Autism Observation Paper

Autism is a physical condition linked to irregular biology and chemistry within the brain. Even although the causes for these abnormalities are unknown, there been a quantity of potential methods to have autism. For example the mothers food regimen whereas being pregnant, digestive observe modifications, mercury poisoning (which is considered one of the most well-known reasonings), the body’s inability to properly use vitamins and minerals, or vaccine sensitivity.

Many dad and mom fear that giving their child a vaccine could lead as much as them having autism, and being that a toddler can seem normal up to eighteen months, parents typically would somewhat wait till the child’s older to offer them shots.

However it’s essential to consider your child’s risks of not having the vaccination. All routine childhood vaccines can be found in single-dose varieties that do not comprise added mercury. Studies have shown that autism effect’s extra boys on the earth then girls.

Some medical doctors believe’s the rise incidence of autism is from learning new definitions of autism.

For example a toddler that’s diagnosed with high-functioning autism today, was most likely looked at as odd or strange thirty years ago. Some symptoms parents begin to discover round eighteen months is while fake play, social interactions or verbal or non-verbal communications. Some kids seem normal up to age two after which start to regress, lose language and social abilities they’ve gained, which known as regressive autism.

Some examples are sensitivity to sight, hearing, contact, scent, or taste. Have unusual misery, repeats physique actions, or exhibits unusual attachments to things.

Some symptoms can moderate to extreme like speaking with gestures as an alternative of words, can’t start a dialog, speaks slow or not at all or repeats words that they’ve remembered from before. Children with autism usually don’t make associates, reveals lack of empathy, could treat individuals like objects, or is withdrawn. Some act up, have quick attention spans, or gets stuck on single topics.

A child with autism can’t precisely go through a day like a normal baby, but with assist from others, they can positively attempt to. They are very sensible youngsters, simply could have a more durable time understanding and doing issues. For my website visit, I visited an after faculty program name “The Ymywaha” which is owned privately. In the classroom I visited the kids have been twos and threes. There were about fifteen children within the class together with two autistic boys around three years old. There was one main instructor, and assistant trainer and a helper for the 2 boys.

I visited this class from three-thirty pm to around four-forty 5 pm. When I arrived the youngsters have been coming in from playing on the playground. They got here in washed their palms and obtained prepared to take a seat and speak about the butterflies they had been rising in school. At this point, their butterflies had been still in cacoons. Not solely did they’ve butterflies within the classroom they had child chicks. The children were well behaved and cooperated with the academics. Except for one little boy, he was one that’s autistic.

When the trainer gathered the kids to speak about their butterflies, he needed to play with the infant chicks. He rotated ignored the category and stared on the child chicks. A little lengthy after, he picked up one of many chicks and held on to it actually tight. His helper requested him to place the chick back, however he refused, she requested once more and he refused, She then explained that they’re speaking concerning the butterflies proper now and after then had been accomplished then he can play with the child chicks.

He dropped the chick and ran out the classroom. The helper instructor ran after him and spoke to him out in the hall. He walked again in calmly and sat along with his different children. When I asked, I was told he was very rebellious. Quickly he received concerned with the butterflies and forgot about eager to play with the infant chicks. Meanwhile the other little boy with autism in the identical class was more withdrawn from everyone. He was very quite and didn’t say or wish to do a lot. He didn’t really interact with the other youngsters.

When I asked about him, the lecturers explained that he doesn’t speak very properly, but he’s very sensible. It would take him some time to get things done however he does a great job. During the day at daycare he had speech lessons to help his improvement in language. I enjoyed my visit. It taught me not one however, about two kinds of autism and helped me perceive it somewhat higher. I received to witness an autistic youngster act-up and see how a instructor would deal with that baby. I additionally benefit from the children within the class. I couldn’t believe how sensible those little persons are.

Art Observation

For my artwork remark I went to preschool. I observed a Jr. Kindergarten class that consisted of 12 students between the ages of 4 and 5. It was a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday class. The day that I observed the scholars and academics generally (as properly as the whole school) have been slightly distracted, as a result of it was image day. So after the scholars took their pictures they did their art activity so that they wouldn’t need to stop and so they wouldn’t get soiled for the picture.

Overall, the art activity was loved by both trainer and student and was developmentally acceptable. First, the trainer obtained the youngsters to take a seat down at their table before she stared to clarify the activity. The tables have been facet by aspect with 7 chairs round every desk. (The tables had been additionally covered with a plastic to assist make the clean up simpler. ) Their letter of the week was “g”, so the trainer started out by asking them what words started with the letter “g”.

Many students raised their hands and answered appropriately.

They had been studying concerning the letter “g” all week, so that they have been able to acknowledge a number of phrases. Then, the instructor brought out an instance of a picture of a goat on a brown paper lunch bag, and the students started to ask her what shade a goat was. She had the paper helper pass out the papers to the children, which triggered somewhat dilemma of “that paper wasn’t for you” ,”but you place it in front of me”, and so on.

Each student had already brought out their separate pencil packing containers crammed with crayons, markers, scissors and glue sticks.

The children began color their goats any shade they wished without really referencing to the instance. While the youngsters had been working the teacher read the story of The Three Billy Goats Gruff. The children had been thinking about each actions. Sometimes they’d cease to ask questions about the book and the images. The e-book was small though, and students complained about not with the flexibility to see. The trainer had to stroll round and present them the images.

The students had been happy to have the story. The college students had accomplished this artwork project earlier than, but with different animals that started with completely different letters. After the students were carried out coloring, they reduce out the photographs with out having to be informed to. Then they used the glue sticks to attach them to the brown luggage. The trainer was constantly asking questions about the letter “g” and goats. When they had been accomplished with the project, they put their names on it and put it of their cubbies. hose who had been carried out earlier than other moved on to the following activity and then after that free play. They were all excited to point out off their goat puppets. During the whole activity, the youngsters were speaking to one another and telling stories. The teacher was continuously strolling around helping and observing. In this activity the children had been chopping, gluing, coloring, and writing their names. There were issues that I didn’t agree with , corresponding to the instance and the repeat project, but the experience was entertaining for all within the classroom.

A Visual Art Observation

Starry Night of Vincent Van Gogh is one intriguing murals to analyse. It is basically striking due to its heavy brush strokes and luminous colours. The seemingly limitless curves and swirls can entice you into exploring the piece more intently. Aesthetically, it’s a magical amalgamation of black and blue. For this cause, speaking an evident picture of a city in the course of the evening time. A brilliantly lit quarter moon settles on prime proper nook of the canvas. The yellowness of it somewhat literally borrows the sun’s color.

Its luminescence, together with eleven stars curtained at the upper half of the canvas, is somewhat too gleaming. The moon and stars appeared unusually luminous with intense colours encircling them. The lower greatest quadrant of the painting makes up the landscape of a quiet town where the dark colored roofings and trees present up. In addition, on the lower left quadrant reveals a huge cypress bush which seemed too vertically stiff against the horizontal waves of the night time sky.

Apparently, the artist used horizontal contours within the bulk of the piece.

The dotted lines shaped the swirls and circles within the painting. The artist strokes are impressive as a outcome of the gave the impression to be made up of transient traces of various colours submitted collectively to create a vibrant and spectacular photographs of a peaceful city. Every object in the paintings has constant shapes and color composition. The stars have a tiny purple orange dot on the center to indicate its dimension regardless of its flaring encompass.

The mountains have black details to present its edges and blue-coloured soil.

Likewise, the houses are also specified by black nonetheless in their case, the surfaces range in colours like brown, green, gentle blue, violet, orange and other dark shades. The timber exist in curves in darkish tones of green, blue and black. The darkish bushes, however, is coloured too darkly with brown, green and black. Van Gogh has truly genuinely revealed part of his persona and emotional standing in Starry Night. The extreme usage of curves and swirls confirmed his unusual vision of the world. It depicts his mental state of schizophrenia and his want to end his life.

The heavy strokes denote the depression that he was currently encountering. The bushes which appeared misplaced in the painting pointed instantly towards the heavens present his dark thoughts on ending his life. It gives the impression of demise as it’s formed with darkish shades and rigorously designed to separate it from the world—same with the emotions of Van Gogh. It can additionally be noticeable in his work that it is full opposites; starting from the straight strains to curved traces; the brightness of the stars to the darkness of the colours used; the peaceful town to the raging evening sky.

Who may have thought that such reverse components might create a powerful work of art? The painting is greater than just a symbolic picture of the artist’s thoughts. It is his actuality which is conjured by his passion with artwork. The quite a few curves and swirls painting his desperation to be free contemplating that he painted the Starry Night whereas he was inside a mental asylum. Vincent Van Gogh is indeed a “mad genius” as admirers would often label him (Boime, 2008, p. 1).

The Starry Night contains symbolisms which might be meticulously encrypted by an artwork genius like Van Gogh. No wonder it is likely certainly one of the most attention-grabbing work today. Its vibrant elements and the unmistakable passion expressed by way of it by the artist seduce its audience in an exaggerated world of a person who only bought one painting in his lifetime.


Boime, A. (2008). Revelation of Modernism: Responses to Cultural Crises in Fin-de-Siecle Painting. Missouri: University of Missouri Press

A Pleasurable and Educational Preschool Observation

I observed a 4 12 months old preschool class throughout playtime in Staten Island, New York. The class consisted of eight children, and one licensed preschool instructor. There have been four boys and 4 ladies in the class. During my sixty minute remark I seen a number of cases of dramatic play, peer relationships, relationships with adults, and self-control.

Dramatic Play

During my remark, I witnessed a bunch of two- one boy and one girl-playing home. According to Hutchinson (2011) kids often use taking half in house as an opportunity to discover reality and their social roles based mostly on adult behavior.

The two kids that I noticed explored actuality and their social roles as they pretended to eat dinner together as family. The pair even took it a step additional as they included doll babies to play as their kids. As the youngsters played home, the girl cooked dinner and the boy sat at the desk ready for dinner to be ready. As the boy waited for dinner to be prepared, he got up, walked round as if he was in search of one thing and got here back with two child dolls and informed the woman, “here they will sit subsequent to you”.

The boy had assigned the girl a perceived female position, to be the mom and look after the baby.

While the girl had assigned herself a female role, to cook dinner for the male. Therefore, the boy was routinely assigned a perceived male function, to wait for the feminine to complete cooking so he may eat. The pair’s dramatic play demonstrates how kids start to grasp normal gender roles and play accordingly during early childhood (Hutchinson, 2011).

This play interaction was not gender segregated. This non-gender segregated play is an efficient example of how kids play based on their gender. Although, many young children favor to play with same intercourse mates, I imagine this was not the case as a outcome of the pair felt enjoying house required a female and male to suit the right gender roles.

I also imagine that mass media performs a robust role in the means in which preschool kids play in their perceived gender roles. According to Kirkorian, Wartella and Anderson (2008), by preschool age kids are active television viewers. Therefore, if children watch reveals that are primarily based on family life, such as Modern Family, they will notice a strong presence of women within the kitchen and caring for children, and mannequin similar behaviors.

Relationships with Adults

During my statement there was little interplay with the teacher. Children seemed to prefer to play with their peers. One teacher-student interaction I observed was a withdrawal relationship. The instructor tried to interact the pair of preschoolers playing house. However, her engagement was unsuccessful. The trainer walked over to the pair’s play station and requested about the babies’ names. The pair answered the teacher however did not have interaction other than answering the query. During the time the instructor was questioning the pair, the lady received up from the play dinner table and walked over to play with another group, a group of girls. This example supports Garvey (1990) and Harper and McCluskey (2003) argument that the attention of an adult or instructor may hinder children’s peer interactions. The girl’s reaction to the teacher disrupting her play state of affairs was withdrawal. Another teacher-student interaction I observed was a pleasant interplay.

The trainer engaged a boy who was with vehicles in play. During this interplay, the boy was playing alone with vehicles and vans. The teacher requested if she may play with him, and he agreed. The instructor and scholar then played with vehicles and trucks in a pleasant method. This is regular as there’s a tendency for teachers to spend extra time with children who are much less social than extra social youngsters (Harper and McCluskey, 2003). The boy in this case could be perceived as less social than others as he played alone the whole hour.

During my observation I didn’t see attachment-seeking conduct from the children in path of the adults. However. I did have the chance to look at one preschool girl dropped off by her mother previous to my remark. The preschool girl’s habits was fussy and aggressive. The lady cried and kicked while the mother signed the lady in. The mom tried to soothe the lady, however looked like she wanted soothing herself. Generally, separation from mothers could be annoying for youngsters, nonetheless, separation from children can also be annoying for moms (Balaban et al., 2002).

Peer Relationship

One peer relationship I noticed consisted of three ladies taking part in dress-up. Unlike the earlier pair that was not gender segregated, this group of women was gender segregated. According to Hutchinson (2011) in early childhood, youngsters make pals with different children of the same gender and age. As these women engaged in dramatic play they were very nice to one another. They performed with each other’s hair, did every other’s make-up, and referred to one another as “my greatest friend”.

After the forth girl within the class finished enjoying house with the boy, she approached the three women and asked if she may play with them. The three women took the forth girls play initiation as a battle. The three ladies then teamed up and stated “no means, you’re not our friend” to the fourth girl within the class. Young youngsters often use the time period good friend and playmate interchangeable. According to Hutchinson (2011), younger children see the definition of a friend as someone you play with. Therefore, when the fourth woman asked to play with the three ladies she was excluded as a result of she performed with the boy and was the boy’s pal and never the three girl’s pal.


During my statement, I witness one occasion of aggression. One girl was constructing a “princess castle” with building blocks and a boy got here by and kicked over the castle. The lady immediately got up and pushed the boy and the boy pushed the woman back. The boy or woman did not present any self-regulation as they engaged in a struggle. Also, there was no useful or empathic prosocial habits, as the children’s actions did not stop negative impulses. In this occasion of “self-control” or lack of self-control, the boy and the lady exhibited both instrumental aggression, fighting over toys and physical aggression, physical drive against someone.

However, these type of aggression is regular for preschool aged kids as aggression increases during early childhood years (Hutchinson, 2011). Fortunately, aggressive behaviors normally deteriorate by the end of early childhood as children learn to better communicate their needs (Hutchinson, 2011). My preschool observation was a pleasurable expertise. I was capable of watch eight pleased kids play, struggle, snicker, and joke with one another. My remark was also an academic experience as I was capable of apply theories discovered in school to real life situations. Overall, my observation expertise was each enjoyable and educational.

Balaban, N., Brodkin, A. M., David, J., Drucker, J., Feder-Feitel, L., & Greenberg, P. (2002). A Great Start To School. Scholastic Parent & Child,
10(1), 40-45.

Harper, Lawrence V & McCluskey, Karen S. (2003). Teacher-child and child-child interactions in inclusive preschool settings: Do adults inhibit peer interactions? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18, 163-184. doi:10.1016/S0885-2006%2803%2900025-5 Hutchison, E. (2011). Early Childhood. In Dimensions of human habits: The Changing Life Course (4th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Kirkorian, H., Wartella, E., & Anderson, D. (2008). Media And Young Children’s Learning. The Future of Children, 18(1), 39-61.
Garvery, C. (1990). Play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Observation Narrative

Days of Old When Knights Were Bold

Growing up, I was never that girl that fantasized about becoming a princess and meeting that special prince that would sweep me off my feet and save me from all misery. Even sorcery books such as the Harry Potter series did not appeal to me. I did not believe in any of that quirky fantasy land stuff so the idea of being dragged to the Michigan Renaissance Festival with my family over Labor Day weekend did not appeal to me; I would have much rather been out having fun in the sun barbequing with friends just as any other American typically celebrates the holiday. Staring out the car window all I saw was cornfields and the occasional Ma and Pa family owned restaurant or ice cream parlor. Mt. Holly came into view a little further down the road, but the slopes were dry and scarce due to it being summer. Tucked behind all the forestation was a small fairground where police orderly directed cars into the lot. The parking lot, overwhelmingly large in size, branched in two directions. One led to a general area and the other took cars single file down a long and winding path. This brought butterflies to my stomach. License plates were country wide varying from fellow Michiganders to visiting guests from neighboring states such as Indiana and Ohio and some traveling from as far away as Florida or Kansas. Once we secured our designated spot and our legs were fully stretched after sitting stationary for the hour drive we merged with the herd of people and marched together through the forest to discover this new unknown world. The walk was a journey in itself. The weeds in the wasteland of the parking lot stood knee high and tickled my leg with every movement.

There appeared to be no end in sight as it was at least a mile long containing various obstacles such as logs barricading the path and bridges. Surprisingly there were no mosquitoes but the sound of the crickets chirping and the leaves crinkling all echoed loudly. I so badly wanted to turn around and hike back to the car but as I got closer I could catch glimpses of the festivities through bare spots between branches and heard ear piercing screeches and rowdy whistles along with bursts exiting out the tall vintage buildings. This shot my curiosity level through the roof and the excitement continued to build. The path had ended and before my eyes was a new world; something I had only seen before in movies. The spirit of the festival had overtaken my body and the feeling was enchanting. Giant castles awaited me along with colorful flags and banners streamed over the entrance with cheerful greetings labeled, “Huzzah!” I was suddenly willing to give this all a chance and I had a new frame of mind that was open to adventure. Walking in those front gates was a lot to take in and represented a totally new side of the social spectrum when compared to a normal festival. People were dressed in a wide range of attire and it was hard to differentiate the workers from the tourists. The main clue was that tourists casually walked around grinning whereas the staff tended to get fully into character by perfecting their accent. Each got the chance to live out a life they had always dreamt of through roll play and step outside their comfort zone without being judged.

There were fair maidens, juggling court jesters, wizards, elves, and fairies. All fantasy elements were covered and all of this contributed to the illusion of taking a step back and reliving medieval times. Coming from a family of macho men it was absurd to see a men proudly sporting kilts along with boots accented with bells that jingled with every step creating a musical tune of its own. Even more shocking was the fact that they all had a strong family support system lined up behind them all dressed matching in theme as well. It seemed that the more eccentric the outfit, the better. Long velvet capes with matching feathered hats or flowery garland in the women’s hair were also common while others dressed as mystical animals and pranced around with tails and ears. These costumes were all things that I would never be caught dead in but after a while strangely enough, we all blended together.

There was an aroma of sweat due to everyone dressed in multiple layers but no one seemed to mind as it was a mere part of the ambiance as back in the Renaissance Period people did not shower for days. There was a plethora of patrons however that attended dressed in causal street clothes that sought a gratifying day out with friends and family but even they got sucked into the spirit of things and unexpectedly started curtseying and using the language. Dressing in garb expressed the true rapture of upgrading from being a patron to now a participant. This event catered to all ages. Fairy Godmothers rested on stones along the pathway making them readily approachable and eager to share their tales with anyone willing to listen. Their voices were so soft spoken it was impossible for anyone to simply pass by. Street peasants welcomed on goers into their dancing circle as they chanted traditional hymns. I have never been much of a dancer due to my lack of rhythm but I must say once they got me started with the basics I refused to stop and entirely forgot others were watching. The petting zoo provided a wonderful hands on experience featuring encounters with livestock as well as other exotic animals such as lion cubs, kangaroos and toucans that could be bottle fed if you wished to do so. The king set aside a playscape for the kids to interact, swing and slide but also had other ways to test one’s knightly skills. The bungee jump seemed to draw the most attention but the archery, king of the log challenge and axe throws did not fall short in interest. Little girls had the chance to learn proper waves, curtsies and poise through a boot camp run by the village Princesses themselves.

The Mermaid Lagoon was a disappointment in my opinion. After patiently waiting in a line for over thirty minutes I expected to see a luxurious area with mermaids whose tails sparkled elegantly in the sunlight, when in reality all it turned out to be was one girl in a cheesy costume floating in a dunk tank. On the flip side there was a wonderful replica wooden horse hung between two massive oak trees that allowed kids to race down full speed to master the art of ring spearing just as they had seen the real knights do out on the playing field at the nearby arena. The smiles on the children’s faces were contagious and it was a continuous chain reaction of happiness that spread rapidly. The adults had just as many activities to keep busy as well. Throughout the day various competitions were held to win bragging rights and often at times, gold chalices. Some of these included beard competitions where one could show off his whiskers and have the chance to win in the following categories: longest, thickest, most unique, and best overall. Part of me felt as if the cast and crew of the reality television series Duck Dynasty should have guest appeared at the ceremony to distribute the prizes but my wish fell short.

The tattoo contest was run in the same manner but instead with the categories being: best black and grey tattoo, best color tattoo, best overall, and worst overall. I was amazed to see that the male to female contestant ratio was relatively close to equal. To continue the friendly competitions, in one of the main colorful tents was a Root Beer belching competition that some competitors were proudly capable of rumbling the stage. It was impressive yet disturbing all in one. Good sportsmanship was well displayed and no one took the loss to heart by sincerely congratulating the winners. The objective of the Pub Crawl was to drink one beer at each of the four stations while led by entertainers to keep the atmosphere cool, calm, and relaxed. Upon the departure from each bar, fairies would splatter glow paint on one’s chest. The streets were flooded with an abundance of vendors ranging from apparel and candles, to plants and paintings. This is how most vendors earned a living so without surprise, they pushed their products diligently. Unfamiliar musical instruments such as bird whistles and bongos brought a new sense of relaxation as I closed my eyes and let my mind take me elsewhere.

I was utterly fascinated with the number of people willing to pay for palm reading to uncover different aspects of future life including successes and love. Superstitions were more common than I thought. As some would say, there is no harm in jumping on the bandwagon every once in a while. With that being said, a hookah station was set up encouraging tourists to take a break and get a little weird. Men dressed in puffy shirts and flared out pantaloons walked around carrying large, woven baskets overhead selling flowers to all the fair maidens. All were very well mannered and charming. The patrons were invited to participate in the annual fairy house competition in which the top three winners received awards for their hard work and creativity. The rules advised artists to make durable houses that could withstand any weather using entirely natural materials and furnishing the inside and outdoor with landscape. Out in the open area stood two actors that mastered the art of pretending to be a statue and were covered head to toe in grey body paint.

Their movements were slow and swift as they changed poses to be photographed by on goers. My dad was the only one to spot the man standing in a pot to look like a shrub while the rest of us nonchalantly walked by completely oblivious to such a phenomenon. In this man’s case, he could join in the fun but also camouflage his true identity. The festival as a whole is made up of hundreds of very diverse and multi-talented entertainers that never fail to please and in most circumstances is what keeps people coming back year after year. There is always a show going on ranging from group or stand-alone comedians to singers and quartets greeting newcomers at the welcome gate. A group of the finest acrobats were selected to show off their coordination and extraordinary balance doing tricks requested by audience members. A costumed human chess game took place behind the jousting arena and was played using actors instead of volunteers to bring out true combat when one tried to take out another piece. With this new twist whoever won the choreographed fight earned the right to the spot on the game board. The captain and his fellow ship mates auctioned off one of a kind items from his pirate ship. Here, buyers could purchase things such as swords and daggers at extremely low prices. Zoltan the Adequate was another street entertainer that did anything to please his audience.

He did bizarre tricks such a balloon swallowing to fire eating to nearly severing his own arm. As one would assume young children would be the easiest to deceive although Zoltan was able to keep all age groups tuned in with his sense of danger, excitement and edgy interactive magic. An unsuspected audience member was selected to assist him in a few tricks and that individual coincidentally turned out to be my mother. My mother is very shy and certainly does not like being the center of attention so we were dumbfounded that she did not object or throw a tantrum about going on stage. She faced her fears and as result, all we heard for the remainder of the afternoon was how we should be proud of her. The most attended event of the day included the heart stopping jousting tournament which had trained professionals of this skill that were willing to fight to their death to win the honor and respect of their town’s people. I really liked the concept of this because nowadays it is not as common to find gentlemen of this caliber. Back then, men were raised to be chivalrous towards women and the less fortunate, strongly serve God and do their King proud.

Each knight and their noble horse were fancily clothed and color coordinated all promising to use the strength in their hearts to ride their opponents to the dirt. As in any highly competitive sporting event, both the crowd and the contestants heckled one another and at times, I would witness the crowd unite as one as we raised up our drinks and roared together with great enthusiasm. These knights did just as they had promised and played with blood, sweat, grace, and complete dedication never losing focus. The three main events were the warm up which consisted of squires holding the rings and after a few run-throughs, actually tossing them into the air as the knights rode by spearing them. Then proceeded with the joust face off which was quite physical being that the one knight intentionally knocked an opponent off resulting in an injury that sought immediate medical attention. By the end of the joust all four knights hobbled their way to center stage to face each other one last time in a traditional sword fight. A little girl from the sidelines managed to escape her mother’s arms and ran out to an injured knight and healed him with a kiss on the cheek. The show shortly wrapped up after that and the barriers of the different cheering sections vanished as the knights mingled with the crowd and allowed the young children to pet their steed. The royal tavern had an endless array of food that would easily satisfy the heartiest of appetites.

From savory turkey legs and Barbarian burgers to deep fried desserts and apple dumplings, there were plenty of options to choose from. The portion sizes were generous for the prices being so reasonable. Most things served to eat came on a stick whether it was hot pickles, which were conveniently sold at every street corner or frozen bananas and cheesecake. Table manners and common eating etiquette did not apply at the festival hence why they did not supply utensils or napkins. In fact, the most lady-like way of eating the authentic turkey leg was to take two fingers and rip off pieces. Most importantly, there was plenty of beer to wash it all down and for the nonalcoholic attendees; sodas, smoothies and other beverages were sold. Stepping out of one’s comfort zone opens a whole new world filled with opportunity and adventure. The biggest setback for exploring something new is fearing what others will say or think. The people involved with this festival clearly did not care about any of that and it was enjoyable to see and appreciate their colorful imaginations. I gained a lot from this experience because going in, I had no clue what to expect it created an exhilarating suspense. I learned that is completely acceptable to be silly to whatever extent and people often tend to respect you more for it because you are willing to take that risk of resisting society’s norm.

Education Field Observation Report

I have learned a lot about the teaching profession this semester. My dream has always been to become an Elementary teacher. I had the opportunity to observe many classrooms, especially at the Elementary grade levels. Through field experience, I was able to imagine my own classroom and teaching methods. I observed both student-based classrooms and teacher-based classrooms. I even had the opportunity to learn about teaching special education classes, which I never considered teaching until now.

This field experience has made me question the level that I want to teach, the methods of instruction I should choose, and the content area on which I should focus. Although my task was to observe for five hours in elementary, five hours in middle school, and five hours in high school, I observed more teachers and classrooms at the elementary level. Starting out, my goal was to teach only grades kindergarten through fifth, but I had the realization that I would not mind teaching at middle grade levels. In some of the student-centered classrooms, I noticed that group work made some of the quieter students feel comfortable speaking in class and engaging in activities.

An example is the fourth grade class that worked in groups and rotated stations every few minutes. They enjoyed the subject content more since they had the opportunity to work together. This is something I want to bring to my classroom. I got to see teacher-based classrooms, too. However, I did not enjoy observing these classes as much. I felt like the students were not as engaged, and they just did not want to be there. All of the teachers that I observed this semester welcomed me to their classrooms.

They even invited me to visit again. In most of the classes, I noticed that the students felt comfortable around the teacher. One teacher engaged in conversation with her students about their spring break. She was inspiring to watch. She was teaching math while I was there, and every student was engaged. She made the children comfortable yet she had their full attention during the math activity. I am glad I had the opportunity to observe the interactions between the students and teachers, because I was able to realize the importance of the students comfort in class.

This was especially true in the co-taught special education class that I observed. For example, the students were allowed to sit on the floor and take their tests to reduce test-anxiety. I was given the chance to really think about how student behavior is influenced by the teacher’s behavior. Before obtaining field experience, I believed that middle school students would be unruly and frustrating to teach.

I feel differently now that I have seen the middle grade teachers in action. All of the teachers were helpful and explained their philosophies to make me understand how they have well-disciplined students. Behaviorism was a topic discussed in our textbook, and I was able to see different theories first hand. For example, most of the elementary teachers have reward systems set up to endorse good behavior. Others, start the school year out being very strict and then loosen up as the year unwinds.

I want to have a good behavior model for my classroom, so I was glad to observe various techniques. Some of the teachers gave me copies of the lessons the students were doing at the time of my observation. I found these activities useful as they made me think about the curriculum that is used. This was important to me since we learned about curriculum and how it is determined, as well as by whom it is determined. Most of the classes that I observed were my favorite subjects, English, Language Arts, and Math. However, I now feel more comfortable at the thought of teaching other content areas, grade levels, and even special education.

I was given the chance to observe an English as a Second Language class at the tenth grade level. When first learning about ESL classes this semester I thought I would never want to teach this type of class. This is one of the classes that I am most interested in now. I enjoyed watching the teachers and students interactions, but I did not care for the method of instruction. Although, the teacher used student-centered instruction, it seemed as though he was unable to relate the vocabulary of the activity to some of the students because of the language barrier.

I imagined various technology and resources that the instructor could have used. This is an area that I hope to observe more in the future. I thoroughly enjoyed every minute of observation time in the field this semester. I have realized that I am on the right track to a rewarding career. I am still inspired and more determined to become an educator. I am thankful that I had the opportunity to learn from other teachers. Mostly, I was inspired by their patience, innovation, determination, and their compassion for each individual student.

Participant Observation

The two research methods in sociology are Quantitative and Qualitative. Quantitative research is typically about numbers and graphs. The purpose is to predict and classify results and create graphs and models to explain the results. The researcher is detached from the subject matter and knows exactly what they are looking for. This type of research method can begin with a thesis and is best utilized towards the end of an experiment. Qualitative research is almost the opposite. It is about the expression of the results in words or visual aids. The researcher is heavily involved in the subject matter and only knows roughly what they are looking for. This research method is best utilized towards the beginning of an experiment because the intrinsic evolutionary quality about this method (Neill, 2007).

Both methods of research can be philosophically justified because they actually would work great hand in hand in one experiment. However, the practice of Qualitative research has a rich quality about it. This form of study gives leeway to freedom in experimentation. Not knowing exactly what you want to find out or learn in an experiment and a research process that is flexible is desirable to many researchers.

Two research methods in anthropology are Participant Observation and Survey Research. Participant Observation involves a researcher fully immersing themself in a culture for an extended amount of time in order to experience that culture “from within” (Donohue-Lynch, 2014). This requires the researcher to participate in daily activities to gain understanding of what it means to be a native. This type of research method allows the environment and subject matter to direct the method of research. Survey Research consists of surveys, interviews, and questionnaires that give insight to a large population. It is important to consider the audience when formulating a question. The researcher must consider culture, language, and age among many other things because the question can be easily misinterpreted. Interviewing the subjects ask direct questions and leads the experiment.

There are several methods of research in anthropology; however, Participant Observation appears to have some weight to its method. It seems that the best way to gain knowledge about a specific population would be to live like
they do rather than question them about it, or see it in the media, or reference history. The best way to lend yourself to discovery is by fully immersing yourself in it and letting go of control, let the data uncover itself through intrinsic experiences.

Each of the previously mentioned research methods is valuable to scientific study. Anthropological and Sociological research methods differ in that they aim to discover something different; they have different goals. Quantitative and Qualitative methods differ from each other in that the first utilizes a thesis and is better utilized at the beginning of an experiment and the latter does not have a clear set goal and is better utilized at the end of an experiment. However, they are the same in that they accurately examine a group of people or social group and are able to extrapolate information specific to their population through their research methods.

Participant Observation and Survey Research differ in that the first uses visual aides and immersing oneself into a culture to gain knowledge about the subject groups habits and experience what it is like to be part of that group by becoming a member and participating in daily activities, the latter focuses on questionnaires, verbal or written, in order to gain information about a specific group of people by communicating and directing them to provide information that you desire, the process is more rigid and requires more technology than participant observation. However, they share a likeness in that they both reach a specific group and are effective in retrieving desired information.

Donohue-Lynch, B. (2014). Cultural anthropology: Methods. Retrieved on September 5, 2014 from Neill, J. (2007) Qualitative versus quantitative research: Key points in a classic debate. Retrieved on September 4, 2014 from

Physical development observation of a special need child in a group of diverse children


In Chapter six, Stress is the body’s reaction to a physical or emotional situation that causes discrepancy in a person’s life. On the other hand, all children will experience stress, sometimes significant amounts of it, in their lives. The author depict the stress that young children may experience and it may well be resulting from disrupted homes, blended families, both parents working outside the home; increased exposure to violence, Parents working all the time, death, poverty Experts agree that for some children, growing up in today’s world may be tougher. As many as 25% of all children are at risk of academic failure because of physical, emotional, or social problems and are less able to function well in the classroom because they are hungry, sick, troubled, or depressed. Children seem to have fewer sources of adult support than in the past, and many are being pressured to grow up faster (Honig, 2009; Marks, 2002).We need to be concerned about accumulated childhood stress and to be watchful about the types of stress-coping responses children are developing.

Children experience stress from time to time in growing up. We have good evidence that children in poor families are less able to function well academically, socially, and physically. Despite this, almost 12 million children in the United States (16%) live in poverty, and another 5 million (7%) live in extreme poverty (Luthar & Sexton, 2007. Many children live in families that are typically overwhelmed with high levels of substance abuse, domestic abuse, and mental health problems. Poor children are more inclined to have developmental delays and behavioral and disciplinary problems than other children. They experience malnutrition, health problems, and below average school performance. Five suggested techniques for reducing childhood stress and supporting young children at home are: For parents that are working all the times, quality time is important as kids get older. Allow time for fun activities, It’s really hard to come home after a long day of work to get down on the floor, and play with your kids or just talk to them about their day especially if they’ve had a stressful one themselves. Whether they need to talk or just be in the same room with you, make yourself available because expressing interest shows that they’re important. Complicating factors, like a divorce or separation, when these are added to the everyday pressures that kids are facing, the stress is overstated. Divorce has been embattled as the single largest cause of childhood depression. Almost all children in that situation manifest some signs of psychological imbalance or feelings of insecurity.

Even the most amicable divorce can be a difficult experience for kids because of uncertainty, it is a tough change. Parents should never put kids in a position of having to choose sides or expose them to negative comments about the other spouse. Parents need to sit down and explain to children the changes in an age appropriate way about what to expect, reassure them that the love both parents have for them will never change and that both of you will always be there to support them in any way. Another Suggested technique is Life event like death of a love one, Parents feel uncertain about how to comfort their children who have experienced the loss of a love one. Children understand very little about death, it is the parent’s responsibility to help their children develop a healthy understanding about the subject matter.

Different families have different views when talking to children about death, it is a day to day event that even adult cannot comprehend but in that circumstance parents have no choice but to help their children cope with their loss by allowing them to talk and express their feelings and emotions. Additional suggested technique is natural disaster, as we seen in many countries where a hurricane or an earthquaque cause a family to lose their home and all their belongings. In time of hardship and confusion such as this, Children are thrown out of balance, they feel disoriented and will develop stress and anxiety caused by fear. Parents need to shield their children and help them get back into control. Talk to the children, reassure them that this situation is temporary and promise them that things will get better or seek professional help. Conclusion

Our complex modern society has greatly increased the amount of stress adults and children are exposed to. Children are experiencing more stress at younger and younger ages Children react in different ways to stress. Some children become ill. Some may become withdrawn and nervous while others show anger and demand attention. It is not easy to recognize when kids are stressed out, but listen and watch for behavioral changes, mood swings, acting out, changes in sleep patterns, or bedwetting can be indications.

Some kids have trouble concentrating or completing schoolwork. Still others become withdrawn or spend a lot of time alone even very young children have worries and feel stress to some degree. Adults ordinarily fail to recognize the incidence and magnitude of stress in the lives of children the author went on to explain how to help kids cope with stress, it is to provide proper rest and good nutrition, to create time for your kids each day. No technique will work all of the time. But Pay a little extra attention to her

Some children experience more stress than others, some are more sensitive to stress and some are better at handling it than others.

We cannot eliminate all stress from children’s lives, nor can we always succeed in making stressed children feel better immediately. Stress is a part of life, and children learn how to handle child-sized stress by dealing with it, with appropriate help and support. By practicing stress-reduction and relaxation strategies with your children, you’re helping them build skills they will use throughout their lives. Create an information sheet that can be sent home to help families support their children in times

Observation Techniques In Early Childhood and Education

“By observation, we mean closely watch, listen to and generally attend to what a child is doing, and record your findings as accurately and objective as possible”.

Reasons why observations are so important:

To ensure normative development
To know where children are in terms of Holistic development To plan developmental appropriate activities.
To have a record of children’s progress in case of be required for the stakeholders (parents or other professionals)

Through observations we can know children’s developmental progress and identify children with special needs.

Factors that need to be taken under consideration when we carry out child observations (principles of good practice):

Confidentiality: all information obtained in the observation must be treated with the strictest confidence (rights of the child and their family). Therefore: Ask for and get permission to carry out the observation from the parents or the workplace supervisor. Signature at the end of the observation is required. Never record the child’s name or the name of the childcare facility. Use codes to name the child (TC= Target child) or describe the childcare setting in general terms. Should not share this information outside the workplace setting.

Accurate description: Record what is directly observable, not our own assumptions Example: TC appears to be very angry instead of TC is very angry.

Objectivity: Observer must not be influenced for previous knowledge of the child, own emotional response to the child or interpretive things in a biased way (discriminatory).

Children’s wishes and feelings: If the observation causes distress or discomfort to the child, you should stop. If a child ask you what are you doing, explain that you are watching her doing for example playing, you are very interested in what she is doing. Show what you are writing down if the child shows interest. Stop the observation and intervene if a child might have an accident, is going to be hurt or bullied.

Disability: a child who has a disability may need extra time or support when being assessed.

Ethnic, linguistic and cultural background: Find out form parents about a child’s home language development, including if a child is learning English as an additional language. It is also important to understand the child’s family culture, for example in some cultures show respect to adults is important, so the child seems “withdrawn”.

To Involve the parents: Parental interviews, informal chats, home visits and questionnaires can give relevant information about the child development.

Observation Techniques



The observer writes down exactly what the child is doing and saying while being observed for 10 minutes or less. Codes are usually used to help write down everything quicker. The most popular is code system develop by Kathy Silva and her colleges (1980). Example: TC = Target child; C= Other child, A=Adult; = Speaks to, eg. TCA


No special equipment is needed.
Very objective method.
Enables to focus clearly on one child.
Give detailed information about the child.


Difficult to note down everything if the observer has not developed a good coding system. Difficult not to be interrupt.



Use a list of skills typical for the age group of the child we are observing.
Normally used for Physical and Social development observations.


Quick and easy to record and easy to understood.
Observations can be carried out during different days.
Familiar with milestones of development.


Information record is limited to what is required by the checklist. Not relevant information may not be recorded. Great emphasis on the “milestones” of development, however children follow a similar developmental pattern, but they all develop in their own unique way.

Time sample


Give information about:
Child’s activities (what the child is doing)
Social group (who the child is with
Language interactions (what the child is saying)
Sometimes used when a child has difficult to interact with other children. Series of short observations (usually up to two minutes each) at regular intervals that must be decided in advance, to ensure objectivity.


Good general picture of the child’s activities and interactions. To be able to carry out the observation in the normal daily routine.


Give information just of one or two areas of development (social with some language). Can be difficult to interrupt what you are doing, or the observer may forget to observe at the time required.

Personal learning

Child observation is an important skill that must be learned and practiced when you want to work with children. We should have in account when we assess the child development that every child is unique and development is not directly related to age. To achieve conclusion about where child is in terms of holistic development must be an ongoing process of regular and periodic observation of the child in a wide variety of circumstances. Be aware that children have different learning styles, rates of learning and preferences therefore the assessment criteria can be met in different ways to suit the child. We should have in consideration as well the ethnic, linguistic and cultural background of the child and child’s parents and also if the child shows a disability or an additional need.

Assessment a young children is not any easy task, it requires dedication, perseverance and time. The observer needs to pre-determine what needs to be assessed with regard to the child and then carefully plan what should be collected over a period of time. In this way the observer can determinate what the child has learned or experienced.

However, no matter which method of assessment is chosen, because each method has its strengths and limitations. That is why is very important to use different ways of assessing children to get an accurate, reliable level of the child development.



Flood, E.(2010).Child Development for Students in Ireland. Dublin.Gill & Macmillan.

Meggitt, C, Kamen, T, Bruce, T., Grenier, J. (2011).Children and young people´s Workforce.Oxon, Hodder Education an Hachette UK company.


Observation and Assessment, part “Special needs and early years”.

Data observation

Complete a data table that includes a prediction of reaction type (single replacement, double replacement, synthesis, decomposition, or combustion), observations, and identification of reaction type for each reaction in the lab. (10 points)

Prediction of Reaction Type
Reaction Type
Iron (III) and copper (II) sulfate solution
single replacement
Solids stay concentrated at the bottom
Single replacement
Lead (II) nitrate and potassium iodide solutions
Double replacement
Yellow colored powder collected at the bottom
Double replacement
Magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid solution
Single replacement
The solution began to fizz. Proves to be flammable.
single replacement
Electrolysis of water
The water bubbles In the tubes filled with H2 and O2
Burning magnesium
As the magnesium comes in contact with the CO2 it creates a bright burning light synthesis

Write a balanced equation for each reaction observed in this lab. (10 points)
2Fe + 3CuSO4 = 3Cu + Fe2(SO4)3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI = PbI2 + 2K(NO3)
Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2
2H2O = 2H2 + O2
2Mg + O2 = 2MgO
If you were to measure the mass of magnesium and hydrochloric acid before combining them in the test tube, how would that mass compare to the mass of reactants left in the test tube after the reaction? Explain your answer and how it corresponds to the law of conservation of mass. (5 points) -The mass would be the same as it started. This is because the law of conservation of mass states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed only changed.

One of the reactions you conducted can actually be categorized as TWO different types of reactions. Which reaction is this, and what are the two types of reactions? (5 points) It would be the Magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid solution because it bubbled but it still stayed in its form and didn’t change. It is single replacement or combustion.

Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

give and take within the play (e.g. sharing, deciding rules of the game, winning and losing) give and take outside the play (e.g. deciding what game to play, what the rules will be) sex roles actions allowed and not allowed by adults (e.g. rough play, dangerous play, war play, or other restrictions on play, no running, no toys at school) values perception reflective of the adult world (e.g. “I am good at baseball”)

Mt. San Antonio College
CHLD 10 Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

physical limitations
self-regulation, control of temper
skill comparison to others
persistence in the face of failure
empathy (aware of how my actions affect others)

Therapeutic Value
release of tension and stress
expression of emotions
release of anger in a socially accepted way
test fear
mastery of roles
Moral Value
adherence to rules
fair teams
including and excluding people
running up the score
criticizing and hurtful words

Mt. San Antonio College
CHLD 10 Observation Guide: Observation Assignment

Use the data collected in your observations to answer the following questions:

1) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s physical development?

2) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s cognitive development?

3) What aspects of play contribute to this child’s social and emotional development?

4) Speculate on a microsystem influence on this child’s play

5) Speculate on a macrosystem influence on this child’s play

6) Articulate how a future illness, Injury, or disability might affect this child’s ability to participate in the play you observed

Child Observation

For this assignment, I observed my six year old niece, Faustine Bui who was born on August 16, 2007, at the park where I was babysitting her with her mom for approximately thirty minutes. The park I observed her at is packed with children and dogs are allowed. There is a large play area with jungle-jims and slide and it includes a sandy area which has a variety of playing equipment as well. I first observed Faustine’s biosocial development such as physical growth, gross motor and fine motor skills. Faustine is 3 feet tall and she weighs 41 pounds according to my Aunt. She is a little shorter than a lot of the six year old that she hangs out with and the ones in the park but I think that her height is in the normal range for kids her age and considering that her parents are already short to begin with, I am not surprised that she is a little shorter than all the other kids. Faustine used to look like a very chubby baby with a large head and stubby limbs but she’s grown up now to be very lean. She is not chubby nor way too skinny. According to our textbook, “The Developing Person Through the Lifespan”, Faustine’s physical growth is normal.

By the age of six, the average child weighs between forty and fifty pounds and is at least 3 ½ feet tall. They have adult like body proportions which means that their legs constitute about half their total height and they are usually lean considering children around ages five and six have the lowest body fat compared to all the other ages. I believe that Faustine’s lean figure isn’t just due to the normal growth pattern around her age but that shes lean because of her eating habits at home. Fat isn’t really common in her diet at home and vegetables and fruits are mandatory for three meals a day, everyday. I can also tell she eats healthy because for our trip to the park today, my aunt brought a container of fruits and a couple bottles of homemade fruit juice. Faustine’s gross and motor skills are up to par with the skills of children her age. I observed her running across the park many times with the other children and even beating them in the race that they were holding. She had a hard time conquering the jugle-jim though. She kept waddling back and forth every time she tried to get her feet up on the next bar and she eventually gave up and refused to return to the jungle jim again.

She threw a few balls here and there but she was unable to throw it very far or accurate. By the age of three, children can already kick, throw, jump and climb things such as ladder. By the age of six, children can skip, climb trees and over things, and catch a ball ( I was unable to observe a lot of fine motor skills from Faustine but she did pick up a stick from the ground, hold it like a normal adult would hold a pencil, and started drawing in the sand. By the age of 2, children can scribble, fold paper, draw vertical lines and manage semi-large object with their hands. By the age of six, children can copy letters, grasp pencils like a grown adult, and copy complex shapes ( I then observed her cognitive skills which included her language, memory, and perception. When observing Faustine, I realized that she is one extremely talkative child. She would talk about everything and anything sometimes she’d just sit in front of us and talk to us and to herself while playing in the sand. According to Lev Vygotsky and his social learning theory, children use private speech (“The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves, either silently or out loud” (The Developing Person Through the Lifespan)) to review, decidem and explain events to themselves.

Lev Vygotsky’s theories “stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of ‘making meaning’” ( A lot of the things she would say to us would be question like “why this” and “why that”. Other times she would run up to us just to blabber out a very nonsensical sentences and run off and other times she would just run up to the other children and make conversation with them. Her vocabulary has almost fully developed and all her sentences made sense even though what she was say were so silly and wild. She is a balanced bilingual and can speak Vietnamese and English fluently. All of this is normal for a child her age. A the age of 3 children can babble and pretend to read, by the age of five, children begin to read, talk, and write and by the age of six, a child has almost developed their language skills full ( I was unable to observe Faustine’s memory during my day at the park with her but according to Baddeley’s model of working memory, children ages 4 and up have gained skills in working memory. Memory of children under age 7 is very weak but over seven, children memory have improved to the point where they can remember not only what happened, but where and when these things happened (

Faustine was very aware of her surrounding. She liked to dig in the sand to find pebbles and other small objects. She was very curious about things around the park and would go exploring with the other children. I then observed Faustine’s psychosocial skills. Faustine is not a shy girl. She ran through the park making friends with everyone she bumped into and she even went up to an extremely shy little girl and talked to her as if they have been best friends forever. She hardly came up to ask us to play with her and sometimes acted like we weren’t even there. According to our textbook, children “prefer to play with peers rather than alone or with parents”. It also states that young children like to play with kids their age and of same social status. In the case of Faustine, she just liked to befriend any kid that was there at the park and willing to play with her. Faustine and the other children did a lot of sociodramatic playing where they would stand on top of the play equipment and pretend to be pirate by scoping out the “sea” and using the slide when they want other children to “walk the plank”.

She was very friendly to everybody and didn’t cause any trouble with the other children. She was eager to get back to the playground to play with the other children every time we called her back to adjust her clothes or have her eat her snacks. According to Erik Erikson and his stages of psychosocial development, which are eight “ stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood” (, Faustine is in the Competence Stage (Industry vs. Inferiority). The age range for this stage is five to twelve years and this is the stage where Children become more aware of themselves as individuals.They work hard at being responsible, being good and doing it right ( I saw this in Faustine because she rarely needed us for anything while she was at the park and she liked to explore and learn things on her own like how to work the equipment. I think that Faustine still need to learn about the feeling of other people. She loved to make friends and talk to all the children at the park but she did not realise that some of the children just wanted to be left alone of didn’t like and but she kept persisting on making friends with them anyways.

She also needs to be more aware of her surrounding. Although Faustine loved to explore the park and things around her, she didn’t realize what was going on around her with the other children. For example, she kept jumping from kids to kids not realizing that they were in the middle of play with her. She would jump from one area to the next and forget where she had previously left her toys, and on some occasions, she even forgot that we were still watching her because she was to entranced in her own activities. During my observation. I observed that Faustine is a very healthy and fit child. Her biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial development is up to par compared to children of the same age as her. She is very athletic and her social skills are very strong.

Classroom Observation Reflective Summary

Throughout my class lectures and discussions in many of my classes, I recall one of my professors accenting the fact that teachers need to be flexible in their schedule and need to conform to the changes that are associated with the career. Upon hearing this, I didn’t accept this fact she was giving me and never associated the term, “teacher” and “flexible” together. Nevertheless, after my observations this semester in the classroom, I understand why you need to be flexible in the teaching profession. Every class I observed this semester was dissimilar from each other. Some class’s harbored students who comprehended the material better, were ethnically diverse, special education, motivated and lazy students. Each time I observed, there were particular occasions that I had anticipated to occur and other instances that I was astounded. I found it intriguing to see how the teacher responded when something in the classroom did not go as planned and then observe them trying to not let it affect their teaching plan for the day. After my observations, I am self-assured and avid that I want to become a teacher and will be a good one at that. As a teacher, I believe you need to set the tone of the classroom and let them know that you are in control.

The medium or atmosphere of the classroom needs to be accepting and eager to learn. All of the classes that I observed had great classroom atmospheres. By saying “great classroom atmospheres”, I mean that most of the students were attentive to the teacher, eager to learn, asking questions and that no one person in the class was omitted from the class discussion or the learning of that particular day. Being the “student observer”, I was curious to see how the students would act toward me and treat me in their class. Infrequently, I caught a couple gawks during instruction from prying students. For the most part, I was much embraced in their classrooms, as they frequently asked me questions about their school work or of me in general. I remember my first observations, I was very nervous upon entering the classroom. After that day I always felt comfortable in the classroom. During my observations, I never saw the teacher leave any students out of the lecture that they taught to their students that day. I was very impressed to see that no students were neglected, but instead were incorporated into the learning plan for that day and got a chance to ask questions of the teacher to help further their learning.

Throughout my time in the classrooms with different teachers, I observed many different lessons that each teacher was teaching to the students. Some of the lessons included daily math skills, reading tasks, and working together at recess to rescue a dog. One of the most important aspects of being a teacher is having a good teacher-student interaction. All of the classes I observed had a good interaction between the students and teachers. As a future educator, I believe my biggest challenge will be trying to become flexible with my schedule and trying to motivate each student to learn and be active in class. Much of this depends on where I will be teaching, whether that is urban, rural, or city. I’ll address these challenges by becoming more organized and doing projects where participation is graded and required, so then each student will be learning and never feel left out.

My strengths include being very determined, goal driven, hard working, learning, good people skills and motivating others. I will use these strengths to the best of my ability when I have my own class in the future. I want to continue with my teaching and learning process and obtain my teaching certificate in the near future. After observing this semester, I realized that I would like to work with 5th grade students because I think I would respond better to them. These observations were very interesting and helped me better appreciate the teaching profession.

Observation paper

The Child’s name I have chosen for this observation paper is a 5 year old female named Janiya, she seems to be a happy normal child. Her mother and father are of African American descent. Her mother and father are married yet separated. Janiya lives home with her mom and aunt, her mom keeps her toys inside her room where Janiya regularly accesses her bedroom and bring toys in and out as she pleases, as well as plays inside her room when she wants. Her toys consist of a bike, baby dolls, Barbie dolls, tablet, computer, and PlayStation 4. These are the toys Janiya plays with everyday according to her mom.

Janiya is a very bright little girl with a huge personality she loves attention and loves to watch cartoons and play with her toys. The observations I made were in the living room, kitchen and her bedroom and observed her for 30 minutes. Janiya is a very creative little girl adapting to her surroundings and nothing was never too high for her because she climbed on top of furniture when she wanted to reach things that was too high for her I seen Janiya climb on top a chair to get some chips out of the cabinet she used her physical strength to pull her weight up until she was able to reach them. I was amazed at how smart she was when it came to thinking of a way to get things she wanted instead of asking for assistance anything she needs access to and is too high for her to reach she climbs on furniture to reach it or asks her mom or aunt to get it if she couldn’t according to her mom, Janiya is displaying her gross motor skills. She then came in the living room and proceeded to change the channel to Nick Jr. and Sponge Bob Square pants was on and Janiya started singing the theme song standing up in the chair dancing and singing showing off her cognitive and functional play skills trying to do what she sees on tv and also displaying her language development. Janiya’s mom then walked from her bed room in the living room explaining to Janiya that she has to help her with her homework before she watches cartoons so she needs to go to her bedroom to retrieve her book bag Janiya is in the kindergarten.

Janiya runs in her room to get her book bag and quickly came back into the living room with it displaying her gross motor skills again. Her mom pulls out her homework which consists of writing her first name 10 times and writing her last name 10 times she gives Janiya verbal cues on writing her name writing Janiya write and telling her which letter to write next she is encoding this information inside Janiya’s memory and she will eventually have this information in her long term memory and will be able to write her name without verbal cues in the future right now she is now processing information and developing her memory. After doing her homework Janiya went in her room and bought out her dolls and begin playing with herself in the living room displaying dramatic play I heard her talking to her dolls and pretending that was her baby. This was the end of my 30 minute observation; Janiya seems as if she is coming along well with displaying skills, language, playing and her imagination. She was really a bright little girl and I enjoyed observing her and seeing the changes children go through to develop most of their skills that are going to be used every day when they get older!

Observation Paper: Janiya
Psychology 221
Michelle Bennett

The Child’s name I have chosen for this observation paper is a 5 year old female named Janiya, she seems to be a happy normal child. Her mother and father are of African American descent. Her mother and father are married yet separated. Janiya lives home with her mom and aunt, her mom keeps her toys inside her room where Janiya regularly accesses her bedroom and bring toys in and out as she pleases, as well as plays inside her room when she wants. Her toys consist of a bike, baby dolls, Barbie dolls, tablet, computer, and PlayStation 4. These are the toys Janiya plays with everyday according to her mom.

Janiya is a very bright little girl with a huge personality she loves
attention and loves to watch cartoons and play with her toys. The observations I made were in the living room, kitchen and her bedroom and observed her for 30 minutes. Janiya is a very creative little girl adapting to her surroundings and nothing was never too high for her because she climbed on top of furniture when she wanted to reach things that was too high for her I seen Janiya climb on top a chair to get some chips out of the cabinet she used her physical strength to pull her weight up until she was able to reach them. I was amazed at how smart she was when it came to thinking of a way to get things she wanted instead of asking for assistance anything she needs access to and is too high for her to reach she climbs on furniture to reach it or asks her mom or aunt to get it if she couldn’t according to her mom, Janiya is displaying her gross motor skills. She then came in the living room and proceeded to change the channel to Nick Jr. and Sponge Bob Square pants was on and Janiya started singing the theme song standing up in the chair dancing and singing showing off her cognitive and functional play skills trying to do what she sees on tv and also displaying her language development.

Janiya’s mom then walked from her bed room in the living room explaining to Janiya that she has to help her with her homework before she watches cartoons so she needs to go to her bedroom to retrieve her book bag Janiya is in the kindergarten. Janiya runs in her room to get her book bag and quickly came back into the living room with it displaying her gross motor skills again. Her mom pulls out her homework which consists of writing her first name 10 times and writing her last name 10 times she gives Janiya verbal cues on writing her name writing Janiya write and telling her which letter to write next she is encoding this information inside Janiya’s memory and she will eventually have this information in her long term memory and will be able to write her name without verbal cues in the future right now she is now processing information and developing her memory. After doing her homework Janiya went in her room and bought out her dolls and begin playing with herself in the living room displaying dramatic play I heard her talking to her dolls and pretending that was her baby.

This was the end of my 30 minute observation; Janiya seems as if she is coming along well with displaying skills, language, playing and her imagination. She was really a bright little girl and I enjoyed observing her and seeing the changes children go through to develop most of their skills that are going to be used every day when they get older!

Infant/Early Childhood Naturalistic Observation

I observed a classroom of four-year-old students who are enrolled at the Child Development Center on the George Mason University campus. This observation lasted about fifteen minutes with a total of twelve students in the classroom. At the time of my observation the students were engaging in free playtime where they are allowed to play games, make crafts, and interact with their fellow classmates. I was seated in the corner of the classroom where the children could not easily see me or get distracted by me. I stayed seated throughout the whole observation so the students would not be affected by my presence. Many different activities were happening at the same time, but a couple standout situations reminded me of many subject areas we focused on in class. One particular observation was the various styles of play the students were engaging in. About half of the students were engaging in constructive play while the others were engaging in dramatic play. Constructive play is characterized by the act of creating or constructing something while dramatic, or make-believe play, is characterized by acting out everyday and imaginary roles (Berk, 2010, p262). The two play styles are very common in children around the age of four.

There were about five children playing “house.” In the family there was a child pretending to be the mommy, the daddy, the older brother, the younger sister, and the puppy. The mommy was making dinner while the daddy was watching television and supervising the children while they did their homework. The young girl who was acting as the puppy gave out a few occasional “ruffs” to make her presence known. The young girl, who assumed her role as the mother, yelled out “dinners ready.” The two young kids pretending to be the children stopped doing homework and sat down at the dinner table. The young girl playing the mom sternly said to her children “be careful, the food is very hot. It just came out of the oven.” They continued this story for the remainder of my observation with various story lines and new characters added to the story. This scenario depicts the perfect explanation of the type of play style described as dramatic play.

Dramatic play permits children to fit the reality of the world into their own interests and knowledge. One of the purest forms of symbolic thought available to young children, dramatic play, contributes strongly to the intellectual development of children. Young children learn by imagining and doing and dramatic play allows them to do so. Dramatic play also promotes the use of speaking and listening skills. When children take part in this type of play, they practice words they have heard others say, and realize that they must listen to what other “players” say in order to be able to respond in an appropriate fashion. This style of play also promotes the development of social skills through interaction with others, peers or adults, which is a necessary factor in a child’s future.

While some children were playing “house” others were taking part in constructive play. In this stage, toddlers have a deep understanding of what various objects can do and will now try to build things with the toys and everyday objects they find around them. One child had a box of blocks and was building a train track. Once he finished he assembled a line of trains to ride along the track he had just built. He repeatedly made noises that trains usually make such as “choo-choo.” Other children were interlocking Lego blocks and creating various structures while some were playing with play-dough and sculpting whatever came to their mind. When toddlers play with these open-ended materials, they have the chance to build many different skills. These could include using art materials to create a picture or project giving toddlers practice using fine motor skills that they need to write and perform tasks that they will need for the rest of their lives. You may never think that the different styles of play a child engages in effects them or their future, but when you look deeper into the various cognitive and motor developments these plays enhance you can see that it is very important for all children to participate in these behaviors.

Berk, L. (2010). Development Through The Lifespan. (5th Edition). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Special Needs Observation


An observation in a classroom has many benefits for the observer. For one of my observations I go to an elementary classroom and my second observation is a youth group at a church. Each classroom has their own setting and curriculum which makes each classroom very different from the other. My first observation was in an elementary classroom. The activity had five kids per group. These children all ranged from the ages of 7 to 8. Just before their art activity took place the children were read a book about Halloween in which a pumpkin played as the main character. The teacher never showed the children the pictures because in the next activity she wanted the children to create their own pumpkin in the way that they pictured him and heard him described. Once the children got into their groups the teacher and a child helper passed out all the materials the children would need. Glitter, glue, crayons, beads, string, and scissors were all passed out to each group. They all received a card board cut out of a pumpkin and were now told to decorate him the way that they comprehended it from the book. From the very beginning the children all seemed very excited. The children were talking with each other and shared ideas on how they thought the pumpkin should be decorated. All the children had plenty of supplies to take and grab as they needed. The glitter however turned out to be an issue. Plenty of glitter was poured onto the desks and the floor distracting some children from their tasks. All throughout the activity the children were completely engaged and if they weren’t laughing then they all seemed to have a smile on their faces. My group of five seemed to get everything that they wanted to be on their pumpkin and still had time to clean their areas. They even had time to show off their pumpkins to the other groups. All in all I would say the activity was very well planned. I would however change what kinds of materials were used during the activity. Using something less messy would avoid distraction from the all children.

As for my second observation I observed at a youth group at my church. The youth group had children between the ages of 8 and 9. Altogether the class had eleven children. When I arrived for my observation the teacher and children were all going over bible verses. Once everyone recited their favorite verse they all went into groups of four to make bookmarks of their favorite verse. The teacher passed out crayons, markers, and stamps for the children to decorate their bookmarks. My group of four was not very interested in the activity. The teacher had to keep telling the children to get back on task. Looking at the children’s face expressions you could see that they were not interested in what was going on. Everyone had plenty of time to finish and clean up their areas. Over all I would say that I would have changed a few things. I think the children should have had a more age appropriate activity; such as an activity that challenges them. To get the children more interested in the activity I would pick an activity that they both enjoyed and could be kept busy with. I found both observations to differ in many ways but they also had some similarities. My first observation I saw that the teacher was more on point with what the children would enjoy; whereas the youth group just seemed to give the children something to do. Also my first observation was much more age appropriate. The children were given materials that were stimulating and kept them involved in their projects. A similarity that both classrooms had is that they both grouped the children in small groups and they also each had activities beforehand that lead them into the art activity. In conclusion I found that my first observation was more planned out. They also had age appropriate activities and kept the children focused. The activity was based around what the children enjoy, therefore, keeping them excited with what they were learning. Observation one gave me an idea of how my teaching style would be and also gave me great ideas to one day bring to my own classroom.

FCS 3215: Observation Assignment

Dr. Isabella, this project requires that you observe two preschool-age children in the Child and Family Development Center (ground floor of the Alfred Emery Building) and, on the basis of your observations, report on a particular aspect of their development. In the following pages, three options will be presented–you may focus on either language development, play, or emotional behavior. Thus, the option you select will determine the nature of the observation you conduct, but it is also true that all projects must follow the same guideline.

First, you must decide which of the three options you will pursue. Second, you should become familiar with the objectives of your observation (based on the descriptions presented in the following pages as well as any reading from the textbook that would prove useful in this regard). Third, you should begin planning your observation; this should include decisions regarding what you will focus on during your observations (e.g., behaviors, specific features of the physical and social context), what kinds of things you will try to take notes on in the course of your observation, which preschool class you will observe, and when you will plan to conduct your observation to assure that you will leave yourself enough time for a second chance should you fail to gather all of the necessary information on your first observation attempt. Fourth, you should conduct your observation, paying very careful attention to the behaviors and situations that you have (beforehand!) decided are most important–in all cases, you will have to observe two children for 15 minutes each. Take notes and remember that these notes are all you will have to work from when writing your paper. I also would recommend that you allow yourself approximately 1 hour for your observation. This would allow you at least a few minutes at the beginning of the observation to get a feel for the classroom and the children in it and to identify the two children you will observe; ample time to observe each child for 15 minutes (which may be split into 5 minutes now, 5 minutes in a short while and 5 more minutes at the end of your hour); and even some time to make up for observations that don’t result in any useable information. Fifth, you must rely on your notes and the details of the assignment to prepare your paper. In all cases, I am asking that you provide some general, objective information about what you observed in each child, and that you interpret your observations in terms of what you’ve learned about preschooler development. In addition, the introduction of your paper should provide a brief description of who you observed, when you observed them and what was going on in the preschool classroom during your observation period. Finally, at the end of your paper, briefly comment upon your experience as an observer. For example, How easy or difficult was it? What did you learn? How confident are you in the representativeness of the behaviors you observed for each child? As usual, all papers MUST BE TYPED. You are limited to 3 typewritten pages so think carefully about how best to organize all of the information you wish to present. Papers are due at the beginning of class on Tuesday, April 15.

The preschool schedule is as follows: There are three different preschool classes (children ages 3-5): one meets Mon/Wed/Fri, 8:30-11:30, one meets Tues/Thur, 8:30-11:30, and one meets Mon thru Fri, 12:30-3:30 pm). In all cases, there should be no problems if you observe (quietly) from the observation booths attached to each classroom, or from outside the playground fence. If you wish to observe from within the classroom, or if you wish to go onto the playground with the children, you will need the permission of the head teacher. Simply tell them about the project, mention the class and instructor’s name, and there should not be a problem (do this ahead of time!). Following are descriptions of the three options, each focusing upon a different feature of preschoolers’ development. [Adapted from Bentzen, W.R. (1985). Seeing your children: A guide to observing and recording behavior. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers Inc.]


A. Background Information
Language is one of the more prominent behaviors in the preschool child. The preschooler is rapidly acquiring speech vocabulary and is refining his grammar to conform more closely to adult speech patterns. For many people, language is an indication of intellectual and social progress. In this exercise, you will be concerned with describing and analyzing the child’s
speech and determining such things as the depth and variety of his/her vocabulary.

1.It is important to look at the child’s speech in terms of Piaget’s concepts of egocentrism and sociocentrism. Egocentric speech is speech that does not take the other person into account; it is speech that, for all practical purposes, is private. There is no real effort to communicate with the other person; therefore, whatever is said is meaningful only to the speaker. Piaget identified three types of egocentric speech: (a) monologue, in which the individual talks only to himself and with no other persons present; (b) repetition, in which the individual repeats words and phrases over and over again as if to practice them or as if he simply enjoyed making the sounds; and (c) collective monologue, in which two or more persons are talking together but none of them is paying attention to what the others are saying. Each “conversation” is independent of the other conversation.

Socialized speech, on the other hand, is public speech. It is intended to communicate with someone and each person takes into account what others are saying and responds accordingly.


2.Does the child engage in egocentric or socialized speech? What are the circumstances under which these types of speech are used?

Vocabulary is the foundation of speech. We communicate by putting individual words together into properly constructed sentences and paragraphs. Presumably, the greater the number of words in our vocabularies, the greater the number and variety of sentences and ideas we can utter and transmit to others. Words have different meanings and serve different purposes. Moreover, words must be placed in the correct position within a sentence; thus, there are rules of grammar and syntax.


What do you observe about the child’s vocabulary?
In particular, examine the child’s speech for words that express relations and oppositions, for example, words such as and, or, not, same, different, more, less, instead, if, then, and because. Also, how varied or rich is the child’s vocabulary when he/she talks about the world and the people/things in it? Think in terms of general classes or categories of objects, persons, and events, then assess how many different words the child uses to discuss those categories and/or how many different categories the child uses.

B. Observational Objectives
To learn about the language production abilities of preschool children, and how children of preschool age use language as a means of social interaction.

C. Procedure
For this exercise, your purpose is to observe and record the language behaviors of children as they are engaging in social exchanges. Basically, you will need to write about the vocabularies demonstrated, the ways in which children use their language for the specific purpose of communicating with others (either adults or other children), and the degree to which language appears to be influenced by the setting in  which it occurs. For this purpose, select two children and observe each of them for 15 minutes during a time when they have opportunity to interact with others in a small group setting–free-choice periods are probably best. (Do not try to observe two children at the same time!). As you observe, take notes regarding the nature and variety of words used by each child (writing down exactly what the child says would of course be very useful), the child’s specific use of language to communicate with others, and the context in which all of this is going on.

For each child, your paper should include a brief description of the language used (including information about vocabulary, communication and context) as well as an interpretation of each child’s language behavior in terms of what you’ve learned about development during the preschool years.


A. Background Information
Play is considered by some psychologists to be the most important activity in which the young child engages. Indeed, play activities pervade the lives of children from infancy throughout childhood. Some play seems obviously linked to the child’s observation of adults; other play seems to stem from the child’s fantasies and from experiences that she finds particularly enjoyable. There are a number of explanations of the major purposes of play. These range from play as getting rid of excess energy to play as a means of socioemotional expression. Play can be a group or an individual activity. Play is distinguished from non-play by its special characteristics, the most important of which are its voluntary nature and its complete structuring by the participants, with little regard for outside regulation. When play is governed by consistent rules, we say children are playing games. These rules give play a social dimension. The participants must put their own personal wishes into the background and abide by the requirements of the game and the wishes of the larger group. It is important to note that not everything children do is play, although they will sometimes try to make play out of what adults intend to be serious.

Parten (1932) has identified six types of play, which are given in an accompanying list (next page). Remember that play, like all behavior, occurs in a physical and social context. Therefore, include in your report information on the equipment and materials the child was using in his play and who the child was playing with, if appropriate.

B. Parten’s Six Classifications of Play or Social Interactions 1. Unoccupied Behavior: Here the child is not engaging in any obvious play activity or social interaction. Rather, she watches anything that is of interest at the moment. When there is nothing of interest to watch, the child will play with her own body, move around from place to place, follow the teacher, or stay in one spot and look around the room. 2. Onlooker Behavior: Here the child spends most of her time watching other children play. The child may talk to the playing children, may ask questions or give suggestions, but does not enter into play. The child remains within speaking distance so that what goes on can be seen and heard; this indicates a definite interest in a group of children, unlike the unoccupied child, who shows no interest in any particular group of children, but only a shifting interest in what happens to be exciting at the moment.

3. Solitary Play

This is play activity that is conducted independently of what anyone else is doing. The child plays with toys that differ from those used by other children in the immediate area within speaking distance, and she makes no effort to get closer to them or to speak to them. The child is focused entirely on her own activity and is uninfluenced by other children or their activities.

4. Parallel Play: Here the child is playing close to other children but is still independent of them. The child uses toys that are like the toys being used by the others, but he uses them as he sees fit and is neither influenced by nor tries to influence the others. The chid thus plays beside rather than with the other children.

5. Associative Play

Here the child plays with other children. There is a sharing of play material and equipment; the children may follow each other around; there may be attempts to control who may or may not play in a group, although such control efforts are not strongly asserted. The children engage in similar but not necessarily identical activity, and there is no division of labor or organization of activity or individuals. Each child does what he or she essentially wants to do, without putting the interests of the group first.

6. Cooperative or Organized Supplementary Play

The key word in this category is “organized.” The child plays in a group that is established for a particular purpose: making some material product, gaining some competitive goal, playing formal games. There is a sense of “we-ness,” whereby one definitely belongs or does not belong to the group. There is also some leadership present–one or two members who direct the activity of the others. This therefore requires some division of labor, a taking of different roles by the group members, and the support of one child’s efforts by those of the others. C. Observational Objectives

To learn about the distinguishing characteristics of different forms of play, specifically according to Parten’s classification of play behaviors.

D. Procedure
Familiarize yourself with Parten’s classifications of play as described above. Select two children in the preschool and observe each of them for 15 minutes, preferably during a free-choice period when the children are free to move about the room and play with who or what they wish. (Do not attempt to observe both children at the same time!) As you observe each child, look for examples of each type of play or social interaction as described by Parten. Also, in addition to classifying each child’s play behaviors, observe whether there are any patterns to their play. For example, are there particular situations in which a child tends to be an onlooker, but in other situations he/she engages in parallel or cooperative play? As you observe, you should take notes regarding these relevant issues so that you will have something to work from in writing your paper. For each child, your paper should include a brief description of the types of play exhibited (including information about which type(s) are exhibited most frequently) and the social context which characterized each type of play. Additionally, you should provide an interpretation of your observations based on what you’ve learned about development during the preschool years.


A. Background Information
Emotions are such a basic part of our psychological beings that we sometimes take them for

granted. Some of our emotions are clearly identifiable by us. We know when we are angry, frightened, or joyous. At other times, however, we can have feelings that are not so clear; we may not be able to label what we feel. Whatever the case, emotions are internal experiences that are private and directly accessible only to the individual experiencing them. This being so, we cannot state with certainty what emotion another person is feeling. She

 must tell us, or we must infer the emotion on the basis of the individual’s behavior, facial expressions, and the event that preceded and might have caused the feeling. A child’s emotional behaviors become more refined and extensive as she matures. Therefore, a four- or five-year-old will typically be more emotionally expressive than a two-year-old.

In this exercise, you will be trying to gain some understanding of the child’s emotional behaviors, of the range of her emotions and the kinds of situations that prompt these behaviors. Again, you can only infer what the child is feeling and cannot observe emotions directly. Therefore, be cautious in your interpretations and concentrate on the child’s obvious behaviors and the contexts in which they occur.

1.There are several emotions that are commonly found in preschool children: aggression, dependency and fear. Aggressive behavior is frequently defined as behavior that is intended to physically or psychologically hurt another person (or oneself) or to damage or destroy property. An important issue is whether a behavior is intentionally aggressive or simply an accidental occurrence. Further, it is argued by some that in order for a behavior to be termed aggressive, the aggressor must feel anger or hostility toward the “victim” and must derive satisfaction from hurting the victim. This kind of aggression is called hostile aggression. In contrast to hostile aggression, there can be cases where the aggressor is interested only in getting some object from the victim or achieving some goal. This is called instrumental aggression, and it need not involve anger or hostility.



2.Observe the child’s behavior for instances of aggression, either toward another child or an adult, or towards objects in the environment. Be certain to differentiate between intentional, hostile and instrumental acts of aggression.

What kinds of situations or frustrations make the child angry? What behaviors by other people anger the child? How does the child express his/her anger?

Dependency consists of such behaviors as clinging or maintaining proximity to adults or other children, seeking approval, recognition, assistance, attention, and reassurance, and striving for affection and support. It is important to recognize that all of us are dependent. The issue is to what degree and under what circumstances we show our dependency. It is also useful to distinguish between two basic types of dependency: a) instrumental dependency, which essentially is the necessary reliance we have on others for certain things that are beyond our capacity to do; and b) emotional dependency, which is a need to be near others and to have their support, affection and reassurance. It can also be the unwillingness or the selfperceived inability to do things for oneself that one can or should be able to do. It is important that, where possible, you distinguish instrumental dependency from emotional dependency behaviors. It is also important to note that as children mature, the characteristics of their dependency behaviors change. Very young children are likely to show clinging and proximity-seeking behaviors, whereas older children, who also have greater cognitive abilities, will likely seek attention and approval.


3.Fear is demonstrated by such behaviors as crying, withdrawing, seeking help, and avoiding the fear-producing situation. Fear can promote both dependency and aggressive behaviors. Nonetheless, fear can be expressed in such a way that it, and not aggression or dependency, is the primary emotion.


4.In what situations or activities is the child dependent, and, for example, seeks the presence, direction, or assistance of others? In what situations is the child independent and does not seek direction or assistance from others?

What kinds of objects or situations appear to scare the child? In what ways does the child express his/her fears? How does he/she deal with his fears (e.g., by withdrawing, confronting the fearful situation, seeking help)?

In addition to the emotional behaviors just discussed, there are other feelings that children are capable of experiencing and expressing. You should be alert to as many of the child’s affective states as possible. For example, there are the feelings of pleasure and displeasure, frustration, boredom and sadness. Like adults, children will differ as to how accurately they can identify and/or express what they feel.


What kinds of things does the child find pleasant? What activities, play materials, stories, games and so on, seem to be particularly attractive to the child? How does the child express that pleasure?


What kinds of things are unpleasant or uncomfortable for the child? In what situations does the child appear to be ill at ease? How does she express her displeasure?


Are all or most of the child’s feelings expressed with equal strength, or does their intensity vary with the particular feeling or situation?

B. Observational Objectives
To learn about the differences in children’s emotional behaviors and the range of emotional responses in preschool children.

C. Procedure
Select two children, observe and record each child’s behavior for a 15-minute period (do not attempt to observe both children at the same time!). Record behaviors in as much detail as possible (attending to the kinds of things that would help you answer the above questions) and be sure to include descriptions of the physical and social context as they apply to the emotional behaviors observed. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT YOU OBSERVE CHILDREN DURING THE VERY BEGINNING OF THEIR PRESCHOOL CLASS SO THAT YOU WILL BE ABLE TO SEE THEM AS THEY ARE BEING DROPPED OFF BY THEIR PARENTS AND THEN MAKING THEIR INITIAL ADJUSTMENT TO THEIR PRESCHOOL SETTING.

Your paper should include a brief description of each child’s behavior (including the different kinds of emotions, the contexts in which they occurred and the relative frequency of each expression) as well as an interpretation or comment on each child using some of the questions and background information provided above. Finally, compare the two children, looking at the range of emotional expression, intensity of expression, and what evokes the emotional responses. In short, summarize how the children differ from each other in this area of functioning.