The play Cosi by Louis Nowra explores the key themes of personal growth

The play Cosi by Louis Nowra explores the key themes of personal growth, love and fidelity and the treatment towards the mentally ill. Through a close examination of the text, a greater understanding can be developed of how composers use language forms and features to portray significant ideas and their understanding about human kind.

An Individual may have experiences that result in maturation and changes to one another. In the play Cosi by Louis Nowra, Nowra follows main protagonist Lewis as he directs the opera featuring the lives and experiences within the mental asylum ultimately changing the lives of others and himself in the process. Interactions by Lewis whilst directing Cosi Fan Tutte resulted in his changed perception and personal growth, which is a significant idea in the play. Lewis who initially lacks confidence is driven by the financial need to undertake work at the asylum. Expression through his dialogue “ I need the money Lucy” His initial timidity is shown through the tone and stage direction.

As the plot progress, Lewis gains confidence as a result of his interactions and experiences shared with the mentally ill, Lucy states“ working with these people have changed you”. This significant change is highlighted through the use of black humor as he tells Doug “ Go burn a cat”. By closely examining his newfound confidence and maturity as an individual, experiences have changed Lewis’s perceptions of the mentally ill which gives the reader a greater understanding of personal growth.

The line between ‘sanity’ and ‘insanity’ is explored through the juxtaposition of the patients and society and can vary depending on the dialogue and behavior .The set of the play is a “neglected burnt out theatre” symbolizing the negate and attitudes of society towards the mentally ill. Nick’s dialogue at the beginning of the play “mad actors are bad enough . . . but madmen” similarly emphasizes this and conveys the detrimental views of the mainstream society in the 1970’s. The stage directions state, “a heavy door opens, a chink of day light enters” symbolizing the physical boundaries that Lewis is crossing by bringing the outside world in the sheltered and rarely unseen environment of the mentally ill.

Nowra refuses to define madness objectively as he does not formally define the psychological or psychiatric conditions of any of the patients in an attempt to challenge the social signs surrounding illness, shown when Lewis mistakes Roy as the social worker and Justin as a patient. The insanity of the outside world is explicitly evident in the Vietnamese war. The government is continuing in a war that it is losing, something that is deemed madness by the likes of Nick and Lucy and as such they organize the moratorium. However the methods that would be employed by Nick are mad themselves, the use of violence as nick reveals “barricades and bombs, why not?” Through a close examination of the text, individuals are shown to gain understanding on the important ideas such as the treatment towards the mentally ill.

Through a close examination of the play Cosi, individuals are shown to gain great insight towards attitudes of the mentally ill, personal growth and change through people’s perceptions and experiences, which are significant ideas throughout the text.

How play activities are used to support the development of speech

Play is an important part of developing language and young children learn through play. There are some very fun activities and games that you can play with children to support their language development, these may include;

Role-play: Having a role-play area in your setting can be fun for the children and help them communicate with other children. For example, in the role-play area in our setting it was a café, one child pretended to be the assistant while one child pretended to be the customer wanting to order some food. There was lots of conversations happening and gave me a chance to observe how well the children communicated.

Nursery songs and Rhymes/Song and Rhyme bag: This encourages children to listen, sing and communicate. With a song and rhyme bag, each child takes it turns to pick an object out of the bag and then encourage them to sing the song for that item. For example a bus for ‘wheels on the bus’, a doll for ‘Miss Polly had a dolly’, a spider for ‘incy wincey spider’.

Books: Sharing story books with adults is considered to be one of the most important ways of developing children’s spoken and written language. Books that use repetition are most effective. Picture books with no words in are also good to encourage the children to make up and tell you their own stories according to what’s happening in the pictures.

How far is it true that the play ‘The Duchess of Malfi’, presents a moral world of Webster’s that is different from the conventional mores?

The Machiavellian qualities seen in the villain’s, along with the pragmatic of even existentialist attitude to life displayed by the good as well as bad characters may give a first impression that the world Webster presents in The Duchess of Malfi, is a chaotic world, but for a closer and deeper look at the play will show that the world is influenced by a moral order though this order cannot be universally enforced. Though the moral presence exists, this world remains mysterious, incomprehensible and the future of worldly creatures is unpredictable.

The growing immortality and sensuousness, which the court displayed, made the citizens sympathise with the Puritans. People began to criticize the court and religion more vocally. This critical temper had its effect in literature of the time too. Times were running out and pessimism and satire arose out of the dissatisfaction among the people. The melancholy mood found in the literature of the late 16th and early 17th century was not affection, but a natural expression of the gloom and frustration that people of the time felt. The preoccupation of Webster with decay, disease sickness and death can be explained in the light of the social history. Webster excels in the sudden flash, in the intuitive but often unsustained perception. At times he startles us by what may be called the ‘Shakespearean’ use of the common word. In the dark night of ‘The Duchess of Malfi’ at the high point of tension when the Duchess is about to die her last words are: “Go tell my brother, when I am laid out

They then may feed in quiet”-
The bareness of ‘Feed’ increases the force of the line, for it suggests animal’s engrossment. It has too, that kind of authority peculiar to the common word unexpectedly introduced. Its impact is that of ‘bread’ in Hamlet’s skill. [“He took my father grossly, full of bread,

With all his crimes broad blown, as flush as May:”]
They too often remain isolated and detached from the main stream of thought. In his manner of writing such sentences come too often though they may not
have a direct relation with the texture of the play. Such lines as: “O, this gloomy world:

In what a shadow, or deep pit of darkness,
Doth womanish and fearful mankind live!
Let worthy minds never stagger and distrust To suffer death or shame for what is just;
Mine is another voyage”, stand out as detached expression of Webster’s sententious wisdom.

Many of Webster’s lines in The Duchess of Malfi have become almost proverbial and can be quoted like proverbs without consideration of the text in which they occur. Tragedy according to Aristotle should ‘arouse pity and fear leading to the catharsis of such emotions’. Webster, an Elizabethan and a Jacobean, possibly could not have written plays according to Aristotle’s cannons. However, there is plenty in the play that arouses pity. And surely there is fear too in abundance arising out of all pervading horror in the play. As it is generally understood, a tragedy deals with sufferings and misfortunes of the protagonists of the play. “That I might toss her palace ‘bout her ears

Root up her goodly forests, blast her meads,
And lay her general territory as waste
As the hath done her honours.”

The Duchess of Malfi, like any good tragedy teaches us to know the world and its ways better. There are plenty in the play that are sensational and horrifying making it melodramatic to some extent, and they appeal to the morbid instincts of the playgoer. However, the principal victim of this play is not merely the sufferer, the Duchess, but the unconquerable and unsubdued human spirit of hers. In this the Duchess comes close to Shakespearian heroes and heroines. She keeps up her dignified spirit of defiance towards the evildoers, but is remarkably humble before heaven. She displays her sensuality not only in her marriage but also in devouring the apricots with evident greed. She becomes blind in her passion for Antonio and is credulous in taking Bosola’s words at face value. Her shirking of her responsibility, as a ruler of Malfi is a glaring flaw.

Still the resigned dignity with which she faces the spectacle showing her dear ones as dead and her own impending
strangling make us respect her unbreakable spirit. That enduring spirit ennobles us and uplifts us. Our faith in the essential nobility of human beings is reinforced, despite the damaging effect on that faith caused by the evil and villainy of others. In the case of Bosola, it is an intellectual failure. He fails to understand his personal identity and his responsibility for his actions. The play suggestively tells that sin is inherent in man and that the corruption of the body will find its way into corrupt action. The drift towards an error is natural and it eventually arrives at the natural consequence: retribution. This appears to be the meaning of the play. “Right the fashion of the world:

From decay’d fortunes every flatterer shrinks:
Men cease to build where the foundation sinks:”

The Duchess, Antonio and Bosola share the focus of tragic issues in the play. The tragic flaw (hamartia) in the Duchess is the ‘madness’ which Cariola identifies at the end of the first act. That of Antonio, mainly is ambition- “Ambition,madam,is a great man’s madness,

That is not kept in chains and close-pent rooms,
But in fair lightsome lodgings, and is girt
With the wild noise of prattling visitants
Which makes it lunatic beyond all cure.”

Along with the realism may be mentioned the meditative energy and the capacity to realize the irony, the mysterious nature and the pathos of life. The meditative energy Webster displays is an essential part of his dramatic genius. Sometime he introduces fables or parables even when by doing so inconsistencies in character portrayal creep in. Duke Ferdinand’s parable or Reputation, Love and Death and the Duchess’s fable of the salmon and the dog-fish belong to this area. “Though we are eaten up of lice and worms,

And though continually we bear about us
A rotten and dead body, we delight
To hide it in tissue:”

Webster presents a moral world that is some mysterious ways that ultimately bring punishments for the crimes one commit. The devilish Arragonian
brothers and their equally devilish instrument, Bosola, feel the pangs of conscience and meet ignoble death. Remorse touches Ferdinand the most, and makes him lycanthropic. His presenting a dead man’s hand to the Duchess is another indication. The sight of the dead Duchess indeed acts as a trigger in turning him fully mad. Finally he is killed by Bosola. Bosola is struck with remorse, when he finds that his much expected ‘preferment’ does not come to him. He declares that if he was to live once again he would not commit his crimes, “For all the wealth of Europe’

Further looking at the dead Duchess he says,
“Here is a sight
As direful to my soul as is the sword
Unto a wretch hath slain his father.”

Later he mortally stabs the Cardinal and the Duke and himself, is killed by the Lycanthropic Duke. Even the Cardinal, who is a cold and calculating Machiavellian, feels the pricking of conscience. He goes to the religious books for consolation but finding it futile, lay it aside. He expresses his mental agony clearly when he soliloquizes: “How tedious is a quality conscience:

When I look into the fish –ponds in my garden,
Methinks I see a thing arm’d with a rake,
That seems to strike at me.”

True, the Duchess and Antonio do have their flaws but the sufferings they face appear to be out of proportion to their sins. Really their mistakes are minor and the punishment too great. Webster illustrates that the moral order he visualizes does not mete out reward and punishment equitably. The intense suffering that is heaped upon Duchess and to a lesser extent on Antonio , is determined by the forces of evil that exist in her devilish brothers and their villainous tool Bosola. The three appear to be mentally diseased people, sadists who enjoy inflicting of pain on others. Bosola, despite his occasional moral meditations and occasional show of sympathy for the plight of the Duchess, inflicts subtle mental torture on the Duchess. “Who would be afraid on’t.

Knowing to meet such excellent company
In the other world?”

The dramatist’s fondness for bloodshed, violence and horror can be seen from his preoccupation with the morbid and the macabre. The world he presents is one of corruption, immortality, cruelty, dishonesty, greed and Machiavellianism. “This is flesh and blood, sir;

‘T is not the figure cut in alabaster.”
Altogether ten murders take place, on the stage, in The Duchess of Malfi. Tortures of the most repulsive and shocking kind are released on the Duchess. The presentation and the dead man’s hand, the spectacle of the waxen figures of Antonio and children, shown as dead, the letting loose of the lunatics on to coffin, the strangling of the Duchess, Cariola and the children, the lycanthropia of the Duke, the killing of Antonio and the servant and the final Carnage, all show the preoccupation of the author with the murky and the morbid. Further, he seems to show disappointment when he finds the Duchess unbroken in spirit, despite her effort to break it. In Webster, like in Shakespeare, the good people with minor flaws seem to suffer deeply.

Revenge is not a sacred duty in ‘The Duchess of Malfi’. Thus the play defers from the traditional ones. Revenge in its most grotesque form is presented here. Both the brothers, who seek revenge, are beastly villainous beings. In their rage they lose their sense of judgment and behave as depraved human beings, which they really are. Their resentment at the Duchess’s marriage below rank is natural, but it makes them commit inexplicably monstrous atrocities. Their revenge is not even a wild justice but very unnatural and bestial cruelty born out of perversion. In presenting this changed kind of revenge Webster has moved away from the beaten path. “Would I could be one,

That I might toss her palace ‘bout her ears,
Root up her goodly forests, blast her meads
And lay her general territory as waste
As she hath done her honours.”

Webster does not believe that human suffering is caused by a supernatural agency- God or Fate. The events in the play show that human suffering is
caused partly by the flaw in the sufferers and partly by the devilish qualities that exist in other villainous people. The Duchess, who suffers most in the play, is not a blemishes person. She has her flaw, her hamartia which is her sensuousness that makes her marry beneath her. She does not care for the damage of reputation her marriage could bring to her illustrations brothers, a Cardinal and a Duke. “He and his brothers are like plum-trees that grow crooked over Standing-pools: they are rich and o’erladen with fruit, but none but crows, pies and caterpillars feed on them. Could I be one of their flattering ponders, I would hang on their ears like a horseleech, till I were full, and then drop off.”

The Duchess of Malfi is one of the John Webstar’s finer plays. Several images are in the play which brings in tempests, thunder and earthquakes. Perhaps the best that belongs to this group is found in the Duke’s answer to the Cardinal’s question why the former behaves like a tempest. Very pungently he satirises the courtiers and courtly life of the time. The corruption of the court and the rewards the princes extended for devilish services is one of the major themes of the play. In the very first scene of the play we find Bosola making fun of the courtiers, and the evil patrons. Webster’s skill in stagecraft is displayed in several episodes of the play. The whole of Act IV is a theatrical tour de force. The Duchess wooing of Antonio leading to the secret marriage in Act I also shows equally great dramatic skill. The sudden appearance of Cariola from behind the arras gives a shock to Antonio.

The meeting of Antonio and Bosola in the courtyard of Malfi palace, with its ‘sense of the theatre’ resembles the courtyard scene in Macbeth (Act II, Sc.I). Also dramatic is the Duke’s stormy appearance at the residence of the Cardinal with a letter in hand, fuming with rage. The Duke’s secret entry into the Duchess’s bed chamber gives a dramatically arresting episode. The Duchess s surprised at the continued silence of her husband, hears footsteps behind and turns expecting him coming back, but sees her brother the Duke advancing to her with his hand on his poniard. Another, theatrically very effective scene is where the Duke suffering from lycanthropic appears on the stage muttering ‘strangling is a very quiet death.’

The Duke, stealing across the stage in the dark, whispering to himself, with the devastating appearance of mad man is a figure one may not forget. Despite the existence of definite flaws in the nature of the Duchess and Antonio the sufferings and misfortunes they faced would not have arisen but for the evil present in the Cardinal, the Duke and Bosola. Webster appears to believe in the predominant existence of evil in this world. The various references to the devil and Machiavellianism stand testimony to it. Such references help to emphasize the evil nature of the Cardinal, the Duke and their tool-villain, Bosola. They are responsible for most of the sufferings and the ten deaths shown in the play. The tyrannous brothers become indignant at the news of their sister giving birth to a child, which they think to be illegitimate. The Duke is affected more and loses all self-control: He shouts in anger that he would become a storm: “That I might toss her palace ‘bout her ears

Root up her goodly forests, blast her meads,
And lay her general territory as waste
As the hath done her honours.”

In Elizabethan drama scenes of madness used to be shown on the stage, but they were episodic and did not contribute to the play at a psychological level. Webster too presents the chorus of madmen according to the revenge tradition. It creates, mostly a grotesque atmosphere with the antics and lunatic dance of the mad men. However there is some psychological interest too present in it. The Duke devises the scheme to torture the Duchess with the intention of turning her mad, but ironically he, not the Duchess, becomes mad.

The lycanthropic madness of the Duke has still greater psychological significance. his madness is shown not only as an instrument to create horror, but to show that his crime has knocked him out of his sanity. Human beings inflict untold sufferings on his fellow beings prompted by ambition, envy, hatred, greed and lust for power. In Webster’s world it is the natural lot of man that he endures decay, disease and death. The Duchess and Antonio, the good characters of the play meet their death; one after a long suffering, the other by simple accident. Even the blameless Cariola, and the innocent children meet death by strangulation. Virtue, innocence and other good qualities appear to offer no assured safety against suffering and premature death. “If all my royal kindred

Lay in my way unto this marriage,
I’d make them my low footsteps.”
Webster’s world is one where suffering embraces all, the good and the wicked. Suffering and death are inevitable. They result sometimes from deliberate contrivance as in the case of the Duchess, Cariola etc; sometimes from compulsive action as in the case of Antonio; and they can take place quite arbitrarily as in the case of the servant whom Bosola kills. Though he is a villainous person perpetrating some of the most heinous crimes, but he is also portrayed as a meditating malcontent who occasionally appears to act as a mouth-piece of the author’s view of life. Seeking happiness in the world, Webster seems to say is a futile effort for pleasure and is only momentary, but suffering is inevitable and profound. The dying Antonio makes it clear, “Pleasure of life, what is ‘t?only the good hours

Of an ague: merely a preparative to rest,
To endure vexation.”
Webster could have been influenced by a few contemporary incidents to make the play what it is. One of them is the story of the fate of Torquato Tasso at the hands of Alfonso d’Este, an Italian Duke, because of his love for the Duke’s sister. Another was the imprisonment of Lady Arabella Stuart, as a punishment for het marrying Lord William Seymour against the wishes of King James I, her cousin. Lady Arabella became mentally deranged while in person. Though Webster followed Painter’s line, he made many noticeable additions. This can be found not only in the plot construction but also in characterization. In the play we find the Cardinal and the Duke warning the Duchess against a remarriage.

There is nothing of the sort present in Painter. So also are the part played by Bosola, the secret entry of the Duke into the bed chamber of the Duchess and the sub plot of Julia’s adulterous relationship with the Cardinal. Further most of the incidents of Act IV especially the tormenting of the Duchess, by presenting the spectacle of the waxen images, the Duke’s presenting a dead man’s hand to the Duchess, the antics of the lunatics, Bosola’s entry as a tomb maker and a bellman etc., are all Webster’s inventions. Antonio’s visit to the Cardinal, the Echo-scène, the lycanthropia of the Duke, Bosola’s decision to turn against his master and the final death of all the three, too are Webster’s additions. “I have ever thought

Nature doth nothing so great for great men
As when she’s pleas’d to make them lords of truth:
Integrity of life is fame’s best friend,
Which nobly, beyond death, shall crown the end.”

The Duchess of Malfi has an admirable exposition in the first act. All the major characters are introduced sufficiently well. Antonio, knowledgeable in the fashion and manners of French Court, the Duke and the Cardinal who are like plum trees that grow crooked and right noble Duchess’ whose ‘discourse it is so full of rapture’ are painted with a few thick strokes . Later the Duchess shows her independence, vivacity and passionate nature by declaring her defiant attitude to the advice of the brothers and wooing Antonio abruptly and marrying him secretly. This may apply not only to the virtuous Duchess, but also to the wicked Bosola, who with determination kills the two characters. Bosola’s statement, “Let worth minds ne’er stagger in distrust

To differ death or shame- for what is just:”
makes this point amply clear. Whether virtuous or wicked, all should boldly decide not to compromise or surrender, but persist in being what they have it in themselves. Bosola by declaring:
“I’ll be mine own example-“
And the Duchess by asserting,
“I am Duchess of Malfi still”

He realizes that he has to ‘die like a leveret’. He does so and we feel as if he has faced the ultimate punishment for his crimes. Nemesis reaches all the three villains giving the impression that there is some moral -order that in some unknown way mete out punishments to the evil doers. The Duchess ridicules Cariola for her respect for religion and calls her ‘a superstitious fool’. However she displays her belief in God by kneeling before her death. We have to conclude that, Webster does not openly negate the existence of God in the play. However, the turn of events in the play makes one think that Webster’s moral world is an extentialist one. “Whether the spirit of greatness or of woman

Reign most in her, I know not; but it shows
A fearful madness: I owe her much of pity.”

Bosola’s telling that “I will be mine own example” is a typical extentialist statement. The Duchess taking firm personal decision about her marriage, Duchess’s disregarding the opinion of her brothers and her accepting the consequences of that action with a resigned courage too is an existentialist attitude; so also is the detachment with Antonio faces his fate. One of the basic requirements of that philosophy, negation of God, however is not emphasized in the play. Antonio is an extentialist as far as his attitude to religion, but nothing is said to show that he does not believe in God. The fables, the Duchess and the Duke relate, too are significant for their moral worth. Bosola, though a dark and villainous tool in the hands of the equally dark brothers, during his meditative bouts brings out worthy moral; truths. About gold coins he says, “These cur’d gifts would make

You a corrupter, me an impudent traitor:”
He has other philosophic comments too.
“Since place and riches oft are bribes opf shame:
Sometimes the devil doth preach.”
Musing over the ruins of the Abbey near the Cardinal’s palace he says: “But all things have their end:
Churches and cities, which have diseases like to men,
Must have like death that we have”
To show the transcience of happiness he says,
“Pleasure of life, what is ‘t? only the good hours
Of an ague:”

The moral message of the play comes out frequently through pithy statements. It is interesting that almost all characters utter some universal truth, some statement significant to human life, displaying the moral undertone of the play. Antonio moralizes from the beginning till his last moments. Even minor characters are often found to express moral ideas. Cariola comments on the Duchess’ marriage thus: “Whether the spirit of greatness or of woman

Reign most in her, I know not; but it shows
A fearful madness:”
The first pilgrim has this to say about the fall of the great. “Fortune makes
this conclusion general.
All things do help the unhappy man to fall.”
Julia, the trumpet too utters a pithy statement
“ ‘T is weakness,
Too much to think what should have been done.”
Delio has something moral to state very often
“Though in our miseries Fortune have a part,
Yet in our noble sufferings she hasth none:”
He winds up the play with a statement pregnant with philosophic truth: “Integrity of life is fame’s best friend,
Which nobly, beyond death shall crown he end.”

All these moral statements may appear out of place in a tragedy to a modern reader, but an Elizabethan play goer would have taken it as a sign of the Author’s moral consciousness. “I am Duchess of Malfi still”, brings out Webster’s view of life. There is an amount of self-centered thinking in her. Further she is a credulous person and susceptible to flattery. We see her gloating over the praise Bosola showers on Antonio and reveals her secret of identity of her husband to Bosola. Then, pleased with his flattering comments on her marriage she takes him as a confidant decides to accept his advice and to go to Loretto on a feigned pilgrimage. Both the actions lead to disastrous consequences. Antonio too, faces his fate partly because of his flaws.

Though he despises ambition as ‘a great man’s madness’, it is his ambition that makes him succumb to the desires of the Duchess and marry her. His passivity too led to his downfall. He does not show any inclination it out with the Arragonian brothers though he knows that justice is on his part. Many of the opinions expressed by the various characters of the play betray Webster’s extentialist leanings though, the word ‘extentialism’ as a philosophy evolved only in the nineteenth century after Kierkgoard.

Extentialism rejects metaphysics and concentrates on the individual’s existence in the world. It is a pragmatic and psychologically realistic philosophy that negates the existence of a God. There is some inherent absurdity in man’s existence. For ‘all human activities are equivalent, all are destined by principles to defeat”, but a man is responsible for his effect on others, though only his existence is real to him, and he is ultimately his own judge. Among all these apparently chaotic happenings in this world one wonders what a man should aim at. Are there some values he should cherish? Webster answers, surely, through his unmistakable esteem for the virtuous characters in the play. He apparently advocates two qualities to be cultivated among humans: they should persist in being what they are and they should face calamities with fortitude. The closing speech of Delio may be Webster’s message to humans. “The weakest arm is strong enough that strikes

With the sword of justice”

Webster presents in his plays, a view of the world where the destructive forces unleash their power on the individual. The inner reality one sees in Shakespearean characters is absent in Webster. He portrays only their outer nature, and even that is often absorbed into the general forces. This results in their losing even the exterior marks of individuality. After sketching their traits through narration, Webster shows them behaving in conformity with that narration. They become types, their characteristics being shared by many others in this world. The soliloquy of Webster does not give any deep insight into the character, which Shakespeare very well provides. Webster’s soliloquies only throw light into a plot and action. Further Webster removes the inner dimension of man from his tragic picture he presents. As a result development of character, as is seen in Shakespeare, is not possible in Webster. “I am puzzled in a question about hell;

He says, in hell there’s one material fire.”…

************************************************************************************ EXCEPT IDEAS AND SETTINGS AND REFERENCES, WORDS AND SENTENCES FROM DR.S.SEN.

Play work principles

The drive for children to play is inbuilt in our genetic makeup, almost an instinct or an impulse. Children learn through play their world around them. As the Play work principle No1 states: ‘’ All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and well-being of individuals and communities.’’ A child will choose over anything else to ‘play’ weather they are out shopping, eating a meal, and learning at school. Children have the ability to turn anything or object into a fun and exciting adventure.

Play is a necessary if not vital part of a child’s development. Children naturally learn through play their selves about their world or environment around them and skills which they will develop for life. Through play they will develop: Social skills: many games are played with friends, siblings and neighbours and the child will interact and learn to get along with a group. Listening, debating, reasoning, sharing are all developed through games like dressing up, the home corner, dens or making up new games. Also moral values are encountered as there is a need for children to apply fairness, inclusion and kindness to others.

Physical development: Being active is very important to a child’s development, as the need to widen their fine and gross motor skills as well as keeping good health. Lots of games need balance, concentration, and coordination like ball games, riding scooters or climbing trees. Intellectual: The ability to think for their selves and learn a greater understanding consepts and ideas. When they are playing construction games or building things, they are designing, problem solving, thinking ahead and been resourceful. Creative: Children have an ability to open their mind and think of things completely different to adults. Through role play or adventure they can be whomever they choose. When they use visual arts they can use things in different ways and that are non-conventional.

They come up with new and exciting ideas and creations. Cultural: Our world is diverse and children learn through playing games like dressing up, role play, cooking recipes, and having parties about different cultures and beliefs. Emotional: A child can through play express lots of different kinds of emotion. In role play anger, love and empathy can be displayed. They will push boundaries and explore risk by playing more adventurous games. Self-esteem and confidence will be heightened by them having accomplished new skills whilst playing, such as building a den the biggest or the best they have ever done before.

Children play to discover about the world the live in, they need to feel the water and play in the mud so they will grow up to appreciate their place in the world. 1.3
Play is a fundamental part of a child’s development for their health and well-being. Studies have shown that children that are deprived of play experiences maybe under developed in either a physical or mental ability. That is why the Playprinciple No 1 states; ‘’All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and well-being of individuals and communities.’’ As it is a necessity. Biological: The child’s physical development, whether it is their body physically fit or their minds well stimulated. Psychological: This is the child’s overall wellbeing.

Sociological: This is a child’s social skills and to be able to get along with other, and mix with a diverse group of children or adults. Frazer Brown states:
‘This is not a simple interaction but a complex process wherein, flexibility in the play environment leads to increased flexibility in the child. That child is then better able to make use of the flexible environment and so on. There is massive child development potential in a play setting.’

Play Critique

The play being discussed in this critique will be Metamorphoses written and originally directed by Mary Zimmerman. The URI Theatre department produced its own version directed by Steven Raider-Ginsburg. It was performed between the dates of February 21-March 3, 2013. Costume design was by David T Howard, Scene design by Patrick Lynch. Lighting design was handled by Christian Wittwer and Sound design was by Michael Hyde. This production shows students continuing their development as actors thru the form of Theatre.

Metamorphoses is a play that is staged as a series of vignettes. It was originally based on the poem by the Roman poet Ovid. He uses ancient Greek Mythology to explain the events happening in the vignettes. Gods like Poseidon, Hermes Americo Lanni. Or Hades and Midas played by Brandon Gailliard. Zeus and Bacchus were played by Benjamin Hill. Who could forget Aphrodite played by Catherine Poirier.

Metamorphoses is not a conventional arrangement and has a non-linear point of view. A linear dramatic action may be set as with the following steps, one- A state of equilibrium, two- An inciting incident, three.- Point of attack of the major dramatic question, four- Rising action, five- Climax, six- Resolution and seven- New state of equilibrium. First one event, then the next and the following one after that and so on and so forth. Metamorphoses does not follow this laid out set of steps and no single analysis can make it follow this formula. However each of the separate stories embedded within the play is in itself a “well-made play” within a play. Each story can be easily followed and analyzed through a look at the seven parts already established. An example that can easily demonstrate and lay out the structure is the story of Erysichthon described within Metamorphoses.

When it comes to the actual production of the play there are several differences between individual performances of this play. The original play was done on water, I understand that would not be possible here. The lighting however did work for most of the play. The one part in particular I didn’t like was for the lightning strike, maybe make the lighting fixture in the shape of a lightning bolt? Set design was another area I took particular attention to during the play. When it got dark in between scenes that’s when I knew changes were being made but I can honestly say I never was able to see anyone making changes even though you knew they were there.

The costume design for this play was also another challenge to create I saw. The play tended to jump a couple centuries at a time with leads to vastly different wardrobe changes. Like in the beginning they were wearing very basic white sheets, yet underneath you could notice the other layers they would be needing for later. The sound however was probably the biggest drawback for this play. Maybe it’s because the speakers aren’t the greatest but it seemed at times the special effect sounds were quitter than the actors, you couldn’t even notice it at times when you were supposed to.

Overall this was a very satisfying Theatre performance for me to see. It was my first but probably will not be my last, I look forward to enjoying more.

Othello in Shakespeare’s play

Othello is manipulated to trust Iago rather than his wife. Iago uses fake evidence against Desdemona in an attempt to prove she is cheating on her husband. Iago uses racism and past experiences to persuade Othello into believing he is not good enough for his wife as well as her not being good enough for him. Othello choses to believe Iago over his wife for the reason that she has only her word to back up her story while Iago has hard evidence. Iago plants fake evidence in the form of a handkerchief owned by Desdemona to lead Othello into believing his wife is having an affair with another man. By mistake, Othello leaves Desdemona’s handkerchief laying on the ground and Emilia, Iago’s wife finds it but fails to return it. Although Iago cannot witness Cassio and Desdemona having sex, he promises Othello he will find hard evidence of the affair. Iago creates a fake story claiming to have seen Cassio with Desdemona’s handkerchief given to her by Othello.

He claims the evidence is backed by “imputation and strong circumstances” (3.3.407) and reassures Othello he is only trying to lead him to “the door of truth” (3.3.408). Iago falsely tells Othello that he must re-think the situation but by that point, Othello had his mind set to kill his framed wife as he cries “O, blood, blood, blood” (3.3.454). The hard evidence planted by Iago was so efficient to get Othello to believe his wife was involved with Cassio due to its deep personal roots of the couples love. The handkerchief was given to Desdemona by her husband as a token of his love and the framing of her giving it to another man showed Othello that she doesn’t value their love anymore. He does not bother to simply ask Desdemona if she was having an affair because he knows she is now untrustworthy and will simply deny the allegations if challenged. By breaking down the trust between Othello and Desdemona with his hard evidence, Othello now trusts Iago and not his wife.

The hard evidence cements Othello’s trust in Othello although none of it is actually true. With Othello’s trust, Iago can more easily manipulate the framing of Desdemona and Cassio, as Othello will believe anything said by Iago. Throughout the novel, racism plays a crucial role in persuading Othello to think he is not deserving of Desdemona’s love. Iago is perhaps the most racist character but the negative judgments of Othello based upon his race are contributed from all Venetian citizens of Venice. He is judged to be harsh and rough just because he is black. He is referred to as “an old black ram” (1.1.89), “an erring barbarian” (1.3.350) and a “Barbary horse” (1.1.112) by Iago to let Othello know he is considered to be less important and valuable due to his skin colour. Roderigo also openly degrades Othello by referring to him as “thick lips” (1.1.67) and “lascivious moor” (1.1.126) which break him down and forms insecurities about his race.

His insecurities in turn lead Othello to believe he is not worthy of Desdemona. Iago also warns Othello that if Desdemona was willing to leave her father, she is likely to do the same with him. Even her own father says, “She has deciev’d her father and may thee” (1.3.290) proving to Othello that those close to Desdemona have been deceived and she might do the same to him. Iago later echoes Brabantios words by stating, “She did deceive her father, marrying you;” (3.3.208), which solidifies Othello’s distrust in his own wife. The combination of Iago being perceived as honest and charming and Othello’s gullibility allow for Iago to easily manipulate Othello. Othello is vulnerable to the perceived notion that his wife did not truly love him and could easily leave him all due to the colour of his skin. He is certainly not jealous of his wife but rather scared of the prospect of her leaving him due to his colour.

As he becomes vulnerable, Othello is soothed by fake honesty surrounding Iago as he is refereed to as “Honest Iago” (1.3.290). Iago has no evidence or past experiences to lessen his trustworthiness to Othello while his wife Desdemona has been framed by Iago specifically to create doubt-allowing Othello to question her loyalty to him. The constant charm by Iago and the question surrounding Desdemona eventually lead to Othello to fully trust Iago and being persuaded to kill his own wife. The motive behind the killing of Desdemona was not from jealousy but rather “in a conviction forced upon him by the almost superhuman art of Iago [..] and must have entertained who had believed Iago’s honesty as Othello did. (Samuel Coleridge).

What Coleridge is suggesting is that the motive behind Othello wanting to kill his wife was not jealousy, but rather all of Othello’s trust was to Iago therefore he could be easily manipulated. Iago gained all of Othello’s trust and used it to manipulate Othello into killing Desdemona contributing to his overall plan. Iago gains Othello’s trust by using hard evidence and racism. Othello doesn’t simply ask Desdemona if she were having an affair because he does not trust her anymore. Othello’s tragic choices are driven by revenge on his wife for being untrustworthy while in reality she was loyal to him. Iago’s lying and deceiving leaves many of his friends dead and leads to his torture and downfall.

Work Cited Page
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Oxford School Shakespeare. Ed. Roma Gill Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Print Coleridge, Samuel. “Othello: The Bradley view (& Coleridge).” English Class Handout, 2014. Print.

Unit 7- Play and Learning in Children’s Education

Unit 7 – Play and learning in children’s education
Diploma in Child Care and Education Cache Level 3
E4 Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn E5 Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s learning needs D2 Include an explanation of the key issues in recording assessments C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E7 Include TWO (2) plans for curriculum activities which show different approaches to planning learning opportunities D1 Provide evidence of how the planned curriculum activities can promote learning E8 Include information about the importance of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities E11 Include references and a bibliography

E4 Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn E4 – There are many theorists who have contributed to the body of knowledge relating to how children play and learn. The one I am choosing to write about is Friedrich Froebel. He met Anton Gruner, which inspired him to start teaching. He put his theories into practice in 1818 then founded his first children’s garden in 1837. Where he said that there should be lots of sensory and first hand activates in nature, music and arts. This is used in my setting as they have a vegetable patch and each week a small group of children go out and do gardening. This encourages children to touch different texture. My setting turns this into an activity where they have to use expressions about what they are doing. He was the first theorist to write about the importance of play. He was a very strong believer in play to improve a child education. He also believed that play raised enjoyment and emotional wellbeing. So each child should develop their own personality and grow as individuals. This is done though play to encourage self-expression within play activities. He thought that this was the most spiritual play where children become most interactive, for example in the home corner they are acting and taking on a role in pretending to be someone else. This is known as symbolic play. Which in my setting is very promoted, child make their own decision what things are/do.. Children are very much encouraged to play outdoors in the garden.

The space indoors needs to be light with lots of space.. When his theory was first put into practice it was very formal. But he said that child should do instead of being shown. Children show their highest level of learning when playing. His theory is still very much used today as in most settings they encourage children to think/do for themselves. Trial and error. This shows how they will learn what works what doesn’t and how to deal with failure. Vygotsky is relevant in social development, as he studied cognitive development. He grew up in a large family, so he believed that “what a child can do in co-operation today he can do alone tomorrow”. This means that he believes that child can do things alone once they have had help. Children need lots of support from their family, friends, practitioners and any other multi-professional. He believes there is two types of speech, babbling when it’s a baby, then at around 2years the Childs language and thinking merges together which means they use language to construct thinking. Vygotsky says that we all have inner speech, which supports thinking for children’s external communication. Young children are unable to blend there inner and external speech, this means what they say does not always make sense as they have not thought about it properly. Vygotsky theory comes in stages. One stage is ‘the interrelationship between thought and language’. This means that ideas of language and memory are all mental functions.

This begins with interaction with others. When young children play they describe what’s happening in their game. For example a child is playing with a car and they commentate though saying “ now the car is going round the bend and bang into the wall”. As children grow they add more detail into their play. The next step is the ‘zone of proximal development’ which means the difference between problem solving a child can do independently and problem solving which the child is capable of doing with support. This defines how mature the child is and what level of development they are at. This help suggest a appropriate target for that individual. Each child has there zone of actual development this is the level they are already at but they all have a target to get them to the zone of proximal development. To reach the target that child need lots of help and not steps which are to big as this could knock there confidence. Another stage Vygotsky has is ‘the importance of play’ he believed that play provides essential skills to improve their social, personal, and professional activates.

This means that children can play and do things beyond what they can do in real life- such as play mums and dads, pretend to drive a car. Though play they talk to each other and pretend they are in a different world with only their friends. Play is another way they can reach the zone of proximal development. Reconstruction is another stage which means child experience the same situation again and again as they grow up. Each time they have this experience they can deal with it at a higher level. This means they reconstruct the experiences this is them moving to the proximal development. Another stage is ‘the importance of social interaction’ knowledge of speak in constructed between two people. This convocation is improving the Childs speech and vocabulary. Social interaction is linked to problem solving, planning and abstract thinking. The last stage is ‘ the cultural context’ which means children use tools which come from there one culture to help them with speech, writing and to help them functions effectively in society. The history of the child’s family and the Childs experiences are important o understand there cognitive development. E5 Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s learning needs D2 Include an explanation of the key issues in recording assessments C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs E5/D2/C1

When planning for children, getting the correct age, stage and ability is very important. The best way to do this is though observing the child. Observations provide the practitioners with the valuable information they need about the child being observed. The practitioner will be able to identify the Childs: ? Age, Stage and Ability

? Language and Communication
? Social interaction
? Behavioural needs/issues
? Emotional needs
? Likes/ dislikes
? Additional needs /problems
? Learning styles
Once the practitioner has discovered the needs of the child they can work on meeting them. The practitioner is then able to plan the progress of the child. The practitioner should look at the correct curriculum and plan the next step for the child. If the child is under 5 years then the practitioner will look at the Early Years Foundation Stage, if the child is over 5 then they will use the National Curriculum. Though referring to the correct curriculum you will ensure you plan for the right step for the individual child. But also the activity should provide experiences for the whole class. This progress happens for every child which means they are treated equally and are offered the correct steps to achieve their age stage and ability. Though observing you can also spot if a child has a problem which the parents evolved meant or a member of the multi-agency team. For example if a practitioner observes a child and notices that the child has speech problems. This problem will be wrote up, then discussed with parents explain they practitioners query. From this talk the practitioner can find out if there has been any worries about it at home.

This issues would be monitored over a period of time , to see if there is improvements or more a decrease in the Childs speech. If no improvement arise then the parents and staff will have meeting to suggest the best way forwards. In this case it would be speech therapy . the parent would take the child to a speech therapist , the child will then be given exercises to do at home and in school. No matter what the problem all children should be offered and treat equally to ensues the best start in life to thrive. When observing you have to ensure you use the correct method for what you are observing. For example The Time sample observations are interesting and versatile. They provide information about what a child dose at regular intervals thought the day. For example you have to observe them every 15 minutes for the session. Time sample can be structures and codes can be used. This observation is good at looking at the child’s all round development. For example social interactions while the child is playing indoors with the sand but also 20 minutes later when the child was playing outside on the bike. To use the method the practitioner has to decide how structured the time sample needs to be. If it is structures it will have to be planned and typed up in advance and the observe needs to be familiar with the codes. Another thing you need to decide is how long the intervals need to be between each observation. For example a 15 minute interval for a whole day of observing. Now you have to record what you see at the correct times in the day. When observing you have to remain professional and show a non-judgemental attitude. This means that the practitioner has to be honest about what they are seeing and hearing.

They are unable to put their own opinions into the observation. This will make the observation truthful and reliable. If the practitioner loses trust then there observations will be seen as entrusts worthy. Another way there could be a issues with the observation is if the child is ill, distressed, or generally just not themselves. This will make the observations invalid, as it is not a true account of the children when they are fit well and themselves. Another way the observation would be invalid is if it is cut short because of the practitioner is needed somewhere else in the setting. As this would mean that a large chuck of the observation has been missed. Keeping the observations safe and confidential is very important. This mean that the child’s name should be in initials or child A, child B. these documents should be stored in a lock cupboard, and these should only be shown to staff members, any multi agencies that are involved and the child’s parents. Though out doing all of these observations and planning the practitioner has to ensure they are meeting all legal requirements like the Early Years Foundation Stage, which links to the child care act 2006, Sex discrimination act, Every Child Matter which links to children act 2004 and the Equality act 2010: this means that all children have to be treated equally and get the same opportunities of learning. To achieve this setting having a strong and trusted relationship will mean that all the children get a positive contribution from there parents to offer them best. In a setting it is important that they include all children. No matter what religion , if have special needs, physical disabilities or ethnic group they are. The setting should take this into interest and try and do stuff to support there needs and belief. This could be teaching other children about disabilities. So if a child is Chinese they could do a special day especially around Chinese New Year. The settings have to think about not being sexist.

They also will have to think about what toys they get out for a child’s age and stage. But some children with older sibling could be playing with toys above their age and stage as they have been influenced by others. Some children in my setting have speech problem, this means you can’t treat them different, but you have to help and listen to their speech improving. All children have to right to grow, learn and develop as an individual to their own belief. In my setting they have many positive ways which reflect diversity, some of these are different race/gender dolls, books, different snacks, posters and the staff have learnt simple signage to help communicate with children as they recognise signs better than speech. If the observation and planning goes wrong it could affect children confidence though doing a activity they do feel confidence with. This related to Vygotsky theory: “potential is only reached if the child and the environment are guided by the adult helping the child to progress by scaffolding.” (Child Care and Education 4th edition, P. Tassoni et al, pg 284) This means that children get support from adults to gain confidence in what they are doing, then when the practitioner feels the child is doing well they will help them less. This is the practitioner removing pieces of scaffolding.

If a child feels unable to do an activity they could become aggressive towards other this could mean that a child’s emotional state could go down hill though the steps being to big. If the setting has problems with parents this could effect how the child thrives in there learning. From the setting prospective the legal requiments might not be met which could effect children’s safety and learning. The other problem would be if the staff do not have the correct knowledge or resources to help the children succeed. E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E6 – A health visitor is a fully qualified nurse who has had special training to help families and young children. With the first few years in a child/families life. This member of the health care team is very crucial as there aim is to support and help families. They also work as part of the community to prevent illness and to promote the health and well being of the whole community..

Their aim is to improve the health of families and children in the crucial first few years of life. Working in the community, they prevent illness and promote health and wellbeing. They are able to refer children to other muti-proffessional like speech therapist, social services. A speech/language therapist is there to treat language and communication problems with babies and children. Some therapist can help people who have swallowing problems. Whatever the case they work closely with parents, teachers and other multi-professionals. They can visit settings like nurseries, schools, homes, hospitals and local health clinics. They can help forming words/sounds , understanding language, swallowing problems and co- ordinating facial movements. Children n who have: Hearing impairment

Learning difficulties
Vocal problems
Physical difficulties
All information that is shared with parents will be passed onto any other person that is there to help the child. Most children get given exercise to do.
E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E6 – A health visitor is a fully qualified nurse who has had special training to help families and young children. With the first few years in a child/families life. This member of the health care team is very crucial as there aim is to support and help families. They also work as part of the community to prevent illness and to promote the health and well being of the whole community.. Their aim is to improve the health of families and children in the crucial first few years of life. Working in the community, they prevent illness and promote health and wellbeing. They are able to refer children to other muti-proffessional like speech therapist, social services. A speech/language therapist is there to treat language and communication problems with babies and children. Some therapist can help people who have swallowing problems. Whatever the case they work closely with parents, teachers and other multi-professionals. They can visit settings like nurseries, schools, homes, hospitals and local health clinics. They can help forming words/sounds , understanding language, swallowing problems and co- ordinating facial movements. Children n who have: Hearing impairment

Learning difficulties
Vocal problems
Physical difficulties
All information that is shared with parents will be passed onto any other person that is there to help the child. Most children get given exercise to do.
•baking soda
Making the cone of the volcano- blend 2 cups of salt, 6 cups of flour, 4 tbsp of cooking oil, and 2 cups of water. The mixture should end up smooth and firm. Now mould the dough round the bottle into a volcano shape. Do not cover the top. Ask for adults assistant to Fill the bottle with warm water and a tsp on red food colouring. Add 6 tsp of washing detergent into the bottle. (this helps tap the bubble which produce the reaction of larva. Add 2 tbsp of baking soda to the solution.

Slowly add vinegar into the solution and watch it erupt. Tips:
The red larva is the result of the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar. This reaction produces carbon dioxide gas. This also happens in a really eruption. The carbon dioxide gas creates a pressure which builds up inside the bottle until bubbles form a volcanic explosion Though adding food colouring it will result in a red-orange colour which give the impression of larva. This links to the national curriculum. Where in key stage one students learn how to observe and ask questions. The students learn to work in groups to collect evidence from watching a experiment to answer the original question. Children will also learn about simple scientific ideas. They also learn to gather the evidence and decide if the test was fair or not. The groups communicate about sharing ideas and using scientific language. They also gain skills though drawing table, charts and tables. Second activity : reception

Aim : to create and present a story sack with the children. This is linked to communication language and literacy- page 46 of EYFS- situations where children use actions and some talk to support and think about what they are
doing. Rationale: This activity will really help communication language and literacy. This is important for them to learn and improve their speech and understanding of different language techniques. This activity will also help their creative development though creating their own ideas of a character. Creative development is individual to each child and it can never be wrong. Learning outcomes for children

PSED-personal social and emotional development: Socialising in a group whilst creating the props and they also have to perform the story with their props in front of the class and listen to other groups as well. When performing they can act out their emotions and show a understanding to emotions. CLL- communication, language and literacy: communicating with other children about how to create the props. In this group there will be an adult who they can ask questions. The children will should be able to remember the story and perform it to the class, once the performance is finished the teacher could ask the other children questions PSRN-problem solving, reasoning and numeracy: when creating the props they will need to know how much of each material they will need and how to share equipment and take turns. I will be asking them questions like “how many props do we need to make?” PD- physical development: they will be developing there fine motor skills creating the props. The children need to be encouraged to create the props how they imagine them looking.

There gross motor skills will be developed though the children acting out and using their props to tell the story. CD-creative development: the children will be designing there prop themselves which the practitioner must praise and encourage the child to have a go. The children can never do this wrong, they are not aiming to copy the picture but make it their own. The children also can create and perform the story in their own way. KUW- knowledge and understanding of the world : is after the story when we reflect and connect they story to everyday life and things around us. E.g.; if a animal eats breakfast in the story, I will then ask the children what they had. Learning outcomes for students: I will learn how to write out a activity plan. During the activity I will observing the children and how they cope with the activity. After the activity I will look for where I can improve and adjust to full fill the children’s potential. I will also see if there
is another links I can make to the EYFS. I will also be able to improve my own skills of how to talk, encourage and praise to the children. Resources:• Spoon

• Paper

Pictures of the characters
The story book
Reading/ creating/ performing area.
Planning and preparation:
Choose the story
Get the craft table ready
Read the story
Encourage their creative ideas
Help them practice
Perform story sack to whole class
Ask/ answer questions
Pick a story
Read the story to a group of 6
Let them choose a character (if a problem put all in a hat and let the children choose) Explain they are going to create the character they have chosen themselves, in the arts and craft area with all the creative materials we have got. Get the children’s sleeves rolled up and aprons on with the picture of there character next to them. • If the children ask for help then the staff will help and encourage the whole group. Once props have been created and dried the group can
practice three way of telling the story though the props. The practitioner can read the story while the children act it out if they do not have the confidence to do it all themselves. Perform the story to the whole class.

Then have question time at the end.
E8 Include information about the importance of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities Consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities for children is very important because you staff can find out child’s likes/dislikes and their interests. This is important to discuss with parents/carers as they know the child the best and have a better understanding of the child ethnicity, linguistic ability and culture. This means that the parents get a chance to discuss and explain thing to do with their personal family and beilfs. Though having a good relationship with children’s parents mean you can communicate and discuss the child without any issues. This means that staff have to value parents ideas, contribution and their expertise as parents. Staff have to record children’s life within the setting this could be done though learning journals and other forms of observations. These are shared with parents to discuss the child, and the next step for them. C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs C1 – when children join a setting there parents share information about their likes/dislikes , and enjoyments.

From this information the child’s key worker will be able to plan activates to see how able they are to do it and if it is too easy/ hard. Once the child is caring out the activates the staff can then begin to assess the child’s. This is when the key worker works out what the child is caper bale to do. The key worker is there to support the child throughout there time at the setting, (appendix 6) , explains how the key person helps and fits into a eating. This is a starting point of the child’s future. Where staff plan the next step to keep the child moving up the ladder. Assessment helps the practitioner to improve all there development skills. The staff learn and develop to know what strategies work for what children, as every child learns and develops in different ways. Each child’s capability is different so you have to consider this when planning as some children pick things up quickly where as others take a bit longer. This is very important for practitioners to learn this because we need to create aims for children and this is the best method to look at a children and to be able to plan for the future. This will improve and support there learning development , which will mean planning will constantly be changing. The child will be meeting there short term plan and working towards there long term target. For staff to carry on planning to meet the child’s needs they have to observe the child. Though observing you can see how a child plays, what their interest are and how they learn. You will also see how a child deals with a problem, weather they try an fix it or walk away. This is how I get to know each child’s different way of doing things. E11 Include references and a bibliography

Child care & education 2010 BruceT et al Holder Education, OxonChild care & education,2007, Taconic et a, Heinmann,OxfordChild care & education Level 2, 2007 TassoniP et a, Heinmann,Oxford

Creon and Koro in the play Antigone by Sophocles

Throughout history, the tragic hero has virtually not changed at all. The play, Antigone, written by the Greek playwright Sophocles and the book Whale Rider, written by Witi Ihimaera, has extremely comparable characters. Regardless of being written thousands of years apart, both story lines are very similar in relation to the tragic heroes. Antigone is the story of a woman who is trying to bury her brother’s body, despite the king, Creon’s, ruling against. The play tells of Antigone and Creon’s struggle against each other leading to Antigone’s eventual death. Whale Rider portrays the story of a young Maori girl who is trying to become the leader of her tribe. The young girl, Paikea (Pai), is persistently blocked by Koro. Creon and Koro, the two tragic heroes are comparable in their lack of equality towards women, their similar tragic flaw of too much hubris and their elitist views directed toward people around them. Creon and Koro both share a lack of respect towards woman. Creon continually exhibits his contempt towards women in Antigone.

When Creon is talking to his son, Haimon, regarding Antigone’s death, he condemns him by saying that, “Your pleasure with her would soon grow cold, Haimon, and then you’d have a hellcat in bed and elsewhere” (716). Creon believes that because Antigone is a woman, she can be easily replaced. Creon makes it known that he does not think Antigone is important at all and neglects to acknowledge that Haimon might have any affection or love for Antigone, which is why he thinks that he can always replace her. Koro too has the identical sexist reaction towards women such as Pai right from when she was born. Koro refuses to even hold Pai because she is a girl, and because she is a girl she cannot become a leader. Throughout the film, Koro has hatred that is clearly directed towards Pai. Koro thinks that because Pai is a girl, she is not strong enough to be a leader, or to do anything practical. When Koro tests the male students at his school and none of the boys succeed in finding the whale tooth and Pai does, Koro chooses to overlook the fact that the gods choose Pai as the next Maori leader. Koro clearly has a harsh sexist attitude that remains until Pai almost drowns, when she is actually trying to save the whales to show Koro she is the leader and is strong.

Although Koro and Creon exhibit these anti-female outlooks from the start their stories, the conclusions of each are different. While Creon’s sexist attitude remains until the end of the story, Koro changes in the end of Whale Rider. Koro identifies where he was wrong and corrects himself, while Creon thinks of himself as higher than women until the end of the story and does not change his sexist attitude. Creon and Koro both have hubris and have way too much pride for their own good. In Antigone, Creon is going to be Antigone’s father in law because of Antigone and Haimon’s love for each other, but regardless of their family relation, Creon shows no compassion or sympathy. When Creon realizes that the person who buried Polyneices is Antigone, he condemns her to death. Creon commands Antigone’s death despite the fact that he does not want to because of their close relationship, all because of his pride. If Creon were to release Antigone it would make him look weak and Creon could not have that reputation. This displays how Creon would rather his title be strong than the existence of a family member. When the Choragos attempts to tell Creon to free Antigone, he admits that it is difficult to overcome his pride. Creon tells him that “it is hard to give in! But it is worse to risk everything for stubborn pride” (731).

Creon thinks what he has been doing throughout the story is right and he does not see his mistakes, which lead to his decline at the end of the story. Koro is closely related to Creon in the sense that he is also incapable of conquering his own arrogance. Throughout the movie, Whale Rider, Pai persistently strives to show her grandfather her strength and even goes as far as trying to join the school Koro establishes because she wants to learn the proper way to be the leader of the Maori culture. Koro continuously neglects Pai and denotes her every move because he believes that only a male can be the leader, he cannot put his pride aside to let a new leader emerge. Koro teaches the boys at his school to use a taiaha which is generally something only boys do, however Pai secretly follows Koro’s lessons and learns from her taiaha winning champion uncle how to use the taiaha and ends up beating Hemi, one of Koro’s male students. Koro is furious when he finds out, which only leads to a worse relationship between Koro and Pai, which is not the result Pai was looking for.

This shows how his hubris is interfering with an obvious calling for a new leader. When Koro believes that he has failed at finding a new leader, he refuses to let Pai be the leader because he has pushed her away so much. When the whales beach themselves, Pai rides the whales back into the water and saves them. By doing this, Koro realizes and is now aware that Pai, who was the one person he did not allow to try and achieve his power, was the one person destined to be the leader. His pride keeps him from selecting the leader the Maori culture needs, but Koro learns his mistakes at the end of the story, whereas Creon does not get a second chance to redeem himself. Creon and Koro have very comparable views on higher powers and neither of the men listens to higher powers nearly as much as they should. Creon disregards the gods’ intimations throughout the play up until his own life is at risk. When Antigone takes matters into her own hands and buries Polyneices, Creon’s opinion is that the gods agree with him about not burying Polyneices and whoever disobeys him should be punished.

When the Choragos questions him if the gods may be responsible for the burial of Polyneices, he responds, “’The gods!’ Intolerable!” (703). Creon is enraged that someone has the nerve to inquire that the gods may be against him. Creon intentions are not to please the gods, but have people believe that the gods are on his side, therefore allowing Creon control over his people. Koro is very similar to Creon as he does not ask for help from his ancestors until he is in trouble. Koro’s search throughout the movie is to find a new leader for the Maori culture, however he only uses the ancestors for help when the whales beach themselves and does not ask the gods earlier on because he wants to be the one to handpick his own leader. Koro only eventually called out for the gods after he has been unsuccessful at finding a new leader.

Ironically, at Koro’s school, he preaches to the boys to put their trust in their ancestors; however he does not trust in the gods as much as he stresses to the boys because he does not ask for the gods power when he fails at finding a new leader and predictably spends days mourning in his own wrong doings. Both Creon and Koro lack much faith in their higher powers and are hypocritical in the way that they preach to others to believe in their higher powers, but do not do so themselves. Both Creon and Koro exemplify sexist attitudes throughout the Greek tragedy and film, along with their lack of humbleness and their personality that reflects on them thinking they have a higher rank than everyone. The tragic heroes in “Antigone” and Whale Rider, Creon and Koro, are very similar. Their closeness shows that the tragic hero has not changed in the past three thousand years. The stories both have women trying to persevere in a world where they have less rights, and strong leaders trying to suppress them.

The role and value of play

All children and young people need to play. Children’s play is behavior which is freely chosen, self-motivated and personally directed, and the impulse to play is in all of us. Through play the child explores the world and its creative potential, discovering all the while, a flexible range of responses to the challenges, she or he encounters. By playing, the child learns and develops as an individual and as a member of the community – be it at home, the street and area they live in, their school or a holiday play scheme. As such, play is a right, recognised in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child – Article 31. Play is essential for children’s physical, emotional and psychological growth, as well as their intellectual, creative and educational development.

When children play they build up a sense of identity, self-respect, confidence and their own self-worth. Through playing with others, children build a resource of behavioural techniques to help them navigate complex social worlds including younger children not to feel intimidated by older children. The contemporary environment in which many children grow up is not designed with them in mind, and at times and in some areas provides limited opportunities for safe and creative play. Increasing traffic due to continuous property development, parental fears of strangers and lack of open spaces all restrict children’s play outdoors, but by providing and protecting play-rich environments for children we can counteract these limitations.

Much has been written on the subject of play and there is visibility in legislation and guidance for professionals:

– Stuart Brown, founder of the National Institute for Play, has said that “play is anything that spontaneously is done for its own sake…appears purposeless, produces pleasure and joy, leads one to the next stage of mastery” (as cited in Tippett, July 2008; italics added). – Edward Miller and Joan Almon describe play as “activities that are freely chosen and directed by children and arise from intrinsic motivation” (2009, p15). – Jeannine Ouellette refers to play as “activity that is unencumbered by adult direction, and does not depend on manufactured items or rules imposed by someone other than the kids themselves” (Ouellette, 2007, para13). – “The main characteristic of play – child or adult – is not its content, but its mode. Play is an approach to action, not a form of activity.” Jerome Bruner, quoted in Moyles (1989)

– “From an early age, play is important to a child’s development and learning. It isn’t just physical. It can involve cognitive, imaginative, creative, emotional and social aspects. It is the main way most children express their impulse to explore, experiment and understand. Children of all ages play.” (Dobson, 2004, p8)

In June 2010 the coalition government set up a Childhood and families taskforce, Nick Clegg, Deputy prime minister said in his opening speech, “For too many British children, childhood has become a time of stress, anxiety and insecurity, when it should be a time of discovery, learning and adventure. My purpose in politics – and the job of this coalition government – is to change that, to live up to our responsibility and lay the foundations for better lives for our children.” At the launch of the revised EYFS, published March 2012, following the Tickell review, we were once again reminded that “play is essential for children’s development.”

When children play, they are actively engaged in activities they have freely chosen; that is, they are self-directed and motivated from within. “Best Play” starts with a definition of play and with a set of values and principles. Both the definition and the values and principles are well recognised within the play work profession, (though they can be expressed in slightly different ways, for instance they can be found in the National Occupational Standards for National Vocational Qualifications in Play work and in the New Charter for Children’s Play (Children’s Play Council 1998), though perhaps less so outside it. It then looks at evidence and arguments about the role of play in child development and the consequences of a lack of good play opportunities. “Play is freely chosen, personally directed, intrinsically motivated behavior that actively engages the child”. This definition draws closely on the work of Bob Hughes and Frank King.

Children choosing what they want to do, why and how they want to do it then when to stop and try something else is the simplistic breakdown of the definition. Free play has no external goals set by adults and has no adult imposed curriculum. Although adults usually provide the space and resources for free play and might be involved, the child takes the lead and the adults respond to cues from the child. When children can pursue play under their own impulse and initiative, they are able to:

Practice decision-making skills

Discover their own interests
Engage fully in what they want to pursue
Develop creative problem solving skills
Practice skills in resolving conflicts
Develop self-regulation
Develop trust, empathy, and social skills
Develop language and communication skills
Use their creativity and imagination
Develop skills for critical thinking and leadership
Analyse and reflect on their experiences
Reduce stress in their everyday lives

However, there is a growing consensus about some of the possible implications of play deprivation, based on reasonable assumptions about the role of personal experience and self-directed activity in the development of a range of competences. Depending on the types of play opportunity that are lacking, children could be affected in the following ways:

Poorer ability in motor tasks

Lower levels of physical activity
Poorer ability to deal with stressful or traumatic situations and events

Poorer ability to assess and manage risk
Poorer social skills, leading to difficulties in negotiating social situations such as dealing with conflict and cultural difference

Every child is different and will play in their way. As an adult and the manager of the After School Club (ASC) I need to recognise the impact that myself and co workers have on a child’s play opportunities. Throughout the session I take time to observe, consult, plan, and participate in play knowing the great potential for learning that play offers – developing skills and abilities, providing opportunities to co-operate, developing friendships, taking turns, resolving conflicts and solving problems, and developing knowledge and understanding of the world. While children will sometimes need support, it should be recognised that they will often benefit from opportunities to play without adult supervision. Therefore we, the play workers, must understand the impact we have, giving consideration to the differences of each child including behaviors. Bob Hughes (2006), a playworker and play theorist, has identified sixteen play types, including creative, dramatic, exploratory, fantasy, locomotor, mastery, object , role, rough and tumble, social, socio-dramatic, symbolic, deep (extremely risky) and recapitulative (ritual) play. Their very description indicates a relevance to the social, physical, intellectual, creative and emotional development.

Snapshots of play at ASC:

Eddie and Eleanor are playing a new game – Mancala. Eleanor was pleased to discover the game in the cupboard and is teaching Eddie as she has the game at home, she told Eddie how she loves playing it with her Dad. Eleanor explains the rules and object of the game, they play repeatedly, both enjoying the competitiveness. George, Robert and Calum have built a play scene on the wooden piano using the play animals, a piece of camouflage material and wooden tree pieces. They have built dens for their animals at different levels and then use blocks and vehicles they have made from lego to destroy the animal’s dens. The tigers dens is last to be destroyed says Calum “they are the fiercest animals and will fight you really hard to protect their home” “Foxes are fierce, said Robert, they ate my rabbit.”

Libby, Evie and Katie asked to share a dance they had learnt at school today. Mrs. Colucci found the CD player for them to use. They had fun performing their routine to an audience and added props and different costumes to wear as they repeated their performances. They add a new piece to the end and are going to show that to their teacher tomorrow. Dylan and Alfie are playing with the cars, lining them up to move around the mat to get to the garage. Toby, Sam and Ben are building a ramp over the garage for the cars to be able to loop the loop and fly through the air!

In summary – Play can be fun, challenging and enjoyable for both adults and children. By helping children to take part in different types of play on their own and with others, and by providing a well-resourced play environment inside and outside, adults can greatly enrich the learning opportunities that play provides.

“Play is the answer to how anything new comes about.” Jean Piaget


Play, naturally
A review of children’s natural play
Stuart Lester and Martin

Whilst researching material for writing this essay I enjoyed reading the following publication. Their suggested reading list is one I will work my way through to continue to extend my knowledge on this subject.

A guide to child-led play and its importance for thinking and learning Playing to learn
A publication commissioned by ATL from Di Chilvers
Recommended reading list from the publication
Broadhead, P. (2004).
Early Years Play and Learning – Developing
Social Skills and Cooperation.
Broadhead, P. (ed.) (2010).
Play and Learning in the Early Years.
Bruce, T. (1987).
Early Childhood Education.
Hodder and Stoughton.
Bruce, T. (1991).
Time to Play in Early Childhood Education.
Hodder and Stoughton.
Bruce, T. (2001).
Learning Through Play: Babies, Toddlers and the
Foundation Years.
Hodder and Stoughton.
Bruce, T. (ed.) (2006).
Early Childhood – A Guide for Students.
Lindon, J. (2001).
Understanding Children’s Play.
Nelson Thornes.
Manning, K. & Sharp. A. (1977).
Structuring Play in the Early Years at School.
Ward Lock Educational.
Moyles, J. (1989).
Just Playing? The Role and Status of Play in
Early Childhood Education.
Open University Press.
Moyles, J. (ed.) 1994.
The Excellence of Play.
Open University Press.
Project Zero. (2001).
Making Learning Visible – Children as Individual
and Group Learners.
Reggio Children.
Siraj-Blatchford, I. et al. (2002).
Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early
Department for Education and Skills and the
Institute of Education. Research Report 356.

Different Types Of Play

1. The materials used in play, what the benefits are and examples. Creative play is when children use their imagination and artistic skills to create what they want whilst doing activities such as painting, drawing, sticking, cutting and play dough. The materials that are used in this play are colouring pencils, scissors, glue, paper, crayons, stamps, aprons, feathers and paints. Creative play helps develop math skills because when they are sticking they are seeing a variety of different shapes and sizes and get a basic understanding of this. When children are being creative they are using and developing their fine motor skills, they are doing this by participating in activities such as painting, cutting and drawing. Children are expressing themselves in creative play using materials other than words and they can work together and socialise in the activities this will help build relationships with other children. Pretend play is what kids do to learn about their world and understand how to interact with the people and things that are in it. Children are being imaginative and act out what their parents do for example they play kitchen and mums and dads. This is an understanding of the world and everyday life.

The materials that are used in this play are dressing up, plastic food, play kitchens, doll houses and push chairs. Children can express their feelings through pretend play because they may act out something that has happened to them before. It’s also an opportunity to talk to children about feelings and emotions. When children are pretend playing they are making up stories of their own for example they play ‘schools/ teachers’ and make up what’s going to happen. Children are developing their language skills through this and also their social skills because they will be playing with other children and sharing ideas of their own. Children are learning and developing how to problem solve because they all might want to be the teacher but they can’t so they will need to work out how they are going to do this. Physical play is any activity that you do when your body is involved with movement. The materials that are used in this play are bikes, skipping ropes, footballs, hopping, hopscotch and apparatus.

Physical activity helps develop children’s health and growth development. When children physical play they are improving their physical skills and it provides children with feelings of accomplishment, positive self-esteem and a sense of power and freedom. Children are improving their gross motor skills because physical play involves coordination, jumping, running and balancing, anything to do with their feet and legs. Manipulative play is a play that involves children building and fitting things together. This play helps children develop their fine motor skills and hand co-ordination. It helps children become more confident in using different objects and equipment they will use as they get older. The materials that are used in this play are building blocks, puzzles and Lego/ Duplo. Children become increasingly skilful with their hands, and it also encourages them to think about their actions, plan them, and learn through trial-and-error. Manipulative play also helps children to learn the most suitable ways of performing certain actions.

Discovery play is allowing children to learn about the world and how it works. Children grow in self-confidence and to experiment and investigate new things, to form new relationships and to develop as individuals. Discovery play is for children to explore, investigate and make sense of the world around them. They can feel the changes in the weather, discover the natural world and move and develop their physical strength.

3. Questions

You have been asked to work with a group of children to make paper hats for a party. What type of play is this? This is creative play.
How can you make sure that each child makes a hat in their own way? To make sure that each child makes a hat in their own way you could talk to them and help gather their own ideas to put them on their hat. Encourage the children to do it how they want to and not what everyone else is doing. What equipment and materials would you need?

The equipment and materials that you need are glue, aprons, stickers, glitter, feathers, sequins, scissors, colouring pencils, cello tape and stapler. Can you describe what pretend play is?
Pretend plays are children being imaginative and make believing. What are the different forms of pretend play?
The different forms of pretend play are role play, domestic play, fantasy play, imaginative play, super hero play and socio dramatic play. What equipment or items can be used in pretend play?
The equipment that can be used in pretend play is play kitchens, tea sets, and dress up, plastic food, card board boxes, books, dolls house, doctors set, plastic babies, teddies, plastic phones, apparatus and cutlery. How can pretend play fit in with the Early Years Curriculum? Pretend play fits in with the Early Years Curriculum by doing a theme. Within my placement my class had monsters week and children had to dress up as monsters at the end of the week. What are the benefits of physical play?

The benefits of physical play are that children develop stronger immune systems and it improves focus and concentration. Physical play can promote problem solving skills and leadership skills. Children respond to their peers feelings while waiting for their turn and sharing their experiences, this helps develop their social and emotional development. Physical play contributes to children’s fine manipulative and gross motor development and body awareness as they use their bodies in activities. This helps their physical development. What type of equipment can be used for physical play and how can this help children develop? What age ranges this is suitable for? The type of equipment that can be used for physical play can be apparatus; this can help children develop their physical development. They are using their gross motor skills and fine motor skills because they are using their hands to grab and pull themselves up and they are using their feet to push themselves up, balance and climb over.

The age ranges that are suitable for this would be 3-12 years old. What large pieces of equipment are there and which ones are particularly popular with the children? How do they use them? Within my placement they have slides, tunnels and tricycles in the playground. The tricycles and slides are the ones that are most popular with the children. The children that play with the tricycles they pretend that they are on motorbikes and make the sounds of it. Some children like to race with each other. Many skills are developed when riding a tricycle such as the ability of know when to slow down and speed up, pedal and steer. The slides, children learn to balance and build up their self-esteem. Children see slides as a challenge when they climb and they enjoy playing on it. What is manipulative play and can you give examples?

Manipulative play is building and fitting things together.
Train set
Building blocks
What are the benefits of manipulative play?
The benefits of manipulative play are that children can work together, or on their own building blocks and this helps develop their social development. Children are developing their fine and gross motor skills, using their fingers to pick up the pieces. Also they are developing hand- eye coordination because if the child was doing a jigsaw they are looking where the puzzle piece may fit. Children are developing their language skills when playing with friends. When children have completed their activity such as a train set they will sense achievement because they completed it on their own, they may even set themselves a goal and do something a bit harder. What equipment can be used in manipulative play, what are the benefits and age ranges? Duplo can be used in manipulative play, the benefits of this are that children can gain confidence because there is no right way in playing with this equipment. Children are using hand-eye coordination and their fine manipulative skills. The suitable age for this is 18 months- 5 years old. What is discovery play and can you give me some examples?

Discovery play is playing that helps children learn and explore new things and how to use and play with them. Examples;
Sand and water pit
Farm yards
Plasticine and play dough
What materials can be used to encourage discovery play?
Different coloured paper
How could children combine play?
Children can combine play by putting toys with another.
Sand pit with dinosaurs.
Water with boats, plastic sea creatures or cups.
Playing with the Play dough in the kitchen, making things, pretend food. Case study questions
1. How is this type of language helping Ayse develop her language? It helps develop Ayses language because it encourages to communicate with other children when she is around them.
2. What other skills is Ayse learning? She is using her fine manipulative skills, sensory and thinking skills.
3. Why is it important that the child minder is ready to join in and support this type of play? It’s important that the child minder is ready to join in and support this type of play because it will give Ayse ideas on what to use to pretend feed her teddy. The child minder can make sure that Ayse is safe when playing and is calm.
4. What is treasure basket play and Heuristic play?

Treasure basket play is a play that babies use, it’s a basket that has a variety of toys in that are suitable for the child to play with. The baby can choose what they want to play with and it gives them a chance to explore the different toys inside the basket. They can touch, shake, licking, banging and dropping. The materials that are used in this play are corks, shells, string, sponges, leather wallet and metal scoop. Heuristic play is a play that children use who are mobile and have moved on from treasure basket play. It encourages children to explore through the use of children’s senses. The types of things that are put out for the child to explore would be everyday objects. Children do anything to find out what they can and can’t do with the objects that they have been given, they will put things together or put them on top of each other.

The materials that are used for this play are cork, plastic bracelets, pompoms, pegs and different sized bottles. The role of the adult is to show what the children need to do because they aren’t going to know what to do with the things in the basket. Showing the children what to do gives them ideas on what else they might be able to do with it. Children love to explore with the different objects. When the children are playing the adult shouldn’t interfere and just supervise them because they want to explore on their own, only interfere if children need your help. You should have objects that babies can put in their mouth because that’s the first thing babies will do with whatever they have in front of them, it’s how they feel the object. Babies can only grip objects, they aren’t able to feel with their hands properly which is why they put the objects in their mouth.

Hamartia with Respect to Oedipus in the Play ”Oedipus Rex”

Hamartia with respect to Oedipus in the play Oedipus Rex.

The tragedy must not be a spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us; nor again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity…It must concern a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty. (The Poetics) In Oedipus Rex, the character of Oedipus is a victim of hamartia, and his particular flaw is hubris. “Hamartia “is an Aristotelian term which often finds its usage in Greek tragedies. It is often referred to as a “tragic flaw “or “tragic error”. Aristotle in his work,”Poetics’’described Oedipus Rex a tragedy by Sophocles as a perfect example of the demonstration of the term “hamartia”.

It is hamartia that creates a tragic hero. It is also said to mean missing the mark, or moral deficit or tragic error. Hamartia is what causes the tragic hero to do the opposite of what he intends to do. In case of Oedipus it is his flaw of character or ignorant error that can be said to have led to his downfall. It can be argued that it is not hamartia alone that led to Oedipus’ downfall, the elements of fate, and free will also are ones to be considered but the fact remains that it is the fatal flaw or fatal error or hasty judgement of the character or characters involved that triggers off a set of tragic sequences predestined or not which ultimately lead to a tragic end, and this remains relevant in case of Oedipus Rex.

Hubris also seems to be the root cause for most of the actions undertaken by the characters in the drama including Oedipus’ biological parents. In the opening scenes of the play Oedipus comes across as the ideal King, insightful, concerned for his citizens and a man of action. Oedipus chief flaw or hamartia appears to be his “hubris” or pride. The whole point of tragedy is how faults can undo even good intentions and lead to downfall. Oedipus is considered a great man, the Chorus calls him “the first of men “. Throughout the play we come across both the good and bad side of Oedipus. He is well intentioned but nonetheless there are hints of pride and narcissism, “I will bring everything into light’ ’and ironically in the process of doing so in a mentally blind fashion loses his sight physically in the end.

In the opening scenes of the play the audience does see traces of Oedipus’ “self-glorification, “I Oedipus whose name is known afar”. His confidence in his own flawlessness is what, paves the way for his downfall, his hubris lies in his innate sense of righteousness, and he thinks himself to be above reproach. Oedipus comes across as impulsive, hasty in judgement and quick to take offense during his heated exchange with Teiresias, his brother-in-law Creon and the old shepherd .It is of importance to note that the Greek title of the play was, Oedipus Tyrannos/ Oedipus the tyrant .It is of significance that the Chorus mentions that it is pride that ‘breeds the tyrant’, “from castled height pride tumbles to a pit”. They also say that he who walks in ‘his own high-handed way’ will not escape ‘doomed prides’ punishment’.

His crimes of patricide and incest although done through ignorance and contrary to his nobility. It can be said that his cardinal sin, pride is what led to his slaying his biological father Laius in the first place, although he was provoked, his volcanic anger and pride is evident because he did not even spare the grooms all except the one who escaped with his life. And such a rash reaction cannot be justified. We come across his arrogance, rash temper and hastiness in judgement. He hurls insults at Teiresias and even accuses him of co-conspiring with Creon without any shred of proof .He goes as far as to taunt his blindness. Oedipus is over confident of his wisdom; he shuns the truth and prophecies of a tried and trusted wise man like Teiresias. Oedipus during his heated exchange with Creon appears as one willing to use his power in a tyrannical fashion, saying that he would rather have Creon dead than exiled.

Oedipus exercises a severe lack of judgement his once renowned wisdom is clouded by his pride. The Chorus advises caution yet he takes none. He is quick to take offence. He is seemingly preoccupied with his own nobility and rigid in his quest for the truth. Oedipus ‘blindness to what is plain to the audience is what creates the image of a tragic hero described by Aristotle .Even if we excuse Oedipus ‘actions as those done in ignorance we yet cannot deny that he shuns all well intentioned advice from Teiresias, the Chorus, Jocasta and this is certainly because of his pride which is his case can be said to be his hamartia or that which leads him to his own downfall.

Hubris in this play is not one that Oedipus’ alone displays. Pride can also be seen in this drama in the perspective of the characters trying to evade the oracle which in ancient Greek times would be considered pride in itself because the Gods determined fate and to outwit the Gods wasn’t a wise thing to do in the eyes of the Greek audience. Beginning with Laius and Jocasta getting rid of Oedipus, and later on Oedipus who does not know that he is adopted leaves Corinth to keep from harming his parents. If Oedipus was noble enough to leave his adoptive parents for the sake of the oracle not being fulfilled then he would have been noble enough to keep from slaying Laius had he known that he was his father. The evasion is caused by hamartia however we may see it, as a fatal flaw or hasty judgement, in case of flaw chiefly hubris; pride in trying to avoid what was in store itself led the way for Oedipus ‘tragic end.

The tragedy of Oedipus is his pride in his nobility and ability to a certain extent, had he not tried to avoid the divine oracle, he would have remained in Corinth and the oracle may never have been fulfilled .Had he not been prideful and rash in his actions, he would not have slayed Laius out of wounded pride. He is full of self –confidence that makes him blunder consistently. “I am a child of Fortune, the giver of good and I shall not be shamed …Born thus, I ask to be no other man than what I am, and will know who I am.This is an example one of the many fatal flaws of Oedipus.

Hence hamartia is a literary tool used to fully measure the consequences of ones actions. Hamartia is what highlights the downfall of a hero and what makes a tragedy a tragedy.

Play dough activity

I discussed with my manager that i was going to carry out a play activity. The project i have chosen to do is the making of play dough. I have chosen this activity because i feel this is a great pastime and a great experience between me and the children. I say this because the children can actually take part in the making of the product. I think this activity will help them to learn about colours, shapes… My manager confirmed the activity and she was really pleased with idea and she also thought this would be a great learning experience for the children. I already have a recipe on how to do play dough, but my manager confirmed one more time all the ingredients: flour, food colouring, salt, oil and water. I make the play dough activity with four Montessori children. The first thing i did it was to get all my materials ready: small basin, large spoon, flour, salt, oil, water, paint, shape cutters, rolling pin. In this activity children can develop Motor skills -Using play dough helps a child practice using certain physical skills with the hands when they manipulate the dough with their fingers. Children can practice skills such as pinching, squeezing or poking while they play with the dough. Cognitive Development-Using play dough helps a child practice using imagination and other cognitive abilities such imitation, symbolism and problem solving. This helps the child learn more about his environment as he makes and mimics everyday objects with the play dough.

Emotional Development-Using play dough may help a child to calm down when frustrated or angry. Holding and squeezing the play dough can produce a calming effect on the child and is useful for teaching anger management skills. Additionally, children may feel more comfortable expressing themselves in other ways while their hands are busy. Social Development-Using play dough may help a child develop social skills as she plays along with other children with the dough. Additionally, making play dough is an opportunity for a child to practice cooperation and sharing with a caregiver. Physical development. Using play dough may help a child to develop motor skills needed for writing and drawing. Language development. Because of the interactive nature of play dough use, children need to listen, understand the communication of others, speak, and practice their oral communication skills as they mold and manipulate their play dough constructions. Science understandings. The tactile experience of manipulating play dough helps children develop a deeper understanding of how matter changes (physics) and encourages them to use scientific thinking as they observe changes, make predictions, and talk through differences in the materials they are using. Mathematics concepts. Mixing up a new batch of play dough with adults is one way in which play dough engages children in mathematical learning as they measure and count recipe ingredients.

Discussions about shape, relative size (greater than, equal to, or less than), height, length, and weight provide additional opportunities for children to develop mathematical understandings. Literacy Learning. When paper and writing utensils are added to the play dough area, children can make signs, labels, and create stories related to their play efforts. Exploring and thinking- children used their senses, their minds and their bodies to find out about and make sense of what they see. They used the imagination to create new shape or different monsters from play dough; they are imitating in special the mothers in the kitchen when are cooking; are making gestures as adults ;are playing and talking about the experience. Identity and belongings-children build respectful relationships with others; they express their own ideas, preferences and needs, and have these responded to with respect and consistency; they feel that they have a place and a right to belong to the group; Well-being-in the play activity children were happy and playful; they were interacting to each other; the group activity make them feel comfortable and contents.

Communication-children used a range of body movements, facial expressions, and early vocalisations to show feelings and share information; they interact with other children by listening, discussing and taking turns in conversation; children used language with confidence and competence for giving and receiving information, they asked questions and request too. Through this activity i found the children had great fun. Children were very excited about the fact that they were going to help me make the play dough. They were full of all different questions. Over all i felt the activity went very well.

To what extent do luck and hard work play a part in leaving home successfully and settling in a new place?

Leaving home successfully and settling in a new place, in other words, emigrating, goes far beyond its meaning as it requires not only hard work, but also luck. Hard work is the effort and diligence of a person to obtain success. Luck, on the other hand, means the good fortune or the force that seems to operate for the good or ill in a person’s life. Everybody desires to be in their comfort zone, otherwise, a place where they can call “home”, but there are times where people need to leave their homeland to pursue a brighter future in a foreign place. This essay will explore the extent to which luck and hard work play a part in leaving home successfully and settling in a new place with reference to Mao’s Last Dancer, Talking Heads, A Chip in Time– The tale of Leopoldine Mimovich, and The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif.

Firstly, luck and hard work equally play crucial roles in emigrating successfully. A balance of luck and hard work is required. In Mao’s Last Dancer, Li Cun Xin’s first instant of luck, which dramatically changed his destiny, manifested when Teacher Song pointed at him and said, ‘What about that one?’ to one of Madame Mao’s representatives (p. 105). After all these years, Teacher Song herself never knew the reason behind her sudden actions – it was simply an “impulsive moment”, where she followed the urge of her instincts (Talking Heads, p. 4). Li’s luck flourishes as he managed to meet every single outrageous criterion demanded to enter Madame Mao’s Dance Academy.

These criteria include a family background consisting of peasants, workers and soldiers, as well as no association with wealth and education as far back as three generations (p. 108). Nevertheless, pure luck can only allow a person smooth-sailing for a while. Li endured excruciating pains to pass the ridiculously competitive and abusive auditions for the dance academy. He worked extremely hard physically and mentally to survive in the academy. Therefore, luck and hard work both need to exist in equilibrium if one strongly yearns to gain such great success.

Secondly, luck must be enhanced with hard work; otherwise one will not be able to succeed away from home. Without hard work, luck is potentially useless. This is inspired by Najaf Mazari’s reflection in The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif, “It is like having a ticket in a lottery: if it doesn’t pay off, the ticket is just a piece of paper.” (p. 203-204). From A Chip in Time, Leopoldine Mimovich is lucky to have her permission to settle in Australia granted one month earlier than the norm. Nonetheless, whilst sewing collars for eight hours, Leopoldine consistently worked on wood at home. Leopoldine’s hard work created the opportunity for the forelady to show her work to their boss, Mr Colgan, who deliberately sacked her so that she was free to pursue her true dream of becoming an artist (p. 47). Moreover, was it due to Leopoldine’s good fortune to meet such a helpful employment officer, who voluntary strived hard just to get her an artistic job? Or, was it due to her hard work that convinced the man to think that helping such a dedicated talent would definitely be worthwhile? (p. 47-48). Without Leopoldine’s hard work, luck alone would not have possibly brought about such success.

Thirdly, depending on the circumstances, luck and hard work will influence the outcome of leaving home to various extents. Evidently, it depends on a person’s character. In The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif, if it were not because of Najaf’s personality, the power of his good luck would become questionable. Najaf is not only ambitious, but he is also very friendly. Despite the fact Najaf merely saw minimal potential in his job, he still diligently worked with admirable optimism. His friendly nature attracted friends that were precious to his life and success. Moreover, Najaf never took opportunities for granted and was proactive in seeking for help in an approachable manner. An example would be the first time he met Robin, an English language teacher. Najaf does not approach her in an intimidating way, but instead, lends her his trust by letting her test his cushion covers at home (p. 212). Hence, it is evident that a person’s success is dominated by their personality, which determines how they can turn their luck and hard work into victory.

Finally, hard work is necessary to a great extent, however luck seemingly plays an even more important role. Although a hardworking person can succeed in an unfamiliar place, a lucky person nevertheless possesses a higher chance of succeeding. In the film Mao’s Last Dancer, Li and his first wife, Elizabeth, were not fated to sustain as a couple as their fates contrasted inevitably. Elizabeth’s hard work and undying passion for ballet could not defeat the bad luck that hindered her from becoming the ballerina she dreamt of. Contrastingly, had it not been because of Li’s good fortune, he might have gone back to square one when the Chinese consulate kidnapped him and threatened to send him back to China. Thus, he might not have ended up as a renowned ballet dancer, but perhaps an ordinary ballet teacher. The Vice President of the United States negotiated with the Prime Minister of China to grant him the permission to stay. Was it solely a coincidence that the Vice President’s wife was the patron of Li’s ballet academy? Li and Elizabeth both once shared the same dream, however destiny dropped them off at two different destinations. Unfortunately for Elizabeth, merely doing her utmost was simply not enough for a fairytale ending.

Overall, luck and hard work both play vitally important roles in emigrating successfully. The four characters analyzed in this essay distinctly portray the impact of luck and hard work on their lives. People like Li, Leopoldine and Najaf were predestined to succeed in their lives through their accomplishment, whereas destiny had different plans for Elizabeth’s future.


Davies, W and Dal Bosco, A 2001, “A Chip in Time – The Tale of Leopoldine
Mimovich” in Tales from a Suitcase, Lothian Books, Melbourne
Interview between Peter Thompson and Li Cunxin, 2006, Talking Heads, ABC TV, broadcast 9 October

Li Cunxin, 2003, Mao’s Last Dancer, Penguin, Melbourne

Mao’s Last Dancer, 2009, film directed by Bruce Beresford, Searchlight Films

Mazari, N and Hillman, R 2008, The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif, Insight Publications, Melbourne

What role did Nicholas II play in his own downfall?

Nicholas II played, by far the biggest role in his downfall as the Tsar of Russia. Certain aspects of his behaviour definitely contributed to bringing down the Russian empire, however most of these qualities were not weaknesses in character but qualities associated with poor leadership. By weakness, I mean being easily influenced and controlled by others. Nicholas was a firm believer in autocracy and was virtually unmoveable in this belief. This unconscionable belief illustrated how he stuck to his ways, although in early years as Tsar, his uncles had a huge influence on him. The fall of the Russian empire was not all a result of Nicholas’ character and poor leadership but also the huge socio-economic changes as well as the outbreak of WW1, which hugely influenced the coming about of and the timing of the Russian revolution. In 1905 Russia had experienced a year of revolution and by the end of the year Tsar Nicholas had managed to keep power as he had promised a reform which had divided his opponents and because he had kept the support of the army.

In March 1917 the Tsar abdicated because he lacked the support from both the Duma and the army. After a week of unsettlement in Petrograd, Russia had become a republic. Russia was a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the pacific and home to many different languages, religions and cultures. For the Tsar ruling such a massive nation was difficult and he soon found himself with too much pressure and weight on his shoulders. He wasn’t able to keep up with the needs of his people and so this contributed to the industrial revolution in 1917. There are many long term causes for this while the short term trigger was clearly World War 1. During the early 1900’s there were several events and issues which threatened the authority of the Tsar. Living and working conditions of workers and peasants were unwarranted. Life for peasants was brutal, often short, and quite unpromising. Until 1861, most peasants were illiterate and owned by their landlords.

After emancipation their living conditions were still primitive. Many were in debt to their landlords. Unrest among peasants was extremely widespread. Workers on the other hand, could not afford decent housing as their wages were too low. Although workers were paid commission per piece on a low rate, they too had heavy taxation on food and goods. The government, aware of the growing discontent, became worried as ideas of revolution began to spread among the poor. Russia was an autocracy which meant that there was no parliament. The Tsar made the laws and appointed and dismissed ministers as he pleased. His authority was upheld by Church leaders, the Orthodox and the Okhrana who were the Russian secret police. There was an extreme lack of rights as political parties and trade unions were illegal. This left the middle class, urban workers and peasants dissatisfied. Riots, strikes and protests were taking place across Russia. As a solution to these problems, the government decided to have a war against Japan. When the war began in 1904, the Tsar had hoped, that if Russia was successful, people would stop criticizing his government and he would be popular again.

Instead, Russia suffered a terrible and humiliating defeat, weakening the Tsar’s authority and position. In cities and towns across Russia, many strikers set up councils called “Soviets”, which became an alternative government. As food and raw materials ran short, scores of workers found themselves out of work. On the 22nd of January 1905, an incident called “Bloody Sunday” sparked revolution. A mass of 200,000 workers and their families marched towards the Tsar’s Winter Palace to present him with a petition. The workers were asking for better conditions. However, outside the Winter Palace they were met by troops and police. Even though the protestors came in peace, shots were fired and over 500 marchers were killed. The extent of the unrest forced Tsar Nicholas II to make concessions. In October 1905 he issued a document called the October Manifesto. In this document, the Tsar promised that there would be a parliament elected called a ‘Duma’ to make the laws, and basic rights for the Russian people. Just as the Tsar had planned, these concessions divided his opponents.

The middle class were now satisfied but the workers and peasants were not. They did not trust the Tsar’s promises as these solutions didn’t solve their economic issues. The Tsar’s new Prime Minister, Count Sergei Witte, decided in December that it was time to end the revolution. Opposition in the towns and cities was suppressed, as many were killed or exiled. The revolution ended in March 1917. The Tsar had been “saved”, and had managed to keep power. This was because he had the support of the army, he gave concessions and basic rights, introduced a parliament and divided the opposition. Although there was now an opportunity to make Russia a constitutional monarchy, there was no guarantee that the Tsar would keep his promises. However, by early 1917, Tsar Nicholas II had lost complete support. This was due to several factors. After issuing the October Manifesto in 1905, the Tsar decided he would take action to prevent further revolution. The Tsar and Prime Minister Peter Stolypin used repression against terrorists and revolutionary groups in an attempt to subdue the unrest.

Stolypin then attempted to solve the problem of peasant unrest and poverty by cancelling the redemption payments and modernizing farming. Working conditions among the city factory workers were also improved, with factory inspections and insurance schemes introduced. These efforts were in vain, as unrest throughout Russia continued. The Tsar did not fulfill the promises he made in the October Manifesto, and Russia did not become a constitutional monarchy. The Tsar stated that he possessed supreme autocratic power and could dismiss the duma and call elections. Even though farming had been “modernized”, the peasant population was growing increasingly large, creating further poverty and unrest among peasants. Industrial unrest also continued as strikers on the goldfields were being shot by soldiers. Although Stolypin was competent and determined, he was assassinated by a revolutionary in 1911. The emerging influence of Rasputin in the government became clear after 1915. Rasputin was a Siberian peasant whose full name was Gregory Rasputin.

He was said to be a holy man and was sure of having received, from god, a gift for healing. The Tsar’s son, Alexei, suffered from haemophilia and Rasputin was brought in to try to heal him. Rasputin had won the devotion of both the Tsarina, Alexandra, and the Tsar, Nicholas II, after controlling the internal bleeding of Alexei. Both the Tsar and Tsarina saw Rasputin as their friend. While the Tsar was absent at the front with the Army, the Tsarina virtually controlled Russia, and Rasputin became her personal advisor. He influenced the Tsar on his appointing and dismissing of government ministers, which brought a great deal of discredit on the royal family. In people’s eyes Rasputin played against the Romanov reputation. He was found to have regularly joined in drinking parties, participated in orgies and was seen with prostitutes. He was nicknamed the ‘holy devil’ and despised by the church representatives.

In an attempt to save the monarchy from future scandal, Rasputin was murdered in December 1916, by a group a nobles. Instead of solving Russia’s problems, this only increased dissatisfaction with the Tsar. By this stage, there was a notable lack of competent leaders, as once again the Tsar was struggling to maintain power. Involvement in World War I left Russia in a state of hopelessness. After the Tsar decided to leave his country and takeover the post in 1915, the government turned into chaos. Massive troop movements across Russia caused regular bread shortages in the cities and towns. There was also unfair distribution of food, inadequacy of sources of supply and an immense and rapid increase in the cost of living. As a result of the unbearable conditions of everyday life, strong feelings of hostility and opposition to the government were widespread. In terms of the war itself, Russia’s army suffered terribly. Within the first six weeks, 250,000 Russian soldiers had been killed, and by the end of 1914 over 1 million Russian soldiers had been lost to the war.

The month of March 1917 was one of utter discontent and mayhem. On Wednesday 7th March, a major steel works company locked out 20,000 workers as pay talks broke down. The 20,000 now angry works were out on the street, joined by other factory workers who went on strike in support. Within 3 days, a total of 250,000 workers were on strike. There was no public transport or newspapers and food shortages continued. After mutinies occurred in parts of the army, the Tsar was sent a telegram informing him that the situation in Russia was serious. The Tsar responded by telling the Duma to stop meeting. By Monday 12th March, various units sent to fight the strikers and mutinies were defecting. The Duma held a meeting and established a 12 man “Provisional Committee”. Revolutionaries set up a “Soviet” of workers and soldiers in Petrograd. Both wanted to take over the government. After one week of complete havoc, the Tsar sent a telegram to the Duma stating that he would share power. The Army Generals replied and told him that it was too late as none of the Army supported him.

On Thursday 15th March, revolutionaries halted the Tsar’s train only 250km away from Petrograd. He had no choice but to agree to abdicate and give the throne to Alexei. After realizing that Alexei was too sick to become Tsar, the throne was given to his brother Grand Duke Michael. Fearing that he would be just as unpopular as Nicholas, he too abdicated. Russia was now a republic as there was no longer royalty or monarchy. Tsar Nicholas II had lost support because he failed in his duties to provide for and rule his country effectively. Nicholas allowed himself to be easily sued by the people and opinions around him. He did not have to force and fierce determination to rule a country and didn’t believe in himself enough. In the source below he states that he never wanted to be Tsar of Russia and so in term he failed. He wasn’t experienced and trained in leadership and never had the support of his father leading from beside him. From the moment Nicholas became Tsar, the welfare of Russia and its people became the last priority.

Nicholas himself, was the main reason why he failed as his role as the Tsar of Russia. Although the Tsar was able to keep power in 1905, after losing the support of his army and not fulfilling the promises stated in the October Manifesto, growing unrest among the people was inevitable. It was no surprise that by 1917 he had lost support from his country. Nicholas was not brought up to be a leader and to be in control and so when the time came for him to lead, he was unable to do so properly. His firm beliefs and ways of life allowed little room for opinion, causing unrest and later losing vital support from governments and leaders and after losing the Japanese war he lost the respect of the army.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: – Russian History 2014 15.3.14
* All class worksheets, booklets and slide shows
Histor-C November 11 2010 15.3.14
* History learning site – Rasputin 201317.3.14
Maureen Anderson ‘Retrospective’ Year 11 Modern History Jacaranda Press 2007 * Chapter Titled – The Fall of the Tsarist Regime
Philip Ingram ‘Russia and the USSR 1905-1991’ Cambridge University Press 2005 * The events of 1905, the first world war etc…..
Skwirk – interactive schooling 2014 19.3.14

Play activity for children

Play is an essential part of every child’s life and is vital for the enjoyment of childhood and as well as social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Having the time and space to play allows children the chance to keep them physically active and it gives them the freedom to make their own choices about what they want to do. Research shows that play has a range of benefits to the child, family, and the community, as well as improving healthy and quality of life. Play also helps the child improve their self-esteem, self-awareness and self-respect, it gives child a chance to mix with others and develop new skills.

Playing can help Manshu with her potty training, such as role-play with dolls could help Manshu understand all about what potty training involves. It could also make the child become much more relaxed about this step in life. For Jessica play (role-play with dolls) could help her understand all about her baby sister and what is happening in the changes at home in her life. Whilst children are in my care I will do my best to offer a range of activities for children to participate in, I will also allow children to give a choice in which activities that the want to participate in, as this will allow the child to become more independent. I feel that it is important for children to be encouraged to do as many activities as possible rather the same thing all the time. By rotating the toys that you have out available for the children to play with it means that they will be learning through play on a range of toys rather than being able to play with the same toys all the time. I think that it is important that children learn about different cultures and that not all people have the same abilities, children can also learn about these topics through play using ethnic dolls, puzzles, books, art and crafts and cooking food from different cultures.

This means having materials, toys, resources in your setting that reflect the diversity of our society. Thus play can help Manshu with her potty training, such as role-play with dolls could help Manshu understand all about what potty training involves. It could also make the child become much more relaxed about this step in life. For Jessica’s play (role-play with dolls) could help her understand all about her baby sister and what is happening in the changes at home in her life.

Domestic routines that children can be involved in and how this supports their learning:

How can this benefit the child

Helping to prepare snacks/food

Helps children develop a good understanding of hygiene practices which helps develop personal, social & cognitive development. Using tools (suitable for children) to cut/prepare the food/snacks helps their sensory development and also builds their physical development.

Setting the table at meal times

This will help develop their independence, it also helps them to learn to follow instruction helping their language skills, matching children’s place mats to their cups & plates can also help learn matching skills, helping their cognitive development. Children could help to tidy up which would develop their social & emotional development. I would make a game out of this & count the things they pick up, helping their mathematic development.

Hanging clothes on the line

This will help their understanding of how the wind and heat dry things and how we use water for things and not others. Games can also be made of if this using the colours of clothing and pegs etc.

Messy Play with Household items e.g. shaving foam, water

Messy play encourages children to use their imagination and be creative which helps build self-confidence and self-esteem.

Tidying up

Children could help to tidy up which would develop their social & emotional development; I would make a game out of this & count the things they pick up, helping their mathematic development.

Getting ready for the school run/going out

Getting ready to go out children can learn about different body parts as they put on their coast, wellies etc. Then when outside you can help the child’s knowledge & understanding of the world. Climbing & playing on outdoor equipment helps a child’s physical development & co-ordination.

It is easy to think about what learning can be achieved from a particular activity but I am aware that some activities may include potential weaknesses for some children, for example ‘preparing snacks and food’ and ‘setting the table’ will not be suitable for younger children in the same way that older children would not benefit from a ‘messy play activity’ which is why having a variety of activities the children can participate in on a daily basis is paramount to their learning.

Through observing and keeping a written record of observations of children at play, is a way for you to learn how the child learns, what they enjoy, the development stage they are at and how to plan activities for that child. As children learn through play, when you observe them at play, you will learn the stage they are at, and this will allow you to plan for them individually. You will also learn what kind of learner the child is. Keeping a record of a child’s development is very important, so you can recognise if they are advancing or maybe falling behind some early learning goals. Observations are a great way of sharing information with parents too. Keeping observations will allow you to plan efficiently for each child, knowing where to focus some learning and for you to plan different challenges for the child to allow them to progress. Keeping a learning journal and incorporating your observations into this along with pictures and pieces of the child’s work, will allow you to keep a good chronological diary of the child’s progress, and make planning run smoothly and well.

Children need to be treated as individuals, equally and with respect. The children’s act 2004, has the requirement to treat all children as individuals, and with equal concern. Every single child is different, will enjoy different activities, dislike different activities, and have their own way of learning, through play, and other activities. It is the responsibility of the child carer to ensure they cater for each and every individual need. To do this effectively, you will need to plan for each child, taking observations, and get to know the children in your care well. Everyone that comes to your setting should be welcomed and respected, their beliefs and interests respected as well as their personalities, needs, values, abilities and interests. It is essential that you do not discriminate for any reason, and offer an inclusive environment, and cater and treat everyone equally. Meeting the individual needs of every child is so important, as this ensures they are receiving the best possible care, their rights are being met, opportunities, and an environment that lets them grow and learn at their own pace, securely, safely and happily. The rights of every child are paramount in childcare, when you acknowledge the rights and individuality of every child, you can offer an inclusive setting, where everyone is treated equally and with respect. The best interests of the child must be the primary consideration in all activities concerning the child, and children have the right to be protected from all forms of discrimination.

Drop-in sessions can be invaluable in providing support and an opportunity to share ideas, good practice and resources. Planning special days out with the children to the park, museums, libraries etc. can help a child’s development. You could take a camera & let the children take photos, making a storybook all about your day. Meeting up with other childminders for picnics and other days out can help the children form new friendships & help you learn and develop by discussing different ways of play. Other forms of play you could do at home are ‘keep fit’ session, there are a lot of cd/DVDs out there that are made for kids & adults to do, children will find this lots of fun & will help develop their physical development. Whether the day is spent inside or out it should be both fun and informative for the children and offer a variety in their learning.

Although routine is great for children at times it may benefit the children for me to slightly change the routine for example whilst Manshu is potty training I may decide not to attend childminder drop-in or any other sessions to stay at home and develop her potty training in my home, once competent I would reintroduce the outings. Another example of when I might need to slightly alter a routine is if a child becomes unwell and is waiting to be collected early the other child(ren) may need to sacrifice their outing/activity to ensure that the unwell child is safe and comfortable until collected.

Regardless of the activity I always adhere to The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child act which was drawn up in 1989. The act consists of 54 articles stating that all children must be shown respect and that their well- being is the principle factor. The three main areas of this act include: · Provision (access to food, clean water, housing, education, healthcare etc.) · Protection (being safe from abuse and discrimination.) · Participation (having their views heard and participating in making decisions.)

Play Hamlet vs. Mel Gibson’s movie version

Performance Analysis of Shakespeare’s “The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark” My performance analysis is based on Shakespeare’s “The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark”. This production was directed by Franco Zeffirelli and starred Mel Gibson, Glenn Close, Alan Bates, and Paul Scofield. In this production of Hamlet, the original old English is used. However, I noticed that any dialog that was too difficult to comprehend or too wordy was deleted from the scenes. Some of the scenes had also been altered. For example, In Act 2, Scene 1, the director has Polonius spy on Ophelia and Hamlet, and this is how he learns of Hamlet’s strange visit with his daughter and Hamlet’s madness. In the original text of Act 2, scene 1, Ophelia informs Polonius of Hamlet’s visit and his apparent madness. I believe the director chose to have Polonius spy on them to obtain this information, because the audience would observe for themselves just how mad Hamlet appears. It was also probably done to save time so that the movie wouldn’t drag. In Kenneth Branaugh’s version the movie is contained on two tapes, and his version was a little too slow moving for my taste.

The lines 207-0 213 in Act 2, scene2, where Polonius has a lengthy monologue, also appears to have been cut from the script. In that same act the lines where Guildenstern and Rosencranz enter the scene have been moved to Act 3, Scene 1, a point directly after Hamlet’s “Mousetrap” play. There were also several other modifications to the placement of scenes in this play, including Shakespeare’s famous speech, “To be or not to be […],” which had been moved to Act 1, scene 2. I believe all of these changes were made due to the advantageous nature of the film media. It was possible for the director to show several shots of different actors and events, shifting back and forth between scenes. This gave the effect of the scenes occurring simultaneously. Since these scenes appeared to have occurred at the same time in the movie, it probably made sense or seemed more effective to the director to move the scenes or acts around to what seemed the most logical point in the film.

As a result of these modifications, I felt this version of Hamlet was more fast-paced and engaging. It did not drag. I appreciated this production over the other Hamlet films I have seen, because it was made more interesting through director’s shifting camera technique. The setting and costumes of this play were also historically accurate for that time period. And the lighting was well done -not too dark. As far as the actors go, Mel Gibson gave an energetic interpretation of the melancholy Hamlet; and Glenn Close was so intense and very believable as Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother. The other actors also performed their parts very well. In summary, I enjoyed this performance more than Kenneth Branaugh’s production, because I felt it was faster paced and more dynamic. I feel this effect was achieved through the director’s technique of shifting the camera between the actors and scenes to give the impression that events were occurring simultaneously. I also feel Mel Gibson’s energetic performance and Glenn Close’s intense and realistic performance added a dynamic quality, which I have not seen in any other production of this play.

Why is play with children and their peers important for child development?

Harris (1998) and Pinker (2002) argued that parental influences have been noticeably overstated in terms of their developmental significance upon children. Unlike many ‘traditional’ researchers whom may have considered parental influences to be fundamental to child development, many contemporary researchers, such as; Schaffer, Dunn & Fein, have began to focus their attention much more profoundly upon the developmental significance of child relationships between one another; namely their fellow peers and siblings. The aim of this assignment is to further explore the developmental significance of child interaction, in particular; child’s play, ensuring to maintain an analytical approach to all theories and research discussed. Throughout the assignment one will attempt to suggest how each relationship, interaction and negotiation within ‘child’s play’ may influence child development. Finally this assignment will ensure to draw attention to any potential weaknesses in all theories/ methods of research discussed.

To begin one might start by discussing the research and ideas of Fein 1984, and Smith who both explored the significance of; conflicts, disputes, disagreements and play fighting. As a focal starting point for this essay one will discuss the transcript of “Dracula and the Monster-vanishing Hero” adapted by Fein, 1944, (pp.136-7). This transcript holds great significance as it demonstrates that ‘play’ induces the need for negotiation in reciprocal relationships. Unlike, complementarily relationships where there is an in-balance of power, resulting in the child naturally having to take the substandard role, in reciprocal relationships both participants share similar knowledge and social power. Therefore, in reciprocal relationships – present in child’s play – there is no parental figure present to protect or feed the child the knowledge needed to acquire the necessary skills. (K.Littleton & D.Miell 2009) Instead, the child has to learn these skills through their own social interaction experiences; as can be seen in the transcript ‘’Dracula and the Monster-Vanishing Hero”. Throughout the transcript there are several examples in which the children learn and practice the skills of negotiation and instruction; this can be seen when they decipher who will play the role of ‘Dracula’ or ‘Hero’. Whilst at first the children negotiate their potential roles well, and indeed appear to be cooperate together effectively, there is a crucial moment within their play-time when the two boys have conflicting ideas as to who will ‘shoot Dracula’. This conflict of ideas can be seen from lines 23-30 in the transcript of ‘‘Dracula and the Monster-vanishing Hero’’. One might suggest that the most significant moment of this sequence is when Michael, having had his arms’ pushed away by Peter, acknowledges Peter’s wishes and says ‘All right’ and lays down on the floor as instructed by Peter. This is largely significant as it demonstrates that Michael, despite having dissimilar ideas to Peter in their play session, seems to have acknowledged his friend’s frustration whilst choosing ‘who will shoot Dracula’ and so surrenders to Peter’s play idea in order to avoid any further, more serious conflict.

One might suggest that this is central to the assignment question as it exhibits the fact that through ‘play’ children learn to develop the skills of negotiation; this is demonstrated when Peter and Michael use metacommunication to discuss how the their ‘play’ storyline will unfold. Yet, perhaps more importantly, one might suggest that ‘Michael’ showed the potential skills to acknowledge and registrar a change of mood in his fellow peer; Peter. This demonstrates a great skill to be able assess another person behaviour and thus react in a way that means withdrawing oneself in order to prevent conflict. However, in order to maintain an analytic approach one must recognise that the transcript of ‘Dracula and the Monster Vanishing hero’ does have its limitations; namely the limitations of discourse analysis itself. As discussed in R, George, J, Oates & C, Wood (2006) a leading weakness of discourse analysis is the validity of its findings. For example, one might suggest that the transcript is, to some extent, only an ‘‘interpretation of the event it seeks to record’’ (K.Littleton & D.Miell, 2005, p99). Thus, in the context of ‘Dracula and the Monster-vanishing Hero’ it could be more than possible that the transcript has been interpreted dissimilar to the actual play event -dependant on what Fien was hoping to discover from the children’s interaction.

Vass, similar to Fien also transcribed a dialogue of two children playing together. However, dissimilar to the transcript of ‘Dracula and the Monster Vanishing Hero’, Vass’s transcript; ‘Fluffy the wonderful Hamster’ was taken from a classroom setting. Though this was not taken from child’s ‘play’ as such – the classroom interaction is still largely significant to the assignment question. It demonstrates that through working & interacting together, children can learn the skills of negotiation and evaluation, and, as a result, can utilise these skills to enhance their level of knowledge and understanding. Throughout the transcript the two girls are continuously proposing their own ideas and suggestions of how they believe their story should unfold. Yet, as each girl makes a suggestion, this is challenged by the other, and thus both girls continuously reflect upon their ideas. This is similar to the transcript from Fien, in that there are many moments of conflict and disagreement. However, it is important to recognise that perhaps the distinguishable difference between the two transcripts is how these ‘conflicts’ or ‘disagreements’ are managed. Though there are indeed clear differences of opinions between the two girls in ‘Fluffy the wonderful hamster’; these are managed in manner which is relatively calm and appropriate – demonstrating properties of adult interaction.

Furthermore, it is important to note that the girls only express themselves through verbal interaction – no violence or physical contact is used. Though on the one hand one might suggest that this is due to the classroom environment, on the contrary, it might be suggested that this is due to the girl’s age – eight years old. It could be assumed that at 8 years of age both girls’ would have had various play interactions throughout their younger developmental years; allowing them to acquire the necessary skills to distinguish between ‘conflict’ and ‘criticism of ideas’. Thus, one might suggest that Vass’s transcript is significant to the assignment question for it demonstrates that through group interaction with peers, children can learn to acquire the skills needed to effectively digest and deal with criticism. In more broad terms; interaction with fellow peers is vital for the development of interaction, negotiation and the understanding of another person’s point of view. This is largely significant as these skills are not only important for childhood, but also are fundamental for life in adulthood. (K.Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005)

Dunn, unlike the previous researchers’ and indeed research, which has been discussed in this assignment, focused profoundly on the harmonious and co-operative interactions within play and sibling relationships. She collaboratively with her colleague Munn, carried out a significant piece of research called the ‘Cambridge Sibling study’. In this study forty three families were studied, each of which were intensely observed when the second sibling was 18, 24 and 36 months. The focal point of Dunn’s research was to intensely observe sibling relationships to see how the children expanded their knowledge of their own social world. (K.Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005) Dunn’s research is highly significant to this assignment for several reasons, the first of which will be discussed now. Dunn observed that during the first few months of a child’s life, the younger sibling would only be able to co-operate very basic responses to his/her elder sibling during periods of play. This would involve the younger sibling merely imitating the elder sibling’s actions, or indeed laughing in moments of play (Dunn, 1988).

However, approximately 6-8 months later, Dunn observed that the younger sibling’s interactions became much more sophisticated as they could now engage in play in a way that demonstrated their understanding of their elder sibling’s goals. Dunn, (1988) used the example of the elder sibling singing to illustrate this point; when the elder sibling began to sing, the younger sibling went to his/her toy box and brought back a musical pipe and thus began to make blowing gestures with his/her lips. This is vastly significant as through research such as this, Dunn has demonstrated that children can learn through play with their peers; they learn to co-operate in play, to understand the goals of play and indeed to follow instructions from their elders. However, during her research Dunn made a very noteworthy observation that supposed that ‘play’ between siblings was a lot less common in families where relationships between siblings were less pleasant. This is highly significant as it suggest that ‘play’ with siblings is not the only factor for promoting social development and learning. Thus, one might suggest that though play with siblings may indeed contribute to a child’s social learning, it is not essential for child development. Thus there are many other factors and influences which Dunn may not have entirely accounted for which are indeed essential for child development. (K.Littleton &D,Miell 2005)

A further reason why Dunn’s research is significant to this assignment is because she high-lighted the importance of Fantasy and Socio-Dramatic play within siblings and peers. Socio- Dramatic play can be defined as play which imitates real life experiences such as; shopping, going to the doctors, playing ‘mummy’s & daddy’s’ etc. Where as, by contrast, fantasy play is based on ‘imaginary’ or fictional scenes. Both fantasy and socio-dramatic play are important when considering this assignment question as both contribute to a child’s social learning and development. One might start by considering the impact that socio-dramatic play can have upon child development. William Corsaro (1986) said that the language and dialogue used by children in socio-dramatic play tends to imitate real life exchanges that happen in real adult life. Thus, it was suggested by Stone (1981) that through acting out such play routines as apparent in socio dramatic play, that children are in fact preparing themselves for the types of roles they may play in their future adult hood. Even if this was not to be the case, one could still argue that socio-dramatic play is still significant in helping a child to understand everyday social events in society. Finally, in contrast one might ask how fantasy play helps to support learning and development within children. Corsaro (1986) might respond to this by saying that fantasy play not only encourages the development of interpersonal skills, but also allows children to share and control their fears and anxieties through the creative dialogues they create in fantasy theme play. Corsaro argued that “the communal sharing of fears and anxieties makes a key contribution to the development of the kinds of interpersonal skills and coping strategies that children will need later in life” (Corsaro, cited in K.littleton & D.Miell pp.118, 2005)

To conclude, it is my beliefs that play with siblings and peers is important for children’s development as it largely encourages and promotes the development of social skills and social understanding. This can be supported by the examples taken from researchers which have been discussed throughout this assignment. However, a fundamental weakness of the research which has been discussed in this assignment is that it has all been largely based on research conducted in western societies. Thus, as pointed out by Schaffer 1996, this is a significant limitation as it means we cannot propose that sibling and peer play would uphold the same effect in any other area or culture across the world. (Schaffer, 1996, cited in K.Littleton & D Miell pp. 121)


Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university, p. 95-120. Rachel George, John Oates and Clare Wood, 2006, ‘Discourse as Evidence’ in Rachel George, John Oates and Clare Wood, ‘Methods and Skills Handbook’ The Open University, p. 44. Harris and Pinker (2002), cited in Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university, pp.95 Fein, (1944) cited in Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university pp100- 104 Vass, (2004) cited in Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university pp111-114 Dunn (1988) cited in Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university pp115- 118 William Corsaro (1986) cited in Karen Littleton and Dorothy Miell, 2005, ‘Children’s interactions: siblings and peers in Sharon Ding and Karen Littleton, Children’s personal and Social Development, The Open university pp 118

Jack Davis’ play ‘No Sugar’ shows how families survive. Discuss.

Jack Davis’ 1986 play No Sugar is a realist drama which examines the trials, tribulations and eventual survival of Millimurra-Munday family through the Great Depression as they are forcibly removed from their homeland in Northam to Moore River Native Settlement. The survival of their culture is dependant on the way that individuals shape their identity and in this play Davis shows how family is the cornerstone on which identity can be maintained even in the most traumatic of circumstances.

Jimmy Munday survives and thrives as an individual because he has the support of his extended family. He finds his identity within his family and this security allows him to critically assess and comment on the motives behind government decisions such as the moving of Indigenous people from the Government Well Aboriginal Reserve in Northam to Moore River. ‘Whole town knows why we’re goin’. ‘Coz wetjalas in this town don’t want us ‘ere’ (p.50). Jimmy’s identity and survival are built on outward protest but other members of his family find more subtle forms of protest.

Gran Munday is the matriarch and cornerstone of her family. She refuses to assimilate into the Indigenous identity determined by ‘white’ people. She looks after her family providing them with a sense of cultural and practical knowledge as is demonstated when she delivers Mary’s baby (p.102). Although Gran is a survivor who passes on knowledge and language to her children and grandchildren, Billy Kimberley is an example of someone who has lost his family and sense of identity..

Being the last of his tribe and people, Billy Kimberley has no family, or extended family and can be seen to be culturally caught between two worlds and lacking a true sense of identity. It is dramatically ironic that he is a ‘successful’ prototype of assimilation yet is rejected by both ‘white’ and Indigenous societies. The children even mock him and call him a traitor or ‘black crow’ (p.90) Ultimately, Jimmy’s line will die out with him and thus not only will he not survive and the culture, traditions and line of his family will die with him also. It is this fact which also seems to await Mary Dargurru whe we first meet her in the play.

Mary is a young girl from the Kimberley region whose potential fate can be paralleled to that of Billy who is from the same region. However, when she meets and falls in love with Joe Millimurra, she finds a new family in the Millamurras. She not only finds her own identity through family but has the potential at the end of the play to pass that identity on through her family to her own child, baby Jimmy.

As a young man on the cusp of manhood Joe Millimurra has a sense of his own destiny as shaped by his family and their connection to culture and their homeland near Northam. He learns from his family that he must stand up for what he believes in and this shapes his identity and survival. At the end of the play, Joe, Mary and their new born baby Jimmy go off with supplies and an empty sugar bag, not filled with the short term sweet platitudes of ‘white’ handouts, violence and condescension but with a supplies, a homemade knife and a sense of family, culture and identity that is hopefully enough to help them forge a new future in an old homeland.

No Sugar is a play ultimately about family, identity and survival. Through the character of Jimmy Munday, Davis provides us with an Indigenous man, who although troubled by the injustices and dispossession thrust upon him, is still able to find a sense of purpose in his family. He does not survive physically but his legacy will live on through his nephew and his nephew’s son who bears his name. Gran Munday is shown to be a cornerstone crucial to the resilience and survival of all of her family through the connection she provides to their culture. This can be seen to be contrasted with Billy, an Indigenous tracker from the Kimberley who has lost his family, his culture and his identity and seemed doomed to a fate of not surviving and ‘fading away’. But the ultimate survivors of the play are Joe and Mary who both gain a sense of identity through family. It is this sense of identity gained through family that seems not only crucial for their survival as they go reclaim their ‘place but which will hopefully become the cornerstone for survival and hopes of the next generation of Indigenous people as symbolized by their baby son, Jimmy.

Сompetition play in people’s daily life

What part does competition play in people’s daily life? Do we put too much emphasis on competition? Are we more affected by its positive models or its less-desirable attributes? Does our economic system rely too heavily on winners and losers, or does the competitive marketplace spur new ideas and efficiencies? Now, I have a challenge for you. Think of one aspect of life that does not include competition. Do you find it hard to complete this task? If yes, why? This is because each day, in any number of ways, we are engaged in competition. Competition exists when there is a scarcity of a desired outcome. Thus, you may wonder, what part does competition play in our daily’s life? Competition makes people to improve themselves every day. Without competition, a lot of people will consider themselves the best in their majors. Though such feeling of confidence is important, it inevitably limits their intentions to develop the knowledge and technique. The appearance of another specialist will challenge the importance of the colleague in the same group and encourage him to learn more and do more. A good example is in an orchestra, if there is only one person who is good at playing violin, he may think himself the best and seldom consider improving his skill. Now a new player who is more talented and had achieved higher grade in violin comes into the same orchestra. The former player must face the fact that he is not the best there and needs to learn more and work more to keep up with new skill while the later one will keep practising so that he will always be better than the first musician. This in turn, motivates other players and thus higher the standard of the orchestra. Besides that, competition helps people to learn. It makes us strive for better. When there is a competition, we tend to give our best in urge to win. Even if we lose, we have learnt something. We learnt from our failure and mistakes

For example, in school, students work hard to overcome other people to be the top scholar in the school. If they did not do well in their tests, they will know what are their weaknesses and thus learn more so that they cam improve that. Without competition, students would be lazy and become incompetent. This is because competition is a motivational factor for a person to excel in any field. If there is no competition, students may not study to score good marks since there is no ranking. Moreover, competition builds teamwork. By working as a group to achieve something, we need to work effectively with other people. This in turn, improves our communication skills, socialising skills and all round ability to work with other people. Therefore, competition makes us learn new things constantly. Furthermore, competition makes the manufactures invent better products which benefit the country and people. With the development of communication and transportation, merchandize can be easily transported from one country to another country, as well as new technique can be easily learned from one region to another region. International competitions in a lot of fields appear. With a lot of brands of the same kind of commodity, customers always prefer the brand with better quality and cheap price. Therefore international competition makes the manufactures develop this kind of merchandize with the good quality and appropriate price using the better technique. As a result, the newest product with better quality and reasonable price improves the quality of people’s daily life and increase the popularity of the country as many people will know the newest product which can improve the quality of their lives is made by this country. If the country has high popularity, the people living in that country will have a better life. This is because more tourists will know and want to visit that country and thus generates income of the country. The country will then develop infrastructures which benefit its people. In conclusion, competition makes people to learn and improve and improve their standard of lives.

Learning To Play Piano

I have always been interested in art since I was young so it did not take me too much time to decide the general area for my project. Drawing, singing or dancing have been growing with me since I was little. However, to make this project more challenging and interesting, I will try to do something I have never done before. At the end, I come up with the idea why don’t I try to learn how to play piano. Piano is a pretty popular instrument that lots of people play so I think that this is a good chance for me to start learning something new. I choose to go with this project because I have strong connection with art so somehow this will help me. Learning how to play piano is not as easy as it seems. To become successful, there are so many steps and challenges you may obstruct with. Briefly, my project will include four parts. First, I need to learn how to put my hand position correctly on the keyboard. Second, I will learn how to read the note precisely and where does it go. Third, I will start playing short music sheets to get used to moving my fingers around. And finally, the most challenging part, I will learn to play a long music sheet smoothly. Since I have been singing when I was young, I think that this will help me with reading the notes faster and understand how the melody goes throughout the music. At the end, I hope that I will not make any mistakes in playing wrong notes and everything will be fluent. However, nothing will be successful without effort. It will take a lot of time to finish this so I need to plan everything ahead and start early. As you can see, to be a good pianist, it takes people from years to years to actually play beautifully. Another obstacle is being patient. I am not a very kind of patient person so I think it will be hard for me to read all the notes slowly, also practice and practice again every day. The last problem I think that not so many people struggle with is that my fingers are really small so it is hard for me to surf on the keyboard and they are also easy to get tired. Despite all these disadvantages, I will still try my best to work on it. There are many learning goals I hope that I can achieve after finishing the project.

Hopefully, I will find my interest in piano and keep playing for a long time so I can play some famous classical sheets. To achieve this, I cannot just go straight to the piano and start playing it. First of all, I need to do some research about how to play the piano such as looking up some videos people playing it. Then, I have to spend a little time from every day to practice so by the time of presentation, I can play it beautifully. Besides the learning part, I will also look for some information about how piano has grown up throughout our lives and how it affects so many people in the world. I will also talk about some famous pianists. Since I cannot handle all of these by myself so I think that I really need someone’s help. With no doubt, my best friend, Tony, I think he will be the perfect teacher for me because he has been playing piano for about ten years. Ten years is long enough for me to believe that he will be a very good “expert”. He will help me a lot in finishing this project. In the first week, I will learn how to read the notes. Then, he will fix my hand position so that I can play the keyboard easier and more correct. He will also help me keeping the melody and beats in track and make sure that everything is going right. At the end, to make this project more special and interesting, we are going to play a song together on the piano. With all the problems we have gone through, I hope that the audience will be interested in my project. For the budget section, luckily, I have most of things are available for me. I can go the PA building because there are free pianos there for me to practice. I just need to set up my schedule to spend time going there. I may need to go to the library to borrow some books to look up some information about “how to play piano” and its history. To consider my project as “significant” I think that at least I need to achieve all the goals I have above and especially make the audience feel interested and excited after the presentation, make them actually want to learn how to play it, too.

Since art is a very common area that lots of people will do so I think it is necessary that I need to make it special and unique. Although this project may not be meaningful for my long term carrier because my major is not about art, but it gives me another hobby so that I can have fun with, add beauty and entertain to my life. Playing the piano is also an excellent way to strengthen eye-hand coordination and fine motor skills, and people who take piano lessons learn a lot about discipline, dedication and the rewards of hard work. To demonstrate to the review panel that I met my learning goals, I will record everything that I did from the beginning to the end so that they can see how I have improved and what did I really achieve. Since my project takes a lot of time to finish, I need to start it early. I will spend at least an hour most of everyday to practice. First, I need to spend hours to do the research about history of piano and how it continues throughout these years. Then, I also need to look up for the music sheets that I am going to play. As I plan, I will need to learn how to read short music sheet first, then Tony will help me with the hand position and start playing around with random notes. It might take one or two days for me to get used to it. After that, I will start with playing single notes with each hand. This may take up two or three days. Finally, I will learn how to play both hands together. I think this part is the most difficult and will take a lot of time so I will spend for the whole week to play two short easy music sheets for beginners. Then, after getting used to with everything, I will start learn how to play a longer and faster music sheet to show how much work I have put into this. I will meet up my “expert” maybe twice or three times a week so he can help me checkup things and if there is any problem, I can ask him to spend time together a lot to practice, understand each other so that we can both finish the song fluently. Since his and my study schedule at school is different so it is hard for us to find free time to study together. Therefore, I think that it will take even much longer time for us to finish studying the sheet, at least for two or three weeks. In conclusion, to make this project successful and significant, I have to spend lots of effort, courage, and time. Planning ahead is a very important thing to do so that the presentation will be finished on time. Hopefully, my project can make the audience find their interest and know more about piano. Also, for me, this project will be something meaningful and special for my life goals.

Perspectives on play: learning for life

This paper illustrates in detail how learning can be achieved through play. Depth research has been carried out on the correlation between play and its positive benefits on early childhood learning, growth and development. Through this research it has been established that there is a positive connection between creative language and play and the social development of a child. Play has emotional benefits on a child such as enjoyment, relaxation, and fun, love of life, tension reduction and self expression. Developmental benefits of play include cognitive development where imagination, creativity, problem solving, mastery of concepts and perspective taking improves. Socially the child grows which can be seen through co-operation, sharing, turn-taking, and conflict resolution and leadership skills development. The language of the kid also develops that is in terms of communication skills, vocabulary and narration (Brock 2009 p.6-7)

In this issue to bring out the details pretty clear, sharp in-depth look at two chapters has been done, the first chapter being; Authoring books, plays and identities in writing workshops. Key practice: Approximated writing. The first chapter also involves the sub-topic; discourse of creative expression (Gordon 2009 p.23). The second chapter to look at is the: Toy as Identity texts, children as consumers and players. The first chapter mostly handles introduction to writing where kids are taken through a workshop where they mainly engage in writing. The climax of it is when the kid finally authors a book and has a chance to sit on the authors chair and read the book to the class and to be admired and questioned at the end of the writing workshop. The rationale behind choosing this chapter on developing writing is that written communication is a very key skill in life and everyone should have it as a priority developing the skill and becoming an expert in communicating really well through writing. It is thus a privilege and great pleasure learning how a kid or an individual at large develops this skill and also to reflect and see how probably people did begin at it or ought to begin (Gordon 2009 p.25)

Approximated writing is the key arguments in this chapter which symbolizes or represents a range of ways in which children can deliberate within their inner self between their personally invented forms of language understanding and the culturally determined rules for language. Approximated writing is close to the real writing language which embraces errors, incorrect spellings. It is used by children to formulate meaningful messages through their use of their emerging mastery of the language. In the writing workshop the kids initiated their own writing projects and as they wrote they designed and illustrated images and prints for puppet plays, pages for kids-printed books, cards to relatives and friends, storyboards and journals. Graphophonic conventions such as using alphabetic symbols like “tuk” to represent the word took, putting bigger spaces between words, placing marks on words and organizing them in a pattern are very much use in this case. Authoring in the workshop happened when the kids wrote, drew, told and dramatized the texts they had written down. Finally in regard to authoring the kids connected texts for the kids-produced books that they presented to the others through reading aloud from the author`s chair or even short plays that were acted for the class and videotaped (Marzollo 2011 p.39-40)

A number of realizations came from these workshops or activity that was centered on kid’s literacy. The first one being that children are capable writers who are able to actively create and co-create meaning and such activities can be very instrumental in bringing out their literacy proficiency this is so because it is in such that they are challenged to explore all genres of written communication and also get a chance to freely air their ideas through their conversations and writings (Elkind, 2009; p.46). The idea of getting a chance to sit on the author`s chair, present the book to the class, to be questioned and admired at the end of the writing workshop motivated the kids to really come up with a well-illustrated book.

Discourse of creative expression also happens in the conference where free expression of ideas and feelings in the workshop through routine or regular practices is done. The children are always encouraged to share their opinions with their peers and anything they feel the need to air during the workshop. This discourse of creative expression empowers autonomy in writing decisions during the workshop and clearly refers to the kids as a writer mostly because they have written their own creations (Guinagh 2009 p.32). The above situation is really different from a school situation which cannot really be called free expression because the kid is directed, monitored and controlled by the teacher on what to write about. The children also have the permission during the workshop to abandon the projects they were working on at their own discretion without permission from the teacher. In the case of a child also consulting with other children in the case of seeking their assistance and opinions also decides to change their projects and ignore the one they were doing or make revisions on it is still quite appropriate.

The methodology used in this chapter or writing workshop to teach the children how to write is something really great and enjoyable both for them and their instructor. The different number of plays that are used to teach them how to write and encourage them to pursue understanding the genres of written communication are very appropriate for them both for their easier understanding and to make it really interesting to the children without boredom at all. Learning writing is presented in a very simplified way that makes the child to want to do it again and again. The above writing activity or workshop further proves the point that learning happens very effectively through play (Silberg 2009 p.23).

In the second chapter close attention is paid to the chapter on Toy as Identity texts, children as consumers and players. First it is good to state that the rationale behind picking this chapter as the second one to look at to anyone it would mostly be out of curiosity to know and understand the following questions: The reason why kids and toys are almost inseparable? How comes that children want to spend as much as possible time with their toys, which is the language that really exist if any between toys and kids? Dolls in line with toys are texts designed specifically to enable the children to recognise with ease the manner in which it can be used in a play. They are associated with popular children animated films and also television programs which encourage children to play certain character roles and familiar scripts. These toys act as texts calling forth for “possible worlds” which brings about certain character roles, dialogue and stories (Silberg 2009 p.31) Dolls in a way are used to communicate identity and expectations in and from the society, for example the text or identity of a “cool girl” is communicated through the doll`s features such as its hairstyle, clothing and makeup. Popular dolls communicate complex such as concerning taste, social status, culture, roles and position in society and taste. This complex message requires the reader in this case the children to coordinate these messages and understand them (Tizard 2010 p. 55)

The methodology of using toys and dolls to communicate certain texts to the children and ensure that they learn something sounds quite funny. It is after pondering about this manner of using play to teach or facilitate learning to the very young ones that a person will come to the conclusion that it is one of the most amazing ways of learning through play which is really an awesome method. Kids are in a position to learn so much through toys and dolls without even their knowledge that they are learning and this knowledge sticks in their minds for the rest of their lives.

As a wrap up this paper has made it clear through the above examples how learning is done through play. Therefore one would comfortably conclude that it is a matter of fact that children learn through play and exposure to plays enable them to develop their intellectual, social and emotional skills. Plays should thus be a part and parcel of a child`s life so that the child may grow and develop holistically failure to which the development of the child will be hindered (Wood 2013 p.5). More and more learning and play ought to be embraced and others developed so as to ease learning especially amongst children who are easily bored and has low concentration ability and retention capacity of what they learn. The importance and value of learning through play can therefore not be underestimated.


Brock, A. (2009). Perspectives on play: learning for life. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman.

Elkind, D. (2009). The power of play: learning what comes naturally. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Lifelong ;.

Gordon, I. J., Guinagh, B., & Jester, R. E. (2009). Child learning through child play; learning activities for two and three year olds. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Marzollo, J., & Lloyd, J. (2011). Learning through play ([1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Silberg, J. (2009). Learning games: exploring the senses through play. Beltsville, Md.: Gryphon House.

Tizard, B., & Hughes, M. (2010). Young children learning (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub..

Tizard, B., & Hughes, M. (2010). Young children learning (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub..

Wood, E. (2013). Play, learning and the early childhood curriculum (3rd ed.). London: SAGE.

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The power of play: learning what comes naturally

Depth research has been carried out on the correlation between play and its positive benefits on early childhood learning, growth and development. It has been established that there is a positive connection between creative language and play and the social development of a child. Play has emotional benefits on a child such as enjoyment, relaxation, fun, love of life, tension reduction and self expression. Developmental benefits of play include cognitive development where imagination, creativity, problem solving, mastery of concepts and perspective taking improves. Socially the child grows which can be seen through co-operation, sharing, turn-taking, conflict resolution and leadership skills development. The language of the kid also develops that is in terms of communication skills, vocabulary and narration. This paper goes further to illustrate how play affects learning. ( p.66-67)

In our case we will have a sharp in-depth look at two chapters, the first one being; Authoring books, plays and identities in writing workshops. Key practice: Approximated writing. The second chapter we shall look at is the discourse of creative expression. The first chapter mostly handles introduction to writing to kids where they are taken through a workshop where they mainly engaged in writing. The climax of it is when the kid finally authors a book and has a chance to sit on the authors chair and read the book to the class and to be admired and questioned at the end of the writing workshop. The rationale behind choosing this chapter on developing writing is that written communication is a very key skill communication skill and anyone should care being an expert in communicating really well through writing. It is thus a privilege and great pleasure learning how a kid or an individual at large develops this skill and also to reflect and see how probably we did begin at it or ought to begin at.

Approximated writing is the key arguments in this chapter which symbolizes or represents a range of ways in which children can deliberate within their inner self between their personally invented forms of language understanding and the culturally determined rules for language. Approximated writing is close to the real writing language which embraces errors, incorrect spellings. It is used by children to formulate meaningful messages through their use of their emerging mastery of the language. The kids initiated their own writing projects and as they wrote they designed and illustrated images and prints for puppet plays, pages for kids-printed books, cards to relatives and friends, storyboards and journals. Graphophonic conventions such as using alphabetic symbols like “tuk” to represent the word took, putting bigger spaces between words, placing marks on words and organizing them in a pattern. Authoring in the workshop happened when the kids wrote, drew, told and dramatized the texts they had written down. Finally in regard to authoring the kids connected texts for the kids-produced books that they presented to the others through reading aloud from the author`s chair or even short plays that were acted for the class and videotaped.

A number of realizations came from these workshops or activity that was centred on kids literacy. The first one being that children are capable writers who are able to actively create and co-create meaning and such activities can be very instrumental in bringing out their literacy proficiency this is so because it is in such that they are challenged to explore all genres of written communication and also get a chance to freely air their ideas through their conversations and writings. The idea of getting a chance to sit on the author`s chair, present the book to the class, to be questioned and admired at the end of the writing workshop motivated the kids to really come up with a well-illustrated book.

The methodology used in this chapter or writing workshop to teach the children how to write is something really great and enjoyable both for them and their instructor

As a wrap up I can comfortably state that it is a matter of fact that children learn through play and exposure to plays enable them to develop their intellectual, social and emotional skills. Plays should thus be a part and parcel of a child`s life so that the child may grow and develop holistically failure to which the development of the child will be hindered.


Brock, A. (2009). Perspectives on play: learning for life. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman.

Elkind, D. (2009). The power of play: learning what comes naturally. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Lifelong ;.

Gordon, I. J., Guinagh, B., & Jester, R. E. (2009). Child learning through child play; learning activities for two and three year olds. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Marzollo, J., & Lloyd, J. (2011). Learning through play ([1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Silberg, J. (2009). Learning games: exploring the senses through play. Beltsville, Md.: Gryphon House.

Tizard, B., & Hughes, M. (2010). Young children learning (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub..

Tizard, B., & Hughes, M. (2010). Young children learning (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub..

Wood, E. (2013). Play, learning and the early childhood curriculum (3rd ed.). London: SAGE.

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The Play of Daniel Keyes’ Flowers for Algernon

      The story, “Flowers for Algernon”, is one that has been written using the first person narration and makes use of progress reports hence making the reader to be part of the story an understand the story as it happens through each of the reports used (Rogers, and Daniel, 5-15). The first person technique is important in that it allows all the changes that are seen to take place in Charlie, who is the main character of the story, to be clearly visible both at an external and internal level. It is to be noted that Charlie Gordon is the center of the whole story whereby he is the main character that is subjected to a scientific experiment that is aimed at increasing his intelligence level. In addition to that, Charlie is also the author to the narratives provided through the progress reports.

      The reader of this story is able to get a view of life throu8gh the eyes of Charlie who is the main narrator and character in the story ((Rogers, and Daniel, 5-15). The reader is able to understand and follow the progress and development of Charlie through the spellings and the evolution of Charlie’s syntax. The operation that Charlie undergoes fails to work and proves to be detrimental because Charlie gets to find out that his “friends” are not actually true friends. Furthermore, Charlie becomes arrogant and cannot relate to people after the experiment and his is not able to impress his family which is his true motivation.

       Charlie undergoes an intelligence operation which transforms him to become more intelligent than he was before. He ends up getting a job at the bakery with the help of his uncle, Uncle Herman (Coules, Daniel, and Robert, 87). Charlie meets Gimpy, Frank Reilly and Joe Carp, people that he considers to be his friends at the bakery and ones he could rely on. However, as it turns out, these are not his true friends. Gimpy, Frank Reilly and Joe Carp result to making fun of Charlie and resent him for being more intelligent after the operation when he goes back to work with them. The three make fun of Charlie and eventually gets him fired because they never liked him despite the fact that the boss, Mr. Donner, believed in Charlie.

       At this point, Charlie gets to know that the people that he considered to be his “friends” were actually not his true friends based on their actions towards him. However the attitude of the three changes towards Charlie as the story comes to an end and Charlie’s intellectual ability starts to recede drastically. One thing that the reader gets to learn from the actions of Charlie’s “friends” is that not everyone in your life is your true friend. There are others who may not have good intentions yet they claim to be your friends hence the need to be cautious with people that say they are your friends.

       Another issue that is portrayed in the story is that Charlie becomes an arrogant person and is not able to relate with people hence showing that the experiment was detrimental. The lack of proper relationship with other people and Charlie shows that the experiment turned out to be quite detrimental to the life of Charlie (Coules, Daniel, and Robert, 87). It can be observed that after the experiment, Charlie starts to lose his intelligence and he starts to spend less time with his girlfriend Fay. However, it reaches a point whereby Charlie wants to get back with Fay but she cannot accept due to Charlie’s condition which makes her afraid of him. This results in the collapse of their relationship.

        Furthermore, the experiment affected how Charlie relates with his family which is seen when he chases his sister out of his room and does not want to talk to her. The issue that one gets to learn from this is that not all experiments have positive impacts in the lives of human beings and it is important that people should accept who they are instead of trying to change themselves.

      From the on-set of this story, Charlie is seen as less intelligent and retarded by his family members. The inspiration and motivation to volunteer for the procedure which was aimed at enhancing his intelligence comes from need to impress his family (Coules, Daniel, and Robert, 87). Charlie agrees to undergo the procedure so that he could be what his mother and father wants him to be, an intelligent child. Charlie is rejected by the family that motivated him to get the procedure done. After becoming intelligent, he is also rejected by the foster family for being too intelligent.

       Charlie undergoes through a rough time especially when his acquired intelligence starts to recede causing him to become alienated from people and instead spends time alone. From the experiences that Charlie goes through in this story tells the reader that life is full of challenges and that there are appreciating what one has is of great importance than to seek for something that will only result in to misery.


Coules, Bert, Daniel Keyes, and Robert Chambers. The Play of Daniel Keyes’ Flowers for Algernon. Oxford: Heinemann Educational, 1993. Print. P.47

Rogers, David, and Daniel Keyes. Flowers for Algernon: A Full-Length Play. Chicago: Dramatic Pub. Co, 1969. Print. P.5-93

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Analysis of the last scene in the play “The History Boys”

Analysis of the last scene in the play “The History Boys”


Critical analysis of the last scene in the play “The History Boys”

            This extract captures the end of the play so well. The opening statement gives the impression that the play is coming to an end. Irwin is presented in his wheelchair. This is a reminder that the audience should not forget that Irwin had been involved in an accident. It is during the accident that he broke his legs. Presently, he can’t walk. He can only use a wheelchair to move around. In the opening statement, we are told that photographs of Hector as a young man were being displayed on the screen. Again, this is used to emphasize the fact that he is not alive at present. The audience is made to recall what sort of a person Hector was when several photographs of him as a young man are flashed on the screen. The demise of Hector is symbolically emphasized also by the song that the boys are singing: ‘Bye Bye Blackbird’. When they sing this song, it brings out a sad mood. The effects of the song cause melancholy to grip the audience as they are made to feel the deep absence of Hector. By extension, the song also helps bring the message of sympathy towards Irwin, who is in wheelchair.

            As the play in this extract begins, the Headmaster speaks about Hector. He praises him as a person who loved language and a person who molded his students to understand literature and language. But the tone that he uses captures his emotions has he remembers Hector. He seems to be in great pain and sadness because of Hector’s death. This is a good way of ending a play. It is worth showing the audience that the dead character had a significant contribution in the development of the story. In addition, flashing back connects the audience to the story in a solid manner. That is to say that the audience feels a part of everything that is happening in the play. In this case, when the Headmaster mentions Hectors’ past and how good he was, the audience feels the sadness that surrounds the fact that he died.

            Furthermore, the mood of sadness brought to the surface by the Headmaster is propagated by some of the students. However, these students recall Hector by the way he did his things and the way he talked. For instance, Timmssays that he never understood some of the things that Hector said. Lockwood himself thought that Hector was an extraordinary teacher. He jokingly says that he realized that Hector was a human being when he heard him complain of being a teacher in that school. He had referred it as a ‘godforsaken school’. What Lockwood meant is that Hector loved to teach language and literature. He, therefore, didn’t expect to hear him complain at all. However, this attitude of Lockwood paints a better picture of Hector to the audience with regard to how his students viewed his teaching.

            The past about Hector had its pitfalls. He messed severally and did some things that his students cannot forget. Crowther says that he had done many ‘unforgivable things’. Perhaps this utterance refers to the time that Hector had been found fondling with a boy. This brought him out as a homosexual. According to Crowther, this act was abnormal and thus refers to it as unforgivable. It is important to mention that the tone with which Crowther utters this statement reveals distaste. He appears to have developed a negative attitude on Hector perhaps on the grounds of his sexual orientation. He appears to feel less remorse for the fact that Hector is dead. He casually says, “Even his death was a lesson and added to the store”. This emphasizes the fact that he felt no sympathy upon Hector’s death. For purposes of ending this play, it becomes important to know how some students felt about Hector. And the feelings of Crowther towards Hector cannot be ignored.

            Furthermore, the Mrs Lintott, the History teacher, has her comments about Hector. She says that Hector never bothered with what he taught. In other words, MrsLintott means that Hector cared less about what he taught. The tone in her voice betrays her attitude towards Hector. She seems to have been bothered by the way Hector had been teaching. However, she remarks that his students ended up taking different careers in life. She simply and casually says that some became solicitors, others chartered accountants, others teachers among others. The students take different paths in life because Hector had been influenced them think beyond just passing exams. It can be said that he had a great impact on the lives of his students. This recounting of the lives of the students is a good marker to show that the play is coming to an end. It is important for the audience to know the lives of the characters as influenced by Hector, who appears to be the center of this passage. His contribution is being recalled.

            Besides Mrs Lintott, students also take part in telling the audience what each of them becomes at the end of the play. For instance, Timms says that one of the students became a tax lawyer. He supports the claims that Mrs Lintott is making that Hector’s students succeeded in their lives. Dakin owns up to Timms’ claim to mean that he is the one being referred to as the tax lawyer.

            As the discussion proceeds, Mrs Lintott humorously says that Hector had referred Irwin as a journalist instead of a history teacher. This is because of the view that Hector had on the way Irwin taught his History lessons. He did not teach history as was supposed to be taught. Instead, he taught students how to critically analyze the past. It is a claim that Irwin himself admits with a sense of humor. This is a way of further remembering what kind of person Hector was. He had a very different approach in teaching from that of Irwin. This is a nice way of bringing the story to an end because the audience feels that Hector had a significant position in the lives of those who lived with him.

            Another positive impact of Hector in the lives of his students is illustrated by the mention of one of his students, Posner. Mrs Lintott humorously says that Posner remembers everything that he was taught by Hector in terms of language and literature. She supposedly says that Posner remembers the exact words of Hector. We find that this last part of the play is filled with what can be referred to as sweet memories of Hector. In the case of the Posner, there is a replica of Hector. Posner likes literature in the same manner that Hector did. He is ever present in the local library reading. This illustration is also contributing to a good ending of the story. It helps to further paint the picture of Hector.

            Finally, Hector’s voice is used to utter the last words before the play ends. He is given this privilege to conclude what others have been implying about him. From the discussion held up by Mrs Lintott and others, we have realized that Hector was an exceptional person. To other teachers, Hector had a different approach to teaching. The students also felt the same. They felt that he made them understand what they were learning from a cramming point of view. However, they don’t make bad comments on him. Instead, they praise him. He has had contributions in the success of his students. They passed their final exams and are all successful people in life.

            This passage explicitly talks about Hector, the English teacher who is not alive at the moment. We gather that he had died earlier on in an accident. Being a passage that is ending the play, it effectively captures the attitudes of the rest of the characters about Hector. The language used portrays a mix of moods; sadness and happiness. It is sad when everyone remembers the contributions that Hector had in the teaching fraternity and he is now dead. It portrays happiness when his sense of humor is recalled. In a nutshell, this passage is effective in the way it ends the play. The audience is left contemplating about Hector. It is nostalgic when his voice is given an opportunity to utter the last words before the end of the play.


Bennett, A. (2004). The history boys. New York: Faber and Faber.

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The play “A Doll House”

A Doll House


            From the play, A doll house, it is clear that there is imbalance of power between Nora and her husband Helmer. The husband goes to work and earns for the family while the wife is left at home to do the chores. This brings about the theme of gender inequality. It is also clear that the writer puts more emphasis on the looks of Nora than those of her husband; this shows how the society views men and women differently. The husband is also displayed as being questionable about how the wife is spending the money on gifts even without considering that its Christmas time and they can now afford it from the salary he is getting. If Nora had not been that beautiful, may be Helmer would not have married her.

            The writer of this book emphasizes much on gender inequality, there is also the aspect of the very many lies that couple keep in their marriages in order to keep them alive which in most of the cases end up being the reason for the separation. There is also the aspect of man eat man society, Krogstad uses Nora in order to retain his job threatening her for a favor he had done a long time ago. At the end of the play, Nora feels her husband had taken her like a doll only to be admired for its beauty and that he did not trust her and therefore she left.

            The economic factors have really affected the society in a doll house especially the women to an extent of their ideas and choices about their marriages. Nora illegally borrowed money for the trip that she and Torvald took to Italy; she told Torvald that the money had come from her father. For years, Nora reveals, she has worked and saved in secret, slowly repaying the debt, and soon it will be fully repaid. This money was borrowed through Krogstad’s help and when Helmer wanted to sack him,he asks Nora to use her influence to ensure that his position remains secure. When she refuses, Krogstad points out that he has in his possession a contract that contains Nora’s forgery of her father’s signature. Their conversation reveals that the two had been once deeply in love, but Mrs. Linde left Krogstad for a wealthier man who would enable her to support her family. She tells Krogstad that now that she is free of her own familial obligations and wishes to be with Krogstad and care for his children.


Ibsen, Henrik, Rolf Fjelde, CalistaFlockhart, Tony Abatemarco, Tim DeKay, Jeannie Elias, Gregory Itzin, JoBeth Williams, Rosalind Ayres, and Susan A. Loewenberg. A Doll House. Venice, Calif.: L.A. Theatre Works, 2012. Internet resource.

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