Autobiography of Annie Dillard as Narrative Writing

In Annie Dillard’s autobiography “The Chase”, she emphasizes and uses great element in her completely different writing methods to make the scenes in the story feel more alive or sensible. The attention of element may be seen along with her intense use of transitions and active descriptions in the actual chase scene. Dillard additionally uses tone and language of the characters to make the story feel more like actual real time events. In the primary paragraph of “The Chase”, the narrator of the story a seven 12 months old lady is informing the audience about the game of soccer.

She says “It was all or nothing” (Dillard 121).

Basically stating that in football you’ve got to offer all your effort and never hesitate in any respect if you want to make the deal with and stop the offense. This do or die angle is reflected later within the story through the chase scene. It can be the climax of the story. Being that a bunch of kids are collectively unsupervised, there may be going to be some bother.

That is precisely what happens next. The kids are all gathered throughout a winter snowy day making snowballs subsequent to a avenue throwing them at passing automobiles.

“Its broad black door opened; a man got out of it working. He didn’t even shut the automotive door.” This type of sudden thrill we can all relate to. Dillard adds even more by putting in the little particulars that make the reader really feel the anger of this man and the sensation of we’re caught by the youngsters that we’ve all felt as a kid is described in that same quote.

By using these particulars within the story the reader can put themselves into the shoes of the characters. Dillard makes use of plenty of lively descriptions that are very actual throughout the chase scene. She makes use of precise street names like Edgerton Avenue, Lloyd Street, Willard and Lang.

This use of precise real names of streets makes the story. The reader can virtually get lost within the chase itself with Dillard’s use of speedy transitions like up, around, under, through, down some, across, smashed. After the chase is over and the youngsters are caught the reader feels drained.

Analysis of Biblical Narrative

The initial response I needed to my narrative Numbers 1:1-16 was that I discovered the narrative fairly strange and I was shocked that I had by no means heard the story before. I thought that it was interesting how onerous God lashed out against Mariam for talking unhealthy about Moses. Overall the story wasn’t extraordinarily strange, however I do think that there was one half that was strange. When Moses requested God to heal Mariam God responded with, “Miriam could be disgraced for seven days if her father had punished her by spitting in her face.

So make her stay exterior the camp for seven days, before coming back” (Numbers 12:14). I thought that was a strange analogy. I don’t understand why God used getting spit in her face by her father to make some extent.

The half that I discovered uncomfortable was additionally the half I discovered unusual. I assume it’s sort of strange to compare a punishment to being spit in one’s face by their father.

I wish to know why this story seems to end so quick and virtually incomplete. It looks like Moses is speaking to God after which all the sudden it is the finish of the narrative. One level within the story that resonated with me was when Mariam was punished for talking bad about Moses. I assume that reveals us not to speak unhealthy about individuals, not just God. This story makes me feel like I am lucky that God does not punish me for every mistake that I make, as a outcome of I would be in a lot of trouble.

I do not necessarily really feel like I join with any of the characters. I feel like they are all very totally different from me. Moses was a prophet, and whereas I am a Christian and I love God, I am not a prophet.

I feel like Mariam was very jealous of Moses despite the actual fact that he did not do anything to get special treatment. I feel like Aaron needed to be a undergo for Mariam. Because each of the characters appear to be very extreme in a method or another, I don’t really feel like I join with them. I have no idea exactly what the meaning of the story was, however I am going to try and connect the dots and guess. I assume that the purpose of the story was to show people not to be jealous. I assume it was additionally attempting to explain that if we are jealous of God or any of his followers it’s a sin. I also imagine that the story is meant to point out how much punishment we deserve for jealousy.

After taking Biblical Scriptures I, I feel as if I can perceive this story more. When I learn the story extra early within the class, I took every little thing very literally. For example, when God compares the disrespect of Mariam to being spit in her eye by her father, whereas that will not be something that would occur within the 21st century, God is comparing how defeating and awful it would be to have that happen. God can also be explaining how much of a punishment that might be. Another instance of what I learn completely different this time was towards the end of the story. In Numbers 12:thirteen God provides Mariam leprosy. Originally, I was not very sure what leprosy was. After taking Biblical Scriptures I, I now understand how leprosy was such a large problem in Biblical times. Reading the narrative of Numbers 12 has been enlightening, however I began to grasp it extra because the semester went on.

There is a large amount of background data on this narrative. We know that Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible. Given that Numbers is the fourth guide, we are in a position to purpose that Moses wrote the guide. Another instance of how we are aware that Moses is the writer of the Narrative from Numbers 12:1-16 is how Moses is spoke of so highly. According to Budd within the 1984 World Biblical Commentary, in Numbers 12:three it is written “Now Moses was in fact very humble, more so than all men who have been on the face of the Earth.”. This passage in a means shows Moses showing off somewhat bit. Moses appears to virtually be flexing in his writing and bragging by saying that he was the humblest particular person on the face of the Earth. This is plausible as a result of people usually are not good and are boastful, identical to Moses was being by tagging himself because the humblest.

Numbers 12 is a half of the fourth e-book of the Bible. Obviously, that makes it part of the Old Testament. We can see this through God having prophets. God uses Moses as a “Faithful servant” to which he provides clear information about the Lord and his authority that is as a lot as Moses to disperse (Bellinger, 2001, P.225). During the studying of three commentaries, it was tough to search out an exact date, but through some online analysis, it became apparent that the date of this narrative being written was somewhere around 1440 and 1400 B.C. (GotQuestions.org). Along with when the narrative was written it is necessary to perceive who the original audience of the narrative was. From my analysis, I imagine the narrative of Numbers 12 was written for people who talk negatively in regards to the Lord God and challenge his authority. This is obvious as a end result of Mariam was responsible of challenging authority and he or she was given leprosy and turned white from it (Riggans, 1983, P.103). God uses Numbers 12 to assist people not disrespect others, but most significantly not disrespect God or problem his choices.

In Numbers 11, the Israelites were in a bunch of about 600,000 individuals. These individuals were wandering in the desert. They had been hungry and wanted food. God informed them that they’d be given a lot meat to eat that they might begin to hate eating meet. Later, a flock of quails had been blown in by the wind. People started to kill and eat these quails. This made God offended. God was not indignant at the individuals for being hungry, as an alternative he was indignant that they’d craving. God then gave all these people a plague and killed many of them. This narrative helps us interpret the passage by understanding where the people have been at of their journey. We know that they are most likely short in relation to emotion and are drained physically.

After Numbers 12, within the next two chapters, we now have a narrative of the Israelites spying and then attempting to take a village “flowing with milk and honey” over. The people in these subsequent two chapters once more defy God and don’t consider in his power. God will get angry with them. It appears as if God is making an attempt to explain that they should belief in him as a outcome of they are caught in a desert and they do not have some other probabilities, but to believe in him. I feel this passage relates to Numbers 12 in the means in which that it explains how we have to trust and consider in God whatever the state of affairs, because with out God we are principally simply individuals wandering a desert.

This narrative is known very well by students. While I consider that not all scholars have the identical belief on it, I assume that it can be used to assist us study. To understand what scholars believe about this narrative we have to look into each aspect of the story.

Starting off with the start of the story, students believe that Moses, Mariam, and Aaron are all together. According to Riggans on web page one hundred and one of the 1983 commentary of Numbers, “The trigger for the Lord’s intervention was given instantly: “Mariam and Aaron spoke in opposition to Moses.””. Riggans also writes about why the Cushite girl Moses married offended so many people. Riggans writes on web page 102 of his commentary that it could have been offensive because of the truth that “she was not a follower of the Lord”. Another principle that’s in place by Riggans is that people were not solely offended by the reality that she was not a follower of God, but they were extra upset with Moses for marrying somebody after his previous spouse Zipporah. This anger or jealousy may be explained by easy “family jealousy” (Budd, 1984, P. 135). Either means, Mariam is upset and jealous of Moses and talks badly behind his again. As we go further by way of the story, we see that Mariam is punished for what she said in regards to the prophet Moses. She contracts leprosy. While Budd believes that the leprosy contracted may have been extra of a tradition that she obtained leprosy, not all students imagine this. In Numbers 12:6-12 God is very angry with Mariam. God used his anger to burst out against Mariam and because of God’s anger and wrath she contracted leprosy (Bellinger, 2001, P. 226).

After Mariam has contracted leprosy she and Aaron are scared and start to regret their choice to talk badly about Moses, and ultimately God. Whenever Aaron sees that Mariam has leprosy, he tries to beg Moses that her situation is removed as a outcome of Aaron and Mariam knew that they had made a poor choice (Bellinger, 2001, P. 226). Aaron was not punished as a end result of she has a bigger role within the story and in contrast to most biblical tales, is the main character (Riggans.1983, P. 104). As the story goes on and Mariam just isn’t acquitted of her disrespect against God and Moses. Instead she is punished. She is kicked out of the camp for seven days. The reasoning behind that is to publicly disgrace and “balance her personal confrontation” (Riggans.1983, P. 104). From every of the texts cited it can be reached that many various takes to the story can be had, however the following message is evident, God nor anybody he prophesizes should ever be disrespected.

The authentic context of this story is fascinating. Originally it might be seen that the Israelites are in exile for 40 years. During this exile they must roam the desert. We can see that the people appear to be shorter tempered and quick to succumb to their senses. This might be due to the tough condition that they needed to endure for therefore long. From Numbers 11 we study that there is a lack of meals and persons are ravenous and wish meat. While in exile Moses desires to assist free the Israelites from Egyptian slavery. This concern is heavy on his heart and he wants to resolve it. The context of this story helps us perceive why persons are making poor decisions not solely in Numbers chapter 12, however chapter eleven and 13 too.

These commentaries were useful, however I suppose they principally furthered my data and stored up my beliefs. Overall the commentaries explained the story in a way that was very comparable to the way we mentioned it in class. For example, in Riggans’ 1983 commentary he explains how Mariam was the only one punished and she mentioned first and since she is necessary. We also mentioned how if a girl is discussed in scripture she is usually a vital a half of the story. An example of how my viewing of the story was changed is in Bellinger’s 2001 commentary, on web page 225 it’s discussed how Mariam being upset with Moses is an example of household jealousy. I by no means although of the narrative in this method until I learn the commentary. Overall these commentaries helped shape my data in more of a detailing way.

Now that I have learn scholarly opinions, I really feel like God is very strict to those individuals. They have been through a lot. While I understand that Mariam sinned by negatively speaking about Moses and God, she was given leprosy. I feel as if that is very harsh given the circumstances that I even have read about in these commentaries. I really feel as if God desires to shape individuals in a really specific means. I feel that I interpret this narrative as God being very strict, now that I have read these commentaries.

The Bible is greater than a e-book of tales. In the Old Testament we are reminded time and time once more how Moses had to undergo by way of so much with his individuals. In the Numbers 12:1-16 narrative, we learn about how Mariam and Aaron sin by speaking badly of Moses and God. This narrative helps us be taught to not speak of others in a bad tongue. We can perceive narratives like this significantly better by reading the work of biblical scholars. From this paper I really have taken that God is strict, but simply, and he is conscious of tips on how to make a point to us as people.

A Trip to the Moon: George Melies Journey Into Narrative Cinema

The picture of a rocket ship flying into the eye of the moon is world well-known, so well-known that the name Georges Méliès is never hooked up to it. Georges Méliès was one of the first cinematographers of the early twentieth century to step beyond the documentaries and “actualités” of the Lumière brothers. Méliès began his entertainment career in the theatre as a stage magician, changing into a master of phantasm and trick. The invention of the cinematograph and the kinetograph opened doors of risk that Méliès couldn’t refuse, and he set about constructing a digicam of his personal.

Though many of his 500 movies have been stand up magic methods, Méliès grew to become well-known for his féerie films of classical fairy tales and but it’s his forays into science fiction that survive him. The comparatively new genre of science fiction completely suited Méliès’s theatricality, allowing him to create elaborate units and costumes to bring his tales to life.

Unfortunately Méliès’s imaginative and prescient was extra superior than technology allowed, forcing him to give you new filming and modifying practices, in addition to solely filming when the sun gave light. The most debated topic on George Méliès, nonetheless, is whether or not or not his work may be considered ‘narrative’; the past 100 years has seen a lot progression within the movie business that it’s difficult to outline this ‘early cinema’ with out being influenced by contemporary movie requirements.

For many the delivery of narrative cinema correlates with the release of D. W. Griffiths Birth of a Nation (1915). Fiction movies released before this time have been extra more doubtless to be categorised inside the ‘cinema of attractions’, a genre Méliès exemplified with his methods and effects. In order to legitimise A Trip to the Moon as a narrative, first you will want to contemplate what is supposed by this. Christian Metz has summarised a quantity of definitions of narrative into 5 standards which I will use as a frame for my evaluation of A Trip to the Moon’s narrativity. Narrative itself has taken on a wide variety of meanings and definitions to particular person critics. Metz’s narrative is comprised of five things: ‘a starting and an ending’ (Metz 17,) temporality (18,) discourse (20,) the moment of ‘unrealization’ (21,) and a selection of occasions (24.) With these criteria I will argue that Georges Méliès’s Le Voyage dans la lune (A Trip to the Moon) does convey a story and how he does it.

It appears that the ‘beginning’ is merely too obvious a place to begin, though it’s even taught in early education that stories must have a beginning, middle, and an end. Méliès’s A Trip to the Moon isn’t any totally different. The film opens with an establishing shot of ‘The Scientific Congress on the Astronomic Club’ (qtd. in Solomon 227), as illustrated by the equipment within the room and astronomical symbols on the scientists’ coats. Once Professor Barbenfouillis enters, the viewer discovers the plan to fly to the moon, and thus the basic plot for the movie is in place. Then, based on Metz, it’s not the middle that’s of curiosity, somewhat the ending, because it ‘opposes [the narrative] to the “real” world’ (17). Méliès’s A Trip to the Moon unintentionally had not one however two endings; one of many many well-liked copies of the film that circulated within the early twentieth century had five of the thirty tableaux lacking, with the voyage ending triumphantly when the rocket returned to port. The men have returned from the moon, the mission is full and so the narrative ends satisfactorily. The authentic ending, however, has Professor Barbenfouillis and his men celebrated with parades and honours, in what Gunning believes to be the satirizing of ‘Western imperial ambition,’ (Gunning, Trip 74) in opposition to the Selenites. The finality of the film is invoked by the substitute of Méliès’s Barbenfouillis with a statue, suggesting that now the Professor is immortalised, unmoving in a statue, so too has narrative time ceased to move.

The second narrative criterion, briefly mentioned above, is temporality which ‘invites us to think about that one of the features of narrative is to invent one time scheme in terms of one other time scheme.’ (Metz 18) A Trip to the Moon illustrates to fashionable audiences many instances of temporal change though modern audiences might not have known that it takes longer than 16 seconds to land on the moon—the first time at least. The most notable temporal distortion for a recent viewers would have been when the scientists fall asleep. These valuable forty seconds have been described as ‘narrative useless time’ (Gunning, Trip 71.) Méliès must have agreed as he used it to exhibit his enhancing expertise, cross-cutting alternating syntagma together to be able to show the celestial beings above the sleeping scientists (Ezra forty five.) Méliès was typically seen to create films in the identical means he would create stage reveals – it was no coincidence that his movie studio mirrored his theatre, the Robert Houdin. Gerald Prince argues that theatre ‘does not constitute a story […] since these occasions, rather than being recounted, occur directly on stage.’ Though Prince’s argument has benefit in this context, I would argue that Méliès’s role as auteur, with control over the editing and framing of the movie, not solely disproves Prince’s application of this argument to film, but in addition the various critics that consider he is too theatrical. Though I argue Méliès made selections to create a narrative in his work, some selections had been out of his management once the movie was distributed: A Trip to the Moon was marketed as fourteen frames per second, and that is what Méliès would have planned for, some exhibitors, however, played the reel faster (at twenty four frames per second, for example) in order to play extra films in the same slot, distorting the temporality even further. Méliès has obtained the most criticism for the double moon landing: ‘this “lack” of temporal continuity in the early (“primitive”) cinema is often condemned’ by critics corresponding to Georges Sadoul who would favor it to be re-edited into the ‘proper’ chronology. André Gaudreault argues that ‘Sadoul once once more forgets that the system of early cinema didn’t “require” the chronological continuity that would later dominate movie practice’ (Gaudreault 116.) Méliès revels within the spectacle, having mentioned himself that the script is of ‘secondary importance’ to his tips (243) and most likely did not need to sacrifice the iconic shot, nor the succeeding shot which advances the plot.

In discussions on narrative the term discourse inevitably comes up as the two are sometimes assumed to be interchangeable. As Metz says, ‘a discourse must essentially be made by someone’ (20) as it is merely the way that you simply ‘tell’ a narrative. Gerald Prince, as quoted in Porter Abbott, notes the opposition inside the tutorial group; many scholars consider that ‘a narrative requires a narrator,’ and so disregard films and plays that ‘rely instead on appearing and different parts to speak the story […] But for a lot of different students requiring a narrator is a unnecessary constraint. For them, the narrator is certainly one of a variety of instruments – amongst them actors and cameras that can be used within the narrative process of representing events.’ (qtd. in Abbott 15) This inadvertently illustrates why it is so difficult to categorise Méliès’s work as narrative or not. In ready to take a glance at how the story is advised, we should look at where that story comes from within the first place. In a letter to Jean Acme LeRoy, a fellow cinematographer and household friend, Méliès claims ‘The concept of “Trip to the Moon” came to me from the guide of Jules Verne’ (qtd. Solomon, 233) though the tale was also impressed by H.G. Wells, an Offenbach operetta, and even a Coney Island attraction titled “A Trip to the Moon” (Gunning, Trip 73). Méliès’s A Trip to the Moon then becomes a work of adaptation as well as a work of creation. Méliès would have had to perform his own sequence of narrative sense-making upon these texts. In doing so he has made his own decisions as regards the story and the discourse, manipulating the narrativity of the piece, its temporality, including or rejecting occasions in the story and so forth before he even made it in entrance of the digicam and despite his declare to put little significance on the story.

Abbott agrees with Prince that ‘the story is all the time mediated – by a voice, a mode of writing, camera angles, actors’ interpretations’ (Abbott 20) so Méliès had extra duty than he credits himself for. It is noted above how non-narrated films needed to ‘rely as an alternative on performing and other elements’ and so that is exactly what Méliès did. His lavish handmade units, costumes and his appearing were, necessarily, pantomime-like in their hyperbole, notably as they needed to stand out towards a monochrome backdrop. Ezra utilises Metz’s time period ‘explanatory insert’ to describe the oversized props Méliès makes use of to draw consideration to objects which may in any other case be troublesome to notice,’ (39) such as the scientists’ telescopes and medals the dimensions of dinner plates. This can also be done in reverse by inserting the scientists on rooftops ‘above which they tower like giants’ (Gunning, Trip seventy two.) It is unimaginable to grasp how Méliès created his discourse without considering his skill with the digicam. Méliès is often critiqued for his lack of ingenuity, with critics arguing that there can be no narrative without the character development you gain from shut ups and adjustments in shot. When Méliès was producing films he was restricted by ‘a static digital camera […] forcing Méliès to create motion in shots by different means, including utilizing movable sets, pulleys and cranes, and trap doorways.’ (Ezra 26) In this case Méliès’s expertise working in theatre allowed him to break the boundaries placed upon him by the know-how and but it nonetheless does not live as much as the expectations – narrative or in any other case – of recent movie critics. Méliès himself factors out: ‘We should attempt to not topic cinema, as is advocated right now, to a single formulation, […] oblige filmmakers to forged all their works in the same mould [sic], and we suppress in them the originality’ (qtd. in Solomon 241.) Modern movie critics continue to do that with Noel Burch’s coined term, the Institutional Mode of Representation, ‘a idea of cinematic narrative that did not exist on the flip of the century.’ Early film makers ‘told stories using a different, extra flexible type of narrative’ (Gaudreault 112), including performing magic methods on display. Méliès was an professional magician on stage and soon grew to become an skilled on display screen; throughout A Trip to the Moon we see telescopes flip to stools, umbrellas turn to mushrooms and Selenites disappear in puffs of smoke. It may be very simple to dismiss this as ‘simple’ as a end result of ‘his cuts juxtapose two “shots” with the identical framing’ (Gaudreault 117) but Gaudreault continues: ‘this type of operation led Méliès to assume about and solve the basic problems of match slicing […] in fact, Méliès was one of many first to think about the cinema in terms of cuts!’ (117-8) Méliès is unlucky that his modifying methods are being overshadowed by the narrative and strategies of modern film, rather than being appreciated for revolutionising cinematography.

Metz’s fourth criterion for categorising a narrative is the second of ‘unrealization’ because ‘the perception of the narrative as real, that is, as being actually a story, must lead to rendering the recited object unreal.’ (Metz 21) Méliès was accustomed to performing in a theatre, where the audience would arrive already expecting their second of ‘unrealization’. In the early days of the cinema audiences did not know what to expect; for audiences used to seeing the ‘actualités’ of the Lumière brothers, creating this second of ‘unrealization’ would have been all the extra important. This is why, as John Frazer notes, ‘when the actors in A Trip to the Moon bow and acknowledge the audience, it isn’t, as has typically been advised, merely a naïve misunderstanding of the excellence between stage and display screen. It is an explicit recognition and respect for the viewers accustomed to the conventions of the favored stage.’ (Frazer 99) Méliès enjoyed the spectacle, but just like in the theatre he wanted to create a ‘relationship between spectators and the display primarily based on the popularity of the cinematic phantasm.’ (Gaudreault 113) The primary understanding of narrative and discourse is that narrative is a collection of occasions, and discourse is how those events are advised. Metz’s final description of a narrative is a ‘sum of events’ (24). In truth, without events there would be nothing to create a discourse on, with no narration or temporality. A Trip to the Moon has no lack of occasions to select from. Despite having 30 tableaux listed within the distribution catalog of Warwick Trading Company many of those, similar to ‘In the Interior of the Moon. The Giant Mushroom Grotto’ (qtd. in Solomon 228) are a half of the discourse rather than specific events. These tableaux link collectively multiple events and occasions corresponding to landing on the moon and being captured by the Selenites are essential to remodel these tableaux into a narrative and there we see Metz’s record of criteria come to an finish.

Christian Metz’s list of criteria is suitable for assessing the presence of fundamental narrative inside A Trip to the Moon yet there are options of movie that do not sit completely inside this construction, notably aspects of early film. Narrative theory is deeply rooted in the literary sphere, encompassing novels, performs, poetry and extra. The majority of criticism due to this fact relies on the written – or spoken – word. Film, as a comparatively new medium, is rarely thought of with the identical standards. This is difficult further by the very fact film was silent till the late Nineteen Twenties, years after Star Films ceased production; traditional narrative theory, then, was solely applicable to intertiles – which Méliès notoriously refused to make use of – and the script of the distributors. As H. Porter Abbott claims in The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative with regards to theatre, a lack of narrator is commonly compensated when ‘people on stage or in films talk, and as they talk we learn about occasions in which they are concerned and which extend method beyond the boundaries of what we see on stage’ (18). In a movie with no phrases or sound, then, the shortage of narrator must be changed in other methods. This is perhaps the place Méliès illustrates his indifference to the narrative he’s creating; he didn’t provide a script with the film, nor a score, thus giving a small quantity of narrative control to the distributors themselves. This does not void the narrative Méliès has already created although it does create, as Gerard Genette coined, a ‘paratext’, providing a different discourse at each alteration. Méliès’s theatricality proves important to this, when so much of the narrative sense-making is placed upon the viewer to make inferences primarily based on what they see. Contrary to Porter Abbott, setting is crucial to the narrativity of a bit; the virtually mythical ‘storyworld’ of Méliès’s moon allows the audience to make sense of the text because it legitimises occasions which would be unbelievable when faraway from this formulated location. Tom Gunning, for example, criticises Méliès’s preferment of a ‘burlesque’ rocket launch over ‘Verne’s detailed discussion of ballistics.’ (Gunning, Non-Continuity 71) As a contemporary audience we will agree with Gunning to some extent as we’ve the data of real rocket launches to make comparison. Méliès’s audience, nonetheless, would not have had this body of reference. Authorial decisions like this, are one of the many indicators of the presence of narrative, as Charles Musser argues ‘the action in these scenes lampoons certain kinds of public rituals (such as ship launchings) in methods that cannot be totally appreciated if the intimate interrelationship between attraction and narrative action isn’t acknowledged,’ (Musser 395.)

Thanks to Christian Metz’s categorisation of a story, I have been able to illustrate the narrative practices that can be found all through Georges Méliès’s A Trip to the Moon as properly as extra particulars that illustrate a narrative. It is simple that Méliès has had a profound effect on the film business, by successfully introducing the thought of a fiction film into such a younger trade and creating it to such a excessive quality. As Ezra says, ‘Méliès was capable of tell stories within a single scene that most other// film-makers needed dozens or hundreds to tell. Yet, as we have seen, the narrative element of his work has usually been overlooked.’ (33-34) Though many critics strongly assert the secondary nature of the narrative to the tips and points of interest, that acknowledges that a story exists, one which I believe is severely undervalued. Gunning and Musser on a number of events reach the conclusion that it may be impossible to truly separate the ‘trickality’ and narrativity of a bit, as if they’re mutually unique; I argue that this is entirely pointless and in reality damaging to Méliès’s legacy. For while it may be that the methods and sights ‘are what the audience has come to see’ (Gunning, Trip 72), Gunning additionally begrudgingly factors out that to a contemporary audience the ‘window dressing of plot may have seemed like a compelling narrative.’ (74) In an age of great discovery, exploration and innovation, I consider that Méliès has created a thoroughly partaking narrative that, although punctuated heavily by marvellous tips of enhancing, has primarily fallen sufferer to the applying of modern film principle on a ‘primitive’, ‘premodern’ film.

A Thousand Splendid Suns Narrative Strategies

A Thousand Splendid Suns the reader would think it’s a contented novel, nevertheless there’s nothing notably “splendid” one would assume in regards to the novel. From the very beginning of the novel the author, Khaled Hosseini inserts hints and foreshadowing to aware the reader that it is going to be an sad story. This is evident within the following illustration when Mariam breaks the sugar bowl , “It was the last peice that slipped from Mariam’s fingers, that fell to the wooden floorboards of thekolba and shattered” (Hosseini 2).

Hosseini is generating miserable feelings within the novel by introducing phrases ” fell” or “shattered” resembling failure or sin. The reader also will get introduced to the word “Harami” and different phrases, such as “kolba” and “Jinn” that are phrases not recognized by the creator, so the reader must depend on the context to raised understand what the word means. For instance, when Mariam expresses the fear that the “jinn” has returned to her mom, the reader will assume that jinn is something unhealthy.

The use of these terms establishes the setting , but also signifies that some issues can’t be translated remaining a thriller for the reader. In the novel , Hosseini makes the reader live, see and feel by portraying the experiences the characters are going through in the novel, and by writing from a 3rd individual point of view , he broadens the readers capability as a end result of the perspective of the characters is limited, sometimes Mariam, generally Laila, which works to great impact to attach the reader to each characters equally.

A Narrative Report On Outreach Program

In my life I’ve learned that true happiness comes from giving. Helping others alongside the means in which makes you consider who you might be. Being able to help is a privilege for us college students for it teaches us tips on how to turn out to be involved to those who are in want, it helps us to know the spirit of compassion and to share what we now have to and abolish the selfishness hidden deep inside us. As a part of the NSTP Class’ annual activity, we conducted a Post-Christmas Party and Outreach Program at Lupang Pangako, Tortugas, Balanga City final January 17, 2015.

Simple program was organized by responsible college students of BSA Class. We brought prizes and candies and we organized video games for the kids to enjoy. We additionally prepared snacks for them. Aside from that, we gave them books, used clothes, and toys that we gathered from our class. We labored as one for the success of the activity. The program began with a prayer, asking for God’s presence within the said event.

This was led by the category president of BSA-1A, Ms. Shaina Capistrano, who also served as the master of ceremony of the program along with her associate, Ms. Ruffa Mae Capili. It is followed by a welcome remarks from our accountable and energetic NSTP Class Professor Mr. Isagani Lopez. He opened this system and thank everybody for a job properly accomplished. Right after the opening message of Sir Gani, an inspirational message was delivered by the NSTP Class Treasurer, Ms. Kryz Samson. Parlor video games prepared by the students had been loved by the youngsters of the neighborhood and prizes got to the winners after each games.

At precisely 12:00 midday, everyone enjoyed the snacks prepared by the scholars after which continue the enjoyable.

Used clothes and toys packed by the class got to the community before the program ends. Mr. Lester Espiritu, the NSTP Class Vice President, and Ms. Danielle Audrey Basilio, BSA-1A student, who are in control of the over-all preparation, delivered their closing remarks and thanksgiving message to everybody. At 2:00 within the afternoon, everybody wears an enormous smile in their faces as they go residence with their items from us. We are very happy and looking forward for an additional gift-giving activity within the close to future.

After the outreach program, I’ve realized that individuals can seek for their happiness, however me, I didn’t search it, I just get pleasure from what I am doing and that provides happiness to me. This exercise also thought me plenty of good things; contentment with what I even have, take care of the individuals around me, and this makes me realize the importance of a good friend in ups and downs of life. This also gives me the concept that even the little stuff you do for others have great influence in their lives.

A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson

On June 20, 1675, Metacomet, also understood as Philip by the early American colonist, led a collection of attacks on colonial settlements that lasted for greater than a yr. These assaults ended up being referred to as “King Philips War.” It was a determined effort by the Belonging to maintain up their land as their tradition and sources diminished prior to them. Mary Rowlandson, a well-liked victim of those Indian attacks, states her eleven-week captivity in her released e-book, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson. The guide explains her expertise as a slave of the Wampanoags in great detail, and combines high journey, heroism, and exemplary piety, that made it a well-liked piece within the seventeenth century. Throughout the narrative Mary Rowlandson portrays her abilities as a author with the delineation of her character.

In her captivity, Mary Rowland understands that life is short and completely nothing is explicit. The typical style of unpredictability teaches Rowlandson that she shall be able to take completely nothing for grated.

In a single day the seeming stability of life disappears with out cautioning as represented within the opening scene when the city of Lancaster is burned down and she or he is separated from her two older youngsters. Rowlandson transitions from a companion of a rich minister with three youngsters to a captive prisoner with a single injured daughter in one day. Another circumstances of unpredictability is between The Twelfth Get rid of, where she is approved by her grasp to be provided to her different half, nevertheless the subsequent day in The Thirteenth Remove she writes, “rather of going in direction of the Bay, which was that I most well-liked, I want to choose on them five or six miles down the river into the magnificent thicket of brush; the place we abode practically a fortnight (271 ).

In addition to the unpredictability nothing in her captivity corresponded both. One day the Indians treat her respectfully, while the following day they offer her no food. This inconsistency could be seen between The Eighth Eliminate and The Ninth Get rid of. In The Eighth Eliminate, Rowlandson is requested to make completely different garments in return for a shilling and numerous varieties foods; however, in The Ninth Eliminate, Rowland was asked to make a shirt, but receives completely nothing in return (267-268). The disparity comes from the unsure future, which vegetation concern in Rowlandson’s character. The solely mild she will be in a position to see in her darkish captivity is the sunshine of her God.

As a Puritan, Rowlandson believes that God’s will shapes the occasions in her life, and that every occasion serves a function. The widespread Puritan belief that people don’t have any alternative, but to accept God’s will and make sense of it is portrayed throughout her narrative. This belief in God produces values of fortitude and dedication Rowlandson makes use of to outlive the eleven-week captivity. This is can be seen in The Second Remove as she is about to break down from fatigue and harm, “but the Lord renewed my power nonetheless, and carried me along, that I might see extra of his power (260).”

Rowlandson usually creates parallels between her personal situation and biblical verses in regards to the Israelites because the Puritans thought they were the descendants of the Israelites in the new world. This is portrayed in the closing scene when Rowlandson is reunited along with her family and he or she quotes Moses chatting with the Israelites, ”stand nonetheless and see the salvation of the Lord (288).” Moses said this to the Israelites at their arrival to the promise land after forty days of wandering within the desert. Rowlandson compares her captivity to the forty days in the desert, and her reunion with her household to the arrival at the promise land.

In Rowlandson’s captivity, her perspective of the Native Indians evolves from savagery to aspects of civility. The extra time she spent with the Natives the extra relations she made with them that culminate into respect and appreciation for their culture. Initially Rowlandson thought-about the Natives “barbarous creatures” who “made the place a lively resemblance of hell” after the burning of Lancaster (259). As a end result she speculates the Natives as violent savages. She was also disgusted with the varied meals they ate similar to floor nuts, tree bark, and horse liver; nevertheless, after three weeks of starvation she acquired a style for the irregular meals.

This is depicted in The Fifth Remove, “but the third week… I may starve and die earlier than I could eat such issues, yet they have been candy and savory to my style (265).” This expresses a minor change of coronary heart Rowlandson has for the Natives as she finds herself consuming the identical meals and enjoying them. In addition to the acquired taste of the Native meals, extra similarities become apparent such as “praying Indians” who declare to have transformed to Christianity and some cases where the Natives are sporting colonists’ clothing (279). The once distinct difference in civility and savagery turns into blurred in the similarities Rowland notices between the colonist and the Natives.

Rowlandson explores the fearful hesitation most colonists feel in the face of the brand new world. The new world is the unknown environments outdoors the colonies, primarily toward the west. This contains the forest and wooded areas which are associated with the Natives. It is where the Natives reside, where they take their captives, and a spot of unknown to the colonist, which made it fearful. Rowlandson described it as a place of “deep dungeon” and “high and steep hill (266).” In Rowlandson’s captivity, she is pushed into the forest the place her expertise brings her additional away from civilization. Her and other captives, similar to Robert Pepper, achieve sensible data concerning the pure world throughout their time spent with the Indians. Although this data is essential to her survival, it brings her anxiousness and guilt as a end result of she feels as though she is being pushed from civilization.

The delineated characterization of Mary Rowlandson in her published e-book, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, depicts the way Puritans approached life with spiritual ideas and beliefs, but the affect of the Native culture is what separates her work as the first captivity narrative. In her captivity she loses her original physiological security via eleven weeks of uncertainty and inconsistency. This forces her to think exterior her Puritan ideology into the model new world of various environments and experiences. Her new experiences enable her to develop and respect the variations of the new world, and in her reflection Rowlandson closes the hole between the Natives and Puritans by figuring out the similarities between the two cultures.

A Narrative of Macbeth

So there we were. Sitting around this long, medieval-looking, desk. Macbeth, “hallucinating”. Lady Macbeth, making an attempt to hide her associations with this complete thing. I briefly mirror on the scenario at hand.

Macbeth isn’t actually hallucinating. The ghost he’s seeing is extra real than reality itself, however of course The Lady discredits him. Considering the crime that was dedicated, who would want anybody to know the lad was telling the truth? Then, all fingers would point to the evil hag!“Sit, worthy friends.

My lord is commonly thus and hath been from his youth. Pray you, hold seat. The match is momentary; upon a thought he will once more be nicely.” The Lady persuades. “If much you observe him, you shall offend him and extend his passion. Feed and regard him not.”Macbeth; the one that is ill? Inconceivable! But, she was so confident. And convincing. To everyone however me, that is. I saw proper through her translucent makes an attempt.“Lady Macbeth, no disrespect to you, after all.

But, perhaps Macbeth is telling the truth?” I set free a whisper. Ok, maybe not a whisper, but a pretend one. Of course I guarantee it’s just loud sufficient in order that it is audible to the dinner friends.“Mind your individual, Lennox” she snapped. “This is beyond your comprehension.”She sends a condescending, soul-piercing glare my means. It’s virtually too much for me to deal with. Bite….your…..tongue….Lennox.

“Are you even a man?” she sneers towards Macbeth. I can see, from her snide scowl, she thought no one else might hear her remark.

But, I did. And that was the exact moment I made probably the most brave move I’ve ever made in my lifeI stood up, shoulders again, backbone tall, feeling extra masculine than ever. Ready to tackle the world, let alone little old Lady Macbeth. “You all ought to know that Lady Macbeth was the one who killed Banquo!” I scream. Everyone’s eyes immediately focus on me and I have their full-attention.Macbeth looks horrified. Or intrigued? I can’t inform. He continues to be a bit unsettled from Banquo’s ghost and all of this commotion. “That’s right! She would’ve killed his son, too! She hired a slew of three murderers to carry out the evil-deed! She did this all on her personal with essentially the most deplorable intentions and she ought to die!” I pause, “If to not avenge Banquo, then to see well- deserved justice served!” I survey the room, the visitors look appalled. Disgusted, even. And I can inform by their reactions that nothing The Lady can say will convince them otherwise!I proceed my elaborate story by explaining how Macbeth’s “hallucinations” are residual from the guilt he feels from his knowledge of this wife’s despicable crime. One by one, the dinner visitors start to attack Lady Macbeth. She is fear-ridden, it’s written all over her face.“Off together with her head!” one visitor yells.“That wouldn’t be enough!” one other chimes in.

Everything is going exactly how I imagined it!, It’s only a matter of time earlier than my love is professed and my true intentions come to mild.“Cutting her, limb for limb, and scattering her all through the town wouldn’t be sufficient payback for what she has carried out to Banquo! Finish her!” I exclaim. The dinner guests have been so appalled by the revelation that they took it upon themselves to forcefully take The Lady out behind the castle and get rid of her. Beheading was in the end the method of choice and I couldn’t have been extra happy.In a matter of moments, it was just Macbeth and I. Alone. He stared at me and I was mesmerized.

I felt I ought to break the silence. I gulped the remainder of the wine and boldly feeling the liquid braveness construct like hearth in my veins“If you haven’t realized yet Macbeth” I pause. “I love you.”“She didn’t deserve your love. Now we will run away collectively. I won’t ever make you’re feeling like a lesser man. I will love you unconditionally.” I proceed. I notice an arch in his eyebrow and a slight wrinkle on his brow.But still, no phrases.“Say something, you loopy cook! Don’t you see what I’ve simply carried out for you?!” I scream out in rage.“I will never love you, Lennox. And I will never forgive you for what you have taken from me. My spouse, my love, my life! You are a poor excuse for a man.” The words tear into me me. I attempt to respond but all of a sudden every thing goes blurry, then black. And that’s where my memory fades.Turns out, whereas I was filling the ears and minds of the dinner guests with dishonest info, Macbeth slipped a little bit of poison into my goblet without my information. It took a moment for the poison to set in however ultimately it did.

20th Century Narrative Poetry

Choose two or three characters from the poem you may have studied. Discuss how the poets have described these characters and their behaviour.

Consider the choice of phrases, poetic gadgets, rhythm and rhyme that the poets have used to communicate their concepts.

The poems we now have studied are:

* How They Brought The Good News From Ghent To Aix Robert Browning,

* The Revenge Alfred, Lord Tennyson,

* The Inchcape Rock Robert Southey,

* The Charge of The Light Brigade Alfred, Lord Tennyson,

In the four poems we have studied, there are totally different attitudes and behaviours displayed by the characters, ranging from pure envy to patriotism and heroism.

In “The Inchcape Rock”, Sir Ralph the Rover is portrayed as a depraved and jealous man. However the irony is that, his evil feat backfires onto him when he least expects it.

“His heart was mirthful to excess,

But the Rover’s mirth was wickedness.”

Sir Ralph the Rover was jealous of how the Abbott of Aberbrothok was beloved by everybody for doing such a good deed.

Southey exhibits how Sir Ralph was decided to humiliate the Abbott, and the way thoughtless he was of others. Sir Ralph was willing to put different folks in danger, simply so he may turn into the centre of attention.

“Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘The subsequent who comes to the Rock

Won’t bless the Abbott of Aberbrothok.’ ”

“And row me to the Inchcape Rock,

And I’ll plague the Abbott of Aberbrothok.”

The fact that Sir Ralph actually did the deed by himself (cutting the bell away from the Rock) exhibits how much hatred he has against the Abbott.

“Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,

And he cut the Bell from the Inchcape Rock.”

Compared to “The Revenge”, “The Inchcape Rock” exhibits no sort of patriotism or heroism. In fact, it exhibits anti-heroism, due to Sir Ralph’s actions.

Southey has used a ‘rhyming couplet’ pattern in “The Inchcape Rock”. The poem is written in quatrains. I personally feel that the poem seems like a music or ballad, because of the rhythm pattern utilized by Robert Southey.

“Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away,

He scoured the seas for many a day,

And now grown rich with plundered store,

He steers his course for Scotland’s shore.”

Southey used figures of speech to emphasize sure components of the poem. Here are a quantity of examples:

When the Bell sunk into the water, onomatopoeia was used for example how related it was to a drowning man exhaling carbon dioxide. “Down sunk the Bell with a gurgling sound.”

Alliteration also had a key role on this poem because it gave a rhythmic tone to how tough the seas (high tides) were, due to the storm. “When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell.”

I found “The Inchcape Rock” very fascinating with a great ethical: “Bad deeds often boomerang upon the doer.” Towards the top of the poem, Sir Ralph regretted for foiling the Abbott’s good concept.

” ‘Now the place we are I cannot inform,

But I wish I might hear the Inchcape Bell.’ ”

The 600 in “The Charge of the Light Brigade” are onerous to describe as individuals. They were all brave patriots who risked their lives for a just trigger. Tennyson wrote this poem to commemorate the dignified 600.

“Honour the charge they made!

Honour the Light Brigade,

Noble six hundred!”

Tennyson used this specific metaphor to point out what the six hundred had entered into. This picture was used to add a feeling of terror, and in addition to portray how the 600 might not escape the volley of the cannons.

“Into the jaws of Death,

Into the mouth of Hell.”

“The Charge of The Light Brigade” also sets emphasis on alliteration. The horse of a hero is classed also as a courageous soldier, because it was a key asset to struggle in battle. This exhibits that the horse will never go away its master and therefore it might rather die with him.

“While horse and hero fell,

They had fought so properly.”

The rhythm of this poem was written with the firing of cannons in mind. The lines that begin of with the word ‘cannon’ should have emphasise on that word. This provides a sense of how loud and dynamic the cannons have been, and likewise of what number of there have been.

“Cannon to proper of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon in entrance of them

Volleyed and thundered.”

In “How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix”, Roland the horse is illustrated as a strong stallion who was fit mentally as nicely as bodily.

“And I saw my stout galloper Roland eventually,

With resolute shoulders, every butting away.”

Roland was at all times ready to take any instructions from his master, the narrator. Browning created the character Roland in a way that, the horse had immense intelligence, e.g., it knew what trouble was lurking forward within the journey.

“And his low head and crest, just one sharp ear bent back

For my voice, and the opposite pricked out on his monitor.”

It was apparent that Roland liked his grasp deeply, and vice versa. Roland was conscious of other’s emotions and emotion, not like Sir Ralph the Rover from “The Inchcape Rock”. As Roland was concentrating on the highway, he was still in a place to look sideways, and see from the corner of his eye if the narrator was out of harm’s way.

“And one eye’s black intelligence, -ever that glance

O’er its white edge at me, his personal master, askance.”

“Called my Roland his pet-name, my horse with out peer.”

Roland was very determined as he at all times saved on going. It was like as if he was making an attempt to show the opposite horses how it was accomplished. It appears Roland was trying to please his master by being persistent and attempting to attain his objective.

“Nor galloped much less steadily Roland a whit.”

“His fierce lips shook upwards in galloping on.”

Nearing the tip of the quest, Roland turned drained and stressed. It was as a lot as him to tell the citizens of Aix what the good news was. Even when Roland was on the purpose of death, he made positive he upheld the given orders from his grasp. This further fortifies my level of how strong-minded he was and the way loving he was in direction of the narrator.

Browning used personification to make an merchandise or one thing else extra human like. He used the sun, the shining and happy supply we see on an everyday basis, as a superior figure who mocked the three riders and their horses. Dirck, Joris and the narrator suffered so much for attempting to complete their journey, and it was as if the solar was mocking them, having no mercy or pity on them. “The broad sun above laughed a pitiless snicker.”

I felt that the following alliterated phrase, was used powerfully to put forward how the horse, Roos, was after dying. He was nonetheless like a stone, he didn’t transfer as all his nerves had died. He was also chilly like a stone as a result of, the blood had stopped pumping spherical his physique; subsequently, his heart had stopped. “Dead as stone.” This exhibits how ‘death’ can steal your soul away, and go away you want an empty cold shell.

There was a definite rhythmic sample in this poem of the galloping of horses. Browning was making an attempt to show the feel of the quick and furious journey.

Sir Grenville, from “The Revenge”, cared for his sick males deeply and even though he needed to fight the Spaniards, he stayed on land and took care of his crew.

“But I’ve ninety males and extra which are lying sick ashore.

I should count myself the coward if I left them, my Lord

Howard.”

Grenville was never frightened of dying, although he knew that one small ship couldn’t destroy fifty-three ships.

“For to battle is however to die!

There’ll be little of us left by the time this solar be set.”

Grenville had plenty of confidence in himself and in his males. He was always optimistic and looked on the great aspect of things, even when the going received powerful. He made his males feel strong and self-assured. “Sir Richard spoke and he laughed, and we roared a hurrah.”

When The Revenge was in bother and the boat started to break, Sir Grenville stored telling his men to fight on and to not give in. Even when Grenville was badly injured, he told his males to fight on. This showed his dedication to maintain combating the Spaniards. Sir Grenville did not need any consideration from his crew, e.g. medical, or checking whether or not he’s protected.

” ‘Fight on! fight on!’

Through his vessel was all but a wreck.”

“But a bullet struck him that was dressing it all of a sudden dead,

And himself he was wounded again in the aspect and the head,

And he stated, ‘Fight on! battle on!’ ”

Grenville had his dignity and honour, i.e. he would quite die on his British boat then be captured by a international country. Grenville was very patriotic and brave. He was the sort of man who would never regret anything he did.

” ‘Sink me the ship, Master Gunner – sink her, split her in twain!

Fall into the hands of God, not into the palms of Spain!’ ”

When Sir Grenville died, his males revered him as a great chief they usually gave him a correct naval burial.

Grenville had a powerful impact on his crew; he introduced them confidence and courage. He died as loyalist who had completed his responsibility as man, for the Queen and Faith.

“But they sank his physique with honour down into the deep.”

” ‘I have solely accomplished my duty as a person is certain to do:

With a joyful spirit I Sir Grenville die!’ ”

Tennyson used this alliteration: “sun smiled”, to indicate how Grenville and his crew fought with a lot ache and focus, whereas the solar shining was joyful and not using a drawback on the earth. This alliterated phrase is very comparable to the one which was used in “…The Good News from Ghent to Aix”.

Onomatopoeia was also used to compare the volley of cannons to that of a stampede of elephants. The crash signifies the destruction of The Revenge. “Crash of the cannonades.” As well as being onomatopoeia, this phrase is also an alliteration to illustrate the destruction and loudness of the cannons.

I completely enjoyed reading the 4 poems, nevertheless my favourite two poems are “The Inchcape Rock” and “The Revenge”.

I feel that “…Good News From Ghent To Aix”, “The Revenge” and ” The Charge Of The Brigade” are about characters who had been patriotic, heroic and had determination, which influenced others in a optimistic means. However, with “The Inchcape Rock” the character Sir Ralph the Rover has a hate-filled, envious and egocentric character. Southey shows in “The Inchcape Rock”, how battle between individuals could be out of envy and hatred, and how it all does have to come down to struggle or a battle making an attempt to save tons of the nation.

Narrative Essay-Personal experience

Once you get your driver license in Germany at the age of 18, your Mum might tell you from the date before leaving by car “Fahre nie schneller, als dein Schutzengel fliegen kann.” It is a German saying and it means that you should never drive faster than your guardian angel can ever fly. I remember that I always answered “Yes, yes- nothing will ever happen to me, Mum. Calm down”, closed the door and left for going somewhere. You will never even try to change your behavior or think about it until something happens that might change you as a person and your way of thinking for the rest of your life.

One day, my brother, named Philipp, and I were invited for a birthday party at Caroline´s house, a friend of both of us. Philipp is my older brother, exactly four years older than I am. He means the world to me and he is on the one hand my brother and on the other hand my best friend at the same time, he has always been the one who protects me besides my boyfriend and the one who I trust most. There were a lot of people at Caroline´s house and it was pretty crowded. Whenever I had some space I was dancing with my friends and singing our favorites songs.

Everybody was laughing a lot and I felt being home among my closest friends. We had a good time there, Philipp and I decided to go around 4 am in the night. Most of the people left already and as usual we were the last ones. I was supposed to drive back home, so I didn´t drink alcohol at all. The streets had been flooded with water, what made it even more difficult to drive and keep paying attention. On the way back home we were laughing and talking a lot in the car, as well as listening to music. I was just very happy and loved to drive very fast while listening to my favorite Beatles´ song “While my guitar gently weeps”. After a while, I approached the last crossroads before home.

The best part of the song played and I turned my head to the right and looked at my brother´s face for one second. He started laughing, singing like crazy and turned up the volume. I felt the happiness flowing through my blood vessels and enjoyed the good side of life. Suddenly as I turned my head back for watching the road, I just saw a car on our side of the road in front of ours with its huge lights on. Accordingly I acted in the heat of the moment and turned to the left side of the road to avoid any collision.

I heard Philipp screaming my name while the car was slipping from the one side to the other and I tried to stop it on the left side of the road. A few seconds later the music was still playing, I succeeded in stopping the car with squeaky tires. Drenched in tears and sweaty palms, I looked at my brother´s face, he looked at me, gave me a hug and then he said “Sophie, we are still alive, thank you! I love you, little sister!” I have been still shocked and wasn´t able to say anything at this moment. I was just very happy to lie in my brother´s arms and feeling save. As soon we got home I didn´t stop hugging my parents.

From now on I am always afraid of driving when it is rainy and the roads might be slippery and more dangerous for passing over. This experience might have changed in some way my character and the way I am behaving in different situations. I am more thankful for life and appreciate more the good times and good days in life because it seems that it can be the last one from one second to the other. Life can change in split seconds without being in charge of it. I believe in destiny and maybe it just wasn´t our time to go because we were definitely too young. At the latest now I know how valuable life is. Even though it wasn´t my fault, I would definitely feel guilty if we got injured. I couldn´t keep on living, knowing I hurt my brother seriously, or even worse, killed him. Could you? I could not.

Personal narrative essay

“Don’t Blink”

Four hundred and eighty three people, stuck together like glue for the past four years. We all felt as if the day would never come, like seeing it cloud up but never getting any rain, like getting snow on the ground and no snow day. What some people complained about and dreaded going to was something I had grown to enjoy and tend to miss now. After spending four short years in the same routine, going to the same place, seeing my same close friends every day I really learned to enjoy what is happening because it seems like it is there and gone. To me it was really one of those things you could say “don’t blink because you might miss it.”

My first day of high school wasn’t one of those days that hit me as being scary. Although there were many new people, a much bigger building, and only a few friends you could talk to from junior high. For some reason you just really feel a jump in your ego when you walk through those doors. Trying to find a new class room in five minutes was about the hardest thing that day, although as mean as some of them looked, all you had to do was ask an upper classman and you would know right where to go.

I was able to make many new friends in high school. Some of them lasting a couple weeks, some maybe through that year, and a few that are still close friends today. Once in my sophomore year I realized that best friends do actually exist. After meeting him in football we started doing everything together. Having somebody to go to and talk with throughout high school was probably the biggest help of all.

The years seemed to be flying by, it felt as if the days couldn’t get any longer, but the year itself would be there and gone. My friends and I were growing closer and closer as the weeks went by joining clubs and playing sports just because one another were in them. After sophomore year we all started getting our licenses this was the coolest thing ever, we got the feeling of being free, cruising around together after school and on weekends.

Now, half way through the summer leading to our junior year, I had just turned 16. To me this was one of the biggest years of school. I had met some of the best people in my life that are still in it today. I was still hanging out with some really close friends, made another good friend that moved in by me, and found that high school sweet heart, well for that year at least.

Finally the big year for me, coming into my senior year and I was already beginning to think about all the friends I wasn’t going to see after that one short year was over. It was getting hard watching everybody pick out a college or university and knowing that we were all going to moving away way to soon. I had joined a work program to give me half days so that I could now afford to drive my truck. Only going to school for five hours a day was making the time really fly by. I was so ready to get through one thing this year though. For the past three years I had been to play with the school band for the upper classes, but finally it was my turn to hear the music.

May 20th, 2012. One of the most impacting days of my whole life. I was finally here, we made it. After a long morning of preparation, deciding on the right outfit and taking hundreds of pictures we were finally on our drive there. As our name cards were passed out we lined up next to our closes friends. The one major time I have felt this feeling, we came through a curtain and entered the biggest room I’ve ever seen packed full of cheering parents, finally it was here, graduation. It had come and gone so fast leading me through some of the best life lessons and bringing me to some of my best friends. It seemed like those few hours we were all cracking jokes and trying to laugh just to cover up our real emotions, at least I know I was, after entering this room I was really starting to realize how much I would miss all these people.

It came time for me to move away. With my parents and best friend by my side to support me and help me off to college I was finally on my way. High school was now gone and college was here to offer its eye opener, much more homework, many more papers, and much more effort required. It was time for
me to learn how to live on my own and support myself. I can’t say this has been one of the easiest tasks to overcome, just getting past the fact of being away from everyone I grew up with and all my close friends. I still talk to most of these people all though it will never be the same as going to school with them every day. All in that one day it was there and gone, I’m glad I didn’t blink because I just might have missed it.

Observation Narrative

Days of Old When Knights Were Bold

Growing up, I was never that girl that fantasized about becoming a princess and meeting that special prince that would sweep me off my feet and save me from all misery. Even sorcery books such as the Harry Potter series did not appeal to me. I did not believe in any of that quirky fantasy land stuff so the idea of being dragged to the Michigan Renaissance Festival with my family over Labor Day weekend did not appeal to me; I would have much rather been out having fun in the sun barbequing with friends just as any other American typically celebrates the holiday. Staring out the car window all I saw was cornfields and the occasional Ma and Pa family owned restaurant or ice cream parlor. Mt. Holly came into view a little further down the road, but the slopes were dry and scarce due to it being summer. Tucked behind all the forestation was a small fairground where police orderly directed cars into the lot. The parking lot, overwhelmingly large in size, branched in two directions. One led to a general area and the other took cars single file down a long and winding path. This brought butterflies to my stomach. License plates were country wide varying from fellow Michiganders to visiting guests from neighboring states such as Indiana and Ohio and some traveling from as far away as Florida or Kansas. Once we secured our designated spot and our legs were fully stretched after sitting stationary for the hour drive we merged with the herd of people and marched together through the forest to discover this new unknown world. The walk was a journey in itself. The weeds in the wasteland of the parking lot stood knee high and tickled my leg with every movement.

There appeared to be no end in sight as it was at least a mile long containing various obstacles such as logs barricading the path and bridges. Surprisingly there were no mosquitoes but the sound of the crickets chirping and the leaves crinkling all echoed loudly. I so badly wanted to turn around and hike back to the car but as I got closer I could catch glimpses of the festivities through bare spots between branches and heard ear piercing screeches and rowdy whistles along with bursts exiting out the tall vintage buildings. This shot my curiosity level through the roof and the excitement continued to build. The path had ended and before my eyes was a new world; something I had only seen before in movies. The spirit of the festival had overtaken my body and the feeling was enchanting. Giant castles awaited me along with colorful flags and banners streamed over the entrance with cheerful greetings labeled, “Huzzah!” I was suddenly willing to give this all a chance and I had a new frame of mind that was open to adventure. Walking in those front gates was a lot to take in and represented a totally new side of the social spectrum when compared to a normal festival. People were dressed in a wide range of attire and it was hard to differentiate the workers from the tourists. The main clue was that tourists casually walked around grinning whereas the staff tended to get fully into character by perfecting their accent. Each got the chance to live out a life they had always dreamt of through roll play and step outside their comfort zone without being judged.

There were fair maidens, juggling court jesters, wizards, elves, and fairies. All fantasy elements were covered and all of this contributed to the illusion of taking a step back and reliving medieval times. Coming from a family of macho men it was absurd to see a men proudly sporting kilts along with boots accented with bells that jingled with every step creating a musical tune of its own. Even more shocking was the fact that they all had a strong family support system lined up behind them all dressed matching in theme as well. It seemed that the more eccentric the outfit, the better. Long velvet capes with matching feathered hats or flowery garland in the women’s hair were also common while others dressed as mystical animals and pranced around with tails and ears. These costumes were all things that I would never be caught dead in but after a while strangely enough, we all blended together.

There was an aroma of sweat due to everyone dressed in multiple layers but no one seemed to mind as it was a mere part of the ambiance as back in the Renaissance Period people did not shower for days. There was a plethora of patrons however that attended dressed in causal street clothes that sought a gratifying day out with friends and family but even they got sucked into the spirit of things and unexpectedly started curtseying and using the language. Dressing in garb expressed the true rapture of upgrading from being a patron to now a participant. This event catered to all ages. Fairy Godmothers rested on stones along the pathway making them readily approachable and eager to share their tales with anyone willing to listen. Their voices were so soft spoken it was impossible for anyone to simply pass by. Street peasants welcomed on goers into their dancing circle as they chanted traditional hymns. I have never been much of a dancer due to my lack of rhythm but I must say once they got me started with the basics I refused to stop and entirely forgot others were watching. The petting zoo provided a wonderful hands on experience featuring encounters with livestock as well as other exotic animals such as lion cubs, kangaroos and toucans that could be bottle fed if you wished to do so. The king set aside a playscape for the kids to interact, swing and slide but also had other ways to test one’s knightly skills. The bungee jump seemed to draw the most attention but the archery, king of the log challenge and axe throws did not fall short in interest. Little girls had the chance to learn proper waves, curtsies and poise through a boot camp run by the village Princesses themselves.

The Mermaid Lagoon was a disappointment in my opinion. After patiently waiting in a line for over thirty minutes I expected to see a luxurious area with mermaids whose tails sparkled elegantly in the sunlight, when in reality all it turned out to be was one girl in a cheesy costume floating in a dunk tank. On the flip side there was a wonderful replica wooden horse hung between two massive oak trees that allowed kids to race down full speed to master the art of ring spearing just as they had seen the real knights do out on the playing field at the nearby arena. The smiles on the children’s faces were contagious and it was a continuous chain reaction of happiness that spread rapidly. The adults had just as many activities to keep busy as well. Throughout the day various competitions were held to win bragging rights and often at times, gold chalices. Some of these included beard competitions where one could show off his whiskers and have the chance to win in the following categories: longest, thickest, most unique, and best overall. Part of me felt as if the cast and crew of the reality television series Duck Dynasty should have guest appeared at the ceremony to distribute the prizes but my wish fell short.

The tattoo contest was run in the same manner but instead with the categories being: best black and grey tattoo, best color tattoo, best overall, and worst overall. I was amazed to see that the male to female contestant ratio was relatively close to equal. To continue the friendly competitions, in one of the main colorful tents was a Root Beer belching competition that some competitors were proudly capable of rumbling the stage. It was impressive yet disturbing all in one. Good sportsmanship was well displayed and no one took the loss to heart by sincerely congratulating the winners. The objective of the Pub Crawl was to drink one beer at each of the four stations while led by entertainers to keep the atmosphere cool, calm, and relaxed. Upon the departure from each bar, fairies would splatter glow paint on one’s chest. The streets were flooded with an abundance of vendors ranging from apparel and candles, to plants and paintings. This is how most vendors earned a living so without surprise, they pushed their products diligently. Unfamiliar musical instruments such as bird whistles and bongos brought a new sense of relaxation as I closed my eyes and let my mind take me elsewhere.

I was utterly fascinated with the number of people willing to pay for palm reading to uncover different aspects of future life including successes and love. Superstitions were more common than I thought. As some would say, there is no harm in jumping on the bandwagon every once in a while. With that being said, a hookah station was set up encouraging tourists to take a break and get a little weird. Men dressed in puffy shirts and flared out pantaloons walked around carrying large, woven baskets overhead selling flowers to all the fair maidens. All were very well mannered and charming. The patrons were invited to participate in the annual fairy house competition in which the top three winners received awards for their hard work and creativity. The rules advised artists to make durable houses that could withstand any weather using entirely natural materials and furnishing the inside and outdoor with landscape. Out in the open area stood two actors that mastered the art of pretending to be a statue and were covered head to toe in grey body paint.

Their movements were slow and swift as they changed poses to be photographed by on goers. My dad was the only one to spot the man standing in a pot to look like a shrub while the rest of us nonchalantly walked by completely oblivious to such a phenomenon. In this man’s case, he could join in the fun but also camouflage his true identity. The festival as a whole is made up of hundreds of very diverse and multi-talented entertainers that never fail to please and in most circumstances is what keeps people coming back year after year. There is always a show going on ranging from group or stand-alone comedians to singers and quartets greeting newcomers at the welcome gate. A group of the finest acrobats were selected to show off their coordination and extraordinary balance doing tricks requested by audience members. A costumed human chess game took place behind the jousting arena and was played using actors instead of volunteers to bring out true combat when one tried to take out another piece. With this new twist whoever won the choreographed fight earned the right to the spot on the game board. The captain and his fellow ship mates auctioned off one of a kind items from his pirate ship. Here, buyers could purchase things such as swords and daggers at extremely low prices. Zoltan the Adequate was another street entertainer that did anything to please his audience.

He did bizarre tricks such a balloon swallowing to fire eating to nearly severing his own arm. As one would assume young children would be the easiest to deceive although Zoltan was able to keep all age groups tuned in with his sense of danger, excitement and edgy interactive magic. An unsuspected audience member was selected to assist him in a few tricks and that individual coincidentally turned out to be my mother. My mother is very shy and certainly does not like being the center of attention so we were dumbfounded that she did not object or throw a tantrum about going on stage. She faced her fears and as result, all we heard for the remainder of the afternoon was how we should be proud of her. The most attended event of the day included the heart stopping jousting tournament which had trained professionals of this skill that were willing to fight to their death to win the honor and respect of their town’s people. I really liked the concept of this because nowadays it is not as common to find gentlemen of this caliber. Back then, men were raised to be chivalrous towards women and the less fortunate, strongly serve God and do their King proud.

Each knight and their noble horse were fancily clothed and color coordinated all promising to use the strength in their hearts to ride their opponents to the dirt. As in any highly competitive sporting event, both the crowd and the contestants heckled one another and at times, I would witness the crowd unite as one as we raised up our drinks and roared together with great enthusiasm. These knights did just as they had promised and played with blood, sweat, grace, and complete dedication never losing focus. The three main events were the warm up which consisted of squires holding the rings and after a few run-throughs, actually tossing them into the air as the knights rode by spearing them. Then proceeded with the joust face off which was quite physical being that the one knight intentionally knocked an opponent off resulting in an injury that sought immediate medical attention. By the end of the joust all four knights hobbled their way to center stage to face each other one last time in a traditional sword fight. A little girl from the sidelines managed to escape her mother’s arms and ran out to an injured knight and healed him with a kiss on the cheek. The show shortly wrapped up after that and the barriers of the different cheering sections vanished as the knights mingled with the crowd and allowed the young children to pet their steed. The royal tavern had an endless array of food that would easily satisfy the heartiest of appetites.

From savory turkey legs and Barbarian burgers to deep fried desserts and apple dumplings, there were plenty of options to choose from. The portion sizes were generous for the prices being so reasonable. Most things served to eat came on a stick whether it was hot pickles, which were conveniently sold at every street corner or frozen bananas and cheesecake. Table manners and common eating etiquette did not apply at the festival hence why they did not supply utensils or napkins. In fact, the most lady-like way of eating the authentic turkey leg was to take two fingers and rip off pieces. Most importantly, there was plenty of beer to wash it all down and for the nonalcoholic attendees; sodas, smoothies and other beverages were sold. Stepping out of one’s comfort zone opens a whole new world filled with opportunity and adventure. The biggest setback for exploring something new is fearing what others will say or think. The people involved with this festival clearly did not care about any of that and it was enjoyable to see and appreciate their colorful imaginations. I gained a lot from this experience because going in, I had no clue what to expect it created an exhilarating suspense. I learned that is completely acceptable to be silly to whatever extent and people often tend to respect you more for it because you are willing to take that risk of resisting society’s norm.

My personal narrative

My personal narrative is developed by using the questions posed by McGoldrick and Gerson (1985) in the chapter titled “Constructing Genograms” (pp. 32-7) as a guiding framework. I am the only child of Neil aged 57 and Dorothy aged 53. Because I am much closer to my father’s side of family, I will begin with his description and his family of origin. My father was born in 1946. He is the second child in the family of four children, starting with Eve who is 60 and followed by Rene and Toby who are 52 and 47 respectively. Because he is physically handicapped, my father has not worked for many years. He met my mother while she was working at a restaurant that he frequented in 1977 and they were married the following year.

However, when I was eight years old, my parents were divorced in 1985 when my mother, who could not cope with her alcoholism, left my family permanently. Since then, my father has been a constant source of support for me. After my parents’ divorce, we moved in with my paternal grandmother, Ruth, who died in 1998 at the age of 82. At that time, my paternal grandfather who suffered from heart disease had been dead for four years. A wise, warm and loving grandmother, Ruth more than compensated for my mother’s unexpected departure from my life. Apart from my father who has supported me in all my endeavors, my grandmother was an influential person in my life who encouraged me to realize my ambitions, while cultivating my desire to help others.

The Theme and Narrative Elements

The story of “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker (1970), theme tells the story of an old black woman name Clara Ward, who worked as a slave for the whites the majority of her lifetime, who knows the feeling or fears of being an aged black woman, alone and no longer had a use or a purpose in her life. I say this because it was mentioned at the beginning of the story, and mist of the story the whites were not accepting of her, and at the end the black saw her in the streets walking in the cold and offered her no assistance, Every story narrows a broad underlying idea, shapes it in a unique way, and makes the underlying idea concrete. That’s how theme is created. In other words, the theme in a story is a representation of the idea behind the story (Clugston, 2010). Points of view, Tones, settings …

The setting of this story seems as though it takes place during the progressive era, during the age of segregation or the end of slavery in the U.S. My knowledge of this was gathered when Clara stumbled into a white church, and the pastor of the church told her she was in the white church, and the message was also clear to me when she was asked by the usher with blond hair to leave the church, and told her she needed to go to “Your Church”. Alice Walker the author set the story up in a fashion that named jobs or roles the old lady played as a house slave, this was another view point of her from the white church people, the pastor of the church called her his aunt (she helped raise him), and the usher in the church called her grandmother (she helped raise him).

The old lady in the story began to fall ill walking in the cold weather, and she began to imagine an experience with Jesus; she sees the image of a Jesus who was white, the same image that was white, the same image that was on the picture she took from a white woman she use to work for (Clara hoped that Jesus would over look that). Clara had a vision of herself walking and talking with Jesus, who she loved and trusted all her days and she was able to tell Jesus, how the white people mistreated her, through her life, and shortly after she pasted on to heaven. The narrative expression in the story spoke of details explaining the old ladies appearance, the wording pictured her as poor, and did the best she could when it came to her appearance, and the narrator told the story as if we were in her shoes, making me as a reader to fill pity on the old lady.

The narration also expressed the fact that Ms. Clara the old woman was a former slave who raised a generations of white children, who grew to be adults and they still showed her little to no respect (underlying theme); Where they should have been very appreciative, but because this was a time of segregation in the United states, a time when the whites and blacks live separate lives. Clara still praised Jesus in the white church, the Jesus who she knows as white, she never lost her faith, but the white people in the church who knew her kicked her out of the church, they unknowingly contributed to her losing her life. Clara died in the same she was treated in life cold and alone. Reference:

Alice Walker (1970). The Welcome Table (Short story); Literary Cavalcade, Vol. 55 Issue 5, p32 Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into Literature. San Diego, CA. Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Literacy Narrative

Learning to read and write may seem to be easy now, however, everybody struggled at least once at some point in their life. My mom would get me books to read, but would never tell me bedtime stories, thus at night I would grab one of the books and slowly comprehend each word as I looked at the pictures. I would then try to draw the picture in the book and try to write the same words that were in the book. It looked all gibberish, nevertheless, it was worth the try. My mom would smile and say that I did a good job even when I knew I didn’t, however, what surprised her the most was when I would actually read the books to her. I would then point at the picture and match the words with the picture. For example, if there was a monster in the book I would say monster and then point at in the picture. Not only did she know that I could read some words, she knew I understood what those words meant.

Now all I want to do is read on my own since when I was little I didn’t get read to. I do not like to participate in group readings as it makes me feel less concentrated. Moreover, I also ended up falling asleep in class because I am not engaged in the reading as much if all I’m doing is looking at words and listening to someone speak. When I read books, I like to become the character. I will make voices and sound effects if it talks about a door creaking or a loud bang. This makes each voice and sound effect come alive in my mind and pulls me into the book even more. I remember one day I started to get bored of books without pictures because those were the only books I read when I was little.

That’s when I got introduced to manga. Manga are these books made in Japan that you read backwards from the back of the book to the front. They have more pictures than words and it was like reading a TV show. Those books helped me learn some Japanese but it also created images in my head whenever I read a book without pictures. That’s when I started to appreciate books more. I have been reading manga books for years now and compared with reading other books, no other books grasp me like manga does. The texts are easy to read and the pictures bring the words to life.

One day, my friend and I was assigned a writing assignment together in 9th grade, and the teacher said it could be about anything. For this reason, we decided to make a manga together. I was the author and he was the illustrator. One big mistake we made was not telling each other what we wanted the manga to be about. That being the case, I was writing a drama story while he was drawing action pictures. We both did a lot of hard work, but even so, the story and pictures didn’t match so we were abruptly upset. When it was time to turn our assignment in, we had to beg the teacher for more time and she gave us one more day. We stayed up all night working on it and we finished. We got a 100! Anyway, the point of that story was literacy affects the way people think when they think about a story. Someone who reads action stories are going to most likely think about an action story they read when you ask them about books.

Vice versa, someone who reads drama books will think about drama stories when you ask them about books. Children’s books, comic books, and manga have helped me learned to read better and to comprehend complicated stories with no pictures. When I read, I pretend that the story is a comic book or manga in my head. If I ever had the time I would make a story I read into a comic book so it’s easier to read and that also helps me pass my tests easier by putting the images in my head that I have made when asked about the story. For people who say that comic books and manga aren’t books, you are wrong. They are wonderful books with amazing stories that have made me love reading more than any other type of books. Admittedly, they are the main reason why I still read today.

Narrative report internship

Trainees in Conguild recommend students to take an opportunity to be an intern in the said company. Not only knowledge about technology the students will gain in Comguild. The company has different departments where trainees exercise their expertise in different field. Herein includes the Comguild Production, Webmaker, Verdict Detective and Security Forces. Trainees can also enhance their ability performing in accounting, marketing, and in communication.

In terms of the policy of the company, trainees should know how to follow rules and regulations. Good attitude is one of the qualities that the employer needed to many employees. Trainee should also know how to deal with other people. Though people have their different attitude, good communication to others is very important. Trainees also recommend in giving important to the required hours needed to complete the internship. As long as possible avoid late and absences. Early office hour is an advantage to easily accomplish the required task given by the OJT Supervisor.

Internship inside or outside the campus is the student’s choice. Trainees have to consider what company suites their knowledge and skills. It is very important to know what you really want to have success in life.

POTENTIAL OF THE COMPANY AS A TRAINING GROUND

Comguild Center for Journalism is a company where trainees develop their knowledge and skills in the area of technology, accounting, communication and many more.
The company develops the potential of the trainees in different field. In the whole internship helps trainees to be more productive, independent and mature enough. It is an advantage for them to become ready in the real world of working industry.

a. Availability and Appropriateness of Facilities, Equipment, Tools and
Machinery

The company of Comguild Center for Journalism provides good office place for the employees and interns for internship. Each of them has their own area to do their individual tasks. The company also has enough equipment, tools and machinery to provide the needed materials and other things needed by the employees of the company.

b. Company Cooperation Personnel

People working in the company of Comguild are very professional. They take working seriously. But behind that serious attitude of them, you can learn to know them more as you stay longer in the company. OJT supervisors of Comguild are very friendly and easy to approach. They are willing to teach when some of the trainees find some requirements difficult. Having a good relationship to the people inside the company is a bonus.

ASSESSMENT TO THE DURATION OF TRAINING

Interns are needed to complete the required 600 hours of training for the IT-PRACTICUM. In the 600 hours, trainees should be able to comply all the requirements needed given by the company. They should be able to work that not depending to others. They have to work independently.

Proposed Revisions for the Improvement of the Training Program

TINATAMAD NA AKO

Advise to Future Student-Trainee

TINATAMAD NA AKO

Narrative Therapy

The Narrative Process Coding System illustrates the use of constructivist methods to assess THE TOPICAL and THEMATIC SHIFTS that characterize client accounts of their experience (Angus, Levitt & Hardke, 1999).

1. SYSTEM TOPIC SEGMENTS – Use the dialogue of a transcribed therapy session break it into topic units that are identified through shifts in protagonists and themes. A client may begin a session by discussing a recent trip to Florida and then shift to an examination of disappointing family vacations in childhood. The identification of such topic segments can allow therapists to consider how themes are maintained or changed through discussion and how the interpersonal psychotherapeutic process can act to facilitate narrative development. 2. CODE these topic segments into one of three narrative processes. a. Internal-focus upon emotional and experiential states.

A description of the storyteller’s awe or uneasiness at first glimpsing the ocean. b. External- dominated by event description.
An account of a vacation itinerary.
c. Reflexive- narrative sequences entail analysis and interpretation of events and internal reactions in order to understand their significance. An exploration of the meaning of relaxation in one’s life.

Through the assessment of narrative processes, therapists can study how changes in the client’s storytelling about life events are evidenced in therapy.
For example, investigators have found that experiential therapists tend to
shift discourse from external event descriptions toward internal and reflexive processes to promote self-exploration and meaning-making, while clients tend to shift into a more external process, to integrate their therapeutic insights into their daily life experiences.

Angus, L., Levitt, H., & Hardtke, K. (1999). Narrative processes and psychotherapeutic change: An integrative approach to psychotherapy research and practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 1255-1270.

Neimeyer, R. A. & Levitt, H. (2001). Coping and coherence: A narrative perspective on resilience. In R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping with stress (pp. 47-67). New York: Oxford.

In writing a narrative essay

Include sensory and emotional details, so the reader will experience the story, not just read about it Have the story support the point you are making, and make reference to that point in the first sentence. Write in the first or third person

Descriptive

Descriptive essays have text which describes traits and characteristics of people, objects, events, feelings, etc in intricate detail.

Whatever is being described will be thoroughly examined. For example, if you were describing roses, you would explain:

Where they come from
What they look like
What colors they are
How they grow and smell

When you write a descriptive essay, you want to involve the reader’s senses and emotions. For example, you could say, “I got sleepy” or describe it like this, “As I was waiting for Santa, my eyelids began to get heavy, the lights on the tree began to blur with the green branches, and my head started to drop.” The second sentence gives vivid details to make the reader feel like he is there. Exposition

Expository essays can compare, explore and discuss problems, or tell a story. An exposition essay gives information about various topics to the reader. It:

Informs
Describes
Explains

In writing an exposition, the text needs to:

Be concise and easy to understand
Give different views on a subject or report on a situation or event Explain something that may be difficult to understand as you write your essay.

Remember that your purpose is to explain.
Argumentative

In an argumentative essay the writer is trying to convince the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. The writer’s position will be backed up with certain kinds of evidence, like statistics or opinions of experts.

The writer is not just giving an opinion, but making an argument for or against something and supporting that argument with data.

To know how to write an essay in an argumentative way, you have to research and backup what you say in the text. Learn by Example

When learning how to write an essay, sometimes the best way to learn is to look and analyze essay examples.

Following are excerpts from narrative essays:

“Looking back on a childhood filled with events and memories, I find it rather difficult to pick on that leaves me with the fabled “warm and fuzzy feelings.” As the daughter of an Air Force Major, I had the pleasure of traveling across America in many moving trips. I have visited the monstrous trees of the Sequoia National Forest, stood on the edge of the Grande Canyon and have jumped on the beds at Caesar’s Palace in Lake Tahoe.”

“The day I picked my dog up from the pound was one of the happiest days of both of our lives. I had gone to the pound just a week earlier with the idea that I would just “look” at a puppy. Of course, you can no more just look at those squiggling little faces so filled with hope and joy than you can stop the sun from setting in the morning. I knew within minutes of walking in the door that I would get a puppy… but it wasn’t until I saw him that I knew I had found my puppy.”

“Looking for houses was supposed to be a fun and exciting process. Unfortunately, none of the ones that we saw seemed to match the specifications that we had established. They were too small, too impersonal, too close to the neighbors. After days of finding nothing even close, we began to wonder: was there really a perfect house out there for us?”

The following is an example of a famous narrative written by John Updike, “Hub Fans Bid Kid Adieu”:

“The afternoon grew so glowering that in the sixth inning the arc lights were turned on–always a wan sight in the daytime, like the burning headlights of a funeral procession. Aided by the gloom, Fisher was slicing through the Sox rookies, and Williams did not come to bat in the seventh. He was second up in the eighth. This was almost certainly his last time to come to the plate in Fenway Park, and instead of merely cheering, as we had at
his three previous appearances, we stood, all of us, and applauded.”

Following are excerpts from descriptive essays:

“Like his twisted feathers, his many scars, the reliable old owl chose the gnarled, weather-beaten, but solid branch often—it being a companion to the wise alone with the night and the last branch to creak in the heaviest wind. He often came to survey the fields and the clouds before his hunt, to listen to the steady sound of the stream passing through reeds under the bridge, while combing his feathers for the unwanteds—whatever they might be.”

Here is a descriptive essay about a first visit to a favorite diner written by a student at Roane State Community College:”When entering the door at Lou’s, two things are immediately noticeable: the place is rarely empty and seems to consist of a maze of rooms. The first room, through the door, is the main part of the restaurant. There is another, rarely used, dining room off to the right. It was added during the oil well boom of the seventies. Through the main dining room is yet another room; it guards the door leading into the kitchen. This room contains the most coveted table in the place. The highest tribute Lou can bestow on anyone is to allow them access to seats at this table. This table is the family table; it is reserved for Lou’s, and her daughter Karen’s, immediate family and treasured friends.”

Here is an example of a descriptive essay from St. Cloud State:”Billy Ray’s Pawn Shop and Lawn Mower Repair looked like a burial ground for country auction rejects. The blazing, red, diesel fuel tanks beamed in front of the station, looking like cheap lipstick against the pallid, wrinkled texture of the parking lot sand. The yard, not much larger than the end zone at General G. Patton High School on the north end of town, was framed with a rusted metallic hedge of lawn mowers, banana seat bicycles, and corroded oil drums. It wasn’t a calico frame of rusted parts, but rather an orchestra of unwanted machinery that Billy Ray had arranged into sections. The yellow-tanked mowers rested silently at the right of the diesel fuel. Once red, now faded orange, mowers stood at attention to the left. The oil
barrels, jaded and pierced with holes, bellared like chimes when the wind was right. The bikes rested sporadically throughout the lot. In the middle of it all was the office, a faded, steel roof supported by cheap two-by-fours and zebra paneling. Billy Ray was at home, usually, five blocks east of town on Kennel Road.”

Following are excerpts from exposition essays:

“This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitors suffer each year.” Several times a month,” ranger Rod Torres of O’Leno State Park said, “people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night.” Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn’t the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on this trip through Florida.”

Here is an example of a student model answer of an Expository Essay from The Write Source:”Did you know that 7 out of 10 students have cheated at least once in the past year? Did you know that 50 percent of those students have cheated more than twice? These shocking statistics are from a survey of 9,000 U.S. high school students.Incredibly, teachers may even be encouraging their students to cheat! Last year at a school in Detroit, teachers allegedly provided their students with answers to statewide standard tests.”Here is an another example of an expository essay.

This example comes from Essay Start:”Throughout history and through a cross-section of cultures, women have transformed their appearance to conform to a beauty ideal. Ancient Chinese aristocrats bound their feet as a show of femininity; American and European women in the 1800s cinched in their waists so tightly, some suffered internal damage; in some African cultures women continue to wear plates in their lower lips, continually stretching the skin to receive plates of larger size. The North American ideal of beauty has continually focussed on women’s bodies: the tiny waist of the Victorian period, the boyish figure in vogue during the flapper era,
and the voluptuous curves that were the measure of beauty between the 1930s and 1950s. Current standards emphasize a toned, slender look, one that exudes fitness, youth, and health. According to psychologist Eva Szekely, “Having to be attractive at this time . . . means unequivocally having to be thin. In North America today, thinness is a precondition for being perceived by others and oneself as healthy” (19). However, this relentless pursuit of thinness is not just an example of women trying to look their best, it is also a struggle for control, acceptance and success.”

Finally, here are excerpts from argumentative essays:

“Gun control has been a controversial issue for years. A vast majority of citizens believe that if gun control is strictly enforced it would quickly reduce the threat of crime. Many innocent people feel they have the right to bear arms for protection, or even for the pleasure of hunting. These people are penalized for protecting their lives, or even for enjoying a common, innocent sport. To enforce gun control throughout the nation means violating a persons Constitutional rights. Although some people feel that the issue of gun control will limit crime, the issue should not exist due to the fact that guns are necessary for self defense against crime, and by enforcing gun control is violating a citizen’s second amendment right to bear arms.”

Another examples of an argumentative essay comes from Bogazici University:”Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at leastcome as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an evenbigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reikion on a regular basis.”

On Essay By Example, on the other hand, the sample argumentative essay addresses online games and socialization:

A Narrative Report on the Mass Training for Grade

The K-12 Curriculum for the Grade 3 teachers was indeed a very successful one.

The training was started with smiling faces shown by each participant. This is a manifestation that the Grade 3 teachers are willing and ever ready to embrace the mission tasked by God; and that is to implement fully the K-12 Curriculum with your minds, hearts, and souls. The Mass Training for GRADE 3 teachers on the Basic Education Curriculum started on May 18, 2014 in the afternoon. Delegates from the different schools in the Division of Tuguegarao City were made to register before the start of the sessions. After which, an opening program was started with a prayer led by Mrs. Juliet B. Alan, Master Teacher 1, followed by the singing of the national anthem with Mrs. Liezel Santos, Master Teacher 1, conducting. An opening program started the one-week long training.

Dr. Benito Alipio, the Asst. Schools Division Superintendent of the division gave his opening remarks and he emphasized that a twenty -first century teachers must learn, unlearn and relearn the skills needed to produce a twenty-first century learners who are equipped with 21st century skills such as information media and technology skills, learning an innovation skills, communication skills and life career skills. Dr. Gilbert N. Tong, the Schools Division Superintendent, CESO VI, gave also his inspirational message. He really inspired us, teachers, to do our share in developing a 21st century learners who are developed with adequate knowledge and skills that readily translate into performance.

Dr. Rommel Costales, the Education Program Supervisor in Filipino, discussed about the K to 12 Curriculum. He introduced the Secretary’s message on K to 12 Updates and he further emphasized on some important issues regarding the curriculum. Mrs. Vilma Darisan, Principal II, of Tagga-Dadda Elementary Schools, was the last speaker and she talked about the “Assessment”. She discussed comprehensively her topic. We ended the Day 0 full of enthusiasm.

Day 1 started with a simple program led by Northeast District.

It was started with a prayer then followed by the singing of the national anthem. The delegates in every district introduced themselves with their own creative way of presentation that made the session enjoyable. Dr. Janette M. Dulin, Principal IV of Linao Elementary Schools, lectured on the “Grade Three Learners.” She gave us informative lecture which made us clearer understanding on the characteristics of grade III 21st. century learners. The participants performed different activities during her lecture. After her lecture, she sub-divided the whole group into 2. Each group went on their respective assignments. Class A started their session on “Leveling of Expectations” done by Mrs. Lou Marie Miguel, Principal II of Larion Alto. She gave emphasis on the expected attitudes that each participants must possess.

On the other group, Class B, was led by Mrs. Liezel Santos and disused the same topic. Mrs. Juliet B. Alan, Master Teacher I of Annafunan Elementary School, lectured comprehensively about the Araling Panlipunan subject. The participants actively participated on the different activities during her session with them. Mrs. Eleanor Cacacho and Mrs. Zenaida Rivamora, EPS I in Science and Social Studies, with Dr. Rommel Costales, EPS II in Filipino witnessed her lecture. Mrs. Lou Marie Miguel, Principal II of Larion Alto, lectured the Science subject. She really gave us a substantial lecture. Mrs. Analyn Quilang, Principal II of Pengue Ruyu, tackled on the “Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao.” She delivered also her lecture with enthusiasm. On Day 2, Class A had their MTB with Dr. Janette Dulin as the first speaker while on Class B, Mrs. Catalon, lectured on Music. Both speakers delivered their topic energetically and substantially.

On the same day, Mrs. Evangeline Palejo, tackled about the English subject in Class A while Mrs. Analyn Quilang lectured on ESP in Class B with the presence of Dr. Norma Guillermo, Chief Education Program Supervisor in Elementary Division. Dr. Guillermo felt happy with the positive feedbacks she received on the performances of the trainers as well as the participants. Day 3 (May 21, 2014), the session was chaired by the participants of the West District. Same preliminary activities were made to start the day’s session. The first lecturer was Dr. Janette Dulin. She continued her topic regarding the MTB in Class A intelligently as manifested with the active participation of the trainees.

On the same time, Mrs. Vilma Darisan presented her topic in Math. She discussed her topic enthusiastically in Class B. The trainees listened and focused themselves intently during her discussion. After which, Mrs. Catalon, and Mrs Vilma Darisan lectured on Music and Mathematics in Class A and b respectively. With their expertise in presenting their subjects, they and the trainees enjoyed together their sessions. Liezel Trumata, the trainer in Health, then followed by Mrs. Juliet Alan who tackled about the Araling Panlipunan in Class B also discussed their topics intelligently. On the fourth day ( May 22, 2014), the first lecturers are Mrs. Liezel Trumata and Mr. J. Attaban who taught Health and P.E. respectively in Class A and B. Luckily, Mrs. Santos, was observed by Dr. Venturada Durian and Mr. Gayagoy both DepEd officials in the division while Mrs. Evangeline Palejo discussed her topic in English in Class B.

Demonstration teaching was done right after the last trainers had done their lectures and it was done in the afternoon and continued on the fifth day. The following demonstration teachers were; Mrs. Emily Guiquing, MTB, Mrs. Emma Calimag, Math, Mrs. Norolaine Cabalos, Araling Panlipunan, Mrs. Salvacion Cabalza, Science, and Mrs. Jane Carino, P. E. All the demonstration teachers performed well and showed their own creative way in teaching their subject matters. The pupils were responsive and actively participated in the different activities tasked by the teachers. After the demo-teaching, a critiquing was made to the teachers with their respective trainers. The training was completed when Dr. Rommel Costales, Education Supervisor II in Filipino, the last lecturer, presented his topic about the ‘Commitment Building.’

He elaborated further his topic by asking the trainees to note down four key words about their leanings on the k to 12 Curriculum with the use of a paper airplane. Everyone enjoyed much the activity. He further strengthened the leanings of the participants through a video clips about a teacher-learner relationships which touched the hearts of each participants. As we went through day by day with this training, we were enriched and enlightened with the new insights and concepts that were needed to achieve the Goal of the K-12 Curriculum and that is to become the 21st Century teachers producing multitude 21st Century learners – the hope of the future generation that could help our department, the Department of Education, be the topmost agency in our country and make our country progressive, globally competitive and at par with other countries. The training ended with a simple closing program but with full baggage of learning on the part of the trainees as well as the trainers.

Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays

Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive essays, rather than narrative essays. In my belief, it’s that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a message across than narratives. Descriptive essays keep the reader engaged throughout the story. It provides the reader with more in depth details, and it allows the reader to better envision the picture that the author is trying to paint. Descriptive and narrative essays have a few traits in common. Typically both almost make you feel as if you are present with the author. They both usually tell you of an event that the author went thru or a message the author wants you to receive.

Whether you are reading the Personal Narrative or Descriptive Essay both are very creative form of writing. The difference between a narrative essay and descriptive essay is that the narrative essay is more catered to someone’s point of view in order to tell a story, whereas the descriptive essay describes a person or the place or an event by using vivid images. The writer describes a behavior or personality or uses our sense of smell, touch, sound, taste. Descriptive essays show a reader and do not tell them. Descriptive essays give a lot of details for instance, would you prefer to read an essay with a sentence like, “the girl ran down the street” or “the young girl ran down the street wearing light blue shorts and a white top, as her blonde hair blew in the wind”. The second sentence would catch a reader’s attention more than the first. This is a example as to why I believe descriptive essays are better than narrative essay, because they paint a better picture.

“On Christmas Eve I saw that my mother had outdone herself in creating a strange menu. She was pulling black veins out of the backs of fleshy prawns. The kitchen was littered with appalling mounds of raw food: A slimy rock cod with bulging eyes that pleaded not to be thrown into a pan of hot oil. Tofu, which looked like stacked wedges of rubbery white sponges. A bowl soaking dried fungus back to life. A plate of squid, their backs crisscrossed with knife markings, so they resembled bicycle tires.” Tan, A. (2013). This is an excerpt from the descriptive essay Fish Cheeks. When we as a writer provide our readers with such descriptive details you can almost picture yourself in that kitchen, and I became engaged from this point on. It is easy for the reader to get wrapped up in the story when the author is using descriptive language to paint a vivid picture. The audience can visualize the food, and the way it looks. Narratives are more direct and straight to the point, and that can cause a lot of readers to get lost or disengaged. A descriptive essay takes the dialogue to a different height by the details given by the author allowing us as a reader the ability to share the authors experiences by explaining and to show us rather than just telling us.

When giving more details, the reader obtains more of the story. When reading the article I Want a Wife (Brady, 1971), the author gives a brief description of their friend who had recently become divorced and was now looking for a new wife. The author goes into explain how she also, would like a new wife. She then explains the “duties” her new wife would complete for her. The new wife would be preparing meals and keeping a clean home. Here comes my issue with this narrative, I am left wondering about this woman’s story. I want to know who she is. Is this description of her own marriage? What is her husband like? Is she not happy? Does she like being a wife? Narrative essay focus more on the information, and again telling the reader the story from the point to point they may use different forms of dialogue to convey this message to the audience. The author may use intriguing humor or tell the story first hand in first person to try to make the reader interested. The benefit of writing a story that contains many details is that it also allows the reader to visualize and feel the emotions that the author is trying to convey.

The descriptive language presented in Fish Cheeks; the reader is able to visualize them as a fourteen year old who describes a Christmas Eve dinner when she as fourteen, how she felt when the boy she had a crush on, who, was also a minister’s son and his family had been invited to have a traditional Chinese dinner with her family. Her being afraid of what he would think of her and her culture, and of how she just wanted to fit in: When she finds out he is invited to dinner, she cries because she fears what he might think of her and her families Chinese Christmas celebrations. Her fears came to life just as her mother brought out the steamed fish, with its eyeballs still on. Also, her father added to her worries by poking the fish’s cheeks and announcing that it was her favorite. When everyone left Amy’s mother handed her a gift a mini skirt, and told Amy that she could look like an American girl on the outside, but she would remain a Chinese girl on the inside, saying to Amy “Your only shame is to have shame.” It was a lesson that she would understand many years later. When Amy describes, this all I can visualize every piece of her story.

In conclusion, by the author providing descriptive language and more in depth details to captivate and engage their audience, and by also allowing the reader to become wrapped up in the moments and emotions being depicted and painted throughout the story and providing a more engaging experience for the reader, this means to me that a descriptive essay is more beneficial than a narrative essay. A descriptive essay has a larger and long lasting impression and impact on the reader, and the audience walks away as if they just lived the story or event described themselves. It not only has that but, also the message that the author was trying to convey been instilled into the reader to remember forever.

References

Tan, A. (2013). Fish cheeks. Retrieved from http://redroom.com/member/amy-tan/writing/fish-cheeks

Brady, J. (1971). I want a wife. Retrieved from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/everythingsanargument4e/content/cat_020/Brady_I_Want_a_Wife.pdf

Literacy Narrative Unit Reflection

Literacy narrative can be described as a narrative from a first person perspective. This narrative would be based on experiences the writer faces regardless in any face of his or her life. Reflecting on the literacy narrative I was given to complete, there were parts where I struggled to write and there were also parts I breezed through easily. To start off, I had struggled in making sure there were no errors in the process of me composing my narrative. With the advantage of making and submitting a draft prior to submitting the final paper, several grammatical corrections and sentence improvements was done and perfected to the highest extent possible.

Another struggle I faced was the emotional impact it had on me as I recalled every bitter moment from my past experience dealing with literacy. Time was also an addition to my struggle since I am working 9 hours a day as part of my internship and at the same time I had only one week to complete the draft and three other assignments for the class. Time management was a crucial aspect in the process of completing my literacy narrative. The part where I breezed to easily was the writing out everything that came to mind. I never faced the problem to describe every event that I experienced in words.

To further make my literacy narrative perfect, additional time would have helped extensively since it was a very word dense assignment. I’ve done several literacy narratives in the past in both the languages I am familiar with which is English and Malay. What made this literacy narrative different from the rest was the type of feedback I had from my draft. Every feedback given to me was helpful and had provided me the picture of the message that Mr. Krueger, my English professor was trying to convey to me. In the past, my experiences with feedback were rather vague or unclear due to the level of English proficiency my school teachers had. In the completion of my literacy narrative, the discussions that was assigned to the class really helped the whole process of writing. This was because all the discussions were based on literacy narratives from the textbook, thus this gave me a rough idea on how a literacy narrative should be.

Preparation narrative report

My experience in shipboard is very memorable for me, every day your going to treasure it. My experience goes this way, trip to Manila. I’m very excited and when at the port i’m very disappointed because our CoOJT’s from LPU Laguna is some kind of “maarte” and we met our STO Sir Joepet a very kind STO and I really like him.

When we embark at the ship I feel a little bit nervous but not because of I’m of I’m afraid that the ship is going to sink while underway I’m afraid of what if I can’t do all task that they are going to give us. After fixing our things we go straight to the multi purpose room for our orientation, after that our STO gave us a time to familiarization we proceed to the Island Fiesta where the tourist accommodation eat their meal.

We woke up very early and to be exact 2am for us not to be late in our duty. We are 14 so we 7 pairs and my partner is Erika my dear friend. Our first duty is at the Island Fiesta, its really a Fiesta because of 80% of the passengers ate at Island Fiesta. our time of duty is 10hrs but its s broken sched were in we have a time to rest, in Island Fiesta it measures how long your patience is, how good you are in selling and convincing power sales talk. at first I’m shy but when I find it exciting and fun I really enjoy it I really do my best to call all attentions of the passengers and we have a good sales, after that I was assigned to dining and I do bussing out are first complicated and hard to do but at the end I enjoy even if the other passengers are irritating and annoying.

Second duty is housekeeping I really enjoy it especially the trash out things and bed making even though the one casual is snob I still enjoy and in our third duty in Quik Mart we sell snacks and beverages we shout and shout walk and walk, sometimes could by passengers and sometimes the passengers get mad of us because we can’t understand them, and their pronunciations is very hard to understand. Forth duty at the front office I got mad because in whole duty we just stand there after our duty my legs aches. Our fifth duty is at the galley or kitchen I really enjoy it the chefs are very kind they are all approachable and funny they make us laugh the whole duty, and the task they gave us to slice 100 kilos bittergourd and peeling other staff. And food in ship is errr! sometimes tasteless sometimes they are very rich in salt, and the food is just the same the whole OJT. And the casuals are very nice and kind unlike the other trainees seems they are the manager or supervisor.

-Angelica Dominguez
HRM 3A

“My Magical Experience on Shipboard”

May 14, 2014 was the day when we leave Nueva Ecija and go to Tondo, Manila(North Harbor Pier4) to start our Practicum1 at Ship. On this day also was our first voyage(Manila to Cagayan de Oro). when we already board at the ship, the first thing we do is meet and greet our STO Mr. Joepet Gallego discussed and issued the rules and regulations while were on the ship as well as our schedule and we also had our tour on ship to familiarized every department of the ship.

On the next day, May 15, 2014 we already started our first duty at Island Fiesta food court wherein we bussed out, we served etc.,. On my first day on the ship I fell boring, but when the day had been passed I enjoyed every second, minute, hour and days with my co-trainees. I already learned to love what I am doing because they all treated me well especially casuals, they treated us good. We learned a lot from them and we will never forget this experience. I can tell everybody that this experience is magical because it helps me to grow up and become a matured one.

-Erica Portacio
HRM 3A

I was so excited that we experienced being a part of 2GO TRAVEL. it was so nice because all of them the casual, the crew especially to our STO,all of them, they are so very kind. They share us their knowledge and experiences at the ship. During the 1st and last day of our duty we enjoyed being a trainee together with my partner. I learned a lot on this training that you need to treat all passengers good, respect them and show them that they are welcome,and even when passenger say bad words all you can do is smile show to them that looks like nothings happen.

I experience in this ship that its hard to become a employee because even they are tired no matter what’you need to welcome them with a beautiful smile. This On-the-job training experienced was very happy because it was my 2nd time to travel on board. I could probably say that I really learned a lot of things there’and i can also say learning is not just seen in the four corners of the room. i am hapy and proud because we finish our duty and it is a great memory to remember in our college life.

-Princess Tagaro
HRM 3B

Having my OJT at 2GO Travel is really enjoy. I’ve learned a lot especially in time management. We duty in the 6o’clock in the morning, so we need to wake up early. We learned how to socialize in other people. I gained more knowledge about my course. I gained more friends because the bonding in our room. And we enjoy to go other places here in the Philippines. When we are on the ship, they taught us about the history, mission and vision of the company, corporate values, vessels, facilities and services of our prescribed logistic company. They also told us about the training rules and regulations, basic house rules and standards like the standards of courtesy and decorum on board, uniform requirements and grooming standards. Also familiarize with the safety alarm, signs and symbols. Most of all, we are very happy because our Shipboard Training Officer is very nice, he take care of us while we are on our duty. And all of the employee in the ship is very friendly. This is very memorable experience in my OJT.

-Mariel Miranda
HRM 3B

As an Hrm Student, we were required to take On-the-job training related to our course. I decided to take my Ojt at MVSJP II, a vessel from 2Go travel. I started my Ojt on May 14, 2014.  On our first day on the ship, we took a lecture headed by our STO or Shipboard Training Officer, Mr. Joepet Gallego, then he gave us our assignments of duties. Our duties revolved on Food and Beverage, Housekeeping, and Front Office Department.

On the Food and Beverage Department, I have experienced a lot of works from bussing out dishes, serving foods, setting up the table, and kitchen works. I can say that I’ve learned bunch of things there like the proper way of talking to the customers and to work grace under pressure. On the Housekeeping Department, we cleaned, took out trash, and do “ bed making” on the different accommodations of the ship. I have applied my knowledge on bed making which I have learned from school and made my work easier. Also, on this department, we have assigned to assist passengers to their rooms or accommodations, this was very enjoying because I was able to meet different people. On the Front Office, it was a must to always wear your smile in every situation. I have learned here to always stay calm and polite to the guests whatever their mood was. I have also learned the proper way of grooming myself.

The whole Ojt experience for me was very challenging but fun . I have practiced and developed a lot of my skills. As a trainee, I’ve learned to follow strictly on instructions. I improved my self confidence and somehow became more sociable to people. I’ve learned to become flexible, to act professional and be polite at all times. I became aware to treating the customer’s right. I’ve learned to enjoy my work and my workplace, and to enjoy working with the people around me. I can say that I gained a lot of knowledge that I can apply in the near future, and I can say that I chose the right the course for me. 2go Travel’s MVSJP II offers good working environment, which made my experience very enjoying.

-Samantha Ellaine Beltran
HRM 3B

Performs other functions as may be given by my supervisor from time to time and maintain cleanliness and orderliness of assigned at all times, serves meals to the passengers following to the proper food handling procedures and assists in the requisition and issuance of stock from the store room and performs suggestive selling technique to increase sales and ensures that no unauthorized personnel take out serving from the food on display for sale and free meals and line performs other functions as may be given by the housekeeping supervisor from to time.

-Verna Salamanca
HRM 3B

The first time I saw the ship I felt nervous and excited, when the time the ship is ongoing that night I don’t know what I really feel. The night also I can’t sleep because i feel a little beat scared because of the ship is swaying.

The first day of my duty is in Quik mart, my partner is Benjie Cardenas, He is also my partner in my whole OJT in the Saint Pope John Paul II. Every day in my duty we enjoyed together, the casual of the ship and my co trainee from other school.

I’m very thankful, blessed and happy for being a part of the shipboard training, 15 days working hard but full of learning and also happiness. A lot of moments once in a lifetime. I can say that my OJT will never forget in my whole life.

-Byron Macalinao
HRM 2B

My on-the-job training experienced is very happy because that is my first time to travel the diff. parts of the Philippines. At first, I felt so excited and also nervous. Our first day in the ship is just an orientation. My first experience in OJT training, me and Byron assigned in Quik Mart. I feel shy and nervous, the we sell clothing, we enjoy it because supposedly turned just like itinerant.

Second day in housekeeping also we assigned. We meet Sir Toto, he is the kindest crew, he taught the technique in how to bed making etc. We experienced to mop a staircase, we also assign ports. It is not easy because it’s too many passengers need to assist but it is okay because we requested the hotel manager assigned. We also experienced the Island Fiesta difficult because too many passengers eating. Also taught proper bus out, I enjoy it even fatigue. We also dropped in Cagayan to buy goods and also flesh out, food trip. The street food in Cagayan was very delicious. Then in Cebu we go to the most important ancient church and the Magellan’s Cross.

-Benjie Cardenas
HRM 2B

During my OJT, I learned how to be a responsible in my own way, on the first day of my OJT, I feel nervous but I’m so excited, I learned how to love, care and respect our customer. Me and my partner experience or encounter some trials or problems but we solve it because we helped each other. This OJT is unforgettable moment and I can say that this is one of the best part of my college life.

-Jommel Caba
HRM 2A

I have a lot of experience at the 2GO Travel Shipboard. First, to entertain guest, if what they need in the front desk. Second, on how to serve the food and to bus out. Third, to sell a product even though it’s expensive to the other guest, but they obligated to but it. Fourth, on how to bed making, to clean the cabin or accommodation. Fifth, at the galley or kitchen, I cut a lot of vegetables and sometimes my own finger . And of course, the casuals and our STO, their so good to us, they like friends, brothers and sisters to us. But all in all I enjoyed, that was a best experienced I’ve ever feel. I will not forget those experience at 2GO Travel, and I will missed them. THANK YOU!!

-Princess Cammille Ferrer
HRM 2D

At first I feel nervous because I don’t have any idea on what we do while were staying there but then there’s a feeling that I’m so excited to feeling onboard. Then, we met Mr. Joepet Gallego our Shipboard Training Officer (STO). His a nice person, he tours us onboard then he teach us everything onboard, accommodation and other facilities. On my first duty, we assigned at the front office, I feel bored  but the day past, we all getting haggard, we need to woke up as early as 3am to arranged ourselves for everyday duty. I experience a lot of thing that on shipboard experience. At first, yeah it’s so hard to work especially on Island Fiesta but time after time it’s become easy because we enjoyed what we’re doing. Two weeks was done, I feel bad because I know I will missed my days with other OJT’s, the casuals that teach us how to work easy and most especially I missed my new friends, the person who make me laugh every time even we’re tired we have a time to talk on everyone’s experienced 

-Jaymie Natividad
HRM 2D

Last May 14, our OJT start. The name of our ship is MV St. Pope John Paul II. During the day of my duties I felt so nervous and excited especially on the first day because I am a first timer so they teach me how to assist guest and serve customer. Then after a long time of being there I learned the diff. ways/ techniques on how to deal with the customer. Having a successfully completed 300 hours of OJT on the ship I learned a lot of things like on how to socialize with other people. I easily control my temper to the customers that are very demanding and not talk nicely.

-Aira Jane Canlas
HRM 2D

During our On the Job Training at MV Saint Pope John Paul II, we were assign at eight different types of areas at the shipboard like Front Office, Quick Mart, Galley, Horizon, Island Fiesta, Cabin, Mega Value and Super Value. Every day we have a rotation for those different areas. First week of our practicum at the shipboard was not easy for me because every day we have to the different kind of task for that area, so the crew teach us like on housekeeping at the cabin we learned the bed making, towel folding and on different rooms we also do cleaning passengers room, the comfort room and we also do trash out. At the Front Desk , we were great and assist the passengers about their concerned, at Restaurant like Horizon and Island Fiesta we were serving foods for the customers, bass out, washing dishes and cleaning the table. we are also selling foods and beverages at the Quik Mart.

All Crew teach us well for what we were doing on their area and they treat us like their family also our STO Mr. Joepet Gallego who rounded every hour to see were doing , check our attendance and care for us when one of us are sick, we met a lot of student in different schools they are our co-trainees.

Practicum at MVSJP was unforgettable we were well trained and learn to be organized for every aspect. We learned to be patient and control our temper because we were joining a lot of people every day who have different attitude. For all of that we enhance our confidence, socialization and skills.

-Nelissa Paz
HRM 2D

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

A. Front Office
Apply customer service skills
Facilitate registration and rooming-in of guests
Handle guest’s requests and inquiries
Manage safety deposit boxes and lost and found service
Assist in the in-house entertainment services
Clean and organize the Front Office

B. First Class Dining Saloon/ Horizon
Apply customer service skills
Carry out food portioning
Take guests’ orders
Serve guests’ orders
Bus out dishes
Wash the dishes
Clean the First Class Dining Saloon

C. Economy Dining Saloon/ Island Fiesta
Apply customer service skills
Carry out food portioning
Carry out sanitation and hygiene standards on Food and Beverage areas Bus out dishes
Wash the dishes
Clean the Economy Dining Saloon

D. Ship Shop/ Quik Mart
Apply customer service skills
Sell Merchandise
Clean Ship Shop
Make sales report

E. Galley
Carry out inspection of finished product prior to servicing to customers Apply proper handling of foods for delivery
Clean cutlery, pots and the galley equipment
Carry out proper storage procedures like sorting, labelling ,FIFO Method Prepare raw materials for food processing

F. Housekeeping- Cabin
Apply customer service skills
Perform housekeeping inspections
Clean guests’ accommodations
Clean restrooms in cabins
Make-up bed

G. Housekeeping-Tatami/ Mega Value
Apply customer service skills
Perform housekeeping inspections
Clean guests’ accommodations
Clean public comfort room
Clean hallway areas

H. Housekeeping-Economy/ Super Value
Clean hallway areas
Clean lobbies and viewing decks
Apply customer service skills
Perform housekeeping inspections
Clean guests’ accommodations
Clean public comfort room

Summary of Chapter 1 from U.S a Narrative History

A big part of nomadic tribes becoming settled was their access to food. When they initially began their settlements, they were small houses with barns close by, they would grow simple crops such as corn and beans. These dwellings developed, over thousands of years, into fully functioning societies. One of the more notable groups of settlers were the Anasazi. The Anasazi had developed multi-level, apartment-like complexes. They would create earthen dams to utilize the little water provided in their desert environment, they also created pottery to help store their abundance of crops they grew from their irrigated fields. Many tribes also developed vast quantities of wealth, such as the Aztecs. The Aztecs had unsurpassed resources and power, making them the ideal society. They possessed a vast network of trade, most of their wealth was “tributes” from subjugated tribes in nearby provinces. They possessed large amounts of gold, silver, jewels and food to name a few. Some tribes began to enforce different forms of governance. Some Muskogean-speakers embraced an egalitarian view. They believed that everyone was equal, from political, to economical standings, everyone was the same. This helped these tribes to cope with outside influence, they would eventually grow into three of the great southeastern Indian confederacies.

When the Spanish came to America, they brought with them a large amount of diseases that the natives had no immunity to. The Europeans had always been around each other in large groups, along with livestock, which helped them to develop hardy immune systems. Simple cases of measles and mumps could destroy whole villages. The Europeans had endured these diseases in childhood, and thus developed strong immunities. Not having any farm animals or large groups of people made the Indians have a lack of immunities. Small pox was one of the most potent threats. In a matter of days, a whole village could be wiped out from little contact with the Spanish. Small pox was so devastating due to the fact that the affected groups would all be struck ill at the same time, leaving no one to help the sick. The native people were devastated from these diseases. In a matter of 80 years, their population went from approximately 25 million, to 1.3 million due largely to the
European diseases.

My home Santiago: Narrative

People will always remember where they came from? Ah! When I was a child the world seem to be a place of joy and happiness. Nothing seemed to have much importance, yet looking back to my past I can find a meaning to everything. Furthermore, my house was located in the Dominican Republic in an amazing town called Santiago, where I lived the best years of my infancy. Dominican Republic is located on the Caribbean Sea, and it’s the second largest Caribbean nation. When people enter The Dominican Republic, the first thing that they encounter is the lovely way that people treat them. The hot climate weather can make you feel as you were walking into a sauna. Fresh clean air, like when you walk into a new house. The country serves as a marvelous place for tourists were people can find a diversity of people as they would find in a bag of jelly beans. The ocean blue sea is filled with many coconut trees and the sand is as soft as a feather pillow. At the deep and extraordinary heart of the Dominican Republic lies Santiago, which is the place where I grew up, and the place that occupies all my best memories. Santiago is a small town, but with many people.

Everyone there knew each other somehow. Each house was located adjacent to one another like the seats at a football game. My house was at the corner and it was the biggest one on the block. It was painted green and white and the front gate made it look like a castle from medieval times. Birds served as the main decoration for the gleaming front yard. Windows were located all around the house and made air easy to travel in and out. When you walk inside you can see the numerous portraits that my mother kept as a pirate’s treasure. As you walk into the kitchen, you will see all the dishes displayed in perfect order and all the cabinets hid a different secrete. In Santiago there were various family’s but mine was the largest one.

Each morning I would wake up to the sound of the rooster screaming his heart out. I would then get ready to devour my mother’s special dishes. My mother always made something special for breakfast. My favorite was the homemade pancakes that were always moist and perfect. Hot fresh milk, illuminated the center of the table followed by the volcano like pancakes topped with dripping butter. After breakfast, I would go out into huge yet conservative backyard and play for continuous hours. Every day there was something new, like following a schedule with various classes.

As a result, childhood can be the greatest memory that we cherish, and should always be looked at as positive thing. As I stated before I grew up in a small town but yet very productive town in the Dominican Republic. Santiago served as the center of all my memories just like the main idea of an essay. There’s nothing better than remembering old times, because this way we know that those experiences were well lived. Santiago, the land that serves as the home for many people and the city that never rests continues to be the greatest experience of my life.

Narrative Report

Title Page
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING
at
Bureau of Internal Revenue
Outlook Drive, Baguio city

In Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for

< Name of Program >
Submitted by:

KATHLEEN JOY BUCLAO

Submitted to:
DAN EVERT SOKOKEN
BSBA Chariperson

< Date Submitted >

Dedication

The successful realization of this Narrative report is gratefully dedicated to all the people who shared their time and efforts in making this report.

My ever loving parents, who initiated and encourage me to learn and explore new things that would help me, grow as a human being relatives and friends, and above all to our Almighty God, this achievement is lovingly and heartily dedicated.

Acknowldegemnt

The trainee would like to express her gratitude to the people who helped her for this training to be possible. To the BIR manager, HRD manager for accepting her to enter in their company and have her on the job training that will let her experience the actual scenarios in the workplace that will equip and prepare her for her future profession.

She is thankful to the Lord for giving her the strength and good health to finish this training.

She wants to express her sincerest gratitude to her family for supporting her financially, emotionally and spiritually.

She would like to express her great appreciation to all the staffs especially to her supervisor Mr. Joefe Osma for guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and for sharing her their knowledge and ideas.

And she would like to thank the professors of the MPSPC for conducting this kind of program that help the students experienced things in the real world.

Lastly, she would like to acknowledge her OJT Coordinator, Mr. Ramon V. Descallar for the support that he gave to his trainee.

Table of Contents

Brief History/Background of the Company/Company Profile (1 to 3 pages)

Introduction

Internship or on the job training is one way by which we students are given an opportunity to apply the theories and computations that they have learned from school. It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual work setting. Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum.

For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities to go through the actual methodologies of a specific job using the real tools, equipments, and documents. In effect, the work place becomes a development venue for us student trainee to learn more about our chosen field and practice what we have learn from academy.

On the other hand, a valuable OJT program also profits the companies who accept trainees. First OJT or intern provides extra manpower for a less significant labor cost than a regular employee. Most of them are all eager to learn the ropes so chances are high that they’ll be given a chance to work on the same company as an employee after graduating.

Employers can use this internship strategy as method in recruiting employees. Since the trainer or supervisor can follow the trainees’ progress, he can gauge based on performance, behavior and attitude if the trainee will make good recruit after the completion of his internship.

OJT trainees can bring fresh ideas into the organization. Given the opportunity to converse their minds freely and without fear, they may be able to contribute significantly in brainstorming sessions or research and eventually help improve the organizations productivity.

While training the interns, employers are in fact also teach their employees to guide the trainees by stretching their patience, develop teaching skills and make them more sensitive to the needs and mind set of the younger generation. The course of supervision also teaches them how to share what they know and be receptive to questions. Hence, the internship also becomes an avenue in training for future managers of the company. Accommodating on-the-job trainees can truly be beneficial not only to the trainees but also to the companies that provide opportunities for this type of learning. There is wisdom in the front lines. Such training can be an investment that will be valuable to the company later on. This is also why trainees should take their internship seriously as it can become a powerful tool and possibly even a source of recommendation when they take that big lift from being students to career professionals.

Narrative and Descriptive

The purpose between a narrative and descriptive essay differ from each other because of how you want to convey the story and how to accomplish the purpose. In How to Say Nothing in 500 Words, by Paul McHenry Roberts, the intended audience is for students and writers, and in Once More to the Lake, by E. B. White, it is for readers who had experience with sharing a moment with their loved ones, which both stories accomplish a specific audience. Other similarities between narrative and descriptive are the “description and narration are often used together because description helps make the story we are narrating clearer and more vivid” (Connell & Sole, 2013, p. 6.4), in which to accomplish their story, they both have a particular language it uses in order to do it. Roberts’s purpose is for the writer to exceed in their writing, though White’s purpose is to display past experiences may not be the same for others. What is similar to their story is that the reader can learn from the writers past errors.

Roberts’s impact gives the reader a desire to want to write more effectively, although White’s story impacts the reader to enjoy an experience because it can lead to a disaster; both stories impact the reader to do something. The style of essay that is superior is narrative because a writer can “incorporate certain important elements in the narrative” (Connell & Sole, 2013, p. 6.3).When a writer uses descriptive, they tend to go too far using descriptive words to describe something that it becomes boring and it tends to make me skip that paragraph, and sometimes the entire page if it goes into too much detail.

Reference
Connell, C. M., & Sole, K. (2013). Essentials of College Writing (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Roberts, P. M. (n.d.). How to Say Nothing in 500 Words. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Gw_UcMT4u-ZSW7ZBN_RAMspZFex6o83oIbnvtuV-CM8/edit?pli=1
White, E.B. Once More to the Lake. Retrieved from http://www.freewebs.com/lanzbom/EBWhiteLakeEssay.pdf

Narrative techniques of Charles Dickens in Oliver Twist and David Copperfield

“Whatever I have tried to do in life, I have tried with all my heart to do it well; whatever I have devoted myself to, I have devoted myself completely; in great aims and in small I have always thoroughly been in earnest.”

Charles Dickens.

Charles Dickens is considered as one of the greatest writers of all times. His fluid language, the wise mind, the great writing technique, the sharp eye, made his works survive for more than 150 years. He is the author of more than twenty novels. All of them very appreciated from- book lovers- since the time they were written until nowadays and, with great chance that they will be read and appreciated in the centuries that will come.

The purpose of this diploma thesis is the comparison of narrative techniques of “Oliver Twist” and “David Copperfield”. “Oliver Twist” belongs to the first years of Dickens’s literary works.1 It was very successful since its first edition but, the critics don’t list it as one of the most valuable works of Dickens.2 “David Copperfield” comes after twelve years of “Oliver Twist” and it is considered as one of the most achieved works of Charles Dickens. Dickens himself considers David as “his favorite child”.3 Speaking from the perspective of the narration, as the study will demonstrate, these two novels belong to different forms of narration. “Oliver Twist” is narrated by third person narrator. In construction is considered simpler than “David Copperfield”. The narrator of “David Copperfield” is David himself meaning that the story is told by the main hero. This type of narration is a first person narration. However I will discuss about this in more details during the thesis.

2. Biography of Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity and fame than had any previous author during his lifetime, and he remains
popular, having been responsible for some of English literature’s most iconic novels and characters4. He was born at Landport in Portsea on Friday, the seventh of February, 1812.5 Charles was the son of John, a clerk in the navy-pay office and Lady Elizabeth Barrow. From the early years of his childhood, he hade to face the life of hardships and difficulties due to his father’s failure in maintaining the family. At the age of twelve he had to quit school because his family was being held into debtor’s prison. When he was fifteen he became a clerk in a law firm and later worked as a newspaper reporter. He published his first fiction in 1836 – a series of character sketches called Sketches by Boz. The work was well-received, but its reception was nothing compared to the international acclaim he received with the publication of The Pickwick Papers in the following year. 6 After this early blush of success, Dickens took on the job as editor of Bentley’s Miscellany, a literary magazine in which a number of his early works were serialized, including Oliver Twist (1837-9) and Nicholas Nickleby (1838-9).

He left to begin his own literary magazine, Master Humphrey’s Clock, in 1840, and over the next ten years published many of his most famous novels in serial form, including The Old Curiosity Shop (1840-1), A Christmas Carol (1844), and David Copperfield (1849-50), perhaps the most autobiographical of all his novels. He made his first visit of USA in 1842. He had taken trips in other places like France, Italy and Switzerland but always returning to his home. His journeys abroad influenced him a lot in his work. Other works were serialized in Household Words between 1850 and 1859, which was then succeeded by All the Year Round, which he edited until his death in 1870, publishing such novels as A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Great Expectations (1860-1), and Our Mutual Friend (1864-5). A workaholic to the end, Dickens died of a stroke in 1870 after having penned a chapter of The Mystery of Edwin Drood, his final (and unfinished) novel, the previous day.7 Although Dickens is distinguished for his great capability in writing fiction, in his bibliography are included also various poems. Some of them are8: A Child’s hymn, A fine Old English Gentelman, Lucy’s Song, The Ivy Green, Little Nell’s Funeral etc. Dickens has produced a great treasure for the British literature. His novels have challenged the time and today are still present to impress every book lover.

3. Oliver Twist

3.1. Plot 1 of the novel

“Oliver Twist” is the second book of Charles Dickens. As in many of his novels, the author here also displays the difficulties of young children in the English society of XIX century. The story is about an orphan who has to live a life of hardships since the day he was born. When he is at the age of nine he works at a workhouse but after his promiscuous begging “Please sir, I want some more!” he is taken out the workhouse. After the work house he was hired to an undertaker but from the ill treatment that he undergoes there he is forced to escape. The poor child goes to London with the hope that things will get better in his life but there too he encounters many difficulties and meets people who want to take advantage of his innocence. However, the luck hasn’t completely abandoned him since he meets some good hearted people who take care of him and help him discover the mystery of his birth and find out who were his parents All the adventures of the book end happily. The bad guys pay their dues and the good ones find the tranquility and happiness.

This is a very brief recount of the plot since the analysis will be focused in the narration and narrators point of view.

3.2. Narrative form

From the first paragraph of the novel the reader can notice that the narrator speaks in third person: “Although I am not disposed to maintain that the being born in a workhouse, is in itself the most fortunate and enviable circumstance that can possibly befall a human being, I do mean to say that in this particular instance, it was the best thing for Oliver Twist that could by possibility have occurred. The fact is, that there was considerable difficulty in inducing Oliver to take upon himself the office of respiration,–a troublesome practice, but one which custom has rendered necessary to our easy existence; and for some time he lay gasping on a little flock mattress, rather unequally poised between this world and the next: the balance being decidedly in favour of the latter.” (O.T.; Pg.4; Ch.I )9.

A third person narration means that the story is recounted from someone outside the book, meaning that he/she is not a character in the book but, is able to “observe” the story from distance. To confirm this I will show some passages which the narrator uses to tell that he is the teller of the story: “That Oliver Twist was moved to resignation by the example of these good people, I cannot, although I am his biographer, undertake to affirm with any degree of confidence; but I can most distinctly say, that for many months he continued meekly to submit to the domination and ill-treatment of Noah Claypole.” (O.T.; Pg.37; Ch. VI)10 3.3. The influence of narrator in reader’s image

Although the narrator is objective in most of his narration, when describing some characters he sides a little to influence the readers image about that character.

When describing Noah Calypole his tone takes features of disgust and dislike. The narrator did this because his intention was to influence the reader’s opinion about the character: “With this, Mr. Claypole administered a kick to Oliver, and entered the shop with a dignified air, which did him great credit. It is difficult for a large-headed, small-eyed youth, of lumbering make and heavy countenance, to look dignified under any circumstances; but it is more especially so, when superadded to these personal attractions are a red nose and yellow smalls.” (O.T.; Pg. 29; Ch.V).11 This happens also when the reader is introduced with Fagin, Bill Sikes and all other evil characters. When the reader first meets Fagin besides the repulsive description of the character also the place where he lives appears as dirty and gloomy: “Oliver, groping his way with one hand, and having the other firmly grasped by his companion, ascended with much difficulty the dark and broken stairs: which his conductor mounted with an ease and expedition that showed he was well acquainted with them. He threw open the door of a back-room, and drew Oliver in after him. The walls and ceiling of the room were perfectly black with age and dirt. There was a deal table before the fire: upon which were a candle, stuck in a ginger-beer bottle, two or three pewter pots, a loaf and butter, and a plate.”12

Influencing the readers image is a trick from narrators part that he also uses in order to make ground for the image the reader is about to create for a positive character.: When the narrator describes Mr. Bronlown he makes a very pleasant description of him. “The old gentleman was a very respectable-looking personage, with a powdered head and gold spectacles. He was dressed in a bottle-green coat with a black velvet collar; wore white trousers; and carried a smart bamboo cane under his arm.” (O.T. ;Pg.61;Ch.X).13

At some characters the narrator is a bit satirical. For example when he describes Mr. Bumble he is trying to make him look ridiculous in the reader’s eyes: “Now, Mr. Bumble was a fat man, and a choleric; so, instead of responding to this openhearted salutation in a kindred spirit, he gave the little wicket a tremendous shake, and then bestowed upon it a kick which could have emanated from no leg but a beadle’s.” ( O.T.; Pg.8; Ch.2).14

When the narrator refers to Billie Sikes, he in the beginning refers to him as “the man”. After Billie commits the burglary it is revealed what he does and after this the narrator refers to him as “the thief”. At the end when he murders Nancy the narrator addresses to him as “the murderer”. The narrator labels this character with the crimes that he makes. This seems to happen because the story teller wants to inform the reader exactly with the features of that personage.

In order to mark the characters of Fagin, Billie, Artful Dodger, and all the other members of the gang as “the bad ones”, the narrator makes their language rude and informal. When the narrator constructs their dialogues he uses the street slang, so the characters appear uneducated and ignorant.

There are passages where the story teller represents the innocence of Oliver by making the reader understand some situations that Oliver is not able to. “ ‘Not so heavy as they might be,’ said the Jew, after looking at the
insides carefully; ‘but very neat and nicely made. Ingenious workman, ain’t he, Oliver? ‘Very indeed, sir,’ said Oliver. At which Mr. Charles Bates laughed uproariously; very much to the amazement of Oliver, who saw nothing to laugh at, in anything that had passed.” (O.T. ; Pg.56; Ch.IX).15

3.4. Narrator’s point of view

It is true that the hero of this book is a child and the story is constructed by the adventures that happen to him but, when Dickens wrote the book he also used it to show his points of view about the social live in England.

At the beginning of the chapter II he describes the conditions that the parish children live. The reader can observe that his tone is very satirical but at the same time sad. He mocks with his satire the condition in which the Parish authorities lead the place. In the other hand he uses his language of sorrow when he describes how children suffer there. ”The hungry and destitute situation of the infant orphan was duly reported by the workhouse authorities to the parish authorities. The parish authorities inquired with dignity of the workhouse authorities, whether there was no female then domiciled in ‘the house’ who was in a situation to impart to Oliver Twist, the consolation and nourishment of which he stood in need. The workhouse authorities replied with humility, that there was not.” (O.T. ; Pg.7; Ch.II).16

The narrator makes the reader notice the broken system of justice in Victorian England. Throughout the chapter XI are constructed scenes in which the author with his satirical humor r represents the dysfunction of court at that time in England.

In “Oliver Twist” Dickens tries to fight the mentality of people who consider themselves above others 17.Dickens had suffered because of these kinds of people. And he speaks from his heart when he recounts the suffering of the little boy. In this novel, besides the interesting plot the reader can see the point of view and the concern of the narrator about many social problems that in reality were the point of view and the concern of Dickens himself.
The critics don’t classify the novel amongst the most valuable works of Dickens but, it surely plays a great part in the success of the author as well known writer.18

4. David Copperfield

4.1. Quick analysis of the plot.

“I am within three pages of the shore; and am strangely divided, as usual in such cases, between sorrow and joy. Oh, my dear Forster, if I were to say half of what Copperfield makes me feel to-night, how strangely, even to you, I should be turned inside out! I seem to be sending some part of myself into the Shadowy World.”19

I initiate the analysis of David Copperfield by these lines from the author himself, to demonstrate what his work meant to him. And this is not casual because Dickens, by Copperfield, has sent a part of his life to the readers. “David Copperfield” is regarded as an autobiographical book of Charles Dickens. His life and that of David have many similarities.20 His childhood of hardship, the work at wine house, later the work as reporter and in the end his life as a successful writer resemble very much the adventures of the main character in the novel. Despite these passages in “David Copperfield”, the author has also built some of the characters basing on people that really existed in his life. An example of this is Mr. Micawber who is a personification of Charles father (he also ended up in debtor’s prison), Dora who resembles Dickens’ first love etc.

The domestic problems that Charles encountered during his lifetime are also disclosed in this novel. David Copperfield is considered one of Dickens’ most highly achieved works. He personally, in one of his Letter to John Forster states that: “David remains his favorite child”21 However “David Copperfield” is not just a pure autobiography. Alongside the facts that relate the life of the author with that of the main character, inside the book are discussed and treated many social problems of the Victorian England.

This brief introduction of the plot serves only to have an idea about the
novel because as I previously mentioned the theme of the thesis is the comparison of narration and the point of view of the narrator.

4.2. Narrative form

To discuss about the narration I will start with the first lines of the novel.

“Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show”22 These are the first lines of “David Copperfield” and those are the ones that intrigue the reader to continue his adventure with the book. However, despite the intriguing role, these lines also serve to show the reader who is telling the story. The story teller is the protagonist, a data which will be elaborated throughout this paper work When David recounts the story of his birth at the beginning of the novel he tells it as he heard it from others who were there at that moment. “To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night.”23 It is impossible for anyone to remember the moment of his/her one birth so the narrator begins the recount of his life from what he was told. But he uses the dialogue of Mrs. Copperfield and Miss Betsy to tell the story. The narrator does this improvisation of the situation to introduce the reader with stories that happened before he was born. The first chapter is constructed this way.

In the second chapter David starts being conscious about his surroundings. “The first objects that assume a distinct presence before me, as I look far back, into the blank of my infancy, are my mother with her pretty hair and youthful shape, and Peggotty with no shape at all, and eyes so dark that they seemed to darken their whole neighbourhood in her face, and cheeks and arms so hard and red that I wondered the birds didn’t peck her in preference to apples.” (D.C. ; Pg. 20 Ch. II).24 Here are shown the first glimpses of narrators understanding of the world. However, we can notice a childish perspective from the narrator. This happens because the narrator tried to show to the reader exactly how he felt and thought at that time as a child. He narrates the story from the child’s point of view in order that the
reader can understand better the character of David. When Dickens wrote the novel he was about thirty eight years old.25 However his tone of narration is different in the course of the novel. The tone is different in the sense of maturity of the narrator. Further one I will discus about this side of narration.

As I noted previously, in the beginning the tone is very childish and his thoughts are those of a little boy. When the narrator wrote the novel he appears to be middle age man, still, he narrates the story from the eyes of a child. At the end of chapter XIV the tone of the narrator calms down a bit. The narrator creates this atmosphere to indicate that David’s hardships as a child are over and now he feels safe. By this tone of narration Charles wants to transmit to the reader that the live of David will take a new turn, probably a better turn. He is saying farewell to the difficulties of little David’s life. However new challenges expect him in the further chapters. With the passing of chapters the narrator/ David grows up and matures. This means that his capacity of thinking and analyzing things matures together with him. So in further chapters we find David more attentive and more aware about his surroundings. At the beginning of the novel he was presented to us a smart child also, always paying attention to things, but now he has a sharper look toward things: “How miserable I was, when I lay down!

How I thought and thought about my being poor, in Mr. Spenlow’s eyes; about my not being what I thought I was, when I proposed to Dora; about the chivalrous necessity of telling Dora what my worldly condition was, and releasing her from her engagement if she thought fit; about how I should contrive to live, during the long term of my articles, when I was earning nothing; about doing something to assist my aunt, and seeing no way of doing anything; about coming down to have no money in my pocket, and to wear a shabby coat, and to be able to carry Dora no little presents, and to ride no gallant greys, and to show myself in no agreeable light!” (D.C. ;Pg 470-;Ch. XXXV).26

After the death of Dora we can notice a more serious tone of the narrator. (D.C.; Ch. LIII). It is like the narrator is trying to say that this loss has opened a new vision for David to see how life really is, difficult and unfair. This loss makes him reflect and though the pain didn’t kill him made him stronger, and stronger we will find him in the next chapters.

4.3. The building of the characters

The narrator does not give his opinions about the character because by the way he describes them he lets the reader to have his/her one imagine about those characters. By the dialogue that Miss Betsey and Mrs. Copperfield have, it is possible for the reader to understand many details about these two characters. The reader creates the image of Mrs. Copperfield by the words she says and the decisions she makes. The narrator only shows the way he feels about her but doesn’t impose his feelings to the reader. This also happens when the reader meets Peggottty. The narrator introduces the reader only with the physical description of the character. To understand the personage better we have to pay attention to her thoughts and attitudes.

However, the narrator does not behave the same with all characters. When David first meets Uriah his description takes tones of repulsiveness and disgust. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person – a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older – whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony’s head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise.(Pg. 20; Ch.XV).27 In the other hand the tone of the narrator when he meets Agnes is very pleasant and is noticed a sort of admiration for her. On her face, I saw immediately the placid and sweet expression of the lady whose picture had looked at me downstairs.

It seemed to my imagination as if the portrait had grown womanly, and the original remained a child. Although her face was quite bright and happy, there was a tranquillity about it, and about her – a quiet, good, calm spirit – that I never have forgotten; that I shall never forget. This was his little housekeeper, his daughter Agnes, Mr. Wickfield said. (D.C.; Pg.213; Ch. XV).28 The author does this in order to influence the reader’s image about the characters features and what inform previously the reader what to expect form that character.

4.4. The placing of the narrator

In about 900 pages of “David Copperfield” are shown also stories of other personages besides that of David. In order to continue telling the story in the first person, Dickens uses various maneuvers to make this possible. In cases when describing a situation where the narrator wasn’t present he uses the confession of another character. ‘On the last night, in the evening, she kissed me, and said: “If my baby should die too, Peggotty, please let them lay him in my arms, and bury us together.” (It was done; for the poor lamb lived but a day beyond her.) “Let my dearest boy go with us to our resting-place,” she said, “and tell him that his mother, when she lay here, blessed him not once, but a thousand times.”‘ (D.C. ; Pg131 Ch. IX).29 He describes these situations by dialogue with him and that character. Another situation is when only a specific character tells the story and in some other passages David interferes in that narration by adding his impressions about that situation. In these situations the narrator also analyzes the event by his point of view.

The reader can encounter some parts in the novel where the narrator is not involved in a situation but, for the sake of narration he “places” himself in that event as a spectator: “I said something to the effect that it was a lady whom I had seen before, in a few words, to my conductress; and had scarcely done so, when we heard her voice in the room, though not, from where we stood, what she was saying.” (D.C. ; Pg. 668; Ch. XLVII).30

In order to tell how Uriah Heep and Mr. Littimer ended up, Charles makes a smart move where he invents a visit to the prison where these two were paying for their crimes (Ch LX). Another smart move of the narrator is as well the chapter when Mr. Peggotty visits David and recounts him how the emigrants are doing in the far land of Australia. The narrator “puts” the correspondence into Mr. Peggotty’s pocket (D.C.; Ch. LXII). Due to this correspondence David is able to tell the story by his own words. In this way the narration though not about David, still remains in the first person.

4.5. Different approaches toward situations

When analyzing his point of view about things that happened, there are different approaches from narrator’s part.

From time to time, while rummaging into his past, the narrator reveals that he has the same feelings about a specific situation or person. “I fell at once into a solitary condition, – apart from all friendly notice, apart from the society of all other boys of my own age, apart from all companionship but my own spiritless thoughts, – which seems to cast its gloom upon this paper as I write. (D.C. ;Pg. 146; Ch. X).31 But, there are other parts in the book where the narrator now recounts the story with a different approach towards that situation from the moment when it occurred. It seems like the time has passed and the narrator’s attitude toward some things and ideas has changed, which is a natural thing to happen. “They did just what they liked with me; and wormed things out of me that I had no desire to tell, with a certainty I blush to think of, the more especially, as in my juvenile frankness, I took some credit to myself for being so confidential and felt that I was quite the patron of my two respectful entertainers.” (Pg. 243;Ch XVII).32

Being an autobiography the author has still some remembrances about how he felt when he witnessed some events. So, when he remembers the past he also describes the sensation that he experienced at that time. “There was a trembling upon her, that I can see now. The coldness of her hand when I touched it, I can feel yet.” (D.C. ; Pg. 413; Ch. XVV).33 It looks like he is living that moment and he is addressing it directly to the reader. At some passages the narrator laments some decisions that he took and now that he writes the story he has a different point of view about those decisions. I was a boyish husband as to years. ” I had known the softening influence of no other sorrows or experiences than those recorded in these leaves. If I did any wrong, as I may have done much, I did it in mistaken love, and in my want of wisdom. I write the exact truth. It would avail me nothing to extenuate it now.” ( D.C. ;Pg.602; Ch. XLIV).34

4.6. The revelation of the narrator

The chapter “Tempest” is very important in the narrative sense. At the beginning the author states that the things that he is writing at this stage don’t have very much time that has occurred: “I now approach an event in my life, so indelible, so awful, so bound by an infinite variety of ties to all that has preceded it, in these pages, that, from the beginning of my narrative, I have seen it growing larger and larger as I advanced, like a great tower in a plain, and throwing its fore-cast shadow even on the incidents of my childish days.” (D.C. ;Pg. 731; Ch LV).35 Besides this fact, the narrator also confirms that this is the story of his life and he is approaching the end of his narration. Another detail in this chapter about the narration is that David places himself in the region where the tempest happened. This is a way of making possible the continuance of the narration in the first person: “We came to Ipswich – very late, having had to fight every inch of ground since we were ten miles out of London; and found a cluster of people in the market-place, who had risen from their beds in the night, fearful of falling chimneys.”36

Four chapters of the novel, called “Retrospect” are narrated in the present tense. It looks like he is living these moments at the time the he is writing. Those lines have something poetic in them. They flow like a river from narrator’s pen and the reader is the sea that receives them (D.C.chap. XVII, XLIII, LIII, LXIV).

5. Similarities between Oliver Twist and David Copperfield

It is a failure to try to draw a parallel between the forms of narration of these two novels because, “Oliver Twist” and “David Copperfield” in the narrative form, are two contrary poles. “Oliver Twist” is recounted from the third person narrator whereas “David Copperfield” belongs to the first person narrator. But, if we dig into the depths of the subjects, the reader can find many similarities, which represent the point of view of the narrator. Dickens lived in a time where the society in England had many disorders and inequalities. Some of them are discussed in both novels. In both novels the main characters are children. With the difficulties these characters are challenged, the narrator tries to present the difficult life that orphan children have to go through. By his satirical tone Dickens addresses his narration to the ear of authorities who were responsible for those children. But this was not only an appeal for the authorities who were responsible for those children but also for the society in general to be more attentive and show more compassion for those children.

Dickens also represents the difficult conditions in which those children were obliged to work in order to survive. Dickens, with the portrait of these two characters, arouses the voice for the poor law about the children’s labor. He not only questions the poor law but, also puts a question mark whether the children should work at all. The atrocities that Oliver suffers in the undertakers shop and, the difficult job of David in the wine house illustrate Dickens concerns about that matter. Suffering in his flesh the life of hardships as a child, the author was really concerned about this. I can say that the author writes with personal references about this matter.

The other subject that Dickens treats in both novels is (if I can name it like this) the immoral women. The moral of women was a delicate subject in the era of Victorian England but, Dickens finds a way to treat this matter with much careful in both novels. The author does not prejudice them, just the contrary he treats them as human beings and explains the reason why those women decided to take the path of immorality. In Oliver Twist the character of Nancy is indicated to be a prostitute. The narrator never states this but, indirectly, all the description of this girl can lead the reader to that conclusion. Even in these circumstances the author manages to have the Victorian’s reader attention without offending him or her. By the portrait of Nancy, the author explains the reason how some of these women have no choice but to take the life of sin. She was an orphan with no one to love or take care of her. To survive she had to do what she could. The character of Nancy is presented in both sides of the medal.

She was living a life of shame however, she shows her good heart when she tries to help Oliver escape. Anyway, although the narrator somehow justifies her decision and makes the reader pity her, he makes her pay for the live she led. And the best way to do this was by not letting her live anymore.

In “David Copperfield” are two women who “torment” the society with their indecency. The first one is Emily who abandonees her fiancé in order to climb the higher class of the society and become a lady. However, she shows her repentance from the beginning in her letter of goodbye. This way even though she committed an immorality she was not presented as a monstrous person. However in the end, the author convicts her with the isolated life in Australia and although she becomes a worthy member of society in the far land, she is destined to live alone. The second character is Martha. She is an orphan also and she falls into the life of sin. Just like Nancy in Oliver Twist the author never mentions the word to label her but, every reference to her leads that she is a prostitute. The author makes the reader feel sorry for her and maybe forgive her when she helps David find Emily.

The author rewards her with a new life in Australia and a descent husband. Previously in the research I have mentioned the way in which the narrator describes the characters ( Pg. 6, 11). Since I have elaborated this above I will not deal in detail with it here. I will just show briefly that the form is the same in both novels. At some characters the narrator uses their dialogue to show their characteristics. In some cases the narrator uses his own thoughts to influence the reader’s image towards certain character. Dickens has used both methods in both novels so I can consider this as a similarity between these two objects of my research. Being written by the same author it is very probable that these two novels have much more in common besides the points which I have mentioned. However, they do not belong to the subject of my research.

6. Conclusion

In this thesis I have tried to compare the base on which these two novels are constructed, the narration. These novels belong to two different narrations. “David Copperfield” is considered as a masterpiece whereas “Oliver Twist”
is not so much distinguished. However, speaking in the plain of popularity they both are at the same level. Due to the images the narrator uses the reader feels sorry for the way Oliver was brought up. The famous expression that the hunger forces the poor boy to utter “Please sir, I want some more! “, has the power to make a reader cry from compassion. Because of the fluid language with which the narrator pictures the beautiful landscapes, the reader runs from his reading place to those landscapes. The accurate description of characters and their smart construction of dialogues create in the reader’s mind a perfect image for each character.

Narration is the essential column in the construction of a novel. It is the key to make the reader cry from sorrow, feel repulsive from the disgust or make him/her feel the fresh air of meadows and sense the odor of roses. Dickens had the talent to create all these effects in his novels but not only. Due to his kind and humble heart we are able to see the things from a poor little boy perspective and feel the irony with which he describes those people who look down on others. Because of Dickens’s sharp eye the reader is able to observe Uriah’s bad intentions. The city of London comes to our room because of his accurate description of it. Despite their different forms of narration Dickens in both of the novels has treated some similar subjects. In both novels are displayed the suffering of two boys in the conditions of Victorian England. The hard conditions in which children are allowed to work, the morality of women the function of courts are some of them.

When I read these novels except the satisfactory function that the art of literature can give you, I was introduced to new horizons of thinking and analyzing things. During the research I have read many appreciations that critics have addressed to Dickens. And, after I read and analyzed some of his novels I could not do more but strongly agree with those critics.

Bibliography

1. Dickens, Charles, Oliver Twist, Web-Books.com

2. Dickens, Charles, David Copperfield, Project Gutenberg (2006)

3. Forster, John, “The Life of Charles Dickens” Vol. I, Cambridge University Press (2011)

4. Forster, John, “The Life of Charles Dickens” Vol. II, Cambridge University Press (2011)

5. Chesterton, G., K. Appreciation and Criticism of the Works of Charles Dickens, Gutenberg Project

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas An American Slave

Education is power

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave was written by Fredrick Douglas and published by The American Anti-Slavery Society in 1845. Fredrick Douglas wrote three successful autobiographies, and was an African American social reformer, public speaker, abolitionist, and writer. After becoming a free slave Douglas published this book while slavery was still socially accepted in society. During which time Douglas wrote many anti-slavery articles and attended rallies in attempt to abolish slavery. His message was to share the absolute truth to the public in hopes his message would get through. His Douglas narrative blew up the book charts selling over 35 thousand copies. His writing style is direct as if you were speaking with Douglas so this makes the book easy to understand. At the same time he does want to show off how well he can write after waiting all those years so we see big word being used. In the beginning of the book Douglas notes, “I remember the first time I ever witnessed this horrible exhibition. I was quite a child” (Douglas 1.8 FIRST PAGE). Even when he’s sharing about his childhood he uses words like “Exhibition” to show us that he knows how to write now. Douglas wrote this book to empower readers with shocking information of the real slave life he went through and then persuade them with reason slavery is unethical and should be stopped. Fredrick Douglas goes through many life-changing events and along the way changes from being a slave with a dream to a free slave that conquered this dream.

Douglas Narrative begins as his sorrowful childhood was without knowing love from his parents. He lives with his white slaveholder Captain Anthony. Douglas lived with many other slaves on Anthony’s plantation, called the “Great House Farm”. Slaves on the farm were physically and verbally beaten, overworked, and forced to live without proper clothing. For Douglas he was exposed to most of this, but yet to experience the exhaustion of being worked to death and brutally punished. Douglas never knew what a mother figure was and when his died he wasn’t permitted to go and never knew that this was because he was a slave. At age seven his life completely changed when sent to live in Baltimore with Hugh Auld, a relative of Captain Anthony. Hugh Auld was a city slave owner, which meant for Douglas he had more freedom. At this time in history most of the public didn’t see behind the curtain of slavery and didn’t have knowledge of the abuse. So owners like Mr. Auld in northern city-states try not to appear as a bad owner of slaves. Ms. Auld, Hugh’s wife wasn’t exposed to slavery yet and tried to teach Douglas to read, because after his household duties he had some spare time. In history a white slave owner was typically not one to approve of education for a slave. Auld didn’t approve of Douglas’s reading and ended that for him. It was too late! Douglas had known too much to stop now and learned from homeless white children to read. Growing up Douglas heard about anti-slavery movements, which set his mind for the freedom and safety of the north. This is one of Douglas’s major themes: knowledge will set you to free, as for Fredrick Douglas. As a young adult he was a rebellious slave always discussing freedom and back talking the masters and received a lot of beatings because of it. Douglas’s will to fight for freedom was soon broken by Covey his was the terrible son of a bitch they called “slave breaker”. Douglas spirit was being beaten out of him until finally he broke, giving up on his chances of freedom. Not for long as Douglas fights Covey into submission. Douglas next went on to serve for William Freelander a better experience because he got to connect deeply with a family and teaches some of the slaves. Douglas befriends fellow slaves and strategizes a plan to escape on canoe. Douglas gets caught and sent to live with Mr. Auld and soon later escapes to New York. The theme of his newfound freedom is a character awakening, when entering New York, as he can be sociably accepted and appreciated by many white persons. He then pursued his careers as abolitionist, preacher, and anti-slavery writer.

A major theme example: knowledge is freedom is represented when Douglas was taught to read when he was 7 years of age. Douglas continues his fight for education as the answer to freedom influencing slaves this message. Douglas knows just being educated won’t set you free, but it reveals what slavery is. His view of education “opened my eyes to the horrible pit, but offered no ladder upon which to get out” (Douglas 47). Frederick Douglas devoted himself from an early age to first learning how to read and write from the white boys. White slaveholders are threatened by education and what it can do to a slave making them receive the end of the whip. Douglas’s narrative makes clear how the process of learning is the definition of his social consciousness and role in abolition and civil rights movements. Religion was also a major thesis in Douglas’s life, as he makes the distinction between what true Christianity is. Douglas shows that a slaveholders Christianity is in no way evidence of their inner goodness, but a way for them to believe in their own self-righteous abusing of slaves. This can be seen as a motive of the victimization of female slaves. In his narrative Douglas depicts the vivid images of the abuse women went though. Such as Aunt Hester whom Douglas witnessed get very badly beaten in the first couple pages. In detail Douglass’s describes how the mangled and emaciated bodies are meant to incite pain and outrage in the reader and point to the unnaturalness of the institution of slavery. The treatment of slaves as property is a motive throughout the narrative. Douglas’s bleeding message is the truth that slaves are human, but are being treated like property. Like that of a caged animal, slaves being taken from Africa almost never had a chance. Literally being worked to death as overseer’s would do and say nothing. Douglas finds this to be absurd and urges the cruelty must stop. Douglas’s resistance is seen many times fighting and back talking his masters and overseers. Douglas shows this theme of resistance to power when he first stands up to Covey the antagonist and main nemesis of Douglas. Douglas resistance to his owners is his key to manhood, but “Mr. Covey succeeded in breaking him” (Douglas 55). Douglas demonstrated a turning point were he no longer takes Covey’s beatings and fights back for his rights. Mr. Covey never bothered him again. This is because; Douglas has earned respect as a man for fighting which is linked to the coming of age theme, as Douglas becomes a man.

I though The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglas an American Slave was great triumph the way Douglas overcame slavery through his will and determination of education. This book makes me think about the power of education for how much Douglas was willing to fight for his dream, and the outcome of setting a man free because of that dream. Douglas’s journey from a slave to writer, orator is both fascinating and inspiring. Douglas wrote this narrative to inform the reader about the truth and reveal the awful institution that it is. For this reason I give the book a B minus. If one of my main purposes as an author is to captivate and persuade the reader that slavery is bad, I might have done the book in not only in the point of view of Frederick Douglas’s, but also other character such as Covey to know the evil in him towards a colored person. With different point’s of view in a story a reader can fully understand everyone’s feelings towards the subject, so including point of view of all major characters might show more to the recurring evil in a slaveholder. After reading the book my views of slavery have not changed. I still believe it to be one of the foulest acts of cruelty that has ever to have been let socially accepted. The fair treatment and equality of everyone still continues to be fought for and should be addressed even in today’s society.