speilberg uses four main techniques to create rigidity and suspense within the movie. These four strategies are music, digital camera angles, facial features, and in addition structure.

The movie is ready on a small American tourist island named Amnity that means friendship. Subsequently in the summer a variety of unexpected deaths happen. When the thriller is solved it seems that there’s a great white shark dwelling on the Amnity shores. The Amnity chief of police Brody makes the invention, and he knows it’s as much as him to save the island, however chief Brody has a worry of water and the 4th of July is approaching quick so Brody is on a race in opposition to time to Kill the murderous marine beast not solely to save the folks of Amnity however to save the Economy of the island which key earnings is made from tourism.

One of crucial elements of the movie and the way folks would Probably acknowledge jaws can be the theme music. The jaws theme tune was the brainchild of composer John Williams He did the composing and musical preparations for jaws and gifted the movie with its personal signature tune, which is recognised worldwide.

The signature tune is a steady piece of low tones, Quickening Rhythm and an ostenato pattern was used and played When the shark was about to assault, thus training the viewers to recognise when the shark was in close proximity to her prey. Williams and speilberg additionally crafted the music to suit the shark’s movements. A high quality exemplar of this is the opening scene the digicam is underwater performing because the sharks’ eyes because the viewers are led by way of weeds in tune to the music, moreover when jaws swims sooner the tempo becomes faster and leads to a giant crescendo.

Another vital level concerning the storyline is that it is set in America on the 4th of July American independence day which in America is the prevalent public holiday of the 12 months. Amnity Island relies on its tourism trade to supply for all its dwellers and if the shark were unfastened the seashores must be closed so no tourists would go to the island.

One of the ways suspense and tension is built up is the music used within the movie which normally indicators the presence of the shark. The music has an rising tempo which builds into a crescendo because the shark draws nearer to its sufferer, and eventually modifications to a finale because it attacks, similar to that used in the bathe scene in the classic Hitchcock film ‘Psycho’. The increasing tempo is used whenever the shark is within the neighborhood, and the viewers comes to recognise it as a sign that the shark is going to attack. By varying the size and quantity of the constructing crescendo, the director is ready to deliver fear to the viewers because the music begins, and to tantalise them as as to if it’s really going to attack or just swim by. The music has the effect of reworking the image of the sea from secure, enjoyable joyful place into one the place the viewers will get nervous if a character goes into swim or paddle. The audience quickly involves affiliate the music with the arrival of the shark.

However on one of the shark’s appearances there is no music whatsoever which is an enormous shock for the viewers as they have been educated to recognise the shark by the ostenato, angular minor composition composed by John Williams which typically indicators the arrival of the shark and that an attack is imminent.

Nevertheless there might be more to the music of Jaws than simply the world well-known shark “theme” as for instance the barrel tying scene where Quint shoots the shark with a harpoon and the barrel is buoyant on the ocean. As the shark is shot the music changes from hunt music, which is somewhat fast and low pitch to joyous music, which is also somewhat fast, but exceedingly high pitch which symbolises to the viewers an illustration of accomplishment.

An additional instance of this is the opening scene of the movie where the music is the non-digenetic sound of the man taking half in his acoustic guitar on the beach and the mood is joyful and joyful however you can hear the ocean in the background and two of the individuals go all the method down to the sea as the woman goes for a swim. As she is out in the water there is an eerie silence as she is on their lonesome then after the assault the silence is back and everyone appears to be unaware as to what has occurred.

Another thing Speilberg makes use of for shock and suspense is the digicam movement

and different angles used, corresponding to in the Alex Kinder assault scene. Prior to the attack we see Chief Brody in a steady shot with his eyes focused on the water, looking at different folks swimming and enjoying, wondering if everyone is safe, after which a man blocks his view which offers us with an over the shoulder shot. This reveals us Brody’s frustration. Soon after, Brody sees what is occurring, and the digital camera angle is a shallow focus zoom which exhibits his facial features as horrified realisation. There is common panic, which shows everyone operating out of the water, using a scrambled digital camera angle, which conveys a feeling of chaos with all of the completely different angles. The scene appears to quieten, but then the yellow lilo washes up on the seaside, bloodstained in a high angle shot, which makes the lilo, look helpless and weak. One of the most effective photographs in this film was the underwater high angle shot of each of the victims proven from beneath, the ‘shark’s eye view’, which gave the audience a sense of the imminent danger and certainty of the attack, sealing the victim’s destiny before it occurs.

Twenty five per cent of the movie Jaws was filmed within the perspective photographs, together with that of the shark. Point of view shots give the impression that you’re in that character’s sneakers and also you see what they see in other photographs like high and low angle pictures factor look either grand and threatening or helpless and vulnerable, close ups are used to indicate a characters facial expression, long photographs are used to show where the motion is going down or to make a determine appear small and isolated. This is used to nice effect previous to and after the shark attacks.

There are also different camera movements in Jaws for different effects, such as observe; meaning to comply with a subject, pan; pivoting the digicam aspect to side to scan the scene and a whip pan is a fast model of a pan. Each of these methods is used within the Alex Kinder scene to intensify the stress as his mother appears desperately around for him, however discovers the bloody and torn lilo.

Another way to create shock and scare the audience is thru particular results and the harm one thing has brought on, as within the example of the damage caused by the shark to Ben Gardener’s boat. As Hooper dives in to see the damage caused to the boat, you can see the big hole in the facet with a tooth stuck in, additionally the yellow lilo which finished up again on the shore. In these two incidents the injury is to inanimate objects and immense with the entire destruction of the lilo into pieces and bloodstained and the hole within the boat with the tooth in and the particles inside. This method is used to great effect in the systematic destruction of the boat in which Quint, Hooper and Brody are looking, culminating in Quint sliding down the fatally tilted boat into the shark’s open Jaws. The injury here builds for example the hunt to catch and kill the shark, as if it were a personal vendetta between Brody and the Great White shark.

There can additionally be the harm to people that the shark brought on, such as when they are out at sea and the shark attacks the boat as Quint slips down into the sharks jaws, blood comes out via his mouth and he’s swallowed in two. This picture reveals how far more highly effective the shark is than man. Also with the 4th July attack where you can see on digital camera the victim’s leg simply drop past with blood pouring out of it; this is once more illustrating the superior physical power of the killer shark over man. These ugly scenes make the audience look away and actually cringe at seeing them. (At the time it was launched this was cutting-edge know-how, however now expertise has moved on and it is a lot gorier with the help of computer graphics and so on. In conclusion it was very gory in its day).

In my opinion the scariest second within the film was the half where Quint slides into the sharks mouth as a result of there’s a lot of pressure and it’s a prolonged dying. As the cage is lowered with Hooper in it, the shark starts to assault the cage and destroy the boat, subsequently the cage was wound up and it was wrecked and Hooper had disappeared under the sea. The rigidity builds right here, as if suggesting that the shark had the intelligence to use this technique of damaging the boat, since Hooper just isn’t visibly attacked. As the boat was bobbing the shark was slumped at one finish weighing it down and the boat tilted; Quint was literally hanging on for pricey life, and Brody tries to carry him, but he just doesn’t have enough grip to hang on and he slides into the sharks mouth to be eaten, after a lifetime’s expertise of searching killer sharks.

Furthermore to prolong his pain he isn’t eaten whole, he is bitten in half and there’s no music to be heard just a non-digenetic deafening, repeated scream from Quint as he vomits blood in addition to being shaken side to facet by the shark. This scene is frightening because of the cliff-hanger start and the very gory end. No music to this killing with no fast tempo seemed to delay the killing, as a result of all you heard was screams with no tempo to give the homicide a fast pace it seemed very leisurely and agonizing. One of the main the purpose why it was so scary was because of the point if view digital camera angle from Brody made me put myself in his shoes and gives us a superlative view of a graphic and gruesome killing.

Furthermore, you’re left with the devastating picture of Brody alone and seemingly defeated, on a small sinking boat in a sea which is dominated by the shark, waiting for his flip. The techniques used by the director leaves the audience with little credible hope for Brody to outlive and defeat the shark, leading to surprise when his fast thinking has the desired impact. The picture of Brody and Hooper swimming for shore in a leisurely style serves to underline the fact that the seas are now peaceful once again, but the viewers wouldn’t have enough time to really believe this…. Surely there have to be extra sharks out there? (Cue Jaws 2!)

Policies and procedures or “agreed methods of working”

It is a legal requirement to comply with agreed methods of working. Policies and procedures or “agreed ways of working” set out how we your employer require you to work. They incorporate varied items of legislation as properly as best practice. They are there to learn and shield you, the people you support and us your employer. They allow you to supply a good high quality service working throughout the legal framework and most significantly aim to maintain you and the people you assist, safe from hazard or harm.

To implement agreed methods of working you comply with the Policies and Procedures and the service customers care plan, the place the management of the individual’s day by day care wants are agreed and documented. It is extraordinarily necessary to have updated agreed methods of working as there could additionally be adjustments in policies within the regulation. Our firm may should implement them to help shield the weak. You have a duty to maintain service customers protected by following insurance policies, procedures and working inside your job function.

Each job title entails explicit duties and duties. Within every place there are routine tasks and activities and expectations. Individuals might be specifically skilled to perform the duties of their role. And every role involves limits. Every employee is predicted to restrict herself or himself to the same old and customary activities concerned within the success of their position. Think about what might occur should you did something that was outdoors your job position. E.G suppose you administered treatment before you had been educated, what might happen, each to your service consumer and to you? Your contract will stipulate your responsibilities.

It might result in your dismissal should you exceed your role & degree of ability when this results in gross errors.

Aboriginal Cooking Methods

The conventional ways to cook dinner for aboriginals used to involve roasting their meals on hot coals, baking in the ashes & steaming in floor ovens. But right now theses things have changed & the aboriginals have simpler ways to prepare dinner utilizing ‘technology’ from at present. They have tailored to make the method easier by boiling & barbequing.

Roasting;

When cooking meat, this was the fundamental method, which was nearly all the time used. They cooked most meat, fish & small turtles.

To make certain the meat was cooked by way of, it was also covered by ashes & coals, which additionally made robust meat softer.

The meat would be eaten rapidly after roasting.

Shellfish were additionally cooked on the coals on the surface of the fireplace, this way when they started to froth, they could possibly be eliminated shortly.

Baking

Bread & damper was cooked within the ashes. When aboriginals made fires, they made positive they used the correct of firewood, in order that after the fire was out, the ashes could be used for cooking their bread.

They were very cautious as to which wooden they used as a end result of some woods made to bread style dangerous & some brought on irritation & discomfort. Over time, it was the wattle seed that was found to be probably the most successful for cooking. It gave no dangerous taste, gave no one irritations & produced a fine ash.

Witchetty grubs only wanted to be shortly rolled over the ashes to be cooked. Then damper was put beneath the ashes & then lined. To prepare dinner yam, or greens, they would dig a small gap, place the vegetable in it, after which cover it with ash.

Steaming;

In the Wiradjuri areas, steam ovens nonetheless exist. The ovens had been made by digging a hole in the ground, they had been about 90cm long, & 60cm deep. The clay left over from digging was then made into clean lumps & then can be positioned on high, as quickly as the hole was full of chosen firewood. While the wooden burned, the clay became scorching. The clay would then be removed with tongs. The pit would be swept out & then lined with nonetheless green leaves & grass. Then meat such as possums (because they had been small enough) would be lain inside, coated with more leaves & then the clay could be positioned on top.

To cease the steam escaping, the ground that was initially taken out when the hole was dug covers the clay.

Wrapping;

Wrapping continues to be utilized in locations like Arnhem Land. Vegetables are wrapped within the moist paper bark from Melaleuca trees & then positioned in ground ovens.

Today Aboriginals use more advanced methods of cooking. They have adapted their old ways to make them easier.

Boiling;

Aboriginals have now learned to boil meals in galvanized cans, tins, steel drums or whatever items are available. Because of this, floor ovens are getting used much less & much less.

Barbequing;

Although the Aboriginals don’t have prime quality barbeques, they have their own model. It is just a chunk of wire to gap items of meat or dough over red coals.

Aboriginal Dreaming

Although the Dreamtime was up to now, it is the Aborigines faith & culture that rules them today. The saying, ‘As it was done within the Dreamtime, so it must be accomplished today,’ dominates all elements of the Aboriginals way of life & actions. According to some Aboriginals, the Rainbow Serpent made the world. It is their belief that that is true. Religion is some peoples’ way, spiritualism is theirs.

The Rainbow Serpent got here from the Northern Territory whereas Australia was still in its dreaming stage. It traveled over the country, creating the mountainous areas by pushing the land into many ranges & isolated areas.

The Great Dividing Range is a creation of the rainbow serpents actions. Throughout its journey over & underneath the land, it created rivers, valleys, & lakes. It was also careful to depart many areas flat.

Once it was satisfied with its creation of Australia, spirit individuals got here from inside it & moved all round the nation to type many alternative lifestyles, languages & totally different tales.

When the land was finally completed, it was ready for people, but there were none .Walya-Nam-Adiki was the girl who walked out of the sea & met up with a tribal man. Seen as there have been no individuals, they talked about the issue with having such a wonderful land, but no individuals to reside there. To repair this problem, they’d many spirit children together. Walya-Nam-Adiki informed all her children to go to all totally different places throughout the country & to talk new languages, make & keep land & water administration. They were to stay in their chosen areas, & to make social & kinship methods which might make certain that there would all the time be folks inside their tribal boundaries.

Other Aboriginals imagine that when the world first existed, that giant semi-mortal beings that resembled plants & animals rose up from the flat land the place that they had been sleeping for numerous ages.

These beings wandered the land aimlessly. As they roamed round, they performed the tasks that Aboriginals do at present. These included tenting, making fires, digging for water, combating one another & performing ceremonies. When they grew to become uninterested in finishing up these rituals, the dreamtime ended. Wherever the creators had been, a pure landform now marks the place. The creators made every thing which Aboriginals are in touch with everyday & from which they achieve their dwelling. Apart from forming the land, in addition they created the legal guidelines that govern the elements of everyday life, which some Aborigines still live by.

Aboriginals in Jail & Custody

The concept of over-representation of Aboriginal adults in jail is ready down early for the younger technology to know. In Juvenile Detention facilities, aboriginals aged 10-17 have been 24.2* occasions more prone to be in custody than non-aboriginal kids. For aboriginals aged 18-21 the over-representation price was 9.6*

Indigenous rates of imprisonment in grownup prisons diversified between about 4* instances the non-indigenous price in Tasmania & as a lot as over 20* times in Western & South Australia.

At virtually any time, as much as 80% of inmates in Northern Territory ‘Correctional Facilities’ are of aboriginal descent. Whatever the intent, mandatory sentencing has extra impact on aboriginals than another ethnic group in the NT.

Also Police custody rates for Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islanders was 26.2* instances more probably than people of different races. Aboriginals are 25% of people which are arrested & 15% of people who are in jails are additionally Aboriginal.

From knowledge collected, aboriginals are over-represented in offences involving violence, breaking & getting into, breaches of justice procedures & driving offences.

Aboriginal individuals are 12 times extra doubtless than others to be in prison for murder and sixteen times for breaking and coming into.

One precept issue is that of the low status of the indigenous side of Australia in socio-economy & culture.

In 1988, Commissioner Muirhead stated that “humanity and our country’s popularity demand a vigorous strategy and new initiatives”. Years later, Aboriginals nonetheless continue to die in police cells & prisons.

On 10th February, 2000 a 15 yr old boy dedicated suicide in the Don Dale Correctional Facility in Darwin. He had a compulsory 28jail sentence for petty theft of pens, pencils & paint. He was due for his launch four days after his dying. The Northern Territory Chief Minister merely swept aside the demise & gave a press release “There will all the time be deaths in custody.”

The demise of the boy & the Country Liberal Party refused to even consider the re-appeal of the necessary sentencing laws sent a break of concern via many main Australian, International & Aboriginal groups.

Two weeks earlier to the demise, a Federal Senate traveled to Darwin, to make a report on the legal guidelines. None of the Country Liberal Party’s officials was ready to provide proof on the listening to.

The United Nations blasted Australia over these legal guidelines, & the therapy of the indigenous folks to this land. Also saying that Canberra could probably be in breach of the UN Convention to Eliminate Racial Discrimination.

*Based on information in 1998

A Study Of Different Interpolation Methods Computer Science Essay

Discussed here are a figure of insertion methods, that is by no companies an thorough record however the strategies proven tend to be those in widespread usage in computing machine artworks. The chief properties is that they are straightforward to calculate and are stable. Interpolation as used here is totally different to “ smoothing ” , the techniques mentioned here have the function that the estimated curve base on ballss through all of the given factors. The thought is that the factors are in some sense correct and lie on an implicit in however unknown curve, the job is to have the ability to gauge the values of the curve at anywhere between the recognized points.

Linear insertion is the best methodology of acquiring values at places in between the data points. The points are merely joined by consecutive line sections. Each part ( bounded by two informations factors ) could be interpolated independently. The parametric amount mu defines the place to gauge the worth on the interpolated line, it’s zero on the first point and 1 and the 2nd level.

For interpolated values between the two points mu scopes between 0 and 1. Valuess of mu exterior this scope consequence in extrapolation. This convention is adopted for all the next strategies at a lower place. As with subsequent extra attention-grabbing strategies, a snipping of field C codification will server to depict the mathematics.

dual LinearInterpolate (

dual y1, dual y2,

double mu )

{

return ( y1* ( 1-mu ) +y2*mu ) ;

}

Linear insertion consequences in discontinuities at each point. Often a drum sander extrapolating map is fascinating, probably the best is cosine insertion.

A suited oriented piece of a cosine map serves to provide a clean passage between subsequent sections.

dual CosineInterpolate (

dual y1, dual y2,

double mu )

{

dual mu2 ;

mu2 = ( 1-cos ( mu*PI ) ) /2 ;

return ( y1* ( 1-mu2 ) +y2*mu2 ) ;

}

Cubic insertion is the only methodology that provides true continuity between the sections. As such it requires more than merely the two end factors of the section however apart from the two points on both facet of them. So the map requires four factors in all labeled y0, y1, y2, and y3, within the codification below. mu nonetheless behaves the identical method for extrapolating between the part y1 to y2. This does raise points for tips on how to extrapolate between the first and last sections. In the illustrations right here I merely have n’t bothered. A common solution is the dream up two extra factors initially and terminal of the sequence, the brand new factors are created so that they have a incline equal to the incline of the start or terminal part.

dual CubicInterpolate (

dual y0, twin y1,

dual y2, twin y3,

double mu )

{

dual a0, a1, a2, a3, mu2 ;

mu2 = mu*mu ;

a0 = y3 – y2 – y0 + y1 ;

a1 = y0 – y1 – a0 ;

a2 = y2 – y0 ;

a3 = y1 ;

return ( a0*mu*mu2+a1*mu2+a2*mu+a3 ) ;

}

Hermite insertion like three-dimensional requires 4 factors in order that it can accomplish a higher grade of continuity. In add-on it has nice tenseness and biasing controls. Tension can be utilized to fasten up the curvature at the recognized points. The prejudice is used to writhe the curve concerning the recognized factors. The illustrations proven here have the default tenseness and prejudice values of 0, will most likely be left as an exercising for the reader to research completely different tenseness and prejudice values.

/*

Tension: 1 is excessive, 0 normal, -1 is low

Biass: 0 is even,

positive is in the direction of foremost section,

negative in the path of the other

*/

dual HermiteInterpolate (

dual y0, dual y1,

dual y2, twin y3,

dual mu,

dual tenseness,

double prejudice )

{

dual m0, M1, mu2, mu3 ;

dual a0, a1, a2, a3 ;

mu2 = mu * mu ;

mu3 = mu2 * mu ;

m0 = ( y1-y0 ) * ( 1+bias ) * ( 1-tension ) /2 ;

m0 += ( y2-y1 ) * ( 1-bias ) * ( 1-tension ) /2 ;

M1 = ( y2-y1 ) * ( 1+bias ) * ( 1-tension ) /2 ;

M1 += ( y3-y2 ) * ( 1-bias ) * ( 1-tension ) /2 ;

a0 = 2*mu3 – 3*mu2 + 1 ;

a1 = mu3 – 2*mu2 + mu ;

a2 = mu3 – mu2 ;

a3 = -2*mu3 + 3*mu2 ;

return ( a0*y1+a1*m0+a2*m1+a3*y2 ) ;

}

While you could imagine the above situations were 2 dimensional, they’re merely 1 dimensional insertion ( the horizontal axis is additive ) . In most instances the insertion may be prolonged into larger dimensions merely by utilizing it to each of the x, Y, omega co-ordinates independently. This is shown on the proper for 3 dimensions for all but the cosine insertion. By a cute quick one the cosine insertion reverts to linear if utilized independently to each co-ordinate.

For other insertion methods see the Bezier, Spline, and piecewise Bezier methodsA right here.

A

Linear

hypertext transfer protocol: //local.wasp.uwa.edu.au/~pbourke/miscellaneous/interpolation/linear.gif

Cosine

hypertext switch protocol: //local.wasp.uwa.edu.au/~pbourke/miscellaneous/interpolation/cosine.gif

Cubic

hypertext transfer protocol: //local.wasp.uwa.edu.au/~pbourke/miscellaneous/interpolation/cubic.gif

Hermite

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3D additive

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3D three-dimensional

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3D Hermite

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Trilinear Interpolation

Written byA Paul Bourke

July 1997

Trilinear insertion is the name given to the procedure of linearly extrapolating points within a box ( 3D ) given values at the vertices of the box. Possibly its commonest utility is extrapolating within cells of a volumetric dataset.

See a unit common hexahedron with the lower/left/base vertex at the beginning as shown here on the right.A

The values at every vertex will be denoted V000, V100, V010, … .etc… .V111

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The value at place ( x, y, omega ) within the common hexahedron shall be denoted VxyzA and is given by

VxyzA =

V000A ( 1 – ten ) ( 1 – Y ) ( 1 – omega ) +

V100A x ( 1 – Y ) ( 1 – omega ) +A

V010A ( 1 – ten ) Y ( 1 – omega ) +A

V001A ( 1 – ten ) ( 1 – Y ) omega +

V101A x ( 1 – Y ) omega +A

V011A ( 1 – ten ) y z +A

V110A x y ( 1 – omega ) +A

V111A x y omega

In common the box will non be of unit dimension nor will it be aligned at the beginning. Simple interlingual rendition and grading ( perchance of every axis independently ) can be used to transform into and so out of this simplified state of affairs.

Linear Arrested development

Written byA Paul Bourke

October 1998

Linear arrested development is a method to outdo tantrum a additive equation ( consecutive line ) of the signifier Y ( x ) =A aA +A bA ten to a aggregation of N points ( eleven, Lolo ) . WhereA bA is the incline andA aA the intercept on the Y axis.

The consequence will be said below without derivation, that requires minimization of the amount of the squared distance from the knowledge factors and the proposed line. This map is minimised by ciphering the derivative with respect toA aA andA bA and puting these to nothing. For a extra complete derivation see the “ Numeric Recipes in C ” .

The resolution is clearer if we define the followers

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Then

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and

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And ultimately the arrested growth coefficient is

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This is 0 if there is no additive tendency, 1 for good additive tantrum.

Note

This therapy assumes there is no identified discrepancy for the ten and Y values. There are solutions which can take this into history, this is peculiarly of import if some values are recognized with less mistake than others.

The answer above requires that the incline is non infinite, SxxA is non zero.

Example

The undermentioned illustration reveals the points and one of the best fit line as decided utilizing the techniques mentioned here.

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Beginning

C

linregress.c

C++ contributed by Charles Brown

RegressionLine.cpp

RegressionLine.hpp

Curve Fit Through Arbitrary Points

Written byA Paul Bourke

August 1991

The undermentioned introduces a way of instantly deducing a multinomial that passes by way of an arbitrary figure of factors. That is, occur a multinomial degree Fahrenheit ( ten ) that passes by way of the N points

( x0, y0 ) , ( x1, y1 ) , ( x2, y2 ) , … .. ( xN-1, yN-1 )

The key to this solution is that we wish an exact tantrum on the factors givenA and we do n’t care what occurs inbetween those factors. The common answer is

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To see how this works, see the merchandise time period. When ten = xiA the merchandise term has the same denominator and numerator and subsequently friends 1 and therefore contributes yiA to the amount. All other footings within the summing up contribute 0 since there exists a ( xjA – xj ) in the numerator. Thankss to Simon Stegmaier for indicating out that this is called a Lagrange Polynomial.

For a numerical illustration see the multinomial that passes by way of the undermentioned points

( zero,2 )

( 1,1 )

( three,three )

( 4,0 )

( 6,5 )

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The map utilizing the above expression is

degree Fahrenheit ( x ) = 2 * ( x-1 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / [ ( 0-1 ) * ( 0-3 ) * ( 0-4 ) * ( 0-6 ) ]

+ 1 * ( x-0 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / [ ( 1-0 ) * ( 1-3 ) * ( 1-4 ) * ( 1-6 ) ]

+ 3 * ( x-0 ) * ( x-1 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / [ ( 3-0 ) * ( 3-1 ) * ( 3-4 ) * ( 3-6 ) ]

+ 0 * ( x-0 ) * ( x-1 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-6 ) / [ ( 4-0 ) * ( 4-1 ) * ( 4-3 ) * ( 4-6 ) ]

+ 5 * ( x-0 ) * ( x-1 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) / [ ( 6-0 ) * ( 6-1 ) * ( 6-3 ) * ( 6-4 ) ]

degree Fahrenheit ( x ) = ( x-1 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / 36

– ( x-0 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / 30

+ ( x-0 ) * ( x-1 ) * ( x-4 ) * ( x-6 ) / 6

+ ( x-0 ) * ( x-1 ) * ( x-3 ) * ( x-4 ) / 36

degree Fahrenheit ( x ) = 17*x4/90 – 181*x3/90 + 563*x2/90 – 163*x/30 + 2

By replacing the values of ten for the points the map must go through by way of ( x=0,1,3,4,6 ) it’s straightforward to see that the look above achieves the consequence, viz. y=2,1,3,zero,5 severally.

What happens at other points?

All stakes are off sing the conduct between the fastened factors. The multinomial is of diploma N and will violently wing off anyplace. The uninterrupted curve for the numerical illustration above is proven beneath.

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A competitors in the Mathematics intelligence groups in October 1998

From: “ John Santos ” & lt ; santos_john @ hotmail.com & gt ;

Newsgroups: alt.sci.math.likelihood, alt.tv.mathnet, aus.mathematics

Capable: $ 100.00 award for the solution

Date: Tue, 15 Sep 1998 20:fifty six:50 -0700

X-Newsreader: Microsoft Outlook Express 4.72.3110.1

X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V4.seventy two.3110.3

NNTP-Posting-Host: 209.239.197.111

X-NNTP-Posting-Host: 209.239.197.111

Message-ID: & lt ; 35ff36d1.zero @ blushng.jps.net & gt ;

X-NNTP-Posting-Host: 209.63.114.134

Hi everybody,

My name is John Santos and I am prepared to pay anyone $ a hundred.00 for the first

individual to work out this job. I am supplying some intimations. This works as follows:

you will see 9 figures – the 10th figure or missive is the reply.

What I want is the expression or mathematical equation to acquire at that place…

Number Answer

— — — — — — — — — — — — — –

749736637 1

713491024 8

523342792 D

749236871 Phosphorus

727310078 Tocopherol

746261832 4

733237527 L

743510589 9

715240338 K

722592910 1

739627071 Roentgen

The first 1 with the reply and emails it to me wins the $ one hundred.00

Email reference: santos_john @ hotmail.com

Good Fortune! ! ! !

They refused to pay up for this solution! ! ! !

My answer to this poster was

The followers is the solution to the posted job, although it likely

does n’t provide the penetration you’re in search of, it surely falls inside the

range of competitors. To exemplify my answer I will make the most of the followers

symbols alternatively of the Numberss you used merely to salvage infinite. For your

2nd column with letters and Numberss use their ASCII values alternatively,

this has no loss of generalization as it is a easy 1 to 1 operate.

x1 y1

x2 y2

x3 y3

x4 y4

etc

The followers is a basic technique of doing a map that passes

through any brace of values ( eleven, Lolo ) .

y1 ( x-x2 ) ( x-x3 ) ( x-x4 )

degree Fahrenheit ( x ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

( x1-x2 ) ( x1-x3 ) ( x1-x4 )

y2 ( x-x1 ) ( x-x3 ) ( x-x4 )

+ — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

( x2-x1 ) ( x2-x3 ) ( x2-x4 )

y3 ( x-x1 ) ( x-x2 ) ( x-x4 )

+ — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

( x3-x1 ) ( x3-x2 ) ( x3-x4 )

y4 ( x-x1 ) ( x-x2 ) ( x-x3 )

+ — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

( x4-x1 ) ( x4-x2 ) ( x4-x3 )

etc etc. As you possibly can see, at x=x1 all the footings disappear except the

foremost which equals y1, at x=x2 all of the footings disappear except the

2nd which equals y2, etc and so on.

Ten Yttrium

Number Answer ASCII

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

749736637 1 49

713491024 eight 56

523342792 D 68

749236871 P 80

727310078 E 69

746261832 4 52

733237527 L 76

743510589 9 57

715240338 K 75

722592910 1 49

739627071 R 82

The “ pretty ” look in this instance is

degree Fahrenheit ( x ) =

+ forty nine ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 36245613 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 226393845 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / 499766 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 22426559 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / 3474805 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / 16499110 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / 6226048 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 34496299 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 27143727 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / 10109566 )

+ 56 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -36245613 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 190148232 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -35745847 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / -13819054 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -32770808 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / -19746503 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -30019565 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / -1749314 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / -9101886 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -26136047 )

+ 68 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -226393845 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / -190148232 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -225894079 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / -203967286 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -222919040 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / -209894735 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -220167797 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / -191897546 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / -199250118 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -216284279 )

+ 80 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -499766 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 35745847 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 225894079 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 21926793 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / 2975039 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / 15999344 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / 5726282 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 33996533 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 26643961 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / 9609800 )

+ 69 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -22426559 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 13819054 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 203967286 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -21926793 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -18951754 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / -5927449 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -16200511 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 12069740 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 4717168 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -12316993 )

+ fifty two ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -3474805 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 32770808 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 222919040 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -2975039 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 18951754 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / 13024305 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / 2751243 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 31021494 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 23668922 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / 6634761 )

+ 76 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -16499110 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 19746503 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 209894735 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -15999344 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 5927449 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -13024305 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -10273062 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 17997189 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 10644617 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -6389544 )

+ 57 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -6226048 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 30019565 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 220167797 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -5726282 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 16200511 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -2751243 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / 10273062 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 28270251 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 20917679 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / 3883518 )

+ seventy five ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -34496299 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 1749314 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 191897546 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -33996533 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / -12069740 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -31021494 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / -17997189 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -28270251 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / -7352572 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -24386733 )

+ 49 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -27143727 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 9101886 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 199250118 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -26643961 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / -4717168 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -23668922 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / -10644617 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -20917679 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 7352572 ) ( ( x – 739627071 ) / -17034161 )

+ 82 ( ( x – 749736637 ) / -10109566 ) ( ( x – 713491024 ) / 26136047 ) ( ( x – 523342792 ) / 216284279 ) ( ( x – 749236871 ) / -9609800 ) ( ( x – 727310078 ) / 12316993 ) ( ( x – 746261832 ) / -6634761 ) ( ( x – 733237527 ) / 6389544 ) ( ( x – 743510589 ) / -3883518 ) ( ( x – 715240338 ) / 24386733 ) ( ( x – 722592910 ) / 17034161 )

degree Fahrenheit ( 749736637 ) = forty nine ( 1 )

degree Fahrenheit ( 713491024 ) = fifty six ( eight )

degree Fahrenheit ( 523342792 ) = 68 ( D )

degree Fahrenheit ( 749236871 ) = 80 ( P )

degree Fahrenheit ( 727310078 ) = sixty nine ( E )

degree Fahrenheit ( 746261832 ) = fifty two ( 4 )

degree Fahrenheit ( 733237527 ) = seventy six ( L )

degree Fahrenheit ( 743510589 ) = fifty seven ( 9 )

degree Fahrenheit ( 715240338 ) = 75 ( K )

degree Fahrenheit ( 722592910 ) = forty nine ( 1 )

degree Fahrenheit ( 739627071 ) = 82 ( R )

Five methods of Departmentalization

Essay Subject

“What 5 methods have commonly been utilized to departmentalize work and also employee? Provide one advantage as well as one downside of each. Offer an example of functional departmentalization at your College and also utilizing the interpretations in your book discuss why it appropriates example. (Chapter 9)”

In any kind of dimension of the organization or intricacy work environment, organizational structures are really essential elements that the businesses have to have, so the staff member will recognize their position, their obligations and jobs. To create as well as enhance organization efficiency, the organization can make use of numerous structural can take on, nonetheless the company need to discover the most effective organisational framework that relies on lots of aspects including the work, services or products, the size of the staff member, geographic and target market (market customer’s base). The following area offers information of the five approaches have commonly been utilized to departmentalize worker as well as jobs, additionally benefit and also negative aspect each of the methods. Typical business frameworks are links among these settings are shown in an organisational Graph which will show how monitoring is organized ‘‘ upright and also straight configuration of departments, authority as well as task within a firm’ (Williams & & McWilliams 2010, p. 175) each of division has a manager, who runs day- to- day operations and also ultimately report to the Chief Executive Officer, nevertheless this typical model prevails use in all church, federal government and also armed forces organization, since these organizations are stable, can not reply to change and slow down to act.

As an example every soldiers answer to his commanding policeman, while the president goes to the top of the chain as command-in-chief. Departmentalization is ‘‘ the neighborhood of job is the fundamental meaning of “types”. The multidivisional kind is defined as decentralized management framework; organized right into products departments, each division consisting of a unitary structure; as well as a headquarters to make to critical choices.’ (P. James L. 1997) generally the standard decisions that managers need to make as they establish a traditional organizational framework are making use of the 5 standard methods of useful, product, customer, geographical and also matrix departmentalization. Which mean 2 or more people collaborating en masse to complete a specific task, by separated the team to work in various departmentalization, to aid attain the organization goals and goals.

Nonetheless ‘‘ Establishing the features to be carried out entails consideration of division of work,’ (P. Montanna && B. Charnov, 1993, p. 1) and also relying on the size of the organizing that supervisors manage. The degree of decision-making authority is centralization and generally were made by the top administration of the highest vertically structures power structure. This section is extra detail as well as description of 5 methods has actually been made use of typically to departmentalization. Useful departmentalization: group of worker as well as job based on job performance, example finance and audit, marketing and sale, human resource as well as administration as well as technical and operating. For one more instance of Functional departmentalization at Victoria University is Academic Support and Growth because this division can pupils with College assessment jobs such as writing skills, reference skills, on the internet language translator and also providing professional support the pupil scholastic success as well as retention throughout the university.

The advantage of functional departmentalization is efficiency of work and also is to be done by expert abilities and also high qualified. The drawback is inflexibility of job due to the fact that right stuff only is gets approved for one expertise. Products departmentalization: team of worker as well as work for producing significant product or services area in the company or firm. Instance David Jones, females’s garments, men’s clothes, home and also food. The advantage of the product departmentalization is that raises accountability for product performance and allow manager and also employee operate in one area of competence. The downside is the obstacle of working with across various product departments. Client departmentalization: team of worker as well as infiltrate certain responsibility based upon customer’s problem as well as requirement. Instance: federal government, education and learning, wellness, wholesale or retail. The advantage is concentrated on client requirement instead of on items or company function.

The downside client departmentalization is the satisfaction or responses from customer is challenging of working with throughout various consumer departments. Geographical Departmentalization: teams of employee as well as work ‘‘ right into different units responsible for doing business in particular geographical location’ (Williams & & McWilliams 2010, p. 180). Example North, South, West, East). The advantage of geographical departmentalization is in person communication in between the provider and service receiver. The drawback is needed more human funding as well as the control can not exercise effectively. Matrix departmentalization: a combined of one or two team type of departmentalization are made use of together based on certain project, frequently are from product and functional departmentalization collaborating. The benefit of matrix departmentalization is allowing the organization to efficiently manage big, complicated jobs as well as efficiency avoiding duplication.

The disadvantage is calls for a high degree of administration ability as well as can reason for dispute in between managers in departments. Via a different viewpoint on the issue can be seen by comparing in between standard version and also modern-day design of the business structures, the traditional of business frameworks is highlighted as have efficiency and also effectiveness of products or services more than contemporary business structures. Because of focus on job specialization, highly performed on definite procedures and also plan in the organization that reliable work as well as employee, likewise the decentralization ‘‘ is the location of most authority at the upper degrees of the company. In a centralized organization, supervisor makes the most decision, even the relatively small one’ (Williams & & McWilliams 2010, p. 185) which help as well as improve the organization achieve their objectives as well as objectives are better and quicker than apply on modern-day organizational frameworks. For the contemporary or twentieth century business frameworks is revamping of making objective as well as goals establishing procedure is with empower employee.

According to(Williams & & McWilliams 2010, p. 185) Empower employee means’ permanently passing choice– making authority and obligation from supervisors to employees by providing the details as well as sources they need to make as well as accomplish excellent choices’. Which means all the procedure need to be share to every levels and decentralized authority is permitting a significant amount of worker within the organization decide essential to address the problem. To conclude the traditional organizational frameworks has actually five approaches been utilized to departmentalizing job and also employees such as the work Functional performs, the Service or product provided, the target Customer or client, the Geographical area covered and also the Matrix job that is combine or form two or even more departmentalization to interact. These approaches are used to in company which impact work as well as worker with the most effective add to achievement company’s goals and also objectives.

Referral list
Brews. P.J & & Tucci. C. L, 2004, ‘‘ discovering the structural result of internetworking’, strategic management journal, vol. 25. No. 5, pp. 429-451 Woll.L.F.K & & Moliance. M, 2013’do business structure, ‘‘ workplace and sex issue?’ artistically as well as executions of new ideas, worldwide journal of sex as well as entrepreneurship, vol. 5. No. 3. pp. 298-315 Dufty.N, 1996, ‘ ‘ a note on departmentalization in an institute of innovation’, journal of education and learning administration, vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 32-48 Williams. C & & McWilliams. A, 2010, MGMT 1st Asian Pacific Version, Cengage Knowing Australia Pty, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Cost. L. J, 1997, ‘‘ manual of organization measurement’, worldwide journal of Manpower, vol. 18 Iss 4/5/6 pp.305-558 P. Montanna & & B. Charnov, 1993, ‘‘ chapter 11: business frameworks: ideas as well as layouts’, administration: A streamlined training course for students & & organisation people. (Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s Business Reviewed Series), pp. 155-169

Importance of Line or Staff Departments and Methods of Effecting Change

Which type of department (line or staff) is most important to an organization? Why? Could an organization function without either of them? Why or why not?

In every organization, authority is divided in order to make sure the firm is successful. This division ensures that no one department is responsible for everything. As an organization grows, there must be two departments that are given the authority to make decisions to benefit the firm. These are the Line department and the Staff department. While both have management authority, there are certain differences. Line departments “headed by a line manager, are the departments established to meet the objectives of the business and directly influence the success (profitability) of a business.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) These managers are on the frontline, responsible for producing goods, marketing and distribution.

“Line managers who head such departments exercise line authority” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) Staff departments “headed by a staff manager, provide assistance to the line departments and to each other.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 7) These managers are there for support, giving advice, service and assistance. Examples of staff departments may include: the I.T. department, legal or Human recourses. While not directly contributing to the firm’s objectives, they are there to lend a helping hand.

In my experience, it is the line department that is most important to the success and profitability of the company. While it may be agued that without the staff department one couldn’t market and sell the goods and services produced by the line department. But it is ultimately it is the line department that generates the revenue to sustain the company and there fore is most important. Granted that one cannot function without the other, and it is that synergy that ensures longevity and further success of the organization.

Discuss three (3) different methods of effecting change. Why are most organizations and individuals resistant to change? What can managers do to facilitate change? Use practical examples from your experience or knowledge, and describe your experience in implementing change.

Effecting change in one’s environment can be a daunting task. Many individuals are reluctant to change and react differently when it occurs. “Most will accept the need to learn new skills and update their knowledge, but most resent efforts to change their attitudes” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8) To solve this problem Kurt Lewin developed a three-step approach that consists of three phases, unfreezing, change, and refreezing.

In the first step unfreezing, mangers must identify and discover the source or cause of the deficient behavior. “They confront the individual with the behavior and the problem it causes; they then begin to convince the him or her to change by suggesting methods and offering incentives.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8) This step is the foundation to helping the insubordinate employee open up an discuss why this deficient behavior is occurring. Often time this causes the employee to become emotional and upset.

The second step change, the employee discomfort increases. This will cause the employee to question their reasons for their conduct, it is then that the manager has the chance to provide a role model to foster the preferred behavior. “As the individual adopts that behavior, performance will improve; but the manager must support and reinforce that behavior if it is to last.” (Plunkett, Alan, Attner, 2013, Ch 8)

In the third step refreezing, new desired behaviors should be rewarded. Frequent praise at first is important for the continuation of preferred behaviors. Also, if any incentive was promised, then it must be honored. Failure to do so will cause a reversion to old deficient behavior and the manager would have to start again.

In my experience, cold calling is a requirement to draw up business. Earlier last year, sales were down. An increase in production was needed to boost our P&L, so management enforced mandatory call nights. Each employee was given a list of clients to set appointments. Many of the veteran employees saw this as a waste of time, and although they attended, did little or no work. Management sat with each of these employees individually to figure out what the cause of the issue was. Management created a reward system in which the employee with the most booked appointments gets a free lunch the next day and the employee with the most booked business from these appointments gets to take off the next two Mondays. This incentive had everyone dialing clients consistently and business increased dramatically. To reinforce these behaviors, a scoreboard was put up and the leading 5 employees numbers were updated weekly. Giving a competitive twist to this approach really helped motivation for production, especially in sales.

References
Plunkett, R. W., Allen, S. G., & Attner, F. R. (2013). Ch 7 Organizing Principles, Ch 8 Organizational Design, Culture and Change . Management: meeting and exceeding customer expectations (10th ed., ). : Mason, OH :.

Footnotes
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Communication Methods

As a manager of a large rehabilitation center that provides short term care rehabilitation services, adding long term care services will require hiring and training new employees. It is important that managers understand the appropriate communication methods, why they are important, and what internal and external relationships that must be considered. There are a few appropriate communication methods manager can use in this organization such as emails, memos, team meetings, flyers, and powerpoint presentations. A mailing list can be implemented to send out emails with information or by sending flyers via USPS. Holding team meetings is a great to provide information to staff members as well as receiving employee feedback and suggestions to improve the quality of care. Although there are many methods of communication, holding staff meeting is the best way for information to flow from managers to employees, and employees to managers.

Communication is important in the rehabilitation center as many services are provided by multiple physicians. “Communication between provider and consumers affects every facet on the health continuum from health promotion and disease prevention to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment” (Jones & Bartlett, 2014). The quality of care is dependent upon staff members working together to provide care. This requires effective communication to pass health information, and share knowledge with each other to find the proper treatment plan. The use of flyers in the community allows for communication between the organization and the community, informing them of the addition of long term care services. This is important to reach the organizational goals. There are many internal and external relationships that must be considered when expanding services. Internal relationships include managers of other departments such as marketing, and staff members.

Marketing managers have knowledge of the demand for long term care services in the community and can provide the manager with that information. Staff members may be useful to help provide long term care services or train new employees. “The success of new organizational forms depends on managing inter-organizational relationships through external communication” (Johnson & Chang, 2000). External relationships such as other organizations in the community as well as the community should be considered. Other organizations can provide insight on what services are currently available locally and the need for long term care.

Reaching out to the community by hosting or attending events will help to draw in customers for the new service and gain information on cultural needs of the community. Communication is key to providing quality care in a busy rehabilitation center. The use of emails, flyers, and team meetins are great ways to effectively communicate with staff members. Communication is important to ensure proper care is provided and the patient is satisfied with the outcome. Internal and external relationships must be considered receive feedback on internal operations, and understand the demand for care in the community.

References
Johnson, J., & Chang, H. (2000). Internal and External Communication, Boundary Spanning, and Innovation Adoption: An Over-Time Comparison of Three Explanations of Internal and External Innovation Communication in a New Organizational Form. Journal Of Business Communication, 37(3), 238-63 Jones & Bartlett ( 2014). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763755575/55577_ch01.pdf

Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation

In the early 16th century the Protestant Reformation had happened and made the popularity of Catholicism to decline. In response to the Protestant Reformation the Catholic Reformation was issued to reestablish the power and popularity of Catholicism and the Roman Catholic church. The Catholic Reformation created new societies, while fixing problems of the Roman Catholic church. Through the Catholic Reformation

The main reasons for the Catholic Reformation was a response to Protestantism and a response to reform the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was riddled with corruption and scandals such as simony(sale of church offices), absenteeism(priests not showing up to services), and the sale of indulgences(paying the church to absolve sins). Many priests were illiterate and some abused their powers for absolution of sins To reform the structure of Catholic church Pope Paul III had established the Council of Trent which consisted of Catholic cardinals who were responsible for handling the reforms of the Catholic Church.

The Council of Trent is considered to be one of the Catholic Church’s most important councils. The Council had 25 sessions from 1545-1563 that would address the issues of the Catholic church. The result of these 25 sessions were the validation of all 7 sacraments and the reaffirmation of Monasticism, celibacy of clergy Transubstantiation, and purgatory. Basically The Council of Trent fixed problems of Catholicism.

Another result from the Catholic Reformation is the religious order of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus). Founded in 1540 by St. Ignatious Loyala the Jesuits had 3 goals reform the church through education, spread the Gospel to the Pagans, and to fight Protestantism . Jesuit schools were highly regarded as the finest schools for education in Europe. The Jesuits were organized in a military fashion following rules from Loyola’s guidebook Spiritual Exercises. The book would inform Jesuits how to have less attachment of physical items and informed Jesuits on how “to master the soul to manipulate the body”.

The aims and methods of Trait Theory

INTRODUCTION

Looking at the Trait theory and Personal Construct theory (PCT) both are concerned with the psychological study of individual differences. The trait theory is based in the experimental approach, while personal construct theory is concerned with a phenomenological approach into the study of individual differences. This essay will begin with describing trait theory and PCT, I will also be highlighting the important differences between the two approaches in terms of their aims and methods. I will use the reading by Eysenck and Rachman on trait theory (objective) and Kelly’s reading on PCT (subjective) to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages, and make comparisons on the methods used in relation to measuring individual differences both quantitatively versus qualitatively. Following on from that I will evaluation the strengths and weaknesses of these theories. There will also be consideration put into whether the knowledge produced by each of these theories can be applied to the same question.

In conclusion,

DISCUSSION

Trait theorists are concerned with the measurement of traits, which are habitual and enduring patterns of behaviour, thoughts and emotions that can differ from one individual to another (cited in Butt, 2007). Looking at the trait theory developed by Eysenck & Rachman, their theory is based in the experimental scientific tradition, this theory on personality was based upon biological explanations whereby he believed that individuals personality traits were caused by a persons biological and genetic make-up. The aim of his trait theory was to measure personality traits by using data that was gathered from Eysenck’s personality inventory and questionnaires, which was used to produce psychometric inventories and his use of criterion analysis suggested a continuum of trait. Looking at his study on how soldiers broke down due to stress in battle, he identified tow personality dimensions.

His idea was that individuals could be measured along two continuum’s, extroversion and neuroticism, and that an individuals score on these continuums would allow predictions to be made on how they would react in a particular situation. The dimensions he identified were what he believed to be behavioural expressions of differences in biologically based temperaments (cited in Butt, 2007). He claimed therefore that the trait theory sees individual differences in personality as relatively steady and fixed ways that individuals vary from each other. From this scientific experimental approach Eysenck believed that the level of both dimensions “extroversion and neuroticism” seen by people is caused by differences in cortical and autonomic arousal. His methodology facilitated the prediction of how an individual will react in a particular situation. Looking at Personal Construct Theory (PCT) this was developed by Kelly, it takes a different approach to the trait theory, this theory is based on a phenomenology approach to personality and individual differences, the emphasis here is placed on how every individual views the same thing differently (cited in Butt, 2007).

The aim of PCT is to understand how individuals utilise their subjective experiences to develop their own personal construction which helps them to make sense of their own world-views. Unlike Eysenck, Kelly was not concerned with individual’s scores on personality dimensions, he concentrated on taking account of each individual’s world-views and how it played part in constructing the individual that they have become. In order to do this Kelly developed the repertory grid so he could investigate each individuals set of personal constructs. This tool allowed individuals to allocate personal constructs to everyone they considered part of their lives.

Personal construct theory (PCT), as developed by Kelly (1955,cited in Butt,2007) is a markedly different approach to individual differences. PCT is based in phenomenology, and therefore places an emphasis on how each individual views the same thing differently (Butt,2004,cited in Butt,2007). The aim is to gain an understanding of lived experience, personal meaning making and the different world views held by individuals. This approach sees individuals making sense of the world by developing a set of personal constructions, based on their individual experiences (Butt,2007). Kelly had no interest in how individuals score on personality dimensions, instead, the focus of this approach is on recognising the value of differing world-views. In opposition to the trait theorist’s belief that traits are fixed, PCT views constructs as being flexible (Butt,2007).

This is not to say that constructs can be changed with ease. Indeed, Kelly believed since individuals invest a great deal in their constructions they often actively resist change, and as a result it can be difficult to adjust constructions. Kelly designed the repertory grid to help assess personal constructions. Much construing occurs without the individual realising it, but the repertory grid acts as a tool allowing individuals to convey and assess personal meanings, which would normally be out with their reach. Salmon applied the principles of Kelly’s PCT to teaching and learning in schools. Salmon believed that schools need to acknowledge children’s existing constructs and use these to encourage personal development. For this to be successful, children must be aware of their own constructs, so tools like Kelly’s repertory grid are very useful in this context.

She went on to develop the ‘Salmon Line’, which provided an effective method for children to define their own meanings about their progress. Trait theory has been around for more than a century and has been subject to a great deal of critique. PCT has not yet been put under such scrutiny, so it is possible its weaknesses have not yet been fully explored. Trait theory is widely understood due to its similarities to how people assess others in everyday life (Butt,2007). In addition to this, measurement tools, such as the EPI, are objective measures of personality, allowing comparisons to be drawn between large samples of individuals. The findings of these studies can be useful to the government and retail/campaign organisations who want to identify general trends (Hollway,2007). Although highly criticised, categorisation in the form of traits is useful in certain situations, for example, in researching attitudes to smoking in an attempt to promote behavioural change (Butt,2007). However, trait theory has been highly criticised (Butt,2007).

Skinner (1974,cited in Butt,2007) points out that traits merely identify trends in behaviour; they cannot explain behaviour. He believed measuring traits simply re-describes behaviours, which is not very helpful. Nonetheless, trait theories make good sense as most people have noted that people react differently in the same situation, and often show consistency across situations (Butt,2007). Yet Mischel (1968,cited in Butt,2007) argues there is very little evidence for this consistency in traits, proposed by Eysenck. He pointed out there is much evidence showing that people can, and do, change with experience. In addition to this, Mischel suggests that rather than waiting to be discovered psychometrically, traits are constructed by the rater. He believed personality traits reflect the world-view, society and culture of the rater, rather than anything about the personality of the individual being rated. There are important power issues with trait theory, as with any theory which has roots in the experimental approach (Salmon,2003,cited in Butt,2007).

A great deal of power is invested in those who measure and those who put the measurements into practise, for example, in creating hierarchies in schools. Trait theory has also been subject to misuse by so-called ‘experts’ who judge people against norms and competence hierarchies (Butt,2007). Although objectivity can be viewed as a strength of trait theory, it is also a weakness. Objective knowledge is stripped from its context, so neither the power of the experimenter nor that of society is acknowledged (Butt,2007). The principles of trait theory mean it does not recognise potential for change, as traits are biologically controlled. This limits its ability to be used to assist change, so this is a less practical approach than PCT. Another major criticism is that causation cannot be inferred by correlation alone. It is likely that social structures may influence the biology of an individual, but trait theory does not take this into account.

Trait theory does not account for richness of personality in the way PCT does (Butt,2007). PCT uses phenomenological principles to focus on uniqueness of individuals, describing their subtle differences. This theory acknowledges both the individual’s ability to change, and the capability of society to change an individual, enhancing understanding of how and why people change over time and situation. Not only does this approach acknowledge that change is possible, it provides a framework for further change. For example, Salmon (2003,cited in Butt,2007) adapted Kelly’s PCT to facilitate learning. The Salmon line helps individuals to set goals and make the changes required to attain them. In addition to this, the qualitative interview methods of this approach help avoid the power of the researcher from affecting the findings (Salmon,2003,cited in Butt,2007). The interviewer should not summarise or assume individual’s constructs. Instead they use tools such as the repertory grid to help the individual convey and assess their own personal meanings.

Furthermore, Salmon (2003,cited in Butt,2007) challenges the labelling of individuals by traits, which effectively empowers individuals to be just that; individual. However, PCT also has its critics (Butt,2007). Some would argue that without the sort of classification gained by trait theories, those with serious conditions, for example autism, may not receive the help they need. Additionally, Kelly’s phenomenological approach suggests researchers need to put themselves in the shoes of their participant, in order to help them convey their constructs, and subsequently effect change. However, this would be very difficult, if not impossible in some circumstances, for example if working with a psychopath. It has also been argued that PCT is a less influential approach than trait theories, as the findings are unable to be generalised to wider populations. The agency-structure dualism is an important consideration within all social psychological perspectives (Hollway,2007).

Agency relates to the extent to which individuals are capable of exerting personal choice to make changes in their lives. Structure refers to the extent that biological or social factors determine an individual’s life-world. Biological structure suggests that genes and innate physiological attributes control our lives. Social structure suggests social factors, such as gender or social class, control our worlds. This dualism is linked to the extent to which personality is considered to be fixed (Butt,2007). If personality is entirely controlled by biological structure then it is unchangeable, so agency is not acknowledged in such theories. Some theorists suggest an interaction of agency and structure determine an individual’s life-world. For example, individuals are considered to have freedom of choice to change their bodies with diets; however, social structures such as financial circumstances constrain these choices (Finlay and Langdrige,2007).

As previously mentioned, Eysenck’s trait theory suggests personality is entirely defined by biological structure (Butt,2007). Traits are biologically inherited and determined. This therefore suggests traits are fixed, and people cannot change throughout their lifespan, regardless of their social environment. There is no room for personal agency in trait theory. Individuals cannot chose to make changes to their personality as biological traits are innate and cannot be changed willingly. PCT considers it impossible to divide agency and structure, as the individual is viewed in relation to their social world (Hollway,2007). In keeping with the phenomenological perspective, Kelly views individuals as products of society, thus emphasising consideration of the social world in which individuals are constructed (Butt,2007).

People are thought to actively create their worlds through experiences and relationships. Understandings and constructs are derived from the social world, which suggests structure can restrict agency. Kelly’s PCT therefore views individuals as having partial agency but also as being partly determined by social structures. Agency and structure appear to interact in complex ways. This understanding of individuals being constructed by the combination of agency and structure means personality is viewed as changeable (Butt,2007). PCT suggests individuals constantly change and adapt in response to their social environment. Individuals are considered capable of consciously and actively constructing meaning and reflecting upon this to allow them to continually make adjustments. PCT views agency and structure as complementary (Butt,2007).

Whilst individuals are capable of changing themselves and their social worlds, social structure also clearly influences behaviour. Individuals have freedom to choose meanings from their experiences, to use in building personal constructs (Butt,2007). However, agency is a product of society and whilst individual constructions of the world vary, they are restrained by social structure. Individual constructions are therefore viewed as varying within a range set by the society in which they are immersed. Salmon’s (2003,cited in Butt,2007) application of Kelly’s PCT to learning in schools provides a good example of the complex interaction between agency and structure. Personal change is required for learning and Salmon acknowledged this is difficult for most individuals, because they invest a great deal in their constructions. Learning can threaten their personal constructions of the world. She used the Salmon line to help individuals reassess their constructions and prepare to change, allowing them to achieve their goals.

This involves a great deal of personal agency, as the individual actively chooses to learn. This example can also help us understand how social structures interact with agency. For example, British schools tend to place children into hierarchies, effectively controlling what they can choose to learn. This clearly shows how society can restrict the agency of individuals. Trait theory, as developed by Eysenck and Rachman (1965,cited in Butt,2007), is based in the experimental tradition and relies on psychometric testing to measure people’s personality traits on a continuum (Butt,2007). This approach views personality as biologically determined leaving no opportunity for agency or change. The findings of these studies are however very useful to the government and organisations, by identifying trends which can be generalised across populations (Hollway,2007).

Kelly’s PCT has roots in the phenomenological approach, and is concerned with revealing rich, detailed accounts of people’s personalities (Butt,2007). In contrast to trait theory, this approach acknowledges ability to change throughout life. It proposes these changes occur through interaction of personal agency and social structures. PCT not only recognises capacity for change, it has also been used to help design tools such as the repertory grid and Salmon line, to help individuals change their constructions, for example when learning new things.

Trait theory and personal construct theory have markedly different approaches to the understanding of individual differences. Outline these approaches and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each. What consequences does each approach have for understanding agency – structure dualism?

This paper commences with a brief overview of two competing influential theories that attempt to account for individual differences within the area of personality and intelligence. These are namely; Eysenck’s and Rachman’s Trait Theory (1965) and Geoerge Kelly’s Personal Construct theory, represented here through Salmon’s Phenomenological reworking of Kelly’s ideas in her approach to learning ( 2003) Following from which is an exploration of the definitive aspects of these theories and the main theoretical perspectives to which each generally ascribe.

An evaluative discussion upon the strengths and weaknesses of each approach follows with consideration to the implications each theory may potentially bear upon individuals and wider social practice. I conclude by seeking to reveal the assumptions each perspective hold in regard to the agency- structure dualism and the possible consequences which may result by an overemphasis upon one or the other .

Psychologists have long puzzled over the way in which individuals may act differently in identical situations, resulting in various strands of personality theory to have emerged within the realm of psychology each attempting to explain personality traits at various levels , these being experimental, psychometric and clinical. Butt (2004) notes how Eysenck’s Trait Theory although presented as a clinical approach to understanding individual difference, was fundamentally rooted within the psychometric tradition which emerged from within the mainstream paradigm in the early twentieth century . Most famously to appear from this era was the Likert…

Health Care Communications Methods

Health Care Communications Methods

In the health care industry there are several different ways to communicate. We must communicate with the doctors, nurses, care givers, patients and their family, guardian or representative. There are formal and informal ways of communication, as well as verbal and nonverbal ways to communicate. There are advantages and disadvantages to all of these communication choices, and HIPAA of 1996 regulates all of the information and the degree of how it is communicated and to whom it is communicated. There are several different types of communication methods that can be used when transferring information. There is verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication would include things like speaking face to face, or when you are using the telephone, which is another great way to use verbal communication. Some other types of verbal communications would be the telemedicine; this is the clinics adoption of things like voice mail. According to a study done by NIH 50% of communication done in a clinical setting is done face to face while the other 25% is done through email and 25% is done through voice mail. (Tang, 1996). While according to another study 50% of all communications done in a hospital setting is done face to face with the patient themselves (Touissant, 2005).

When you are communicating using nonverbal communication, would be when you are communicating through sign language, eye contact, body language, hand written communication, emails, fax’s and text messaging. With these types of communication there is always room for potential errors to occur, due to typing errors, spelling mistakes and grammatical errors “If information is the lifeblood of healthcare then communications system is the heart that pumps it” (Lang, 1978). The communication process is made up of the people sending and receiving the message. The communication channel is quote the pipe that the message travels on. As the administrator of a small local nursing home I have just received information that a large national group is purchasing our small establishment. This is going to pose several challenges because many of my patients either have trouble communicating, either because of health reasons or the fact they cannot understand, I have a lady that does not speak a bit of English, and she is deaf.

This poses a big problem because I will need to get a Spanish speaking person that knows how to use sign language in Spanish. For my patients that do not have any family in the local area I will have to send out written notification to their family members last known address and request the mail to be forwarded. I will try to use any email addresses that the family or guardians have left for us to use in case of an emergency. It is a possibility to use social media like face book and twitter to put out a message regarding the nursing home being sold and the patients being displaced but there is only a limited amount of information we can put on the interned due to the HIPAA and the protected medical health records (duPre, 2005). The information used in the social media sites must be general in nature only, no names or personal information can be released or that would be a violation of the HIPAA privacy act which would come with sanctions and fines that the nursing home cannot afford, especially now, the last thing we need is negative publicity.

With all communication there are advantages and disadvantages, some of the advantages of using social media like face book and twitter would be the fact that you can reach hundreds, thousands even millions of people with only one post on the social media sites. Some of the disadvantages of using social media sites are the restrictions and lack of detail we are able to use when referencing the patients. Some of the family members have not seen their family in several years and it is possible without a name they may not even know that the message would or could pertain to them or their family because it has been so long since they have had any contact with them.

In conclusion there are many different ways to communicate in the health care industry, there are verbal and nonverbal communications, and there are formal and informal ways of communication. We can communicate face to face, over the phone, via email, voice mail, face book and twitter. The HIPAA privacy act of 1996 protects and regulates the way we disclose the protected medical information about our patients. When communicating information over the internet through face book, twitter and other social media sites there are specific protocol that must be followed on order to protect the privacy of our patients protected medical records.

References
Tang, P.C.,(1996) Clinical information activities in diverse ambulatory care practices. Falls Surp. PubMed . Touissant, P.J. (2005). Supporting communications in health care. Boston, PubMed. duPre, A. (2005). Communicating about health care. Current issues and perspectives (2nd ed.). Boston, McGraw Hill. Hicks, N.J. & Nicols, C.M. (2012). Health industry communication. New media, new method, new message, Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Recruitment methods

The timeline that I have given myself for these positions although ambitious I believe is attainable. The plan for recruitment will be with the career centers at each of the local schools that provide these job training and degree programs, Career Builders.com as well as the local newspaper which also list their ads on Monster.com. The resumes will be required to have a cover letter detailing why our company should consider you for the job and your accolades that make you the best candidate for the job. By being so specific in the requirements for the cover letter, candidate will have an opportunity to boast about their personal achievements and detail any accomplishments thus, highlighting information in the resume. This will enable HR to then weed out the best ones after a comparison with the resume for the best candidates. Phone interviews will be the next step for candidates that have made it to that round followed up by skills test and in person interview (corporate, 2013).

In Florida you have two factors at work, the first is the aging workforce and the second is the increase in the aging population (staff, 2010). The emerging Healthcare changes are not really affected one way or the other in nursing shortages. They are forecasted to remain the same with or without the Healthcare changes that are on the rise. Given that this is a clinic with Doctors in the setting and 3 RN’s one of which will be leaving. The HR department plans to replace that RN with a Certified Medical Assistant. In the state of FL a CMA can do many of the assignments that RN’s are tasked with in a clinic setting (Staff, 2013). Since there are already two RN’s that will be on staff anything that falls outside the focus of a CMA can be tasked to one of the RN’s on duty. This will be money saving for the clinic as currently RN’s make substantially more money than CMA’s (SOFL, 2007). The Patient Care tech as well will be replace by a CMA this pay is pretty close to one another and the duties are close enough that the CMA can provide more flexibility for the clinic and still save dollars.

The CMA programs in the State of Florida currently take six months to one year depending upon the school. Giving this consideration there are many more available CMA’s looking for work than RN’s. With the changing environment in billing and coding all coders are required to be certified in ICD-10 by 2015. Giving this thought it was decided that the best thing to do was to bring in a contracted ICD-9 and 10 coder and have them train the current coder while completing work. This will keep the clinic in compliance with federal guidelines in the future. According to the CMS website ICD 10 coders must be certified by 2015 in order to transmit and code claims. By bringing in a certified ICD 10 coder the veteran coder can learn ICD 10 and prepare for their training as well, which is a requirement that is expected in 2014. This can fill the gap for needed coverage and combine training that will be required for future coding needs.

Training will need to consist of leaders that will be asked to step up to the plate for training. These leaders will be valuable during the training process and acknowledged during the end of year evaluations. During a meeting to announce the new hires volunteers will be sought who are willing to share their expertise with new hires so that they can become valued employees and productive for the clinic. Over time will definitely be part of the phase in for the new employees and this will be discussed with the trainers as to the needs. The expected phase in process for the two new CMA’s should take about three months as they are going to already be experienced and it will only be a matter of learning clinic processes, guidelines and protocol.

The plan for maintaining service while under these very stressful conditions will consist of a variety of things put into place by the HR department. It will also require buy in from the physicians and managers in order to gain the support of the staff. First will require skillful scheduling as to limit the overtime that might be needed by current employees. This will help to minimize burnout and fatigue by the current staff. The second item that will need to be put into place will be staffing meetings that discuss the needs, the availability over normal hours of staff as well as any other issues that the staff is seeing that needs to be addressed. And finally HR will need to put into place a de-stressor program to help alleviate some of the fatigue by the personnel. Some of these things can include simple low cost events like Sundae’s on Friday’s or luncheons that help to keep the staff fueled and energized. Some other ideas might be a hero of the week program or mentor of the week. By keeping staff morale at a high we can insure that productivity maintains high.

Introduction in methods

Background of the Study

Living in a postmodern world is dominated by electronic gadgets, cyber technology and scientific and genetic breakthroughs. In spite of the fact that the Philippines are still just in the process of industrializing, it manages to cope with global trend of development and industrialization. Technology today is the biggest part of an individual. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern democracy operates since the 17th century. It is where people used a specialized computer to vote their candidate instead of the usual ballot boxes where people cast their votes by way of writing on the ballot. Voting is an election which is formal and critical decision making by which a population chooses an individual.

This process is also used in many other private organizations, corporations and now in universities. Automate voting system is a combination of mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic equipment. It includes the software required to program, control, this is where people used a specialized computer to vote their candidate instead of the usual ballot boxes where people cast their votes by way of writing on the ballot. This process provides much more efficiency and reliability than the conventional way of voting. After the voting process, the system will tally immediately the winners for the particular position. And also this system is faster and can give out result of the election in a matter of days instead of the secret balloting where it will take weeks or even months before a result could be presented to the University.

Every year, there is an election happening in Student of Supreme Council. It is an activity wherein each student is required to choose from a set of candidates who will represent each position in the Student Council. Supreme Student Council in Arellano University is the highest governing body of the student organization. The Arellano University Supreme Council shall be composed of two departments, namely the Executive Department and Legislative. Each college shall have two representatives. The officers of the executive department shall be elected by the ballot of the students and the representatives to the Legislative Department shall be elected by ballot within their respected colleges. The election shall be held not later than the 4th week of the month of the second semester. Wherein the Voting Process is handled by the IT Department. This Voting System enforces rules and regulations to ensure valid voting, and how votes are counted and aggregated to yield a final result.

Statement of the Problem
This study aims to decrease the time and effort of the participants of the specific election which leads to the delayed results.

1. The voting of the supreme
2. Avoid trickery of the votes

3. Second you need to give your id to them in order for them to validate if you are officially enrolled in Arellano University, in case you do not have the your student id card, you can give your registration form

Objectives
A. General Objectives
The general objective of this study is to provide a system with source code that the Arellano University.

B. Specific Objectives
Specially, it aims to:

1. To design a system that will be user-friendly or easy to use,In order to secure the votes of the students. 2. To create a system that can help the school to reduce the time consume when voting. Enhance the speed and efficiency of voting process. 3. To create a system, to avoid trickery in order to be equal to all candidates. Scope and Limitations of the Study:

The Automated Voting System focuses only on the election of Arellano University Main Campus and will only show the results of election and the percentage of students who vote on each department. It is use annually in Arellano University and it did for the students are able to use it automated rather than manually.

Significance of the Study:
It is intended to conduct this study because it is important to know the use of the Automated Voting System in the modern world today. And to know more what are the advantages and disadvantages of this systematic process of election. This study is deemed beneficial to the following:

This Automated Voting System is for all the students of Arellano University and also to all the students who are willing to become the Student Officer of the University. This System is to establish and maintain controls that can ensure that accidents, inadvertent mistakes, and errors are minimized. And this Systematic process can avoid trickery in voting in order to secure the votes of everyone. .

The students will encourage to vote immediately because of the new system. To make the voting process easier and faster. For students, this study may not only represent the feedback of the electorate to the student council but will also raise awareness on the advantages and disadvantages of the automated election system. It may also encourage active participation by the students and by the Arellano University executives. For the Future Researchers the results of this study can be used as basis for future researchers. The outcome of the study can be used as reference to similar studies especially with regards to the automated election system in the Philippines.

C. Schedule of Activities(Activities and Guidelines)

Activities
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6
W7
W8
W9
Planning and Data Gathering

Analyzing and Designing

Coding

Testing and Improving Prototype

Implementing the System

Evaluating the System

Documenting the System

D. Resource Requirement

Reading Resources:
The New Constitution of the A.U.S.S.C

Software:
Visual Basic .NET (VB S
SQL or Structured Query Language.NET) 2008

Hardware:
PROCESSOR:
NAME: Pentium® Dual-Core CPU

OPERATING SYSTEM:
WINDOWS 7 Ultimate 32-bit (6.1, Build 7600)

SYSTEM MODEL:
ASUSTeK Computer Inc.

MEMORY:
2048MB RAM

CHIP TYPE:
GeForce G102M

E. Expected Output

Health Care Communication Methods

This notice is part of an information package I, as the administrator of the Shady Pines Nursing Home, will be sending out to both the staff here at the center and to the administrative staff of the Rolling Hills Corporation. This information will help facilitate the transfer of those residents here at Shady Pines that no longer fall under the prevue of the new corporate guidelines. As some of the residents have communication issues or have no local family support, we as their caregivers need to ensure that all methods of communication are utilized to ensure a smooth relocation situation. Some of these methods will include the more traditional types, such as letters or phone calls to the guardians of those affected by the relocation (Du Pré, 2005). Other methods available for our use will be electronic in nature. One type of electronic communication is email (Du Pré, 2005). Social media communication types, such as texts to the guardians, will be used when all other types of communication has failed.

Each of these types of communication will also be used within the Shady Pines facility, to keep all staff updated on any changes that indubitably occur and to help ease the transition as well. Communication between the staff at Shady Pines and Rolling Hills is vital also, so that any conflicts can be handled efficiently. As I mentioned before, one of the different types of communication we have available to us is what many consider the traditional format. This type includes such methods as phone calls and letters to the guardians of the residents who are on the list to be moved (Du Pré, 2005). Please make sure to verify all contact information before releasing the minimal details in either the letters or phone calls. The team needs to make all conscious effort to follow all HIPAA regulations with these communications. Contact your department manager if you have questions before sending out the written correspondences. We need to make the letters as easy to understand as possible.

Letters are more secure than some other types of interaction in that the letter is addressed to the corresponding person. We will be using interdepartmental memos for the various correspondences within the Shady Pines facility. I see more phone conversations between our center and the Rolling Hills staff as this is a faster method of staying in touch with our new sister agency. Another method we will make use of will be emailed communication. Some of the residents’ guardians will have left their contact information, but there again, please be sure to follow all HIPAA regulations when including personal health information in said emails. This type of communication is sometimes quicker than letters, depending on the person’s access to a computer network. Email may not be the most secure method of communication. If a person uses a Smartphone as their access point and it is lost or stolen, then the emails and all personal health information (PHI) can be accessed by unauthorized people.

The last method I mentioned falls under the social media category. Methods such as texting, or posting any type of PHI on a social media site is strictly against all HIPAA policies, both state and federal. The best our contact staff can use the text messages for is to encourage the guardian to make contact with the center on an important matter. I have plans in the works to create a specific department to handle the details of contact between both the guardians, as well as the residents affected by the potential move. I plan to follow the same guidelines that the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) have in place to manage the many different departments under the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) umbrella.

According to Draper (2014), “These communication mechanisms include the agency’s operational planning process; crosscutting workgroups and meetings; and regular communications among the Office of the Administrator, leaders in the bureaus and offices, and agency staff” (p. 18). Using these different processes will help keep everyone in the communication loop and give everyone the support needed during this merger of our two agencies. I have plans to continue this method of communication after the merger is complete to help insure the continuation of efficient interaction between both centers. As most of our residents are in the older age category, we need to take particular interest in how we pass along the transfer information to those who require it. We should not discriminate on the resident’s ages and assume that all the affected residents will feel the same about the move to a new location (Du Pré, 2005). Every person is an individual and should be treated as such. Be considerate with those affected, as this will be a very traumatic experience for them.

According to Du Pré, “patients interpret their health within the arena most familiar to them – everyday life” (p. 116). That being said; it is important to be as empathic as possible, giving the resident as much information as he or she can handle to be able to understand the changing situation. Keep in mind that many of the residents have low health literacy and will not be able to understand some types of medical terminology in context. Be attentive to any stress indicators and be attentive to the feelings of those affected. I have mentioned the merger of our center with that of the Rolling Hills center. Good communication is needed to ensure that the transition from our center to the new one is a smooth one.

We will be using such communication methods like phone calls, letters, email, and fax to keep all merger information up to date. Contact with the guardians of the affected residents will fall under all HIPAA regulations in the matter of the PHI given out. Keep in mind the medical literacy level of the residents involved in the move. Using the new department to keep all matters of contact organized and flowing will help increase our efficiency during this transitional period. Other information will follow listing the people who are in charge of in the transitional unit and what sections they cover. Again, if you have and questions or if any difficulties arise, please notify your department immediately.

References:

Draper, D. A. (2014). Review of Internal Communication Mechanisms, Staffing, and Use of

Contracts. Washington DC, Maryland: GAO Reports. Retrieved from the University of

Phoenix Library.

Du Pré, A. (2005). Communicating about health: Current issues and perspectives (2nd ed).

Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Communication Methods

There are many groups, which the organisation must communicate with such as internal groups and external groups. A type of communication that may take place would be an oral communication. There are many advantages and disadvantages, an advantage would be that oral communication tends to be faster than written forms this allows interpretation and further discussion. A disadvantage would have to be that it lacks the permanent nature of written communication this means it cannot be stored and referred to later. Oral communication includes a face-to-face meeting like interviews. An advantage of this would be that that it’s quick and saves time than writing out forums. A disadvantage would be oral communication depends on the person listening skills. If the listener is not proactive, the communication exercise fails. Oral communication also includes formal meetings; most face-to-face communication is very structured. Most business meetings are often formal and follow a set agenda.

Meetings may have a chairman who decides what will be discussed and who will talk. Often a specific person will introduce a point on the agenda. An advantage is that everyone will know what is going to be discussed in advance. A disadvantage is that formal meetings take time to organise. Another oral communication is interviews were there is a formal question and answer session. They can take place in many different situations. They may be used when applying for jobs. Interviews are normally face-to-face communication. Advantage is both sides can ask questions and detailed questions can be asked. A disadvantage is that information given is not always truthful and interviews sometimes do not always show if the applicant can do the job. Another type of communication would have to be a written communication. An advantage of this type of communication would have to be that it would provide ready records and references. Another advantage would be that it is a permanent mean of communication.

A disadvantage would be there would be too much paper work and e-mails involved and written communication does not save upon the costs. Written communication includes writing letters, and handing out notices, this includes reports. One type of written communication is letters; this is a very formal way of communication. Advantages of this would be that they are confidential, and provide a hard copy. Disadvantages of this would be that it takes time to write letters and takes time for them to arrive and for replies to be received. Another type would be a memorandum this type of written communication is a simple note from one person to another. In business it is often written in a formalised way. It will be used when someone wishes to send quick messages to one or more people. Advantages would be that they are very quick to write and send and can also be kept as a record.

Disadvantage would be people that is not intended for and cannot be useful for long or complicated information could read it. Another type is notice; these are used when a message needs to be sent to a number of people. Notices are formal, most times they are informal. They give information about social events. An advantage is that everyone can see the message, and many people can receive it at the same time. A disadvantage would be it is not confidential and most people may not bother to read it. Records are used to give information about something that has been researched or investigated. They are used in different situations. An advantage would be the formal way of presenting reports means that the reader can easily follow the points being made. Disadvantage would be that they take a long time to research and write.

One last type of communication would be electronic communication. This kind of communication could lead to quite a few problems; such as the system could be hacked into therefore important information would be lost this would be a disadvantage. There are advantages of this kind of communication they are simple to use and more and more people are beginning to use the e-mailing system etc. E-mails are the process of using computer networks as a postal system. Data is created on one computer and then is transmitted. An advantage is it can be used to send a wide variety of types of message. A disadvantage is that the sender and receiver must have computers and software that is compatible. Public address is a system that uses microphones and electronically systems to warn about fires. An advantage would be staff could usually hear the message wherever they are in the building. A disadvantage is that if they are used to often staff will stop paying attention.

Telephones have been used in business for internal communication. An advantage of this would be that the communication is very quick and telephones allow people to talk to each other. A disadvantage of this would be there is no written record, although telephone conversation can be record. Another disadvantage would be cost of mobile phones are very high. Fax machine converts pictures and text into electronic pulses which are then transmitted by telephone to another fax machine. Fax machines are less popular because emails can be used instead. An advantage of this would be communication is quick and documents can be sent and received. A disadvantage is it is slower compared to emails. Tele-conferencing is when large business operates on different sites around the country. It’s difficult to get together so they make video calls; this allows them to talk to each other. An advantage would be its much quicker and usually cheaper than bringing people together. An disadvantage would be that these systems are expensive to set up, meeting are more difficult to control because people are in different places.

Sampling methods

Sampling methods are classified as either probability or nonprobability. In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In nonprobability sampling, members are selected from the population in some non random manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In nonprobability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown.Stratified sampling techniques are generally used when the population is heterogeneous, or dissimilar, where certain homogeneous, or similar, sub-populations can be isolated (strata). Simple random sampling is most appropriate when the entire population from which the sample is taken is homogeneous. Some reasons for using stratified sampling over simple random sampling are:

a) the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced;

b) estimates of the population parameters may be wanted for each sub-population;

c) increased accuracy at given cost.

Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Introduction
The study of Research Methods has become both a more important and significant part of sport in recent years and there has been a rapid growth in interest in the theoretical side of Sport and Exercise. In this assignment I will be talking about the key issues in Research Methods for Sport and Exercise Sciences and focusing on two aspects in particular – Qualitative and Quantitative research. I will be giving examples and opinions of these methods and pointing out advantages and disadvantages backed up by references. Finally I will conclude, comparing the two and giving my opinion on which method of research is more superior. Task 1:

Description of Quantitative Research.
“Quantitative research involves either trying to discover a relationship or testing a hypothesis and is generally deductive research (this means that a scientist would start at a hypothesis and then begin observations to prove it). It is designed to establish differences, relationships or causality.” This type of research is both formal, factual and a systematic process in which numerical data is used to obtain information and is not influenced by emotions or personal prejudices. I feel this can also be described as using data and statistics to form an opinion. In line with the scenario outlined in this assignment, we know that research is a collection and analysis of data. An Example of Quantitative Research I am including in this report is that number of training sessions can or cannot determine an athlete’s performance.

An example of where this is evident is when detraining the aerobic system in a runner, the participants level of VO2max (the maximal oxygen uptake or the maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized) decreases. Recent studies show that there is little reduction in VO2max for the first ten days following inactivity in high performance athletes. It is cautiously mentioned that all of these guidelines assume the runner is a high performer, training consistently across a 4 – 6 month period of time. Beginner runners will lose fitness at a slightly faster rate as they have a smaller base of fitness. After two weeks of not running, studies prove that runners VO2max decreases by 6%. After 9 weeks VO2max drops by 19% and after 11 weeks of no running, studies show that VO2 max of an athlete falls by 25.7% from peak physical fitness. These statistics were obtained using gaseous analysis where an athlete would be monitored on the development of their aerobic endurance and to find an estimate of their VO2max. This type of quantitative research allows us to asses a runner’s fitness with numerical data at the end and is therefore factual and not opinion formulated.

Advantages of Quantitative Research
I believe an advantageous aspect of quantitative research is that it is based on facts and is therefore indisputable. Such like ‘the minimum weight for a flat jockey is 50.8kg’. Similarly a jump jockey needs to be a weight of 63.5kg, another example of a factual, quantitative statistic. Another reason why quantitative research is beneficial in Sport and Exercise Science is that it allows an approach which cannot be determined or interpreted, by opinions or feelings, it is simply factual…’data talks’. Other positive factors are that it can generalise a research finding meaning differences are not considered, also the research conducts environment and situation and data analysis is less time consuming. Disadvantages of Quantitative Research

A disadvantage in my opinion regarding this method of research is that it is too data driven and doesn’t account for emotion and the one emotion in particular that I feel can determine a stat or piece of numerical data and that is passion! It also overlooks factors such as, motivation, others understanding, emotion, also knowledge produce may be too abstract or influenced by environment or situation. Finally a significant point is that data analysis error may occur and give an inaccurate, unreliable or invalid conclusion

Description of Qualitative Research
“Quantitative Research is a subjective form of research that tries to explain differences, relationships or causality using non numerical data such as words” This type of research is based on personal opinion and experience, its aim is to explain differences, links, or something being caused and is a more social form of research, using techniques such as interviews, therefore concluding with non-numerical findings. Example of Qualitative Research

I think that qualitative research is useful for discovering many things, including a commonly asked question – Why do people participate in sport? When it comes to sport participation, interviewing is the best technique to gather information. The interview allows the researcher to probe into the reasons why people participate and enjoy some sports and not others.

An example to demonstrate this is that an interview with Spanish number 1 Rafael Nadal allowed a researcher to find out why Nadal decided to start playing tennis at such a young age. He quoted “I chose tennis because it was introduced to me by my uncle Toni, and from the first time I held a racket I knew that I needed nothing else” it is interviews with people like this whose words allow us to realise the emotions behind his choice of sport and looks at another aspect away from his stats. we now know that his success is party behavioural and that his passion and motivation is what drives his capabilities. This has led him to a very successful career. Advantages of Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is very useful for in depth study, meaning a researcher can go into further detail about an athlete or topic, it is also useful for describing complex phenomena. The data collected is usually conducted in a natural setting, away from a lab so results aren’t too data driven and are more in the words of the participant. Disadvantages of Qualitative Research

Despite many positives, qualitative research is very specific to the person being studied or observed. It also has lower credibility as it is not factual and results could be easily influenced or even biased, due to premeditated answers

Bibliography
www.moodle.hartpury.ac.uk
www.skysports.com
www.theguardian.com
www.sportsblog.com
www.bbcsport.com

Methods of Assessing Intelligence

Influences on assessment:
(Complex and far-reaching collection of procedures and practices reflect the influence of a number of disciplines and points of view)
* Ethical obligations
* Federal laws
* Multiple tests
* Multiple levels of assessment
* Professional standards
* Contributions from other disciplinesdisciplines

+ Encompasses contributions from many disciplines including psychology, medicine and educational measurement + It has also been shaped by federal laws and court decisions
+ Evaluates language and cultural differences as an integral part of the assessment process and attempts to minimize racial and cultural bias in measuring learning ability
+ Ethical obligations and professional standards are considered.

Types of Assessments:
Intelligence Testing – Measure intelligence – IQ; the concept of the mental age as a way of reporting a test result. – Identify children who would benefit from educational instruction. – Intelligence tests focus on mental abilities.

– Achivement tests focus on academic abilities.Assessing Large Groups- Testing groups of children – norm ” Proficiency tests, entrance tests, achievement tests”Assessing Adaptive Behaviors* Adaptive behavior is the ability to adapt to the environment by developing independent personal and social behavior and by adjusting to changes in the environment. – Focuses on functional and practical abilities such as communication, activities of daily living and social interaction.Assessing Developmental Skills- Developmental patterns of young children – predictable sequence skills development and learning. – Measures – motor, language and communication, personal-social,cognitive and adaptive skills.Individual Diagnosis and Prescription* Diagnosing disabilities that may cause mental retardation, physical handicaps and health impairments. – Important aspect in SPED – resembles the procedures that physicians follow in diagnosing and treating medical conditions. * Observe symptoms

* Conducts tests to diagnose the cause
* Writes a prescription for treatment – IEPIndividual Achievement Testing* Individualized yet standardized – Tools are used to assess learning needs of individual students and for developing specific teaching and intervention activities – Provide specific data and information for diagnosing remediation needs and for prescribing explicit intervention.Behavioral Assessment# Assessing student performance over time using direct observation and continuous data collection – in a structured and systematic manner. – Evaluation techniques are based on behavioral principles.

# More realistic, practical measure.
# Use of audio- or video-tapes.Curriculum – based Assessment- Measures performance based on progress in the school curriculum. – Relies on teacher-made tests, class work, homework assignments and teacher impressions to formulate assessment decisions. – Offer high accuracy and validity.

– Used to make instructional decisions.
– Evaluate student performance in direct relation to what has been taught – provides direct link between evaluation and instruction.

Measurement

+ Refers to the process of determining the ability or performance level of students.

+ Types – testing, observing behavior, conducting interviews, completing rating scales, filling out checklists, performing clinical evaluations.

+ Purpose is to produce objective information such as numbers, scores or other quantitative data.

Importance of assessment:

= Identifying a student’s learning problems or difficulties. = To gain essential information about the child – conditions, abilities, interests and problems. = Required or mandated by the law; required by some schools for curriculum planning. = Selecting intervention strategies that respond to specific problems. = Essential in developing IEPs.

Statistical methods in medical research

It is a well known fact that statistics can be misleading. They are often used to prove a point and an easily be twisted in favor of that point. Statistics, graphics and database are used in medical field to approve, prove or disapprove theories, analysis and interpretation of ailments, medications and its impact and treatment and its effectiveness. As noted by Nursing Research (2011)/ “Health Information is very often explained in statistical terms for making it concise and understandable (Basic Statistical Concepts, 2011, para.1). Statistics play a large role in research and just like anything statistical data can be misrepresented. Data can be misguiding if the sampling is not done properly.

The misrepresentation of data can occur unintentionally as a result of human error or intentionally through bias misleading. (Graphical Misrepresentation, 2006) Unintentional misrepresentation can occur through bad sampling which is usually conclusive of sampling a small group in order to represent characteristics of a larger group or population. (Basics Statistical Concepts, 2011). One thing that can easily cause misrepresentation in data is the difference between association and causation—although “variables may be affected by a knowledge of another, does not mean that one variable causes another (Armitage, Berry, & Matthews, 2008). For example this may be seen in the last presidential elections. If 100 people in Indiana were asked who they were going to vote for during the past presidential election and the majority (60%) said Romney, this data could be turned around to represent the nation saying that 60% of the people plan to vote for Romney when inevitably we learned that Obama took the win.

Question 2
What are the characteristics of a population for which it would be appropriate to use mean/median/mode? When would the characteristics of a population make them inappropriate to use? Answer:
The mean is the arithmetic average of all numbers; the sum of all values divided by the total number of values. The median is the middle value in a set of numbers arranged in order of magnitude. The mode is the value that
occurs most often. Appropriateness of each measure:

1.Arithmetic mean is used when –

In depth study of the variable is needed
The variable is continuous and additive in nature
The data are in the interval or ratio scale
When the distribution is symmetrical

2. Median is used when –

The variable is discrete
There exists abnormal values
The distribution is skewed
The extreme values are missing
The characteristics studied are qualitative
The data are on the ordinal scale

3. Mode is used when –

The variable is discrete
There exists abnormal values
The distribution is skewed
The extreme values are missing
The characteristics studied are qualitative

Inappropriateness of each measure:

1. Mean-

It is inappropriate to use the mean to summarize nominal and ordinal data. If the distribution is skewed or has some outliers, the mean will be distorted.

2. Median-

It is inappropriate to use the median to summarize nominal data.

3. Mode-

The mode may not exist.

References
Armitage, P., Berry, G, & Matthews, S. ( 2008, April). Statistical methods in medical research. John Wiley & Sons. Graphic Misrepresentation (2006)
Nursing Research (2011). Basic Statistical Concept (2011).

Methods of Research

1. Define research in the light of the growing need for its conduct, exposition, and application. (5 points) Research is an process to collect and analyze information to increase our topic understanding for problem,it has three steps: pose a question,collect data and present an answer to the question. Research is an process to collect and analyze information to increase our topic understanding for problem,it has three steps: pose a question,collect data and present an answer to the question.

2. Explain the need for the discussion of the sampling technique. (5 points) Sampling technique is necessary in order to avoid bias in impact research assessment.many evluations and even research projects commonly suffer from a number of biases which reduce investigation to improve data. Sampling technique is necessary in order to avoid bias in impact research assessment.many evluations and even research projects commonly suffer from a number of biases which reduce investigation to improve data.

3. Differentiate the following with not more than 50 words per item (6 points each): a. Theoretical framework and conceptual framework;

A conceptual framework occurs when a researcher links concepts from literature to establish evidence to support the need for the research question. If somebody else has already linked these concepts with valid research, they made a theoretical framework which can be used as a “ready made map” for other scientists to guide their own research questions. A conceptual framework occurs when a researcher links concepts from literature to establish evidence to support the need for the research question. If somebody else has already linked these concepts with valid research, they made a theoretical framework which can be used as a “ready made map” for other scientists to guide their own research questions.

b. Primary and secondary sources;
Primary source are very close to the origin of a particular topic,issue or situation being written about. Secondary sources are at least one step removed from the described topic,are reports that draw on research and other references to make interpretive,analytical or synthesized claims.and they are best used for representing significant points of view. Primary source are very close to the origin of a particular topic,issue or situation being written about. Secondary sources are at least one step removed from the described topic,are reports that draw on research and other references to make interpretive,analytical or synthesized claims.and they are best used for representing significant points of view.

c. Quantitative and qualitative research;
In quantitative method,the researcher makes some type of comparison and attempts to discover relationships between or among variables. In qualitative method,the researcher is concerned in employing different approaches to discover non-quantitative relationships between or among existing variables.

In quantitative method,the researcher makes some type of comparison and attempts to discover relationships between or among variables. In qualitative method,the researcher is concerned in employing different approaches to discover non-quantitative relationships between or among existing variables.

d. Statistical treatment and statistical tools; and Statistical treatment refers to some collection of methods which is used to process large amounts of data. Statistical tools have a multitude of different way that is available to comparison of data,or sets of data,quantify accuracy or precision,some of them simple,some complicated,and often very specific for certain purposes Statistical treatment refers to some collection of methods which is used to process large amounts of data. Statistical tools have a multitude of different way that is available to comparison of data,or sets of data,quantify accuracy or precision,some of them simple,some complicated,and often very specific for certain purposes

e. Random and non-random sampling;
A simple random sample uses randomization to pick your sample,that can be done in a number of ways. Non-random samples do not use randomization.

In a word,Simple random samples are random samples,but random samples are not necessarity simple random samples. A simple random sample uses randomization to pick your sample,that can be done in a number of ways. Non-random samples do not use randomization.

In a word,Simple random samples are random samples,but random samples are not necessarity simple random samples.

4. How the internal and external criticisms of literatures are done? Explain with clarity and conviction. (10 points) Internal criticism refers to the reliability or accuracy of the information contained in the source,so it’s process involves evaluating the accuracy and worth of state ments contained in a historical document.before start research,researchers must ask these questions in evaluating as follow:1.is it probable that people would act in the way described by the writer? 2.is it physically possible for the events described to have occurred this close together in time. 3.do the budget figures mentioned by the writer seem reasonable.

External criticism refers to the validity,trustworthiness,or authenticity of the source, so it’s process is used to determine whether the apparent or claimed origin of a historical document corresponds with the actual origin, for example does the following items match:1.Author,2.Place,3.Date,4.Circumstances of publication Internal criticism refers to the reliability or accuracy of the information contained in the source,so it’s process involves evaluating the accuracy and worth of state ments contained in a historical document.before start research,researchers must ask these questions in evaluating as follow:1.is it probable that people would act in the way described by the writer? 2.is it physically possible for the events described to have occurred this close together in time. 3.do the budget figures mentioned by the writer seem reasonable.

External criticism refers to the validity,trustworthiness,or authenticity of the source, so it’s process is used to determine whether the apparent or claimed origin of a historical document corresponds with the actual origin, for example does the following items match:1.Author,2.Place,3.Date,4.Circumstances of publication

5. Evaluate Wikipedia as a tertiary source of information. (5 points) The Wikipedia is not a primary source and a secondary source, is an encyclopedia,so it’s main namespace is an encyclopedia. Wikipedia as a tertiary source, because all the summarizes descriptions,interpretations and analyses are summaried on tertiary sources,which is as close as possible to the primary sources on the described topic. The Wikipedia is not a primary source and a secondary source, is an encyclopedia,so it’s main namespace is an encyclopedia. Wikipedia as a tertiary source, because all the summarizes descriptions,interpretations and analyses are summaried on tertiary sources,which is as close as possible to the primary sources on the described topic.

6. Enumerate (in proper sequence) the different parts or components of Chapter 3 (saved at least by JRU standards). – 5 points

1.Research method,descriptive,experimental.

2.Population,sample size and sampling technique,it explains the methods in selecting the sample. 3.Description of the respondents,it describes the respondents

4.The research instrument,for example,survey,questionnaire,test,interview.

5.Validation of the research instrument,the researcher explains how the research instrument used is validated.

6.Data-gathering procedure,for example,asking permission,writing a letter,distributing the questionnaire,and the like.

7.Statistical treatment of data,it makes clear how each datum gathered are explained and interpreted through statistics.

8.Statistical tools,it shows the formulas and sources of the statistics used in the research undertaking.

1.Research method,descriptive,experimental.
2.Population,sample size and sampling technique,it explains the methods in selecting the sample. 3.Description of the respondents,it describes the respondents 4.The research instrument,for example,survey,questionnaire,test,interview. 5.Validation of the research instrument,the researcher explains how the research instrument used is validated. 6.Data-gathering procedure,for example,asking permission,writing a letter,distributing the questionnaire,and the like. 7.Statistical treatment of data,it makes clear how each datum gathered are explained and interpreted through statistics. 8.Statistical tools,it shows the formulas and sources of the statistics used in the research undertaking.

The Process of Contract Formation Explaining the Methods by Which the Courts Decides Whether or Not the Parties Have Reached an Agreement.

To establish whether the parties have formed a contract, the courts begin from examining the elements of offer, acceptance, whether or not there was a consideration or the bargain and the contractual intent to make a binding contract and any other external positive factors. The coincidence of offer and corresponding acceptance results in a contract. In some instances contracts are inferred from the conduct of the parties without a direct offer and a corresponding acceptance. Hence the courts further tries to see if the minds of the offeror and the offeree had actually met (the principle of consensus ad idem) for the contract to be formed. CONTRACT FORMATION

For a contract to be formed there must be an offer from an offeror and a corresponding acceptance by an offeree. An offer was defined in NTHC Limited v Antwi as “an indication in words or by conduct by an offeror that he or she is prepared to be bound by a contract in the terms expressed in the offer if the offeree communicates to the offeror his or her acceptance of those terms”. It can be inferred from the above that for an offer to be valid, it must assume the following characteristics; A.The offer must be clear and not ambiguous and its understanding should be simple. B.It must be definite

C.It must be final
D.And it must not leave any room significant changes in the terms or further negotiations. An offer however can be made to an individual and only that individual or his legal representative can respond to the offer. As seen in Boulton v Jones, another person cannot accept an offer not made to him or her. An offer can be addresses to a group and only that group may accept it. Here again an offer can be made to the whole world or the world at large or to an infinite audience. This is the case in Carlil v Carbolic Smock Ball Company, the case in which the defendant advertised that they would pay 100 pounds to anyone who would contract influenza after using their medical preparation for a fortnight. The plaintiff complied by strictly following
the instructions but later contracted the influenza. She sued for the reward of 100 pounds but the defendant argued that the advertisement was to the whole world and one cannot contract with the whole world. The court held that advert constitutes a general offer and further stated that the contract was made to a limited portion of the public who came to perform the conditions. In establishing the presence of an offer, the court deliberately tries to differentiate offers from invitations to treat. This is so because these two concepts in contract law are very much confusing. An invitation to treat unlike an offer acceptance of which would evolve a contract is rather an offer calling on some target audience to make an offer. The examples of invitation to treat are;

a.Advertisements, (but excluding unilateral advertisements such as reward announcements) b.Auction sales
c.Tender Notices
d.Display of goods in a shop with or price tags
e.Circulation of company price lists
An example of advertisement as an invitation to treat can be seen in Domenyor v Johnson Motors Limited. The defendant a car repairer made an announcement on radio and made public announcement that they had spare parts for repair of vehicles including Peugeot cars. The Plaintiff towed his massively damaged car to the garage of the defendant in June 1980 through his agent with no instructions. Two weeks later the defendant wrote to the plaintiff that work would commence upon his acceptance of the estimates. The plaintiff ignored the notice and in February 1981 he wrote for the release of his car. The defendant demanded 4500 cedis as charges for risk and custody before the release of the vehicle. The plaintiff refused to and sued. It was held that the advertisement in themselves could not constitute a valid binding agreement. In Ghana the law on Auction sales is Auction sales law, 1989 (PNDC Law 230). Section 13 of the Auction Sales Law requires that the goods for auction shall not be perishable or damaged and auctioneer shall give not less than 7 days notice of the auction and also to indicate the venue of the auction. An example can be seen in Harris v Nickerson the plaintiff a broker received a commission to buy a furniture lot advertised in the London papers but the lot was withdrawn without notice, he sued and the courts held
that auction notice is a mere declaration of intent and not a binding contract. Tender notices inviting people to submit their tenders is an invitation to treat. Example is Spencer v Harding in this case the defendant sent out circulars to offer for sale by tender certain goods and gave date, time and venue. The plaintiff contended that the circular constituted an offer to sell to the highest bidder and they had submitted the highest bid. The court held that circular or tender notice is no offer it is a mere proclamation. Another example of invitation to treat is goods on display in a shop. In Fisher v Bell a displayed flick knife in a shop window with the tag Ejector knife 4s. The shop keeper was charged with offering offensive weapon for sale in contravention with the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act. It was held that in contract law, display of goods with a price tag is a mere invitation to treat and not an offer. The issue or circulation of price list or catalogues is another form of invitation to treat. In Grainger & Son v Gough it was held that the transmission of price list by a wine merchant in England did not amount to offer acceptance of which will constitute a binding contract. Having explained the differences between an offer and invitation to treat, it is imperative to consider the various types of offer that exist. The various types of offers are a.General offers

b.Counter offers and
c.Cross offers
A general offer is an offer made to the public at large or to a particular person by way of public notice. An example of a general offer is seen in the Carlil v Carbolic Smoke ball Company. Counter Offer is an offer made to an original offeror when an offeree in purporting to accept an offer introduces new terms by varying, adding or subtracting from the original terms. A counter offer kills the original offer. Butler Machine Tool v Ex-Cell-O Corporation [1979] 1 WLR 401 Ex-Cell-O wished to purchase a machine from Butler. Butler sent out a quotation of £75,535 along with a copy of their standard terms of sale. The terms included a price variation clause and a term that the seller’s terms would prevail over any terms submitted by a purchaser. The machine would be delivered in 10 months. Ex-Cell-O put in an order for the machine at the stated price and sent a set of their terms which did not include the price variation clause. The order contained an
acknowledgement slip which required a signature by Butler and was to be returned to Ex-Cell-O.

This slip stated that the contract would be subject to the terms stated overleaf. Butler duly signed the slip and returned it. The machines were then delivered and Butler sought to enforce the price variation clause and demanded an extra £2,893. Ex-Cell-O refused to pay. The court held that the offer to sell the machine on terms provided by Butler was destroyed by the counter offer made by Ex-Cell-O. Therefore the price variation clause was not part of the contract. The contract was concluded on Ex-Cell-O’s terms since Butler signed the acknowledgement slip accepting those terms.

This concept was also explained in Nsiah v Deegbe & Another. And in Hyde v Wrench on June 6, Wrench wrote to Hyde offering to sell his farm for 1000 pounds, Hyde’s agent called immediately called and made an offer of 950 pounds. On June 27, the defendant wrote to say that he could not accept the counter offer. On June 29, the plaintiff wrote accepting the June 6, offer and the defendant refused. The plaintiff sued for specific performance. The court held that there was no valid contract between the parties. Cross offer on other hand is an offer identical in terms of another which crosses en route in the post. These are two separate offers without a corresponding acceptance of any. ACCEPTANCE

Acceptance is the expression of willingness and readiness of the offeree to be bound by the terms of the offer. The offeree accepts by assenting to the terms of the offer. In Fofie v Zanyoh, three administrators of an estate offered in a letter to sell a building out of the estate to the plaintiff argued that he had accepted the offer and made installment payments. The defendant pleaded that that the installments were rent for an earlier agreement. The Supreme Court held that an acceptance of an offer need to be positive evidence by words, in writing or conduct from which acceptance can be inferred by the court. Communication of Acceptance

For acceptance to be effective, the offeree must communicate it through writing or an overt conduct or expressly in certainty. A case for example is
Fofie v Zanyoh. Postal Acceptance
In postal acceptance the parties are known to negotiating through the post. A contract is formed when the acceptance letter is posted. The contract becomes binding as soon as letter is put in the post box. The decided case is Adams v Lindsell (1818). The court held in this case that a contract is formed the moment the acceptance letter is posted and that it does not matter it is properly addressed or it got missing en route as it was the judgment in Heuthorn v Fraser. It was also not of concern to the offeree if the acceptance letter was destroyed by household fire. This was heard in the case of Afolabi v Polymera Nigeria Limited. Determination of Agreement (consensus ad idem)

The two courts use two main approached to determine if the parties had reached an agreement. The two approaches are; (a.) The traditional or conventional approach and (b.) the flexible approach.

The traditional or conventional approach to Contract Agreement Determination This approach is also referred to as the subjective test. To determine if the agreement had been reached, the court tries to see if the meeting of the minds of the parties had occurred. But it said that even the devil himself does not know the mind of man. In this approach the courts concentrate on the phenomenon of the agreement which are the external signs or appearance or positive acts which are offer and acceptance, consideration and the intent to create legal relations rather than the actual intention of the parties. This approach is formulary or schematic and not flexible. Example is found in Butler Machine Tool Co. v Excel O Corporation.

The Flexible Approach or the Objective Test to Contract Agreement Determination The objective test is of agreement is premised on the judgment of intention from the reasonable meaning of the words. This approach concerns itself with the totality of the contract. It takes into account all the relevant documentations that make up the contract in question rather than the search of external signs. In NTHC Limited v Antwi[2009]SCGLR 117, 125, Professor Darteh Baah decided on the flexible approach. This approach emphasizes that the duty of a judge is to not to seek to discover the
elusive mental state of parties rather to ensure that the reasonable expectations of honest men are not disappointed. In P.Y Atta & Sons ltd v Kingsman Enterprises Ltd. The Supreme Court of Ghana noted that in considering every agreement, the paramount consideration was what the parties themselves intended to be contained in the agreement. The intention should prevail at all times and the rule is that the document should be given its ordinary meaning.

Health Care Communications Methods

Nursing home administrator is a leader in a organization who not only directs its operations but is also responsible for setting the tone for different cultures. (Anthony Cirillo, 2014) The administrator is to make sure that the facility is running smoothly and that all patients and staff members are taken care of their needs. The administrator will be the one to make sure that patients are moved to other facilities, make sure the records are transferred correctly, and to inform the facility that they are being bought by another company. The administrator will also explain to each staff member, family members, and physicians what is going on in full details. The first form of communication when the nursing home administrator finds out what is going to take place is a written notice, this notice is to be sent to all parties that will be involved in the process of closure.

A written notice can either be a good advantage or a bad advantage, it depends on how and who it is sent to. Written notice communication can sometimes confuse people who really do not understand the language of the letter this can cause some people to question the administrator and her work. Communicating by writing is also an advantage when it will be sent to physicians, staff members, and outside agencies, because they will understand what is going on and can respond with the necessary needs. (Michigan Nursing Facility State Closure Team January 2005) When the nursing home administrator finds out the facility is going to another company, the administrator is to inform the staff of what is going to take place with the facility.

The administrator will communicate with them either by email, written notice, or in person. The advantage of communicating with the staff with email is that it’s fast and easier for the staff members to look at while taking care of their patients. Communicating with them by written notice is advantage because the staff will be able to wait until their shift is over to read the notice and ask questions if need be.

The administrator and staff must try to find other facilities that are available to take some of their patients. The administrator must make sure that all records are kept safe under the HIPAA laws while informing other facilities about the patients’ needs and treatments that they are receiving at their facility. Keeping patients records safe and in order will lessen the transfer of patients and help the families to get them settled into their new facility. The advantage of using social media is that facilities can open up communication that can lead to enhanced information discovery and delivery. It can also allow their employees to discuss their ideas, post their thoughts, and ask questions about what they should do. Social media will also target a different type of audience that can help with relocating patients, transferring patients, and the needs of families. (Society for Human Resource Management, 2012)

There are some disadvantages to using social media for this problem and they are it could open up the possibility of hackers getting patients records or staff information. It can also lead to fraud, virus attacks and even overload of spam. Social media disadvantages could also increase the risk of patients and their families falling prey to online scams that could lead to identity theft. Lastly, employee could leave negative comments about the facility, staff members, and even the physicians about the work that goes on in the facility the good and the bad. (Society for Human Resource Management, 2012) There are several reasons that could affect the HIPAA laws and social media about this facility closing. One staff members could be posting on networking sites about patients and accidently say their name or condition, and someone figures out who they are talking about and this could cause patient information to get out.

In addition, some employees could simply be discussing their day or an unusual health care case they saw, and they feel like that is not violating the HIPAA law. When dealing with HIPAA and social media when it comes to patients and the closing of a facility, everyone involved has to be on their toes and not violate the rules. Employers and employees must know how to communicate with social media without releasing any patient names or conditions, and not get into trouble behind the HIPAA rules. If someone breaks the HIPAA laws and they are found to be guilty of the problem, there are sanctions that can be made against that person or persons involved.

These sanctions could range from civil penalties ranging in the minimum amount of $100 per violation, to a maximum of $50,000 per violation of the HIPAA rules. These sanctions are for the facility that is an covered-entity under the HIPAA rules and regulations that they have to follow. (Dimick, 2010) According to Chris Dimick, “All workforce members of this facility are prohibited, with some degree of exceptions, from using or revealing individually recognizable health information (“protected health information,” or PHI) without a written authorization from that individual or family member for whom the PHI pertains to, and any permission must cover very detailed language to meet the terms of HIPAA.”

Reference

Chris Dimick, Privacy Policies for Social Media, JOURNAL OF AHIMA, Jan. 6, 2010, http://journal.ahima.org/2010/01/06/social-media-policies/. Best Practices for Voluntary Nursing Facility Closure, Michigan Nursing Facility State Closure Team, 2005 http://www.shrm.org/templatestools/hrqa/pages/socialnetworkingsitespolicy.aspx#sthash.vs6G9HGL.dpuf

Communication Methods

Drugs are constantly under scrutiny from various organizations. The removal of medication is costly in product and reputation. However, it is important that withdrawal of a drug, which may affect the safety of patient’s withdrawal from the market, is imperative. Usually this prompts unexpected adverse effects that were not detected during clinical trials and apparent from surveillance of the data from the patient community. The scenario outlined involves the removal of medication from the shelves of hospitals, drugstores, and individuals home. It is imperative that communication reaches the masses in a concise and timely manner. The different types of communication are verbal, non-verbal, written and visual. Verbal communication simply involves face-to-face communication with another or group of people or communication over the telephone. For verbal communication, success requires the sender and receiver obtain what is required to make communication effective.

When communicating verbally tone, dialect, and language are important factors (Cheesboro, O’Connor, Rios, 2010). Non-Verbal communication involves communicating without words. Non-Verbal communication ultimately ties in with verbal communication, without even speaking your body language, eye contact, posture, and facial expressions are all communicating. Cultures also exist with non-verbal communication. Cultural difference exist in the way people greet each other, what gestures mean, how far or how close to stand when interacting with someone and so forth (Cheesboro, O’Connor, & Rios 2010). Written communication involves writing letters and emails. Written communication skills are just as important as verbal communication skills. Last, there is visual communication and the portrayal is through some form of visual aid such as; signs, drawings, power points, graphs and many others. When using visual communication verbal and written communication may be involved (Chessbor, O’Connor, & Rios, 2010).

Communication has advantages and disadvantages and traditional communication is still the number one form of communication to use if clarity is a primary factor. Traditional communication usually includes face to face or over the phone. When communicating face to face you always receives the opportunity to interact in a back and forth discussion. The use of non -verbal’s, facials and gestures maybe an advantage to some and a disadvantage to others.
Disadvantages of traditional communication can be that conflict can be more intense and difficult to diffuse. Electronic communication is more prevalent but it still has its pros and cons. Many companies depend on electronic communication because information delivery occurs within different locations. There are also people that travel on their job and have no choice but to communicate through electronics.

Not only is electronic communication fast and convenient it is the source of communication which allows for the responses and flexibility in replying. Despite the many advantages of electronic technology in the workplace, there are potential disadvantages including, the possibility of decreases patient safety, and breach of confidentiality (Broussard 2013). Many caregivers or physicians have mobile devices usually supplied by their organization. The concern with phones at one’s use at all time is the employee focus on sending a text or responding to an email versus delivery the appropriate care to the patient. Confidentiality concerns can come about form a simple phone conversation where names may not be spoken, but enough patient history and information is more than enough details. There is also the use of language. Being precise and complete is necessary when sending any form of electronic message (Cheesboro, O’Connor, & Rios, 2010).

Remembering basic grammar and formatting can go completely wrong. A professional email can become very unprofessional fast especially if the sender fails to review it prior to pressing send. With this concern comes the major issue of decrease in patient safety, possible violation of the HIPPA, patient safety, and breach of confidentiality.. Social media plays a major part in daily life for most people. Many advantages and disadvantages come along with using social media especially in a health care setting. First, the use of social media depends on the organization. Not every health organization is equipped or in need of the use of social media. However, when an organization does choose to use social media advantages can be the use of improved communication. Employees and others can discuss post and view new ideas and plans for the company (Society for Human Resources, 2012). There is an opportunity to gain more clients and reach a wider range of people especially if the organization is worldwide. Marketing opportunities are everywhere on social networks.

Disadvantages can be employees misusing the social network. Potentially results in negative comments from employees about the company or potential legal consequences if employees use these sites to view objectionable, illicit or offensive material (Society for Human Resources 2012). Technology is not perfect and is still prone to malfunctions. There is also the possibility of virus’ or hackers to come about when organizations are using social media. When a health organization uses social media it is important to have basic rules and regulation set in place to help ensure efficiency versus misuse. In the health care world, patient confidentiality is a primary concern. HIPPA is what help to protect patient’s personal medical information.

Electronic and social media communication use in health care communication enforces patient security and adherence to Joint Commission guidelines and rules. Maintaining confidentiality, however, is becoming more difficult. It was easy to ensure the protection of individual privacy when files are in paper folders. It was not a perfect method, but it worked because information is powerful and it must be available for all to review. Information systems and other technology now allow instant retrieval of medical information, along with widening access for a greater number of people (McCall, 2000).

The use of electronic and social media communication will ultimately affect HIPPA, because these forms of technology evolve in the health care world the HIPPA law must also transform and change continuously protect patients (McCall, 2000). The HIPPA law is in place to protect patients and although communicating through social media or any other form of electronics. The use of these forms of communication does put the exposure of private information risks. However, it is important for every health care organization to have their own set of rules and regulations to help prevent exposures.

Each entity engaged in electronic transmission of health information must assess potential risks and vulnerabilities to the individual electronic health data. Organizations must develop, implement, maintain, and document appropriate security measures based on the risk assessment (Peterson 2001). In conclusion, health care and communication go hand in hand. Traditional communication is still at the forefront in health care when it comes to efficient communication. Electronic communication is very convenient and necessary when it comes to many different job types. Lastly, social media helps to market and bring in new ideas to the health care field. Overall, Traditional, Electronic, and social media will continue to play a part in health care communication. As health care evolves communication, as well privacy and security methods must evolve as well.

References

Broussard, B. S., & Broussard, A. B. (2013). Using Electronic Communication Safely in Health Care Settings. Nursing For Women’s Health, 17(1), 59-62. doi:10.1111/1751-486X.12007. Retrieved from http://www.EBSCOhost.com Cheesboro, O’Connor, Rios. (2010) Communicating in the workplace. New York, New York: Pearson Education. McCall, M. (2000). HIPPA regulations:Challenges for perspective leaders. Surgical Services Management, 6(10), 18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/237194292?accountid=458 Petersen, C. (2001). How private is private? HIPPA. SSM, 7(6), 49. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/237195101?accountid=458 Society For Human Resources, 2012. Social Media:What are the advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites? What should we include in a policy? Retrieved from http://www.societforhumanresources.org

Compare and contrast the aims and methods of Trait Theory

Psychologists seek to explain and formulate why people behave differently in everyday common situations and to define individual differences in terms of the knowledge gained and it structure. Personality can be defined as an individual’s characteristic qualities of thought, emotion and behaviour when interacting with their social environment. Traits are ‘relatively enduring ways in which an individual differs from another’ (Butt 2012, p. 46). Eysenck’s trait theory has it origins in the psychometric tradition of measurement; while Kelly’s personal construct theory adopts a phenomenological approach. The aims and methods of both theories will be critically compared and contrasted outlining their theoretical perspectives and the knowledge that each produce. By focusing on individual differences their different methodological approaches will be assessed in terms of their objective and subjective roles, highlighting that each have influential findings but don’t completely give a complete account of all personality phenomena. (Butt, 2012)

Eysenck’s (1953) Trait theory adopts a nomothetic approach that classifies personality dimensions to measure and describe the individual differences of personality. It’s based on the assumption that individuals can be characterised by certain personal attributes or traits that in turn influence behaviour. Descriptions of traits have their foundation in everyday language used to describe human behaviour; trait theory draws on the histrionic usage of traits in vocabulary such as ancient Greek typology. This usage is used to support evidence of, ‘constitutional and biological factors that are indicated through personality traits’ (Butt, 2004). Eysenck used factor analysis to establish cluster traits using questionnaires (Eysenck’s Personality Inventory) proposing that two high order factors could account for the clustering profile obtained, extraversion vs introversion and neuroticism vs stability, he later added and third psychoticism vs superego.

Each factor has second order traits established from ‘factor analytic studies’ (Butt, 2012, p.50) to describe more fully individual characteristics or tendencies. Eysenck believed biology could explain the individual differences of personality, that causal factors at a neurological level in the cortical and autonomic arousal systems influence an individual’s temperament and behaviour. ‘The purpose of personality theory is not to capture the idiosyncratic nature of the individual’ (Butt, 2012, p.47), but used as an indicator of how a person is likely to react in certain situations. Eysenck acknowledges that it’s not only biology that influences behaviour, but our past experiences and learning can also have an influence on current reactions to different stimuli. However trait theorists tend to view personality from a deterministic perspective, as stable and enduring and don’t take into consideration the behavioural and attitude changes that people experience over time (Butt, 2012).

Kelly’s (1955) personal construct theory, which is a form of phenomenology; views personality as idiosyncratic phenomena that can not be measured, as each individual adopts a unique way of making sense of their world. Each person is seen as a composition of personal world views or constructs that are based on unique experiences. Individuals construct others behaviour in terms of their own subjective viewpoint. Kelly proposed we act like scientists, who form theories and assumptions about ourselves, others and the world. By inquiry and testing out the uncertainties of our assumptions we produce further inquiry that is an ongoing lifelong cycle. Based on the cognitive approach, it is these constructs or schemas Kelly theorises that provide the basis of our reactions and behaviour (Butt, 2012).

Both Eysenck and Kelly aimed to produce theories that have a clinical application, Eysenck sought to use his theory for clinical diagnosis in response to discredited psychiatric classifications, while Kelly who practised as a psychotherapist sought to facilitate therapeutic change through learning and self awareness. Eysenck viewed ‘classification as a fundamental part of scientific study’ (Eysenck and Rachman, cited in Butt, 2012, p.48), Kelly placed no importance on the psychometric tradition of assessment; the emphasis of his approach is on ‘recognising the value of examining the unique cognitive constructs of an individual’s world view and the self’ (Butt, 2012. p. 47). Kelly’s emphasis was on self-determination and problem solving rather than the diagnostic standardised dimensions used by trait theories.

Where trait theory seeks to discover societal norms and how we all differ in relation to them, personal construct theory places no importance on making individual comparisons through personality dimensions. Butt (2004) states that ‘trait theory does not account for the richness of personality in the way that personal construct theory can’. Trait theory would propose that behaviour is biologically controlled and therefore consistently predictable, which excludes the potential for change, while personal construct theory views constructs as being flexible and fluid and therefore open to change, even through individuals might actively resist the difficulty of change (Butt, 2012).

Mischel (as cited in Butt, 2012) a student of Kelly’s questioned trait theories deterministic view of behaviour consistency, arguing that behaviour was a diverse phenomenon influenced by social stimuli; that people will behave differently according to the situation they find themselves in. Results from Zimbardo’s (1975) prison experiment would suggest that social situations can exert an influencing effect on behaviour. Skinner (1974), (as cited in Butt, 2012) proposed that traits can not explain behaviour; they only provide a description, not an explanation of behaviour that simply identifies regular patterns of behaviour, or a ‘cycle of redescription’ (Butt, 2004. p.3) Mischel also points out that traits are implicit personality theories based on subjective perceptions of the individual being rated, or a perception of others which will reflect biased prejudices of the sociocultural environment. He highlights a study were observers allocated the same traits to both strangers and those they new well, indicating ‘fundamental attribution error’ (Butt, 2004), which suggests that observers attribute over generalised traits that are not valid. This raises the issue of trait objectivity, by highlighting the subjective nature of evaluation that challenges the concept of trait structure, along with the validity and reliability of factor analysis (Butt, 2012).

It would appear that the objectivity of trait theory comes into question and therefore the methods it employs. The argument of patterns of similarity verses uniqueness and the approaches they adopt either nomothetic (universally general) or idiographic (individually unique) is a relevant area, as individual differences has traditionally set out to identify the universal dimensions of individuals. Eysenck used the nomothetic approach of factor analysis, which correlates clusters of traits that have been established through the use of subjective questionnaires and ratings. He addresses the criticism that factor analysis is prone to unreliable incongruent practitioner results stating that ‘universal agreement and correlation is strong support for his statistical method’ (Eysenck and Stanley, as cited in Butt, 2012, p. 51).

His measurement techniques provide objective data that can be used to draw comparisons across wide populations and provide a structure in which categorical typology can be conducted. However his factor analysis would appear to be used more in marketing and ‘occupational rather than clinical psychology’ (Butt, 2012). Mischel stated ‘that the only thing objective about personality inventories was their administration and scoring’ (Butt, 2004). Alternatively the idiographic data gathered by personal construct theory produces subjective results that can not be generalised and therefore applied to our understanding of traits or people as a whole (Butt, 2012).

Mischel concluded that personality testing only produces self-concepts and personal concepts and more appropriate idiographic measures should be employed like Kelly’s (1955) repertory grid, which helps to assess an individuals personal constructs. The repertory grid was devised by Kelly to elicit how individuals categorise constructs by comparing and contrasting experiences and events, allowing participants to access and assess personal meanings through construing. Individuals construe others behaviour in terms of their own subjective viewpoint. The results produced by repertory grid, can be subjected to factor or cluster analysis but only in terms of the individual meaning rather than a universal interpretation similar to Eysenck’s. Salmon (as cited in, Butt 2012) adopted Kelly’s theories of individual differences and integrates his philosophy and methods into learning in schools. She criticises the ‘market model of education’, which she states ‘delivers packages of knowledge’ that measures and classifies children through tests and examinations, which removes the ‘individuality of the individual’, creating hierarchies of ability.

Like Kelly she argues that learning should be more interactive and intersubjective, that children need to engage in debate in order to formulate and challenge their own implicit constructs. She believed that it is only by the acknowledgment of existing constructs that personal development can occur, through methods such as Kelly’s repertory grid. By adopting personal construct philosophy, she developed the Salmon line, which seeks to draw out the implicit by empowering students to define the idiosyncratic meaning of their personal expectations around academic progress. Salmon believed that the use of these phenomenological methods instead of the generalised preset formats of trait theory, offered access to ‘living material’ of understanding, which encourages learning and change. (Salmon1994, as cited in Butt 2012, p. 59)

Salmon also highlights the hierarchical nature of learning, that educational success is based on the testing and grading students through examinations. From a Kelliyan philosophy, hierarchical structures are unbeneficial; his emphasis is on the understanding of objects rather than labelling or comparison. Hierachical structures raise the issue of power relations that Kelly points to within trait theory and most psychometric methods. As with learning environments, power can be exerted by those who administer measurement tools and how they exert the knowledge that is gained. Trait theory because of its diagnostic emphasis has been criticised due to the pathologising nature of negative diagnosis. Richards (2002) highlights ‘reification where methodology ascribes an unwarranted description to an individual or object’ (p. 254). It could be argued that personal construct methods such as the repertory grid and the Salmon line eliminate the labelling of individuals by traits, by assisting them to identify their own personal constructs and meanings and therefore avoiding power relations (Butt, 2012).

Hollway (2012) highlights the importance of agency-structure dualism when considering experimental methodology. Eysenck’s proposes that traits have their explanations in innate biological factors, which would suggest that agency has little or no influence on behaviour and that social factors are irrelevant, suggesting that personality is fixed. Personal construct theory views this dualism as complimentary, where the individual is viewed in the context of the societal environment in which they are constructed. Kelly proposes that individuals have some degree of agency because structure partly restricts through social construction and therefore have an ability to initiate change.

While individuals can change their social and individual constructs, social structure clearly has an influence on behaviour. Salmon shows through examples of learning and the application of the salmon line, the interaction between agency and structure. She highlighted that ‘knowledge is never neutral it comes with the interests and concerns of a particular siociocultural source’ (Salmon, as cited in Butt, 2012, p. 59), clearly indicating how societal influences impact on the agency of individuals (Butt, 2012).

Both trait theory and personal construct theory seek to gain an understanding and explain why individuals act in terms of individual differences. Eysenck and Rachman’s trait theory adopts a nomothetic approach using psychometric testing to measure personality traits. Kelly’s personal construct theory emphasise the uniqueness of individuals, seeking to understand how individuals construct their subjective world views, based on their own experiences. Using phenomenological methods they produce detailed accounts of individual personalities that avoid comparisons, with an emphasis on interpretation rather than scientific explanation, in contrast to the psychometric tradition which sets out to discover societal norms and use these to explain individual differences (Butt, 2012).

Eysenck outlines personality in terms of dimensions which reflect the underlying biological basis of personality. Personal construct theory recognises the ability for change unlike trait theory and uses idiographic methods such as the repertory grid and the Salmon line to enable chance to occur, through the interaction of personal agency and social structures. Salmon showed how personal construct theory can be implemented into clinical practice, however a complete theory of personality would need to encompass, structure, psychopathology and change, it would appear that both theories have areas of development in both theory building and testing.

References:

Butt, T. (2012). Individual differences In Hollway, W., Lucey, H., Phoenix, A., and Lewis, G. (eds). Social Psychology Matters (p.1-22). Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Butt, T. (2004). Understanding people, Basingstoke and New York, Palgrave MacMillan.

Richards, G. (2002). Putting psychology in its place, Hove, Psychology press.