Authoritative vs Authoritarian Parenting

Parenting may be very tough at occasions, but additionally rewarding other times. Children are a blessing and everyone has their own way of elevating their children. Every set of fogeys has their own expectations, ways of self-discipline, setting guidelines and the place they hope their youngster will sometime make it; the particular person they hope their child will turn out to be.

While authoritative and authoritarian are each parenting kinds that can increase your children to know what is true and what’s mistaken, authoritarian mother and father take time to relate to their kids to help them make the proper selections for themselves, while authoritative mother and father resort to punishments and pressure right and mistaken on their youngsters.

There are three primary forms of parenting types however in relation to two particularly, authoritative and authoritarian, one is all about harsh punishment while the other is about talking it by way of.

When it comes to punishing youngsters, these two kinds have two very different ways of instructing their kids lessons.

Authoritative mother and father typically like to sit down down and speak it out. They will attempt to perceive why there youngster did what they did and clarify to them why it was unacceptable. A lot of instances, when parents can stay calm and use the phrase, “I am not mad however very disenchanted in your actions and the decision you made,” it tends to make the kid feel worse and think about what they have done. There may even be consequences, similar to losing a privilege or perhaps a grounding of some sort.

On the other hand, authoritarians can typically lose their cool and leap straight to a spanking or physical punishment. When they will hold their calm and do not bounce straight to this, it might possibly sometimes finish in screaming or a very long time out session. For instance, if the kids are fighting over one thing the authoritative dad and mom might tell them if they will take turns or share then they can proceed using that toy, but if not then they will have to play something else. Whereas the authoritarian will merely take it away and tell them that maybe subsequent time they will be taught to not battle.

This generally seems to make kids angrier than understanding and might sometimes result in lashing out and other instances just lead to them being afraid of creating mistakes and afraid of their parents’ altogether. In all parents there is a nice line of expectations that are made clear at an early age and progress and alter into different expectations as the youngsters get older. All youngsters ought to know and understand their expectations and know what rules are to be adopted, but sometimes youngsters use their bad judgment and don’t listen or simply fall quick of what is anticipated at instances.

This is regular for kids of all ages. Authoritative mother and father make expectations clear simply as well as authoritarian parents; nevertheless they deal with what is anticipated somewhat differently. They know kids will check limits at instances or possibly simply not perceive what is expected of them or why, and this parenting style permits questioning about what is expected and why it’s expected. They are open to rationalization and understanding, though these expectations won’t change. They are also good about working with their youngsters to achieve what is predicted and stay targeted and out of hassle.

On the other hand, authoritarian parents are reverse because they do not feel they need to explain to their youngsters why they expect what they do of them or why a rule is the finest way it is. Like the authoritative mother and father the rules will not bend or change however in addition they is not going to be given emphasis to both. When the expectations aren’t met these type of dad and mom are usually overcome with anger, like most parents can be, however it’ll result in one of the punishments mentioned beforehand. They may be similar ultimately however in relation to how things are gone about it is mostly reverse.

Every household could have a set of rules and issues that must be followed, similar to, perhaps a curfew, bed time or sure chores that should be accomplished earlier than enjoyable can be had. In an authoritative family, these rules are mentioned and made clear. Whenever there’s a change, it is talked about as nicely. They let their youngsters know the foundations. These mother and father also try to hold the connection open to the purpose the place their children study to make decisions and have good judgment on their very own, in other phrases, prepare them for the true world.

In the authoritarian family the principles are also specific and made clear, however instead of them letting their youngsters learn for themselves and trusting their judgment, they set punishments for these guidelines being broken to make sure they won’t be damaged. They additionally don’t give the reasoning. It is extra of a, “because I mentioned so,” method. In the authoritative type, kids be taught to assume for themselves and rise above the affect of others and might make selections wisely. The other kids may try to rebel because they get uninterested in the way their dad and mom are or just could additionally be too afraid so that they don’t have a lot of a social life to begin with.

Both kinds can educate the children what is needed for life, but the authoritative type usually seems to sink in with the children more, especially when it comes to teenagers. While some parents may discover it easier to make threats and push punishments onto their children to somewhat scare them and to get them to hear and “behave,” other dad and mom discover joy in instilling logic in their children by talking them through things and establishing expectations via setting good examples and following them themselves.

Every father or mother desires the most effective for their baby and each parent has their very own method of creating one of the best. Parenting is troublesome and can be tense. However, maintaining their cool to clarify things to your baby does appear to be having a greater outcome for the child. They shall be snug making mistakes they will learn from, rather than feeling like they cannot make a mistake in any respect.

Authoritative and Permissive Parenting in the Media

For Authoritative parenting Cam and Mitchell from Modern Family are an excellent instance, in the present they adopted a Vietnamese baby and raised her through authoritative parenting style as they established rules and pointers for her and expected her to comply with the principles. They are additionally very responsive and keen to listen any of her questions. Whenever she fails to fulfill the expectations, Cam and Mitchell are more nurturing and forgiving quite than punishing her harshly.

For instance when Lily their daughter says a swear word, somewhat than punishing her, they kindly clarify to her why the language is inappropriate and isn’t allowed of their home and school.

Their disciplinary methods are much more supporting quite than penalizing. They need her to be assertive in addition to socially accountable and self regulated within their society.

For authoritarian parenting Red from The 70s Show is an ideal instance, Eric his son and Laurie his daughter live with their Red and are expected to observe the strict guidelines established by him, Most of the instances after they fail to take action, He will get very angry and ends in punishment.

Many times when Red gets mad at his youngsters for disobeying he has no good purpose but typically says “my home my rules” These parents have excessive calls for, but usually are not conscious of their children.

He is a very exhausting father and demands excessive outcomes of his children and he can be getting very sarcastically offended at moments. A good example of permissive parenting would be Phil from Modern Family because although he cares for his youngsters very much, he nonetheless reveals many permissive qualities for example he rarely ever punishes his youngsters and has very low expectations and has small boundaries, and nearly the entire time provides into the children demands.

I undoubtedly suppose I shall be an authoritative parent as a end result of I would want my children to understand the proper and wrongs with this world with out being held back to the purpose the place they really feel like they don’t have any freedom. But the right quantity of punishment and freedom will hopefully result in profitable kids. I want my youngsters to utilize reasoning and work independently, but due to that I would also have high expectations of them. When my kids break the rules, I will self-discipline them in a good and constant method.

Also I need to act as role model and show the same behaviors that I anticipate from them, as a end result of hopefully my kids usually tend to study these behaviors faster and easier. I should present good emotional understanding and management, so my youngsters additionally study to handle their own feelings and study to know others as properly. But an important thing they will be to act independently, which hopefully teaches them that they are capable of accomplishing things on their very own, serving to to forward strong self-esteem and create self-confidence.

Authoritative Parenting Model and Discipline

Establishing discipline via authoritative parenting is an effective style as a result of it shows safe emotional development, permits a better quality of supportive peer relationships and enhances problem-solving expertise for the child.

Research has proven that authoritative parenting is the most effective fashion of parenting. Authoritative parenting is the one type that promotes equal involvement between the father or mother and child. (Cherry, 2013a). The parent shows fair discipline, warmth and nurturing, efficient communication with the child and units certain expectations on behavior and maturity.

This parenting type promotes a “democratic” mannequin during which parents are responsive to the child’s wants, ideas and issues. These dad and mom will take heed to questions the child might have on expectations set. Simply put by these dad and mom are direct but not over bearing. (Cherry, 2013b). They purpose as a substitute of simply punishing the kid. Parents of this model need their children to be confident, socially approachable and cooperative. This moreover, clearly defines that the authoritative style allows open communication between mother or father and youngster, love, steering, nurturing, explanation of self-discipline and balance for the child.

The authoritative parenting fashion is about setting limits, reasoning with children, and being aware of their emotional wants. (Dewar, 2013). These types of parents supply children quite lots of emotional help. While setting high standards for a child, parents who follow the authoritative style are aware of the wants of kids, demand kids to indicate respect as nicely as present a nurturing setting.

In setting limits, youngsters will usually adjust to respect to their parents and act responsibly.

When children misbehave, the authoritative mother or father offers self-discipline as properly and mentioning and discussing the misbehavior. The parent further provides reasoning to the act. In addition, dad and mom enable for verbal responses and communication from the kid that promotes a sense of steadiness. As Dewar further states, there is proof that this fashion helps children become extra empathic, useful, conscientious, and type to others. Dewar additionally suggests, authoritative parents are both extremely responsive and very demanding. Overall, this is doubtless considered one of the best methods to outline the authoritative parenting type.

Evidenced research offers a number of conclusions that youngsters raised by authoritative mother and father are extra likely to turn out to be independent, socially accepted by friends, academically productive, and nicely mannered. (Dewar, 2013). Children typically turn into extra supportive, dependable, and considerate to household and peers. Authoritative parents promote safe attachments and permit youngsters to speak their considerations and emotions. In doing so, children are less more doubtless to internalize problems.

Talking with a child will permit them to verbalize each good and unhealthy, learning from these better decisions and avoiding future errors. In the end, youngsters will turn into higher with drawback fixing abilities and optimistic emotional well-being.

Authoritative parenting presents safe emotional development of a kid. These mother and father exhibit respectable emotional understanding and management, encourage children to manage their very own emotions and learn to understand others as properly. (Cherry, 2013b). The authoritative parenting fashion focuses on parents listening to what their youngsters should say, place reasonable limits that have set penalties for sure behaviors and encourage an impartial youngster.

Parents are heat and welcoming to discuss anything with the child however do not do that in a strong manner. This father or mother is consistent with discipline but expects the kid take responsibility for their actions. The mother and father don’t decide or place instant blame, they take heed to what the child has to say. In return, these kids are usually able to making applicable decisions, have a sense of satisfaction and happiness with themself and obtain goals set for them effectively. In different words, the authoritative father or mother encourages a baby to set expectations of their own to succeed, work via problems, develop their very own skill sets and accomplish a robust sense of confidence. Diane Baumrind’s research exhibits that these youngsters display a happier disposition, have effective control of their emotions, exhibit s social interplay and are self-starters in learning new issues. (Cherry, 2013a).

Multiple studies have been done that prove authoritative mother and father score excessive on measures of warmth and responsiveness and high on measures of management and maturity demands (Spera, 2005). This is likely as a outcome of parent’s heat and responsive manner in which the child is approached by the mother or father. The mother and father due demand a high degree of maturity from the child, however do so with stability, affection, and bidirectional communication to nurture relationships.

The father or mother offers explanation of why a baby ought to act a sure way in social or critical situation. Parents also help the kid to prioritize what’s necessary to succeed socially and academically. This is known as the demandingness/responsive mannequin. (Spera, 2005). Demandingness refers to the demands dad and mom make on their children to turn into unified with family and united in society with others.

Parents hold sure ranges of demand for his or her children, however provide direction, and self-discipline when acceptable. Responsiveness refers to parental actions that purposefully encourage individuality, self-confidence and rivalry of the kid. With parental responsiveness, mother and father are receptive and understanding of the child’s needs. Parenting in this manner and with heat and understanding, this could make a child’s temperament extra calm, happy, adaptable, regulate sleeping and eating habits, set a constructive mood and encourage curiosity in new experiences.

Research has found that the best-adjusted children have parents with an authoritative fashion (Gurian, 2011). These dad and mom are in a place to stability with definitions, place excessive demands with emotional responsiveness and keep respect for their child’s independence. Parents want to remember though; youngsters even have their own style and temperament.

They do react in another way in given situations and fogeys should acknowledge these variations, especially in households with many siblings. Differences in these sorts of children are the straightforward going, calm, happy youngster who possess healthy habits, is usually in a good mood at all time and is excited about many various actions. In contrast, troublesome baby could additionally be fussy, negative, and emotionally weak and get upset easily.

Authoritative parents must perceive the given state of affairs and find a good “fit” to satisfy the child’s calls for. Being constant is key as properly. Setting limits on the kid, offering ongoing encouragement, recognizing accomplishments, discussing solutions to issues and constant communication is a must. Constructive dialog and encouragement with balance develop a robust relationship.

Parents need to gain and keep respect from their children to find a way to train them tips on how to develop robust social relationships. Parents are the influential to baby as they set limits and guidelines with respect to each individual in the household. A warm parent is full encouragement, bi directional communication, and love. (Harkey, 2012). The authoritative type is obviously the one that parents should try for when parenting.

When this sort of parenting is accomplished a toddler shall be happy, content and profitable. Children will strive for stability and selfconfidence to develop strong peer relationships. Authoritative mother and father apply demandingness and response. They steadiness control and empathy that ends in a thriving relationship with the child. These mother and father additionally don’t put more on a baby then they really feel the child can handle. Again, they hearken to the child’s needs and assist them to make better selections.

Authoritative father or mother practices enhance the significance of peer relationships for adolescents. This parenting type encourages a variety of constructive outcomes for adolescents with high quality, supportive friendships. (Beck, 2011). Peer friendships are important to all children especially in the adolescent years. Support from friends helps to develop the next self-esteem throughout this time and makes teens really feel important. The authoritative parenting type promotes this as dad and mom focus on school occasions, peer relationships and feelings with the kid.

Studies show that strong peer relationships are associated to raised social skills and develop management qualities in teens. (Beck, 2011). Parents encourage teens to turn out to be involved in these types of relationships. Parents encourage externalized communication, involvement in teen activities, questions about their peer relationships and robust communications. At the same time, parents demand certain behaviors and will not tolerate inappropriate teen behaviors. Parents must remember not to wait to form these bonds with youngsters within the adolescent years; these bonds must being in early childhood and continued all through the early maturity years.

Parents must additionally recognize that teenagers might start to reference friends for recommendation and drawback solving expertise. Parent involvement with out being over bearing is important to keep up a balanced relationship with the child. Authoritative parenting is efficient for positive outcomes of the child in problem solving expertise in addition to success with peer relationships (Spera, 2005).

Spera critiques findings that talk to research of youngsters from authoritative parenting types and that are related to optimistic school outcomes. In his evaluation of such research he means that authoritative parents provide many concept dynamics that result in excessive tutorial efficiency. Authoritative parents present a excessive degree of emotional security. This permits the child a way of consolation and helps them to reach their college and peer relationships.

Spera additionally defines that authoritative mother and father provide their youngsters with explanations for their actions. Explanations provide youngsters with a way of interpretation and mindfulness of their parents’ values, morals, and targets. These are the building blocks to success in tutorial and social performance. Authoritative mother and father participate with the kid in bidirectional communication. This type furthermore promotes higher expertise in interpersonal relations, units a better stage of confidence and extra popular children. These interpersonal abilities are a direct reflection of how a child will succeed in college, both socially and academically.

Authoritative parents take a special, extra average strategy that emphasizes setting high standards, being nurturing and responsive, and exhibiting respect for youngsters as impartial, rational beings. The authoritative parent expects maturity and cooperation, and provides children lots of emotional support. Quality parenting is ongoing and presents heat and safe bonds between the parent and youngster. Children raised in this setting are less likely to internalize their emotions as authoritative parents encourage the child to speak about their thoughts and emotions. Also when a toddler makes a mistake, the dad and mom should method the situation in a caring method vs. a blaming tone.

This can present openness and options to problem solving and in flip youngsters will become more practical learners from this process. Studies prove that encouraging independence in youngsters replicate higher drawback solving skills and wholesome emotional beings. (Dewar, 2010). This can present the suitable means for a kid to turn out to be more useful to others, caring and giving. In doing so, youngsters will be considered by peers as being type, approachable and typically popular.

The best-adjusted baby, significantly when it comes to social competence, has mother and father who utilize the authoritative, average parenting type. (Gurian, 2011). Gurian examines and compares the parenting kinds researched for a few years by Diane Baumrind that speaks to 3 totally different kinds. These types are authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting. Authoritative parenting, offers a balanced approach, calls for expectations of appropriate behaviors, allow youngsters to think through selections and develop a way of autonomy.

Authoritarian patenting however, emphasizes strict self-discipline and extreme punishment. Also, there is little affection shown. Permissive parenting, displays passionate heat but this parent is hesitant to implement guidelines. Gurian additional explains that kids from authoritative households tend to be emotionally sound, nicely behaved and competent in educational efficiency. This makes them resourceful, and socially adept in all elements of life. In reference to kids from authoritarian families, they are pretty well behaved however lack social skills.

Also these kids tend to suffer from anxiousness, unhappiness, and lack of self-confidence. Children from permissive families could hold a excessive self esteem however tend to become involved in problem behaviors corresponding to drug or alcohol abuse and are poor performers in academics. Findings present that amongst all the parts of character, there is a direct and important relationship between openness personality trait and authoritative parenting fashion. (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012). It aims to explore the distinction in parenting types and character dimensions.

This leads youngsters to broaden their scope of curiosity and wisdom, which helps them with problem solving expertise. The authors of this summary (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012) clearly research and examine over 272 students from a national college. They used random sampling and a questionnaire to assemble the knowledge to be reviewed from these students because the authoritative parenting fashion is one compared to the others that improves secure being, focus, data, and develops drawback solving.

Also, on this study it displays that the authoritative parenting type is the one compared to the others that improves safe being within the child, focus, and information and develops problem-solving abilities. Results of this examine additionally showed that parent’s academic manners and styles are effective on the event of children’s character behaviors. Parents play an important function in assembly a child’s wants. It is crucial that a mother or father provides a wholesome relationship with baby utilizing the authoritative fashion of open communication, warmth and love. Self-confidence for youngster throughout life is important in decision-making. Children with authoritative training style have larger social-emotional development and higher academic achievement. Parents display social help, mutual relationships, approachability, responsiveness and satisfaction in direction of youngsters with an authoritative parenting style.

This in flip leads to the maturity of these mechanisms within youngsters. Family is unquestionably the primary support of a child’s character traits and growth. Parenting styles are patterns for children’s enhancement that is formed by the consistent communication of parent/child and how they response to children’s behavior. Authoritative parents demand maturity and accountability from the kid, but method them in a form way with clarification at all times.

Various studies discussed by (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012) speak to the committed relationship and authoritative parenting type that has a direct reflection on educational achievement in kids. It also has a constructive impact on the well-being and mental well being of the child. These parents information course and provide rationalization and options for additional success of those children and due to this fact have a direct reflection on downside solving of adolescent issues. The article by (Spera, 2005) evaluates the data on the relationship among parenting practices, parenting types, and adolescent faculty achievement.

Spera speaks to research accomplished by Diane Baumrind that authoritative parents have high maturity calls for and set expectations for achievement of their children. However, they foster maturity requests by way of bidirectional communication and encouragement of independence. The review of the sensible analysis signifies that parental involvement and monitoring are robust predictors of adolescent achievement. Furthermore, the evaluation specifies that authoritative parenting styles are sometimes related to advanced areas of pupil achievement.

Parents discover social abilities important and entwine them in daily discussions with youngsters. These matters can embody social, educational and peer topics for dialogue. Volunteering at school, serving to youngsters with homework and attending faculty events corresponding to extracurricular activities are the various ways parents can stay involved with baby. Parents should provoke this sort of involvement with kids, as it’s going to result in positive outcomes for the child.

Moreover, Spera speaks to studies with adolescents that have found that parental assistance with homework is positively related to the amount of time adolescents spend on their homework. Parents who worth the schooling as their baby will lead to those youngster to achieve their educational practices as properly as social interaction with peer groups (Spera, 2005). This results in private and professional progress of the child. It also teaches children to respect their studies and understand why training is to be valued. Setting goals collectively can prove efficient.

Also, mature and self-confident youngsters succeed with an authoritative mother or father if bidirectional communication is maintained. The abstract by (Turner, Chandler, and Heffer, 2009) also offers information about the effectiveness of appropriate parenting types in relation to educational performance. The results of the current research of school college students concludes that parenting traits such as concern, love and warmth continue to play an essential function in prompting a student’s educational efficiency while in college.

It also speaks to self- esteem because it pertains to success in college students. In doing so, it discusses research and studies that examined the interaction between child self-efficacy and authoritative parenting. In common, an authoritative parenting style emphasizing each responsiveness and demandingness seems superior in fostering higher educational efficiency. This provides reasoning as to why authoritative parenting is efficient in the child’s progress by way of adolescence and early maturity.

Several different research by Diane Baumrind have indicated that there’s a positive hyperlink between authoritative parenting style and tutorial performance. These youngsters are motivated continuously by their parents and supply ongoing reassurance of objectives and values. Authoritative parents encourage a high shallowness and promote the ability for the kid to mature, manage and obtain objectives in a heat, secure way.

These positive actions construct success and development for the child as they study to work by way of issues, troublesome eventualities and obtain success academically. Self-efficacy is strongly related to tutorial achievement especially at the faculty degree. Again parents play an essential role to help in the event of maturity and self-assurance of the kid beginning early in life. As children mature and begin on their own on the faculty ranges, mother and father nonetheless can play an important function on the continued success. According to studies reviewed in the article of (Turner, Chandler, and Heffer, 2009).

Students who come from an authoritative parenting fashion not only achieve general academic success however tend to have a better GPA.

Ongoing research over the years shows that establishing self-discipline via authoritative parenting is likely considered one of the most effective kinds as a end result of it supplies secure emotional growth, allows the next high quality of supportive social relationships and enhances problem-solving skills for the kid. The authoritative parenting type is one during which parents show warmth, rationalization and understanding that present a sense of security and self-perseverance of the kid.

These dad and mom allow baby involvement with an emphasis on bidirectional communication. Parents provide ideal problem fixing expertise in any respect ages for future success by demanding maturity from the kid however provide a optimistic and inspiring strategy with steadiness to a develop sturdy peer relationships. Authoritative parents provide warmth, understanding and love to promote a child’s self confidence for overall tutorial and private achievement throughout life.

References:

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Beck, K. (2011). The position of mothers’ authoritative parenting in adolescent attachment and social relationships. [Abstract]. Cherry, K. (2013a). Parenting types: the 4 styles of parenting. About.com Psychology.

Retrievedfrom http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/paren ting-style.html

Cherry, K. (2013b). What is authoritative parenting? About.com Guide to Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/childcare/f/authoritativeparenting.htm Dewar, G. (2013, March). The authoritative parenting fashion: Warmth, rationality, and high standards. A guide for the science-minded father or mother http://www.parentingscience.com/authoritative-parenting-style.html Dewar, G. (2010). Parenting kinds: A information for the science-minded http://www.parentingscience.com/parenting-styles.html

Gurian, A. (2011, July). Parenting styles/children’s temperaments: the match. NYU Child Study Center. Retrieved from

http://www.aboutourkids.org/articles/parenting_styleschildren039s_temperaments _match

Harkey, N, & Jourgensen, T. (2012). Parenting by temperament: Authoritative parenting [Kindle edition]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Mohammad, M. Javidi, N., Samadzadeh, M. & Amini. M. ( 2012, September). 3332 Indian Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 5 No. 9

Spera, C. (2005). A evaluation of the connection amongst parenting practices, parenting kinds, and adolescent faculty achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125-146

Turner, E., Chandler, M., Heffer, R. (2009, May/June). The affect of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in school college students. Journal of College Student Development, Volume 50, (3), 337-346. Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting

The numbers of teenage pregnancy have decreased in the United States, but this is not the case for everybody. Being a mother in itself represents hormonal imbalances, that contribute to temper swings, melancholy in addition to the exhaustion of the primary weeks of turning into a new mother. The pleasure of having a baby does not prevent any of the hormonal adjustments or postpartum depression typically times skilled by new moms. The psychological impression of being an adolescent mother can affect the means ahead for kids of teenage dad and mom.

High ranges of parenting stress and a scarcity of social support are associated with unfavorable psychological health standing for ethnic minority adolescent moms, which in turn negatively impacts the development of their children. It is important to discover unique risks and protecting components related to positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents to ensure healthy development for his or her children.

According to Mollborn and Morningstar, 2009, teenage childbearing has been a public health and social downside in America for the rationale that 1970s and has been some extent of concern for the healthcare sector thus far.

Among all industrialized international locations on the earth, United States has continually had the highest rate of teenage delivery with an estimation of 27 of 1000 ladies experiencing teen start aged 15 to 19 years (Mollborn & Morningstar, 2009). Teen start charges are larger amongst adolescents who come from poor backgrounds and likewise greater amongst Black and Hispanic youngsters than White teenagers. Stephanie and Elizabeth highlight that research has been accomplished on the social and economic penalties of teenage parenthood as properly as the mental well being status of teenage moms.

Longitudinal surveys have been carried out by the U.S National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and Early Childhood Birth and have been helpful in accessing and understanding psychological misery brought about by teen delivery.

According to Whitworth article, 2017, longitudinal surveys reveals that adolescent moms have high despair levels compared to their teenage peers and grownup moms who seemed to have been distressed even before getting pregnant. Therefore, childbearing wouldn’t have been the core cause behind their despair since their melancholy ranges have been larger than that of their peers even earlier than pregnancy and seems to intensify after being pregnant. Ideally, psychologically distressed teenage women face more threat of experiencing teen birth compared to their peers who aren’t distressed thus having conversations with youngsters about responsible behaviors and their sexuality helps prevent teen pregnancies (Whitworth, 2017). Since most teen moms come from financial unstable households, teenage childbearing appears to be an adaptive mechanism to cope up with hostile surroundings. From an evolutionary perspective, the optimal reproductive strategy is early copy that maximizes probabilities of leaving descendants in unsure and dangerous environments.

More so, attitudes by adolescents during pregnancy through psychological mechanisms form the consequences of depression after childbirth (Whitworth, 2017). The anticipated capacity to socially and economically present and care for a child decided the depressive symptoms during teen being pregnant thus the incapability to have sufficient sources results to break in psychological well being. Ultimately, adolescent childbearing outcomes to grownup despair as it makes desired instructional attainment and anticipated income unattainable due to unplanned for duties. Therefore, for higher mental health adjustment to surprising life occasions, people need the best attitudes and less depression outcomes to attainment of desired social and financial standing and drives away psychological well being and physical issues.

Fletcher, 2012, argues that adolescent motherhood affects the mothers’ brief and long-term health conditions in addition to their financial and academic capabilities since adolescent motherhood has been linked to lower revenue and low academic attainments. Teenage motherhood reduces the opportunities mothers have of their lives whereas growing their limitations and alter of priorities making them indulge in behaviors that might be dangerous. Tobacco consumption is certainly one of the coping mechanisms by the moms to scale back misery during parenting and so they extra probably become overweight and are less more doubtless to stop smoking. Moreover, teenage parenthood impacts moms of their relationships and marriages since they end up with low high quality choices in companions (Fletcher, 2012). Miscarriages in teen pregnancies are frequent since they may be on account of trauma caused by high melancholy ranges whereas 25% of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion, 16% end in miscarriages and 298 in a thousand of adolescent pregnancies turn out to be stay births.

According to Dowd, 2018, hyperthermia has been the trigger of averagely 38 youngsters in the United States yearly after being left in automobiles. The instances appear to have continuously increased after the National Highway Transportation Service Administration (NHTSA) indicated that the safest locations for youngsters had been in the backseats. Due to children’s immature bodily developments, they get prone to buying heat injuries and sicknesses (Dowd, 2018). Motor vehicles have greenhouse properties in hot conditions thus they get to lure heat in chilly temperatures which ultimately alters the compartment heating strategy of a automobile. Dowd, 2018, means that via instructional packages which create awareness on vehicular hyperthermia risks the frequent baby deaths might be prevented. Emphasis is created on by no means leaving children in motor vehicles alone as well as looking before locking automobiles which might help in stopping automobile interiors getting accessed by youngsters who could get trapped inside.

According to Grundstein, Dowd and Meentemeyer (2010), leaving children unattended to in motor automobiles could be risky because it may result to vehicle-related hyperthermia deaths. Since more than 2000 youngsters die every year out of unintentional deaths consciousness on vehicular hyperthermia could stop a few of the deaths since a small percentage of the dying are caused by vehicle-related hyperthermia. In addition, 75% of the recorded deaths occur through the months of summer and 70% of the deaths happened when temperatures outdoors have been more than 31 degrees (Grundstein, Dowd, & Meentemeyer, 2010). Regardless, warnings and educational packages are useful in creation of consciousness on risks related to warmth sicknesses. Therefore, through the use vehicle temperatures table, guardians can know when it might be hazardous to go away kids in vehicles thus stopping such deaths.

Further evidence indicates the connection between adolescent parenting and unintended death of kids. In a study utilizing linked start and death data from North Carolina and Washington State for 1968 via 1980. Wicklund et al. (1984) found a strong inverse relationship between maternal age and mortality rates from accidents for children underneath one, net of parity and academic level of mom (a proxy for SES). In the article, “The kids of teenage childbearers”, Hofferth states, “The actual mortality price from accidents in the course of the first 12 months of life is actually quite low—in 1980 in North Carolina about three out of 10,000 stay births died from accidents within the first year in Washington state the rate was 1.forty seven per 10,000 live births”. They differ in race, age of the mom, and stage of training.

Children of mothers underneath 20 who had 9 or more years of schooling have been considerably more likely to die from accidents in the first 12 months of life than youngsters of moms 20 and over with the identical amount of education. Among kids of mothers with very low levels of education, these with mothers 24 and youthful had been more likely to die than those with moms 25 and older. Education was additionally strongly inversely related to infant mortality from accidents and parity was immediately associated. That is, mortality charges have been decrease for children with a more educated mom and one with fewer children. Black kids had nearly twice the speed of deaths from accidents in the first year as white children. The main causes of accidental deaths in North Carolina have been suffocation by inhalation and/or ingestion of food, and suffocation by mechanical means, transport accidents coming third.

In phrases of unintentional deaths, the correlation seems to be training degree somewhat than the age of the mom, parental care is essential for the protection of youngsters; which appears to be much less trustworthy in households by which the mother is younger, black, less well-educated and has extra children. Preparation for parenting, contains data and attitudes about children’s improvement, it is effects had been also partially mediated by the mother’s psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the consequences of child temperament on abuse potential have been mediated by the mother’s psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and figuring out at-risk adolescents. These psychological and hormonal modifications can definitely affect the state of mind of a young mom causing their worst nightmare, unintentional death of a child. The ‘forgotten child syndrome”, whereas this will seem unthinkable to overlook your child for a quantity of hours without realizing the kid is missing. Young mothers are at increased danger for mistreating their kids. 1–5 An ideal technique for protecting kids from maltreatment can be early identification of younger women who could also be in danger for perpetrating abusive or neglectful habits so that these issues may be addressed before they begin raising youngsters.

A Prime Example of Authoritative Parenting

Parental types have a well-documented affect on children, and play a strong position in a child’s development. Authoritative parenting has been proven to doubtlessly reduce a child’s danger of associating with antisocial friends, and deter engagement in delinquent behavior. Authoritative parenting has additionally been proven to boost adults that have healthy emotional adjustment and prosocial behavior. My mother and father used an authoritative parenting fashion that created a stable, partaking, heat and nurturing childhood for me.

I plan on being an authoritative parent.

It labored properly in my family, and because analysis each modern and historically states that authoritative parenting is the preferable fashion.

My household is an American nuclear family composed of a father, mom and two siblings. My father Jim is a really profitable architect and entrepreneur and my mom Michele is the CFO of their businesses, which allowed her to be a keep at residence mom for me and my older brother Kristopher. My parents are a solid example of the authoritative parenting type; their parenting type created a secure, participating, heat and nurturing childhood for me. I consider the productive and effective enterprise relationship they developed as enterprise partners directly influenced how well they parented, and that their experience in joint decision making particularly benefited their parenting, and in the end me as properly.

Throughout my childhood and adolescence they were a stable authoritative parenting team, which helped them create a home with a lot of structure. Minuchin, as quoted by Omer, Steinmetz, Carthy and Schlippe (2013), says “Structure plays a vital position in selling a secure and safe body for family life (Minuchin, 1974).

” I strongly really feel that the structure positively affected my improvement by minimizing battle and confusion. I imagine my parent’s personalities additionally significantly influenced why and how they are authoritative dad and mom. My mom is intelligent, articulate, willful, persistent, moral, logical, and astonishingly organized.

My mother has a dominate personality, and is a girl whose actions are generally the outcome of purpose not her feelings, which is uncommon for ladies. However, she is an incredibly warm and nurturing mom who has always been emotionally available for me. I feel these constructive traits influenced why I generally listened to her recommendation and direction, as she was a reliable and available mom. I have all the time immensely respected and loved

Parenting Styles

Researchers have studied parenting styles extensively. Many studies have aimed to find a greater connection that shows the impact of each parenting style on the development of the child and how its influence in various aspects of life including self-confidence, self-esteem, academic achievement, and personality. This study used previous empirical research to examine the various impacts of parenting styles on children’s developmental processes. This study begins with a review of the classical studies of Baumrind (1991) and Maccoby (2000). Maccoby used 12 scholarly articles published between 2007 and 2013. Many of the findings in the research support the notion that the authoritative parenting style is the most advantageous in child development.

Parenting Styles and their Impact on Child Development

Developmental psychologists are interested in comprehending how parents influence their children’s development. However, many of these psychologists have not yet found an actual cause and effect connection between the actions of parents and children’s behaviors. In various cases, researchers have observed that even children who are raised in drastically different environments grew up to have personalities that are very similar to one another.

On the other hand, children who share a home and are raised in similar environments often grow up with extremely different personalities from one another. While this counterintuitive phenomenon exists, researchers have uncovered many connections between parenting styles and their effects on children. The effects of parenting styles on children were examined to determine whether parents have a significant impact on their children’s development. It is widely accepted from layman science that children learn many aspects and acquire many of their personality traits from their social lives and the environments in which they are brought up.

The question that lingers is exactly how much parents actually influence their children in terms of genetics compared to their development after birth and throughout childhood? Psychologists agree that a child’s learning curve is partially based on the timetable at which development begins and is
defined as how fast an infant learns to walk and talk, and progress through other developmental milestones. Society has made it the parents’ responsibility to develop their children according to the standards, morals, and values within each society.

This responsibility includes teaching the children how to behave while at home, around friends and family, and while in public. Society expects children to act in a specific way, which may include not pestering their parents, behaving in an appropriate manner in public, and participating in household chores. However, the outcome of a child acting in such a way depends on how the parents have fostered these ideas within the child, which is a determinate to the growth and development of the child’s personality.

A child’s development does not only depend on the environment and parenting styles involved. To some extent, predispositions such as genetics are also potential factors that can significantly impact growth and development of the child. This study used the classical works of Baumrind (1991), Maccoby (2000), and Martin as a framework upon which further research concerning this topic can be carried out. A thorough discussion of the work of these researchers provides the opportunity to draw conclusions in which to answer the following question: To what extent does parenting style impact on child development? Materials and Methods

This research did not use an experimental study; rather, it is classified as a qualitative analysis in which a review of literature was conducted to draw conclusions on the research topic. Therefore, this study is more of a literature review in which previous works on the impact of parent styles on child development are discussed.

For example, this study scrutinizes the works of Maccoby (2000) who obtained data from other studies and analyzed it to her specifications. Maccoby assessed several studies and found that the methods used include observations on child-parent interactions, interview, and reviews of various records of participants. This study used a minimum of 12 scholarly articles been published in the last 5 to 6 years using an empirical research method. This review allowed the researcher to make recommendations, based on recent research, on best practices in assessing the significance of parenting styles on child development.

This study used only experimental studies to provide a basis of legitimacy based observed data. Before recent research is assessed, a background of this topic is established by summarizing the classical works of Baumrind (1991), Maccoby, and Martin. Difference between Parenting Style and Practice

Before the works of researchers are discussed, it is important to highlight the difference between parenting styles and parenting practices. According to Spera (2005), it is essential and imperative to comprehend the difference between parenting styles and parenting practices. Spera noted that parenting practices is defined as specific behaviors use to socialize with their children. An example of such socialization is when parents sit down with their children to guide them with their homework or when they set aside a specific time for reading or making school a top priority by attending school events such as parent-teacher conferences.

These actions show that parents have a desire for their children to do well in school. On the other hand, parenting style is more of a characterization of the emotional climate that surrounds in the environment in which parents rear their children. According to Baumrind (1991), parenting styles can be characterized over several dimensions in which parental responsiveness and demand is asserted on the child. Baumrind, Maccoby, & Martin: Theories of Parenting Styles and Child Rearing Baumrind (1966) developed a theory on parenting styles that proposed that parents fall into one of three categories of parenting styles, authoritarian, indulgent, or authoritative.

Baumrind later expanded this theory and included a fourth parenting style known as negligent. The typologies of Baumrind’s parenting styles were concluded after conducting extensive research using interviews and observations with parents and children. Participants included 32 middle class white families who were observed in a nursery school setting.

The methods of naturalistic observation, parent interviews, and other research methods resulted in four important dimensions of parenting, disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication style, and expectations of maturity and control. Baumrind’s (1966) parenting styles included authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent/permissive, and negligent/uninvolved. The proposed parenting styles have different consequences on children regarding competence and development based on social and cognitive traits. Additionally, each style differs in terms of behaviors, standards, and values that parents expect their children to adopt. Authoritarian Parenting

Under the authoritarian parenting style, children are expected to follow a strict set of rules established by the parents. If the child fails to follow these rules, the parents will administer some sort of punishment. Observations suggest that parents who use this parenting style tend to fail when it comes to explaining the reason(s) behind their rules. When parents were asked to explain the reason(s) behind rules, the most common answer was, “I said so, that’s why.” These parents also tend to have high demands but are not very responsive of their children. According to Baumrind (1966), these parents tend to be obedience- and status-oriented, and they expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation. Authoritative Parenting

The authoritative parenting style is similar to authoritarian as parents who operate under this style also have established rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this style differs in that it is more democratic in the sense that authoritative parents respond to their children and are willing to listen to questions that the children might have.

For example, if a child were to fail to meet any of the established expectations, these parents would be more nurturing and forgiving, rather than simply administering a punishment. According to Baumrind (1966; 1991), these parents tend to monitor and impart clear standards concerning conduct and behavior. Additionally, these parents are not assertive but may be more intrusive and restrictive. The disciplinary methods of the parents are more supportive as they want their children to be assertive, socially responsible, self-regulated, and cooperative. Indulgent/Permissive Parenting

Permissive parents tend to make very few demands on their children. These parents are known to rarely discipline their children because of their low expectations of maturity and self-control. These parents are also more responsive than they are demanding, and they are considered nontraditional and lenient. Parents known to use this style do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and tend to avoid confrontation. These parents are also nurturing and communicative with their children, and they are usually found taking the status of a friend rather than a parent. Negligent/Uninvolved Parenting

Negligent or uninvolved parents tend to have very few to no demands, low responsiveness, and very little to no communication. These parents fulfill the basic needs of their children; however, they are very much detached from their children’s lives. Observed in extreme cases of negligent parenting, these parents might even reject or neglect the needs of their children. Baumrind’s (1966) initial study of child development has led other researchers to conduct studies to elaborate on this work.

Maccoby (2000) found some impact of these parenting styles on children’s development. Maccoby’s work extended the research on the influence of parenting style and that of the genetic makeup of the child, which she proposed effects behavioral characteristics. Maccoby also proposed that genetics also influences the way in which parents treat their children. Maccoby (2000) used twin and adoption studies to provide a logical basis to estimate the strength of genetic effects.

Her study found that heritability estimates for a given trait vary widely. Maccoby argued that basing assumptions on the strength of genetic factors were not enough because they are not sufficient to develop a basis to make such estimations because of additional environmental factors that are involved. If researchers make these assumptions, they will systematically underestimate parenting effects. Maccoby believed and established that children’s genetic predispositions and their parent’s parenting style are interconnected and that they function, which results in the overall effect of a child’s development. According to the studies conducted by Maccoby, each parenting style as the following influences on children:

1. Authoritarian parenting. This parenting style leads children to be very obedient and proficient. However, they will end up ranking lower in the amount of happiness, social competence, and self-esteem. 2. Authoritative parenting. Parents, who raise their children using this style, have children who are happier, capable, and successful individuals. 3. Permissive/Indulgent. Parents with this style of parenting will have children with low amounts of happiness and self-regulation.

These children also have significant problems with authority and tend to perform poorly in school. 4. Negligible/Uninvolved. Parents who use this style of parenting have children who rank the lowest across almost all domains of life. Many of these children demonstrate a lack of self-control, low self-esteem, and are known to be less competent than their peers.

Many researchers agree that the authoritative parenting style is the most advantageous of all the parenting styles. When children comprehend and perceive their parents’ requests to be reasonable and fair, they are more likely to conducting themselves according to those requests (Bernstein, 2011). Another reason for the successfulness of this parenting style is that children are more likely to accept the rationale for behavior as their own, which results in a greater amount of self-control (Bernstein, 2011). Recent Studies

Many recent studies have been conducted on the effects of parenting styles on the development of children. Such research has focused on the effects parenting styles have on in regards to academic performance and level of education. Hernandez (2013) examined the impact of parenting styles on self-efficacy and level of education among Latinos.

The study included 199 participants who ranged in age from 25 to 79. The researcher used a correlational method to configure the effects of parenting. Hernandez found a positive correlation between the level of education of both parents and participants’ levels of education. Rinaldi and Howe (2012) found those mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported parenting styles explained 44% of the variance found among youngsters’ externalizing behaviors. Their study included 59 families with children aged 32 months.

Recent studies have also shown that children’s externalizing behaviors are negatively and moderately associated with fathers’ authoritative styles, and positively associated with fathers’ authoritarian styles. Additionally, studies have shown that children’s internalizing behaviors are positively correlation with fathers’ authoritarian style of parenting (Schary, Cardinal, & Loprinizi, 2012a; 2012b, & Loprinizi, Schary, Beets, Leary, & Cardinal, 2013). Recent studies have found connections between parenting styles and child development, specifically, on school achievement. Kordi and Baharudin (2010) reviewed empirical studies on school-related achievements. The researchers found that the authoritative parenting style was highly associated with higher levels of school achievement.

However, Kordi and Baharudin noted that these findings are inconsistent between cultures and across various societies. Cramer (2002) examines the relationship between parenting styles and classroom motivation.

The researcher found that mothers’ authoritative parenting was positively correlated with first graders’ mastery of concepts in motivation. Based on this finding, Cramer suggested that authoritative parenting leads to higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Conversely, fathers’ authoritarian parenting was significantly and positively correlated with first and third graders’ motivation and teachers’ perceptions of children’s classroom motivation (Cramer, 2002). Hong (2012) also expanded on Baumrind’s (1966; 1991) parenting styles and their effects on the children’s schooling. She examined the ways in which parenting style impacted child’s behavior and found that the influence yielded predictive effects on children’s academic achievements.

Hong (2012) also found a correlation between parenting style and children’s behaviors, which eventually defines their academic achievements. The researcher also found that child’s academic achievement is a result of the mix between parenting style and parenting practices they exert in the child’s environment. Conclusion

Although significant research has been conducted to find connections between parenting style and child development, more effort is needed to find an exact cause and effect relationship between these two variables.

Through various studies were reviewed here, it seems that the authoritative parenting style produces the most advantageous and positive impacts on a child’s development and academic achievement. Exactly to what extent this parenting style has on children needs further study. To understand the extent of the influence of parenting styles better, the inclusion of parenting practices also need to be considered. Such research can be used to create practices for parents to follow, to aid their children in becoming fully developed adults and influence their development in a positive way. References

Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37(4), 887-907. Baumrind, D. (1991). The
influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95. Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Cramer, K. E. (2002). The influences of parenting style on children’s classroom motivation. Retrieved from http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-0712102-125121/unrestricted /Cramer_thesis.pdf

Hernandez, M. (2013). The impact of parenting styles on Latinos’ level of education and self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/1522577.pdf Hong, E. (2012). Impacts of parenting on children’s schooling. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 2, 36-41. Kordi, A., & Baharudin, R. (2010). Parenting attitude and style and its effect on children’s school achievements. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2, 217-222. Loprinizi, P. D., Schary, D. P., Beets, M. W., Leary, J., & Cardinal, B. J. (2012). Association between hypothesized parental influences and preschool children’s physical activity behavior. American Journal of Health Education, 4, 9-18. doi:10.1080/19325037 .2012.749685

Maccoby, E. E. (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, p. 1-27. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych .51.1.1

Rinaldi, C. M. & Howe, N. (2012). Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and association with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 266-273. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.08.001 Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J. & Loprinizi, P. D. (2012a). Parenting style associated with sedentary behavior in preschool children. Early Child Development and Care, 182(8), 1015-1026. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.678596 Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J. & Loprinizi, P. D. (2012b). Parental support exceeds parenting style for promoting active play in preschool children. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1057-1069. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.685622 Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practice, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 125-146. doi:10.1007/s10648-005-3950-1

Authoritative Parenting Model

Establishing discipline through authoritative parenting is an effective style because it displays secure emotional development, allows a higher quality of supportive peer relationships and enhances problem-solving skills for the child. Research has shown that authoritative parenting is the most effective style of parenting. Authoritative parenting is the one style that promotes equal involvement between the parent and child. (Cherry, 2013a). The parent displays fair discipline, warmth and nurturing, effective communication with the child and sets certain expectations on behavior and maturity. This parenting style promotes a “democratic” model in which parents are responsive to the child’s needs, thoughts and concerns.

These parents will listen to questions the child may have on expectations set. Simply put by these parents are direct but not over bearing. (Cherry, 2013b). They reason instead of just punishing the child. Parents of this model want their children to be self-assured, socially approachable and cooperative. This furthermore, clearly defines that the authoritative style allows open communication between parent and child, love, guidance, nurturing, explanation of discipline and balance for the child.

The authoritative parenting style is about setting limits, reasoning with kids, and being responsive to their emotional needs. (Dewar, 2013). These types of parents offer children a great deal of emotional support. While setting high standards for a child, parents who practice the authoritative style are responsive to the needs of children, demand children to show respect as well as provide a nurturing environment. In setting limits, children will often comply with respect to their parents and act responsibly. When children misbehave, the authoritative parent provides discipline as well and pointing out and discussing the misbehavior.

The parent further provides reasoning to the act. In addition, parents allow for verbal responses and communication from the child that promotes a sense of balance. As Dewar further states, there is evidence that this style helps kids become more empathic, helpful, conscientious, and kind to others. Dewar also suggests, authoritative parents are both highly responsive and very demanding. Overall, this is one of the best ways to define the authoritative parenting style. Evidenced research provides several conclusions that children raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, socially accepted by peers, academically productive, and well mannered. (Dewar, 2013).

Children often become more supportive, reliable, and thoughtful to family and peers. Authoritative parents promote secure attachments and allow children to communicate their concerns and feelings. In doing so, children are less likely to internalize problems. Talking with a child will allow them to verbalize both good and bad, learning from these better choices and avoiding future mistakes. In the end, children will become better with problem solving skills and positive emotional well-being.

Authoritative parenting offers secure emotional development of a child. These parents exhibit respectable emotional understanding and control, encourage children to manage their own emotions and learn to understand others as well. (Cherry, 2013b). The authoritative parenting style focuses on parents listening to what their children have to say, place reasonable limits that have set consequences for certain behaviors and encourage an independent child. Parents are warm and welcoming to discuss anything with the child but do not do this in a robust manner.

This parent is consistent with discipline but expects the child take responsibility for their actions. The parents do not judge or place immediate blame, they listen to what the child has to say. In return, these children tend to be capable of making appropriate decisions, have a sense of pride and happiness with themself and achieve goals set for them effectively. In other words, the authoritative parent encourages a child to set expectations of their own to succeed, work through problems, develop their own skill sets and accomplish a strong sense of confidence. Diane Baumrind’s research shows that these children display a happier disposition, have effective control of their emotions, exhibit s social interaction and are self-starters in learning new things. (Cherry, 2013a).

Multiple studies have been done that prove authoritative parents score high on measures of warmth and responsiveness and high on measures of control and maturity demands (Spera, 2005). This is likely due to the parent’s warm and responsive manner in which the child is approached by the parent. The parents due demand a high level of maturity from the child, but do so with balance, affection, and bidirectional communication to nurture relationships. The parent gives explanation of why a child should act a certain way in social or serious situation. Parents also help the child to prioritize what is important to succeed socially and academically. This is referred to as the demandingness/responsive model. (Spera, 2005). Demandingness refers to the demands parents make on their children to become unified with family and united in society with others. Parents hold certain levels of demand for their children, but provide direction, and discipline when appropriate.

Responsiveness refers to parental actions that purposefully encourage individuality, self-confidence and contention of the child. With parental responsiveness, parents are receptive and understanding of the child’s needs. Parenting in this manner and with warmth and understanding, this can make a child’s temperament more calm, happy, adaptable, regulate sleeping and eating habits, set a positive mood and encourage interest in new experiences. Research has found that the best-adjusted children have parents with an authoritative style (Gurian, 2011). These parents are able to balance with definitions, place high demands with emotional responsiveness and maintain respect for their child’s independence. Parents need to remember though; children also have their own style and temperament.

They do react differently in given situations and parents must recognize those differences, especially in families with many siblings. Differences in these types of children are the easy going, calm, happy child who possess healthy habits, is generally in a good mood at all time and is interested in many different activities. In contrast, difficult child may be fussy, negative, and emotionally weak and get upset easily. Authoritative parents must understand the given situation and find a good “fit” to meet the child’s demands. Being consistent is key as well. Setting limits on the child, providing ongoing encouragement, recognizing accomplishments, discussing solutions to problems and consistent communication is a must. Constructive conversation and encouragement with balance develop a strong relationship.

Parents need to gain and maintain respect from their children to be able to teach them how to develop strong social relationships. Parents are the influential to child as they set limits and rules with respect to each individual in the family. A warm parent is full encouragement, bi directional communication, and love. (Harkey, 2012). The authoritative style is obviously the one that parents should strive for when parenting. When this type of parenting is accomplished a child will be happy, content and successful. Children will strive for balance and selfconfidence to develop strong peer relationships. Authoritative parents practice demandingness and response. They balance control and empathy that results in a thriving relationship with the child. These parents also do not put more on a child then they feel the child can handle. Again, they listen to the child’s needs and help them to make better decisions.

Authoritative parent practices increase the importance of peer relationships for adolescents. This parenting style encourages a variety of positive outcomes for adolescents with quality, supportive  during this time and makes teens feel important. The authoritative parenting style promotes this as parents discuss school events, peer relationships and emotions with the child. Studies show that strong peer relationships are related to better social skills and develop leadership qualities in teens. (Beck, 2011). Parents encourage teens to become involved in these types of relationships. Parents encourage externalized communication, involvement in teen activities, questions about their peer relationships and strong communications.

At the same time, parents demand certain behaviors and will not tolerate inappropriate teen behaviors. Parents must remember not to wait to form these bonds with children in the adolescent years; these bonds must being in early childhood and continued throughout the early adulthood years. Parents must also recognize that teens may begin to reference peers for advice and problem solving skills. Parent involvement without being over bearing is essential to maintain a balanced relationship with the child. Authoritative parenting is effective for positive outcomes of the child in problem solving skills as well as success with peer relationships (Spera, 2005). Spera reviews findings that speak to research of children from authoritative parenting styles and that are associated with positive school outcomes. In his review of such research he suggests that authoritative parents provide many idea dynamics that lead to high academic performance.

Authoritative parents provide a high level of emotional security. This allows the child a sense of comfort and helps them to succeed in their school and peer relationships. Spera also defines that authoritative parents provide their children with explanations for their actions. Explanations provide children with a sense of interpretation and mindfulness of their parents’ values, morals, and goals. These are the building blocks to success in academic and social performance. Authoritative parents participate with the child in bidirectional communication. This style furthermore promotes better skills in interpersonal relations, sets a higher level of confidence and more popular children.

These interpersonal skills are a direct reflection of how a child will succeed in school, both socially and academically. Authoritative parents take a different, more moderate approach that emphasizes setting high standards, being nurturing and responsive, and showing respect for children as independent, rational beings. The authoritative parent expects maturity and cooperation, and offers children a lot of emotional support. Quality parenting is ongoing and offers warm and secure bonds between the parent and child. Children raised in this environment are less likely to internalize their feelings as authoritative parents encourage the child to talk about their thoughts and feelings. Also when a child makes a mistake, the parents must approach the situation in a caring manner vs. a blaming tone.

This can provide openness and solutions to problem solving and in turn children will become more effective learners from this process. Studies prove that encouraging independence in children reflect better problem solving skills and healthy emotional beings. (Dewar, 2010). This can provide the appropriate means for a child to become more helpful to others, caring and giving. In doing so, children will be viewed by peers as being kind, approachable and sometimes popular.

The best-adjusted child, particularly in terms of social competence, has parents who utilize the authoritative, moderate parenting style. (Gurian, 2011). Gurian examines and compares the parenting styles researched for many years by Diane Baumrind that speaks to three different styles. These styles are authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting. Authoritative parenting, provides a balanced approach, demands expectations of appropriate behaviors, allow children to think through decisions and develop a sense of autonomy. Authoritarian patenting on the other hand, emphasizes strict discipline and severe punishment. Also, there is little affection shown. Permissive parenting, displays passionate warmth but this parent is hesitant to enforce rules.

Gurian further explains that children from authoritative families tend to be emotionally sound, well behaved and competent in academic performance. This makes them resourceful, and socially adept in all aspects of life. In reference to children from authoritarian families, they are fairly well behaved but lack social skills. Also these children tend to suffer from anxiety, unhappiness, and lack of self-confidence.

Children from permissive families may hold a high self esteem but tend to get involved in problem behaviors such as drug or alcohol abuse and are poor performers in academics. Findings show that among all the components of personality, there is a direct and significant relationship between openness personality trait and authoritative parenting style. (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012). It aims to explore the difference in parenting styles and personality dimensions. This leads children to broaden their scope of curiosity and wisdom, which helps them with problem solving skills. The authors of this abstract (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012) clearly research and study over 272 students from a national university.

They used random sampling and a questionnaire to gather the information to be reviewed from these students as the authoritative parenting style is one compared to the others that improves secure being, focus, knowledge, and develops problem solving. Also, in this study it reflects that the authoritative parenting style is the one compared to the others that improves secure being within the child, focus, and knowledge and develops problem-solving skills. Results of this study also showed that parent’s educational manners and styles are effective on the development of children’s personality behaviors. Parents play an important role in meeting a child’s needs. It is imperative that a parent provides a healthy relationship with child using the authoritative style of open communication, warmth and love. Self-confidence for child throughout life is significant in decision-making.

Children with authoritative education style have higher social-emotional growth and better academic achievement. Parents display social support, mutual relationships, approachability, responsiveness and satisfaction towards children with an authoritative parenting style. This in turn results in the maturity of these mechanisms within children. Family is definitely the main support of a child’s personality traits and growth. Parenting styles are patterns for children’s enhancement that is formed by the consistent communication of parent/child and how they response to children’s behavior. Authoritative parents demand maturity and accountability from the child, but approach them in a kind way with explanation at all times. Various studies discussed by (Mohammad, Nasirudin, Samadzadeh and Amini, 2012) speak to the committed relationship and authoritative parenting style that has a direct reflection on academic achievement in children. It also has a positive impact on the well-being and mental health of the child.

These parents guide direction and provide explanation and solutions for further success of these children and therefore have a direct reflection on problem solving of adolescent issues. The article by (Spera, 2005) evaluates the information on the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Spera speaks to research completed by Diane Baumrind that authoritative parents have high maturity demands and set expectations for achievement of their children. However, they foster maturity requests through bidirectional communication and encouragement of independence.

The review of the practical research indicates that parental involvement and monitoring are strong predictors of adolescent achievement. Furthermore, the review specifies that authoritative parenting styles are often associated with advanced areas of student achievement. Parents find social skills important and entwine them in daily discussions with children. These topics can include social, academic and peer topics for discussion.

Volunteering at school, helping children with homework and attending school events such as extracurricular activities are the many ways parents can stay involved with child. Parents must initiate this type of involvement with children, as it will result in positive outcomes for the child. Moreover, Spera speaks to studies with adolescents that have found that parental assistance with homework is positively related to the amount of time adolescents spend on their homework. Parents who value the education as their child will result in those child to succeed in their academic practices as well as social interaction with peer groups (Spera, 2005). This results in personal and professional growth of the child.

It also teaches children to respect their studies and understand why education is to be valued. Setting goals together can prove effective. Also, mature and self-confident children succeed with an authoritative parent if bidirectional communication is maintained. The abstract by (Turner, Chandler, and Heffer, 2009) also provides information about the effectiveness of appropriate parenting styles in relation to academic performance. The results of the current study of college students concludes that parenting characteristics such as concern, love and warmth continue to play an important role in prompting a student’s academic performance while in college. It also speaks to self- esteem as it relates to success in college students. In doing so, it discusses research and studies that tested the interaction between child self-efficacy and authoritative parenting.

In general, an authoritative parenting style emphasizing both responsiveness and demandingness appears superior in fostering higher academic performance. This provides reasoning as to why authoritative parenting is effective in the child’s progress through adolescence and early adulthood. Several other studies by Diane Baumrind have indicated that there is a positive link between authoritative parenting style and academic performance. These children are motivated constantly by their parents and provide ongoing reassurance of goals and values. Authoritative parents encourage a high self-esteem and promote the ability for the child to mature, organize and achieve goals in a warm, secure way.

These positive actions build success and growth for the child as they learn to work through problems, difficult scenarios and achieve success academically. Self-efficacy is strongly related to academic achievement especially at the college level. Again parents play an important role to assist in the development of maturity and self-assurance of the child beginning early in life. As children mature and begin on their own at the college levels, parents still can play an important role on the continued success. According to studies reviewed in the article of (Turner, Chandler, and Heffer, 2009). Students who come from an authoritative parenting style not only achieve overall academic success but tend to have a higher GPA.

Ongoing research over the years shows that establishing discipline through authoritative parenting is one of the most effective styles because it provides secure emotional development, allows a higher quality of supportive social relationships and enhances problem-solving skills for the child. The authoritative parenting style is one in which parents display warmth, rationalization and understanding that provide a sense of security and self-perseverance of the child. These parents allow child involvement with an emphasis on bidirectional communication. Parents provide ideal problem solving skills at all ages for future success by demanding maturity from the child but provide a positive and encouraging approach with balance to a develop strong peer relationships. Authoritative parents provide warmth, understanding and love to promote a child’s self confidence for overall academic and personal achievement throughout life.

REFERENCES
Beck, K. (2011). The role of mothers’ authoritative
parenting in adolescent attachment and social relationships. [Abstract]. Cherry, K. (2013a). Parenting styles: the four styles of parenting. About.com Psychology.
Retrievedfrom http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/paren ting-style.htm?r=et. Cherry, K. (2013b). What is authoritative parenting? About.com Guide to Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/childcare/f/authoritativeparenting.htm Dewar, G. (2013, March). The authoritative parenting style: Warmth, rationality, and high standards. A guide for the science-minded parent http://www.parentingscience.com/authoritative-parenting-style.html Dewar, G. (2010). Parenting styles: A guide for the science-minded http://www.parentingscience.com/parenting-styles.html

Gurian, A. (2011, July). Parenting styles/children’s temperaments: the match. NYU Child Study Center. Retrieved from http://www.aboutourkids.org/articles/parenting_styleschildren039s_temperaments _match Harkey, N, & Jourgensen, T. (2012). Parenting by temperament: Authoritative parenting [Kindle edition]. Retrieved from Amazon.com Mohammad, M. Javidi, N., Samadzadeh, M. & Amini. M. ( 2012, September). 3332 Indian Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 5 No. 9

Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125-146 Turner, E., Chandler, M., Heffer, R. (2009, May/June). The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. Journal of College Student Development, Volume 50, (3), 337-346. Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dads should Take Parenting Leaves

Introduction

It is commonly believed that fathers should be offered paternity or paternal leave from their Organizations because it gives them the opportunity to connect with the child while providing mothers a while to cure and relax. A father being on parental leave also helps when the mother is recovering or affected by post-partum depressive disorders. It gives the mother an opportunity to get back to daily work and not worry about searching for an appropriate childcare center at the moment. Fathers should have the experience and joy of feeding, crying, clothing, bathing and soothing their children. It can give the mother time to her and the ability to take care of her personal needs, while giving fathers the chance to give a helping hand around the house.

It is not a fact that dad’s only care for their job. Their intention towards paternity leaves shows their heartiest concern and strong bonding of family so it is very important for a strong family relationship and for the sake of child betterment attention given by father gives him courage and confidence in the early growing age. The growing minds of child flourishes and brighten with a special value and qualitative time given by father. Thesis Statement: Paternity leaves of fathers a highly significant for both, a woman and newly born child Parental leave for fathers must be specified because it gives fathers a wonderful experience to bond with their children, gives mothers a chance to heal after having a baby, and helps the new father feel extra involved in nurturing their child. Maternity leave refers to the period of time that a new mother takes off from work following the birth of her baby. Maternity leave is usually created form a variety of benefits that include sick leave, holiday time, vacation, short term disability; personal days and unpaid family leave time.

It is important to plan the maternity leave so that the pregnant women and their family do not experience any unexpected financial challenges and they can make the most of their time with the baby (Yonkers, Kimberly A., et al 403). There are risks any time a woman gives birth. For an example: cesarean birth has a greater risk and a longer recovery time than a natural birth. A cesarean birth occurs through an incision in the abdominal wall and uterus rather than via the vagina. There has been a regular increase in cesarean births over the previous 30 years. More than 1 in every 4 women is expected to experience a delivery through cesarean operation. The days following a cesarean birth can be the most challenging times for mothers and families. After a delivery, a mother needs to allow her body to heal and rest. Preferably, this means little or completely no house-work or running after little ones.

If a woman have other children at home, recovery alone would be very difficult. Having a support team to help with the day to day activities is needed. This is the most needed time for a spouse to be at home to help with the recovery as well as the newborns care. With single parents this becomes more of a challenge. A single parent would need to recruit her support team from friends, family, and church members. Single fathers are an often-overlooked group in American society. Their numbers, however, continue to increase. According to the National Centre for Fathering, the number of single dads in the U.S. has at least doubled since 1980, to about 1.6 million, and the number of single fathers continues to grow twice as fast as the number of single mothers (Nomaguchi and Melissa 356). With a single father there is no recovery time needed but the challenge of taking care of a newborn remains. As mentioned above child birth does carry risks and one of the risks can result in death. Now the newborn has one parent, the father.

This father will need the time to care for the newborn and acclimate himself to being a single parent. A study done in Scandinavia by Andrea Doucet, a professor of Sociology and Woman Studies at the Brock University in Canada, indicates that: In 1980, only 5% of Swedish fathers took parental leave. Ms. Doucet points out that ten years later, it rose 7%. It was only when non-transferable and well-paid leave for fathers (also referred to as the “daddy month”) was introduced in 1996 that uptake quickly rose to 77%. Another “daddy month” was applied in the year 2002 and the statistics have increased to above 90%. “We don’t know what this all [eventually] leads to, but what it surely leads to is fathers being more invested in the family,” Dr. Doucet said. “Every father I have interviewed who’s taken leaves just wonders at the time.

It just lets them to be involved in the family and allows them to get out of the rut of working full-time, which is rather something that men are just starting to experience … [and] which is important since women’s employment rates are getting increased in an exponential way” (Galtry, Judith, and Paul 219). The major significant factor is the well-being of the child. The first six weeks of a newborns life consist of constant feeding and monitoring. With the mother in a recuperation period, it is hard to pick up the child and go to the doctor appointment or for a simple grocery store run. Having a father home to help with these chores will help the mother to recover quickly so that she can return to work on schedule.

Works Cited
Galtry, Judith, and Paul Callister. “Assessing the Optimal Length of Parental Leave for Child and Parental Well-Being How Can Research Inform Policy?.” Journal of Family Issues 26.2 (2005): 219-246. Nomaguchi, Kei M., and Melissa A. Milkie. “Costs and rewards of children: The effects of becoming a parent on adults’ lives.” Journal of marriage and family 65.2 (2003): 356-374. Yonkers, Kimberly A., et al. “The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.” General hospital psychiatry 31.5 (2009): 403-413.

Parenting Skills

Explain the different forms of child abuse? Include Shaken Baby Syndrome in your response. The different forms of child abuse are , Physical Abuse , Emotional Abuse , Sexual Abuse , and Neglect. Physical abuse is violence directed toward a child by a parent or other adult caregiver. Emotional abuse is when a caregiver causes the child to feel worthless and rejected . Sexual abuse towards a child may be in a verbal way , leading to physical contact with the child. Finally , Neglect is when the parent or caregiver fails to care for their child’s basic physical , emotional , disciplinary , and/or educational needs.

Shaken Baby Syndrome is when an individual shakes a child violently over a period of time leading to the childs hospitalization or worse , death. 2. What types of physical care must a parent provide an infant child? The type of physical care a parent must provide an infant child is , batheing , diaper changes , and dress & fed properly . Its Also a MUST to prop the infants head up properly while giving a child it’s bottle. 3. What are some strategies for helping a child cope with stress? Some of the strategies for helping a child cope with stress are , Encouraging open communication with their child , helping them feel comfortable enough to open up to you about whats bothering them.

Helping your child come up with ways to solve their own problems rather then solve them yourself is also a great way. Another way to help a child cope with stress is learning what type of situations put your child in a stressful state, then try avoiding putting them in that situation . Also creating a home environment that is stable abd free of hostility and violence , keeping your own stress to a minimum is also a great way to prevent stress on your child , because chances are you may accidently take your frustration out on your child. Critical Thinking Questions

1.What is the difference between a protective environment and a nurturing environment? The difference between a protective environment and a nurturing environment is a protective environment is when a child is prtected from violence and abuse . They must feel safe in the home , school , and in the community . Helping the child feel as if they can trust her parents , teachers , and other adults in her community . A nurturing environment is when the parent is activiely attentive to their child’s physical and emotional needs , being able to trust their family to care for them and to love them.

2. How do children’s needs change as they grow through development stages from infancy to teen years? How do special needs children differ? During the infancy years a child will need you to do absolute everything for them. During toddler years a child may be able to communicate and do task like feeding themselves with a bottle , spoon , and cup . During elementary years a child will be able to take care of most of of their physical needs , Yet still depend on you to impose structure and rountine. Teenagers will almost never need your help taking care of their physically needs. But with a child who has special needs , depending on their disability you may have to care for the child as if they’re a toddler for the rest of their lives.

3. List and explain factors a parent can control that lead to a nurturing environment. Include characteristics of nurturing parents. A parent can control whether or not there is abuse & violence in their household , Always being avaliable to their child for physical and emotional needs. Asssuring the child that they will always be their to care for them , reminding the child that they’re loved . Setting time aside for family time is a great way to provide a nurturing environment for your child. A nurturing parent will always treat their child according to their needs , focusing their attention whenever possible. Building a loving and caring relationship with their child, listening & allowing their child to express themselves.

4. List and explain factors that lead to poor relationships and that increase the risk of child abuse. Factors that lead to poor relationships and that increase the risk of child abuse may be , Latchkey children, Marital strife and divorce , Substance abuse , HIV/AIDS , or Death. Latchkey children are left alone without adult supervision which can lead to fear and anxiety . Marital strife and divorce may lead to conflict in the home resulting to high level of stress and failure academically and socially . Substance abuse may hinder a parents self-control resulting in a parent who becomes irresponsible and a non-nurturing parents. HIV/AIDS can devastate a family , resulting in a child losing both parents making the child a orphan , It may also cause financial strain on a family . Death can make a child doubt their safety in a normal day to day basis .

5. Why is it critical for a parent to be involved in their children’s education? It is critical for a parent to be involved in their children education . Mainly because kids need motivation , parents want their children to be successful in life. Parents should also be cautious on what they do around their children , because children learn largely by observation. Older Children need to be taught to proactively pursure their academic goals.

Literature Review- Parenting Styles and Child Development

Abstract

A parenting style is a method or type of parenting which directly and indirectly influences the development of the child. Developmental psychologists study the physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, emotional and personality growth and development that occurs throughout a lifetime. The purpose of this research was to identify how specific parenting styles positively and negatively correlate with behaviors in children, how they affect children, and what methods of parenting could be used to benefit the development of children.

Parenting Styles and Child Development

Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents impact their child’s development. However, finding the actual links between the specific actions of parents and the influenced behavior on children is very difficult. Some children that are raised in entirely different environments can later grow up to have remarkably similar personalities. And some children who share a home and are raised in the same environment can grow up to have completely different personalities than one another. Links between parenting styles and behavior are based upon correlational research, which can identify the relationships between variables but cannot establish a definitive cause. However, despite these challenges, researchers have uncovered convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children.

In my literature review I will be going over some of those links and the studies that are associated with them. In a study conducted by Alizadeh Shahla, Abu Talib Mansor, Abdullah Rohani and Mansor Mariani, the relationship between parenting style and children’s behavior problems were addressed. The sample in this study consisted of 681 mothers of students in elementary school (levels 3, 4, 5), who were chosen from eight schools In Tehran. Mothers were identified through their children who comprised 347 girls from four schools and 334 boys from four schools chosen by cluster random sampling. The Mothers were given a Children’s Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) Questionnaire and a Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ).

The Parent Authority Questionnaire was designed to measure Baumrind‘s threedimensions: Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive. The Children’s Behavioral Checklist included forms to evaluate competency, and affective-behavioral problems. The results of the study indicated that there is a significant correlation between the parenting style of mothers and children’s behavioral problems. The Authoritative level of mothers had a negatively significant correlation with internalizing symptoms in children. The Permissive level of mothers has positive significant correlation with internalizing symptoms in children.

Lastly, the Authoritarian level of mothers had a roughly equal significant correlation with internalizing and externalizing. While the sample size of this study may be large enough to be considered representative of the population, the study itself limited parenting style to factors based only on children’s misbehavior. Many other relevant factors were not taken into consideration, such as age, genetics, economics, peer pressure, parent’s income, society, school, etc. The study also excluded men, only taking data based on the parenting styles presented by women. Moreover, the parents could have responded to the questionnaires in the way the wanted their families to be represented, resulting in false or distorted information. In a study conducted by Önder Fulya and Cenkseven Yilmaz Yasin, the role of life satisfaction and parenting styles in predicting delinquent behaviors among high school students was addressed.

The sample of the study was determined in two phases. At first, the study was conducted with 881students from 9-12 grades attending twelve public high schools in Adana central province, their ages ranged from 14 to 19 years. In the second phase, a total of 502 students were determined to show low level of delinquent behaviors and high level of delinquent behaviors. 243 of students were from 9th grade, 87 from 10th grade, 91 from 11th grade, and 81 from 12th grade. When the parents were examined, 82 of the mothers and 7 of the father were Illiterate, 240 of the mothers and 233 of the fathers were primary school graduates, 73of the mothers and 98 of the fathers were middle school graduates, 72 of the mothers and 107 of the fathers were high school graduates, and 24 of the mothers and 48 of the fathers were university graduates. Researchers had parents of each sample group answer a set of questionnaires, the Delinquency Scale (DS), The Parenting Style Inventory (PSI), and the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS).

The Delinquency Scale (DS), is used to determine behaviors which would be regarded as crime if they reflected and bring adolescent face to face with laws. The Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) is a 26 item scale that has three factors: acceptance/ involvement, strictness/supervision, and psychological autonomy. The Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) is a 40 item self report instrument that assesses satisfaction across five specific life domains: family, school, friends, self and living environment. The researchers concluded that when all test results were considered, satisfaction variables perceived from “strictness/supervision”, “school”, “family” and “self” have a positive correlation and meaningful contributions in explaining the highness of delinquency. While the researchers state that “strictness/supervision”, “school”, “family” and “self” have a positive correlation they are only referring to the 76.3% of the sample groups that tested positive and neglecting the 23.7% that did not. The sample sizes are large but the specifications of the parents in the “delinquent” sample group are too varied and therefore may represent misleading data.

There were many different styles of questionnaires in this study which may be causing the data to become more complex than it needs to be in order to understandable results. In a study conducted by Jabeen Farah, Anis-ul-Haque and Riaz Muhammad Naveed, parenting styles as predictors of emotion regulation among adolescents are addressed. The sample of this study was 194 adolescents ages 12-15, 7th-9th grade from private secondary schools. The students were asked to respond to the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Early Adolescents Temperament Questionnaire (EATQ). The Parental Authority Questionnaire was designed to measure Baumrind‘s threedimensions: Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive.

The Early Adolescents Temperament Questionnaire is comprised of the subsets, including attention shifting and focusing, inhibitory control, and activation control. Results of the study indicated that maternal permissive parenting style has significant negative correlation with emotional regulation and that paternal permissive parenting style has significant negative correlation with emotional regulation. The sample size is somewhat small due to the fact that data is being taken from a private school, and the fact that the data is coming from a private school in itself does not accurately represent the population as a whole because of the fact that private schools are exclusive.

Furthermore, the parents which correspond with the children of this study are all middle class and have moderate incomes rather than low or high incomes, and children who have single parents were excluded from the study. Also, there still remains the chance that some children may have not answered their questionnaire honestly. In a Longitudinal study conducted by Tong Lian, Shinohara Ryoji, Sugisawa Yuka, Tanaka Emiko, Maruyama Akiko, Sawada Yuko, Ishi Yukiko and Anme Tokie, the relationship of working mothers’ parenting style and consistency to early childhood development was addressed. The sample consisted of 504 participants recruited through 41 care facilities in Japan. Both children and their mothers participated. The mothers were surveyed regarding parenting behaviors and home environment, and service providers evaluated the development of each child in the facilities. Child development was assessed using six primary measures: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social competence, communication skills, vocabulary and intelligence.

Environmental stimulation was evaluated through: human stimulation, avoidance of restriction, social stimulation and support. Each child was evaluated by childcare professionals in 2004 and again in 2006 using developmental scales. Results of the study showed that children’s gross motor development was statistically significantly related to mother’s parenting practices at the beginning of the study. The ages of the children that were included in this study varied, and children with mental disabilities were excluded from the study entirely. The study addresses a “working mother’s” relationship but feels that it is perhaps unnecessary to consider the implications of a working father’s parenting style, or for that matter, the father’s influence on the child at all. Also the study could be conducted longer than 2 years for more insightful results. In a study conducted by Parsasirat Zahra, Montazeri Mona, Yusooff Fatimah, Subhi Nasrudin and Nen Salina, the most effective kinds of parents on children’s academic achievement are addressed. The sample included Iranian high school students who were between the ages 15 to 17.

The total numbers of participants were 546 who included 249 males and 297 females. They were given two questioners, Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), and a self-demographic report which included their current Grade Point Average. Results showed that neither mother authoritative parenting, nor father authoritative parenting was significantly correlated with academic achievement and that neither mother authoritarian parenting, nor father authoritarian parenting was significantly correlated with academic achievement. However, it did illustrate that both mother permissive parenting, as well as father authoritative parenting were significantly correlated with academic achievement.

The age groups tested by the study were between fifteen to seventeen, so an assumption that similar correlations would be applicable to all other age groups of children will not have any definite proof. The data relies on the honesty of the participants and so data is not for certain conclusive evidence. There are many different factors to parental styles that influence children’s behavior. And while the definitive links between parenting styles and behavior may be unknown, correlational research has been able to make the parental styles which establish those links to become clearer to us.

Through my research I have gathered that there are specific parental styles that positively and negatively correlate with behaviors in children. That strictness can manage delinquency, that permissive parenting can correct behavioral problems, or that perhaps authoritative parenting can help children in academics when paired with permissive. I have also noticed that the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) is generally a good questionnaire as it is frequently used.

References
Alizadeh, Abu, Abdullah, and Mansor (2011). Relationship between parenting style and children’s behavior problems. doi:10.5539/ass.v7n12p195 Jabeen, Anis, and Riaz (2013). Parenting styles as predictors of emotion regulation among adolescents. Önder and Cenkseven (2012). The role of life satisfaction and parenting styles in predicting delinquent behaviors among high school students. Parsasirat, Montazeri, Yusooff, Subhi, and Nen (2013). The most effective kinds of parents on children’s academic achievement. Tong, Shinohara, Sugisawa, Tanaka, Maruyama, Sawada, Ishi, and Anme (2009). Relationship of working mothers’ parenting style and consistency to early childhood development. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05058.x

Parenting: GCSE Child Development

This is an excellent essay that was wonderful to read and mark. It shows a good understanding of the varying needs of the child and discusses how conflict can arise.

If the writer wanted to extend the essay, they could discuss some of the theories that look at how relationships develop and how conflict arises.

*****

Marked by teacher Sam Morran 01/12/2012

The first 200 words of this essay…

Lil Maisky Year 11

Parenting:

-Describe the ideal relationship between parents and children.

-How do you appreciate your parents and how do they appreciate you?

(400 words)

Any ideal relationship is based on the appropriate balance in between the commitment and effort of both members concerned. However, the relationship between a parent and child is far more complicated as there is a large amount of responsibility involved. Also, the child is likely to resemble one or both of the parents to a certain extent, but not be as developed or experienced as the parent, thus adding a lot of competition and argumentative aspects to the relationship.

This can be more prominently observed when two members of the same sex are involved (mother and daughter…) As the age of the child increases, the responsibility of the parent decreases, most probably proportionally, and this has to be observed by the parent. One has to take into consideration that the child’s young years are all that he/she has experienced and that although it’s existence might only go back as far as a tiny fraction of the parents life, this cannot be understood by the child until

Single Parenting

This essay is about why I disagree with Donald Pridemore’s statement that says “Being raised in a single parent home could be considered living in a abusive situation and because of that people should not jump into divorce and find alternatives.” Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child. Though it is true that children are more likely to get abused in single parent homes. I think that it was unfair and ignorant to make this statement because that is putting a class of people and putting the all in the in the wrong when many of them are right with their parenting.

The first reason that I oppose against Mr.Pridemore’s statement is because some people do not choose to be single parents but are put in that situation. One way people can become a single parent is if your spouse or partner is deceased. Another way to become a single parent is if you have your child at a young age with someone who you did not plan to spend your life with. You may also be a single parent because the other person just walked out. Some of these situations you cannot avoid because you can’t make someone stay alive nor can you force someone to stay with you.

The 2nd reason I disagree with the statement is because people get in two parent homes too. In his statement I think people forgot that all types of parents abuse their children not just single ones. Abuse happens every day in fact, 5 children die a day from child abuse but how many of those 5 kids were raised in single parent homes? No one really knows all they know is their own opinion.

The last reason why I disagree with that statement is because alternatives are not always the best thing for the parent’s relationship. If you are a victim of domestic violence it is best to leave the relationship. In 2005 spouses or intimate partners killed 1,181 women, that’s an average of about 3 women a day. That just makes me think, how many of those women had kids and could have saved their lives by just raising that child on their own.

People who agree with this statement are saying that it was their fault for being beaten, their fault someone died and that they made some one walk out on them. The reality is none of that was in their control. I don’t think anyone plans to be a single parent but at the end of the day even I would do what I have to do to raise my child. Our own president was raised by a single parent for a majority of his life, and that goes to show that his mother did something right she didn’t let the men in her life reprioritize her life she always put her kids first.

I have made my argument and I hope I changed some opinions of people who agreed with Mr. Pridemore’s statement. More than anything I hope this essay made people take my ideas into consideration and take pride in having a single mother. I think that some people can relate and learn off of many parts of this essay such as statistics and facts.

Parenting Skills

Review Questions
1.Explain the different forms of child abuse? Include Shaken Baby Syndrome in your response.
2.What types of physical care must a parent provide an infant child?
3.What are some strategies for helping a child cope with stress?

Critical Thinking Questions
1.What is the difference between a protective environment and a nurturing environment?
2.How do children’s needs change as they grow through development stages from infancy to teen years? How do special needs children differ?
3.List and explain factors a parent can control that lead to a nurturing environment. Include characteristics of nurturing parents.
4.List and explain factors that lead to poor relationships and that increase the risk of child abuse.
5.Why is it critical for a parModule Three: Text Questions

Module one review parenting skills

1. What are the different parenting styles used by families? Which do you think is better? Why? The first type of parenting styles is the authoritarian style where the parents have all authority and say so in every matter. The second type is the permissive style where the parents are extremely passive and give the children a lot of power. The third is the democratic style of parenting where the parent considers the thoughts and feelings of the children but ultimately they make the decision. The democratic style is my personal favorite because it makes they child feel like their opinion matters but does not give them the power to run all over their parent.

2. What makes a person ready for parenthood? When should an individual consider entering parenthood? Who should postpone parenthood? Should everyone become a parent eventually? Do you think some people should not become parents altogether. I think a person is ready for parenthood when they are financially stable, emotionally stable and have a good support system behind them to help them raise a child whether that means they are married or they have family. I think an individual should consider entering parenthood when they had all of the things previously stated meaning that they are ready and when they are 100% sure that they ready and that they are not being pressured into it. I think that young people, newlyweds, and people with any doubt at all should postpone parenthood. I do not think that everyone is meant to be a parent so not everyone should eventually become one, some people are better off not having children. I think there are people in this world who should never have children altogether because they are not capable of providing a safe and loving home for them.