Automated Hiring Process in Human Resource Management

Automated Hiring Process

In the enterprise world there have typically been course of redesign groups and automated implementation teams.  Each with a common goal of bettering efficiency and streamlining to enhance outcomes and lower value.  Sometimes improved efficiency and decrease cost do not equal improved results.

There are multiple purposes obtainable that can scan and skim resumes for organizations.  There are automated techniques that may run background checks and credit reviews on candidates.  For some occupations there are knowledge bases out there for knowledge retrieval related to performance on potential applicants.

All of those individually or collectively can assist many organizational human resource departments.

There is also the perceived thought course of that by removing human flawed interpretation of data – one would obtain unbiased interpretation of information.  When there are no human palms screening a resume then there may be little chance very important information a couple of potential associate will be missed.  By automating the process then there shall be less time delay in retrieving solutions.

Theoretically this automated course of would lower the time and cost of choosing and hiring of new associates.  In flip this is able to additionally improve the standard of the associates being hired by any organization.  The cost financial savings can be instantly recognized and these financial savings would be seen on the underside line of the monetary reviews.

Since all applicants had been screened and selected by way of an automated process – the standard of those associates should be greater than those chosen with human intervention.  There was no likelihood of any favoritism enjoying a component within the hiring process.

  Due to automation the applicant was completely screened – matched to an open place in the organization – made a job provide – accepted and was employed  without any attainable human error.  There was one step missed in the automation – a important step in constructing an effective group within any group.  The one step missed was the human perception step.

Without the human involvement within the hiring course of – be default – that process is flawed.  Numbers and information will never inform the whole story.  Data retrieved off of some data base will not reveal how nicely the applicant works underneath stress.  Data retrieved from the pages of a resume will never reveal the power for the applicant to combine as part of a team.  A credit report won’t reveal how keen the applicant would be to working floating shift work or unplanned overtime.

The interview course of is the one part of the hiring course of that may be the most difficult to eliminate.  Any automated system used for sole determination of hiring associates for any group will fall short.  No matter the talent level or job description of the candidates.  A custodian affiliate will nonetheless must be screened for possible work ethic points.  The hiring determination is made not solely on expertise – but on ethical causes.  How nicely did the affiliate carry out the tasks?  How properly did the affiliate work throughout the team?  How flexible was the associate with regard to work hour adjustments and overtime?  Some of those questions may be answered by way of reference checks – but most will need to be answered by way of an interview process.  This interview process might be conducted by a skilled human resources associate who can ask the best questions to realize accurate answers from the applicant.

There are many circumstances where the numbers will not inform the whole story.   It is only by way of a structured interview can the most effective candidate be identified.  There are disadvantages to the human based mostly hiring course of additionally.  The process takes man hours for screening and reference checks.  The course of is open for favoritism to come into play when selecting the best candidate.

The best course of is possible a hybrid of the 2.  Utilization of an automatic process to establish the top 5 – 10% of candidates.  Then use the human assets interplay and interview course of to make the final choice.  Mark Lange, with Brass Ring Solutions – an automated applicant screening firm states, “we don’t outline high quality, however we do proved instruments for the corporate to use…” (Lange).

Do not depend upon an automatic system solely – it is simply a tool to be used by organizations to increase a hiring process.  Automation gives us the best of both worlds – it doesn’t substitute a world.

Bibliography

Lange, M. (2001). Brass Ring Systems Automated Hiring Systems: How to Impress a Robot. Retrieved February 16, 2009, from  http://www.itworld.com/ITW0302blacharski

Assessment Process

Unit 302:- Assess occupational competence within the work setting This unit assesses your efficiency in assessing occupational competence for your learners. There should be evidence to cowl all assessment strategies and performance evidence covering the following (as a minimum): Observation of efficiency within the workplace Examining products of work Questioning the learner Simulation is not allowed. Other types of evidence for the remaining evaluation methods embrace: Discussions with learners Witness testimonies (use of others) Learner statements.

Recognising prior learning There should be legitimate, genuine and enough proof for all evaluation criteria in this unit.

There have to be proof of you finishing up at least two assessments of two learners’ occupational competence (four in total). Unit 303:- Assess vocational expertise, information and understanding This unit assesses your efficiency in assessing vocational expertise, data and understanding. There have to be evidence to cowl all evaluation strategies (in the specifications) and performance evidence for at least three of the following:

Assessments of learner in simulated environment Skills checks Oral or written questions Assignments Projects Case research Recognising prior learning Other types of evaluation might be acceptable for the remaining assessment methods.

Your work might be assessed by remark, examining product from work and questioning/discussions. There must be legitimate, genuine and enough evidence for all evaluation criteria on this unit. There should be proof of you carrying out a minimal of two assessments of two learners’ expertise, knowledge and understanding (four in total).

Unit 301 – Understanding the principle and practices of evaluation: The evaluation course of. Knowing when to evaluate the learner is significant, it’s unimaginable to assess the learners before they’ve acquired the required expertise to satisfy the standards.

This makes it important to assess the learners on a person foundation and plan for the evaluation at the proper time. |Stage |Learning |Assessment | |Recruitment |Learner is recruited onto programme |Initial assessment: | | | |To assess their potential | | | |See what they already do | |

| |Gauge their suitability | | | | | | | |And then is registered with the Awarding physique | |Induction |The learner is inducted onto their learning and |The learner is inducted into the qualifications and | | |development programme. |assessment course of. | |Planning for learning and assessment of learning |The learner agrees the targets, and plans are made |The results of the preliminary assessment inform plans | | |for how these shall be achieved. These are recorded |and make certain that practical targets are set. Regular | | |on an Individual Learning Plan (ILP) |assessment is deliberate.

| |Learning and growth |The learner undergoes coaching and improvement over |Assessment for studying takes place at common | | |time and: |intervals to see how the learner is progressing. | | | | | | |Acquires abilities |Learner is given feedback on their efficiency | | |Practices and applies what they’ve learnt |targets are adjusted and additional training and | | |Starts to perform standards |development are arranged as necessary. | | |Consistently performs to the standards underneath a | | | |variety of circumstances at work. |When (and solely when) the learner is performing | | | |confidently and constantly to appropriate | | | |standards…

| |Assessment planning | |… does planning for evaluation in opposition to the | | | |standards take place. | | | | | | | |This is when the learner agrees an assessment plan –| | | |how, when and the place evaluation will take place – | | | |with their assessor | |Assessment against the requirements |If the learner is assessed as ‘not but competent’ |The assessor makes an evaluation determination and offers | | |they could must undertake additional coaching or |feedback to the learner efficiency. | | |practice |Further evaluation is planned as needed. | |Certification | |The learner receives a certificate of their | | | |achievement for the awarding body |.

(Read: Pg 22) Types of evaluation. Initial assessment is used to gain details about your learners and discover out the place they firstly of the programme in relation to their studying styles, their learning needs/support needs, their prior qualifications/experiences and knowledge and at last, any well being or incapacity wants. Formative assessment is used to trace learner progress throughout their programme. Summative assessment is used to conclude/assess learner achievement on the end of their programme. Peer assessment is gathering proof from learner friends about their performance within the workplace (managers and colleagues for example).

Self evaluation is gathering proof from the learner about their efficiency in the workplace and taking a proactive function of their programme. Task 1. Explain the needs of preliminary, formative and summative assessment, embrace an example of each: (1. 1) Task 2 Explain how peer and self evaluation can be utilized successfully to advertise learner involvement and accountability in the evaluation of studying: (4. 3) Concepts and rules of evaluation. Task three Define the vital thing ideas and rules of assessment as beneath: (1. 2) 1. Validity 2. Reliability 3. Authentic four. Sufficient 5. Current 6.

Importance of objectivity and fairness to learners 7. Importance of transparency for learners Task 3 Contd Reflection on practical exercise (Day 2) eight. The position of evidence in making assessment selections against learner’s knowledge, skills and competency against set criteria. Task four Explain the importance of involving the learner within the evaluation process in relation to: (4. 1) 9. Transparency and effectivity Assessment Cycle: [pic] Understand tips on how to plan assessment. Task 5 Explain how you may have thought-about the following components when planning assessment along with your learners, where possible give examples:

10) Feedback to learners 11) The importance of complying with related assessment technique Holistic assessment: This method to assessment is the best method of evaluation when assessing to set criteria. This entails planning an exercise with the learning for a unit after which discovering out all the activities and evidence that the learner will produce and masking criteria from addition models without having to plan extra activities. Task 6 Evaluate the worth of holistic evaluation in: • Efficient proof assortment for the learner and assessor • Evidence that can be utilized for multiple unit.

• Identify how the learner integrates for instance data and understanding into their apply. Explain how you’ve planned an assessment so that quite so much of evidence could be derived from one evaluation. Types of risks in evaluation and how to minimise these through planning. Task 7 Summarise the following risks which might be involved in evaluation in your space of responsibility and Explain how to minimise these risks through planning. (3. 4/3. 5)

The use of expertise in the evaluation course of. The use of technology is changing into more essential inside the evaluation course of especially when quality assurance workers require assessors to justify evaluation processes used. Adapted from, Implementing Learning Technology, 1999. Task 10 Explain how technology can be used to boost the evaluation process. Include using: Video evidence of skills/ performance Recording of oral evidence Paperless portfolios Computer based/ on-line testing.

Task eleven Explain the responsibilities of the assessor: |(1. 3) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Regulations and requirements Who’s who (adapted from The best assessor’s information; H Read 2011) The assessor is liable for deciding whether a learner has achieved the required requirements or not. The inner quality assurer maintains and improved evaluation follow, help assessors to be vigorous and dependable when making every evaluation choice.

The external quality assurer ensures the evaluation and inner high quality assurance is constant across totally different centres. The basic necessities for the skills you deliver and located within the requirements for that qualification and the evidence necessities documentation. You can discover these at: G:Quality Team DocumentsQCF QualificationsStandards or sources Other key documentation about Lifetime (the centre) are also stored centrally, these paperwork embrace the Quality Improvement Strategy which sets the scene for evaluation and high quality assurance found at:

G:Quality Team DocumentsQuality Improvement Strategy This doc is Lifetime’s statement of intent for evaluation and inside verification across all qualifications delivered. It is for all workers concerned in the delivery, co-ordination, management and administration of skills. It describes Lifetime’s construction, the process of assessment and inside verification, monitoring and administration procedures in addition to formal procedures like appeals/equal opportunities/ data protection/confidentiality and well being & safety. Task 12 Identify the laws and necessities relevant in your area of practice:

|(1. 4) Consider general requirements/regulations and significance of complying with the assessment strategy. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Task 12 Write a reflective account based in your experiences along with your learners to incorporate: Evaluate the importance of high quality assurance in the evaluation process. Summarise quality assurance and standardisation procedures.

Task thirteen Summarise the related procedures adopted when there are disputes in regards to the evaluation. (6. 1/6. 2/6. 3) (NB: this could additionally be assessed within the form of a discussion along with your assessor). Understand the means to handle data regarding evaluation of occupational competence Keeping records of evaluation and planning is crucial for a selection of reasons together with learner reflection, identifying development, progression, support and a record of developments for the learner. These information can be referred to as upon for Internal and External Verification, standardisation and within the event of an appeal.

Task 14 Explain the significance of following the administration of data (completing and storing) in relation to: Proving accurate information on learner achievement Contributing to quality assurance and standardisation processes Proving the premise for suggestions to the learner and reviewing learning progress Making information obtainable within the occasion of appeals. Task 15 Explain how feedback and questioning contributes to the assessment process. 7. 2 Understand the authorized and good follow requirements in relation to assessment. Task sixteen Explain the corporate and awarding body insurance policies referring to:

Health and Safety, together with learners emotional welfare Confidentiality Transparency Record maintaining Compliance with the relevant evaluation strategy in assessing qualification Equality and variety 8. 1 Task 17 Once you may have obtained Equality and Diversity training, consider how authorized and best apply requirements can have an result on the assessment process, in regards to: • Gender • Disability • Race/ Culture/ Religion/Language 8. 3 Glossary of terms: RPL Recognising Prior Learning. This process allows learners earlier achievements to be recognised And learners don’t should repeat learning unnecessary.

Formative evaluation is used to trace learner progress during their programme. Summative evaluation is used to conclude/assess learner achievement on the finish of their programme. Peer evaluation is gathering evidence from learner friends about their performance within the workplace (managers and colleagues for example). Self evaluation is gathering evidence from the learner about their performance within the office and taking a proactive function of their programme. References: H. Read (2011) The greatest assessor’s information. Gaining a qualification through good practice in evaluation in the submit 16 sector.

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Read on Publications Ltd. Ento (2004) Excellence in assessment and verification. Putting it into apply. Read on Publications Ltd. Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative (1999) The use of computers within the assessment of scholar studying. Available at: http://www. icbl. hw. ac. uk/ltdi/implementing-it/using. htm. (Accessed 16. 02. 2011) Resources: Use of technology within evaluation: http://www. icbl. hw. ac. uk/ltdi/implementing-it/using. htm Sector Skills Councils and regulatory our bodies: http://www. cfa. uk. com http://www. management-standards.org/home http://www. ofqual. gov. uk http://www. people1st. co. uk.

http://www. skillsactive. com http://www. qcda. gov. uk/qualifications/60. aspx General evaluation practice/reading: http://www. nottingham. ac. uk/shared/shared_cdell/pdf-reports/fairassessofnvqs. pdf (VACS) http://www. londonpharmacy. nhs. uk/educationandtraining/nvq/nvqA1/download/2. 7%20fact%20sheet%20-%20Judging%20Evidence. pdf http://www. hse. gov. uk/legislation/hswa. htm (H&S at work) http://www. thought. gov. uk/idk/core/page. do? pageId=7345916 (E&D at work) http://www. education. gov.

uk/schools/pupilsupport/inclusionandlearnersupport/inclusion/equalityanddiversity (E&D in schools) http://www. studying. ox. ac. uk/rsv. php? page=319 (giving and receiving feedback) http://www. brookes. ac. uk/services/ocsld/firstwords/fw21. html (Giving feedback) http://www. ldpride. net/learningstyles. MI. htm (learning styles) http://www. businessballs. com/kolblearningstyles. htm (Learning kinds etc) Notes: ———————– Plan Decision Development plan Assessment Prepare (3. 1) 1) Standards/ standards for use 2) Types and quantity of evidence 3) Choice of assessment strategies.

4) Communication with learner and others 5) Location and resources 6) Time and duration of assessment 7) Specific learner needs and help required 8) How to manage assessment process 9) Recording assessment processes and choices . Office of the skills and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (CCEA), Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills (DCELLS). Standards Setting Body (SSB) or Sector Skills Council (SSC) Organisations growing occupational standards and skills.

Qualification and Credit Framework (QCF) Framework for creating and accrediting skills in England, Wales and Northern Ireland Awarding organisations (e. g. Lifetime Awarding) Approved organisations to award skills. All learners are registered with an awarding organisation External high quality assurer (EQA) Person appointed by the awarding organisation to observe work in the accredited centre. Approved assessment centre (e. g. Lifetime) Internal quality assurer (IQA) (Lifetime QIT’s) Appointed by the centre to ensure high quality and consistency of the assessment process.

Assessor (you! ) Appointed by the centre to work with learners to advise and assess them Learners Individuals registered with an awarding organisation and work in direction of units/qualification achievement (7. 1).

Assessment Methods in the Learning Process

Diagnostic assessment is a pre evaluation that determines a difficulty for the coed in a precise area. This kind of assessment supplies lecturers with information of the student’s earlier awareness of the topic, their curiosity and angle earlier than instructing a lesson (McMillan 2011, p 6). Diagnostic assessment data could be collected from Summative assessments of the previous lesson. It is necessary to note the expectation of what the scholars should know, perceive and have the ability to do on the finish of the lesson as that is an integral part of an effective lesson (McMillan 2011, p 8).

Formative assessment happens during instructions, giving feedback to students on their work to assess their degree and decide the next stage of labor activities (McMillan 2011, p 6). This kind of evaluation takes place during studying and helps to enhance the lesson as the learning is monitored and the progress of the coed is noted (McMillan 2011, p 8). The pupil has the opportunity to enhance studying through the lesson by way of the feedback and ship them in the right direction of studying.

Learning problems are in a position to be distinguished during the lesson and actioned accordingly, and tutorial changes can be made (McMillan 2011, p 8). Summative assessment takes place on the completion of the lesson to find out the student’s degree of understanding, their data and might bodily do (McMillan 2011, p 6). This is the aim of the lesson to resolve if the teaching has been constructive and that the students have achieved at the anticipated level of learning. Students are graded, teachers and lessons are evaluated to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan (McMillan 2011, p 8).

The three evaluation varieties that kind the assessment cycle are an integral a part of a major classroom studying construction. Students with studying disabilities need to be assessed within the early levels of their studying to find out the methods of tailor-made learning to be applied. Using Diagnostic assessment “effective teachers were found to have tailored instruction to students’ distinctive needs and interests, discovering just the proper supplies to reach their students” Robinson, G. (2008).

Teaching numeracy skills a Formative assessment is then used to enhance learning throughout the lesson. A summative evaluation is then required to find out the student’s numeracy capabilities. Assessment is a vital part of the schooling curriculum, to allow an efficient studying environment for the students. It also allows the instructor to ensure the lesson is tailor-made to the scholars learning disabilities and there needs to achieve the training end result desired. References McMillan, J. H. (2011).

Artists” Creative Process

When I take into consideration inventive profession I often wonder why artists wish to be artists. The very thought of starting every day with the obligation to create something of strong worth, one thing that by no means existed before, appears really onerous work and at the similar time activity that has a strange magnificence in itself. How does an artist interact within the inventive course of and make something-out-of-nothing to come back into existence? How does the artistic process begin? Does it have construction, or the inventive process consists simply of images and an elusive sparkle that lights the inventive fire within the artist’s mind?

I spent plenty of time examining professional life and work of many creative artists and how they’re engaged within the inventive course of.

This paper will make some generalizations about creativity and genius which are basic to the understanding of the creative process and then will analyze the inventive course of within the lives of four notable artists who’re Langston Hughes, Alvin Ailey, Quincy Jones, and George Lucas.

The insights of the creative course of then will lead to the exploration of inventive process in my own life.

The Creative Process Creativity is a continuously stimulating process and finally causing excitement. To observe and experience it fully is a few of the most gratifying aspects of the artistic life and skilled activity. One of the possible difficulties of exploring or analyzing the artistic course of is that it can become uninspired. Really, one of the most current debates in this sphere is whether or not or not or not creativity is simply an instance of rational and analytical downside fixing or consists of other, extra magic processes.

Nevertheless, one thing is obvious – the primary good thing about exploring creativity and the creative course of is that one will in the end come to the understanding of the processes skilled and extra importantly will be in a position to enhance the event and stimulate cultivation of creativity in himself and different folks. What is understood about the inventive process? Let us contemplate the main parts of the inventive process. At first, one ought to know difference between the creative product and the inventive course of.

A common distinction is that the artistic product is the output of the artistic activity. It is the inventive output that is to be determined as artistic or not creative. What are the traits of a product that is thought-about as creative? Torrance (1988), for example, in an evaluation of definitions of creativity, stated that newness is a principal defining attribute of the creative product. Newness, nevertheless, isn’t the one criteria. It can also be of great significance that the product is nice (that is, artistically appealing).

Vernon (1989) proposed a more complete definition of the inventive product stating that, “Creativity means a person’s capacity to provide new or authentic ideas, insights, restructuring, innovations, or creative objects, which are accepted by consultants as being of scientific, aesthetic, social, or technological value” (p. 94). It can be seen that cultural values and norms are a necessary a half of the factors for considering some artistic output to be artistic. A major query then that emerges is “what are the inventive processes that lead to the creative output?

” What the inventive process is concerned that will increase the possibilities that an artist will generate a inventive output? If one can recognize the constituting processes concerned and the character of their interplay, then one can begin to get a picture of the elemental essence of the artistic process. To do this, I will look at the main levels of the artistic course of in the next sections. One of the primary well-known attempts to study and theorize the inventive course of was by Wallas in 1926. Wallas proposed the most important phases that replicate different processes of the artistic process.

Although the levels proposed by Wallas are generalized and international, his mannequin provides a good foundation for the understanding of the creative process. This two-stage model includes the next artistic processes:

Preparation Stage

In this stage the artist gathers different information, becomes thoroughly proficient, and identifies the problem. It is on this stage that the elemental methods and knowledge base for realization of a specific objective are mastered. Usually, the elemental cognitive processes of logic, associations, and inventive drawback discovering must be major on this first stage.

The first inventive problem finder I wish to point out is called Langston Hughes. Like many other noble artists, Langston Hughes found problems to unravel with art. Langston Hughes found problems to resolve together with his creative writing. He loved to communicate with people and observe the sights and sounds of his district in Harlem after which incorporate this expertise into his works. The artist found many desirable ideas for poems during this process. Actually, some of his most famed poems inform in regards to the things he perceived together with his inventive thoughts and folks he met in Harlem.

In the identical manner, Alvin Ailey discovered problems to solve together with his personal choreography. Thus, for example, Ailey made Afternoon Blues (1953), his first inventive dance work. Working with a musical piece from Leonard Bernstein’s On the Town, Ailey performed the hypersensual, animalistic role of the Faun (Latham, pp. 481–482). In this nice work of the artist, Ailey produced a mental image of dance as a liberation from heterosexual white domination, he discovered a protected place in his inventive work where he may journey into his internal world as a completely sensual human being free from ordinary issues of race and sexuality.

Another example of drawback solving by the artist is Ailey’s inventive reaction to Horton’s demise (he was Ailey’s mentor): the artist determined to make dances that tell dance stories about expensive individuals he knew. He created his first choreographic works to “pay tribute to Lester Horton, to show the strength of James Truitte, and to emphasise the wonder and dramatic ability of Carmen de Lavallade” (Latham, pp. 485–486). Ailey was inventive problem solver: “I knew nothing about making dances for a bunch so I put everything about fashionable dance which I had read or seen into the work.

In addition, I did every thing the best way that I thought Lester would have accomplished it…. I was simply making an attempt to be like Lester as a end result of I thought that was the means in which to be creative” (Latham, p. 488).

Illumination Stage

In this stage of the artistic process ideas are generated utilizing the analytical considering and logical engaged on the issue. It is on this stage that Wallas introduced the process of the unconscious associations. Creative downside solving is not consciously made, but much organizing in a different way and free associating takes place outside of conscious consciousness of the artist.

In the next sections, there are several descriptions of artistic artists and their experience in this illumination stage. During this process ideas are permitted to roam in an uncontrollable method. It is right here that artistic processes might play a very important function. Artist may need to examine works of the past centuries or creations from completely different cultures for generating new images which are based mostly on the already created thought. This sort of exercise could be thought of as a vital a half of the analytical and associative skills essential for the inventive course of.

To better understand how this works allow us to look at the history of film that is crammed with analogical and associative thinking. One of the most famous and popular examples of movie creativity is George Lucas’s authentic Star Wars movie of 1977. The success of the film is known. Moreover, it utterly changed how films are produced. Interestingly, not one of the visible photographs that the film producer used through the writing of the plot have been themselves unique.

Film observers state that most of Lucas’s imagery was taken from earlier movie tales and George Lucas himself admits that his authentic models were the Flash Gordon movie serials and Edgar Rice Burroughs John Carter of Mars sequence of books: “I wanted to make an action film – a movie in outer space like Flash Gordon was once. . . . I wanted to make a film about an old man and a kid. . . . I also wished the old man to be like a warrior. I wished a princess, too, however I didn’t need her to be a passive damsel in distress” (Interview with George Lucas).

It seems that the screenwriter wished to return to the sense of marvel and adventure films that had expired him as he was a toddler however to replace that sense for popular tastes of latest public and make good use of all the technological and cinematic new methods and gadgets that developed in the interval that had handed since Flash Gordon. He one can see how Lucas was really creative in this stage by incorporating in Star Wars the parable narrative; the screenwriter used a artistic analytical and associative pondering and he succeeded.

But this course of was not a burst of inspiration; it advanced over a five-year interval of rewriting and modifying of the script: I started writing Star Wars in January 1973 – eight hours a day, five days every week, from then until March 1976, once we started taking pictures. Even then I was busy doing various rewrites in the evenings after the day’s work. In fact, I wrote four entirely totally different screenplays for Star Wars, searching for simply the best components, characters and storyline. . . . What lastly emerged via the various drafts of the script has clearly been influenced by science fiction and motion adventure I’ve learn and seen.

And I’ve seen lots of it. I’m attempting to make a classic type of style picture, a basic space fantasy in which all of the influences are working together. There are sure conventional elements of the style I wanted to maintain and assist perpetuate in Star Wars (Zito 1977, p. 13). Important analyses on the cognitive processes involved within the inventive course of have been carried out by a number of researchers. For instance, Sternberg (Sternberg & Davidson, 1982) gave emphasis to the importance of insight in artistic process.

Sternberg and Davidson (1982) point out that three forms of insights are found in the creative course of. First, the artist selectively separates relevant from irrelevant images. Selective union of separate parts brings about synthesizing isolated pieces of photographs into united wholes. In this way pictures are organized in new methods. This type of knowledge gathering sets the stage for creative insights. Usually, artistic artists have been transformed, have been inspired by, and sometimes have plagiarized the ideas of different artist and from various cultures by way of the whole of historical past.

This process can also be seen in Ailey’s work that echoed literary traditions of black cultural heritage, registering “the existence of a ‘black self’ that had transcended the restrictions and restrictions that racism had positioned on the personal development of the black individual. ” Incorporating African American custom and tradition, Ailey’s artistic work grew to become an embodiment of African American culture. The artist’s inventive process into concert dance was constructed on African American works and childhood memories.

Ailey wrote about Redonda, later retitled Cinco Latinos (21 December 1958) that: “The innate sense of melodrama of the primitive ritual is exploited in this interpretation of an Afro-Brazilian fetishistic ritual, with actions primarily based on both the sensual and animalistic elements of those rites” (Ailey program note). Ailey succeeded in the connecting the whole generation of African-American individuals with the mainstream U. S. tradition. It is maybe the flexibility to shift between stages that is essential to the inventive course of. Such ability permits the artist to realize access to artistic cognitive and affective processes.

It allows the artist to transform or revise what she or he knows and to find new patterns. Like so many others in his time and after, artistic document producer Quincy Jones in his inventive process is each fascinated and impressed by the new media. He is captivated with technology’s potential to move musical art one step further. This allowed Quincy Jones to succeed in creating real hits from strange singers and songs. When artists are engaged in these inventive processes, they really feel they’re performing at the peak of their skills. In my life I also feel that my inventive work provides me insights and makes my reside wealthy.

Moreover, I think that creativity is part of what makes me really human allowing me to achieve the highest ranges of inventive efficiency. Analyzing the inventive artists’ skilled life and inventive act I identified the main character traits that relate to checks of creativity and that I additionally attempt to develop. They embrace:

  • openness to experience;
  • independence of judgement;
  • curiosity;
  • preference for problem and complexity;
  • self-confidence;
  • natural tendency to risk-taking;
  • and strong motivation.

These character traits enable me to convey collectively numerous ideas and generate a new perspective or to create a new combination.

I believe that analogies and associations are among the many most powerful tools of the inventive process because they’ll produce a great variety of concepts. Conclusion Study of the creative process is important for many causes. Explaining the inventive course of helped me identify and realize noble artists’ distinctive creative talents. It is true that the creative artist may favor to disregard the phases of the inventive process and break all the conventions. But my point of view is that that is the mistaken means to consider creativity. Instead, I consider the creativity as a type of the inventive process language.

Obviously, one has first to study a language before she or he can talk. Similarly, it is practically inconceivable to create anything without the foundation. And simply because the artist uses the background from earlier works or different cultures doesn’t imply they do not seem to be inventive. Examination of the artists’ artistic course of in this paper suggests that analogical pondering is essential to the artistic course of. In basic, entry to and use of historical past, myths, legends, experience of different people and totally different cultures and creativity are associated processes.

For me, inventive process is actually a type of problem solving – not a miraculous, unexplained process. Wallas’ model of the creative course of is a good begin for analyzing creativity of different people.

References

  1. Ailey program note, Kaufmann Concert Hall Dance Center of the 92nd Street YM-YWHA, 21 December 1958.
  2. Interview with George Lucas printed within the Star Wars memento program (New York: S. W. Ventures, 1977).
  3. Latham, Jacqueline Quinn. “A Biographical Study of the Lives and Contributions of Two Selected Contemporary Black Male Dance Artists: Arthur Mitchell and Alvin Ailey. ” Ph. D. diss. , Texas Women’s University, 1973, pp. 481–482. Sternberg R. , & Davidson J. (1982, June).
  4. “The thoughts of the puzzler”. Psychology Today, sixteen, pp. 37-44. Torrance E. P. (1988).
  5. The nature of creativity as manifest in its testing. In R. Sternberg (Ed. ), The nature of creativity (pp. 43-75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. Vernon, P. E. (1989). The nature-nurture problem in creativity. In J. Glover, R. Ronning, & C. Reynolds, R. (Eds. ), Handbook of creativity (pp. 93-110). New York: Plenum. Wallas C. (1926).
  7. The artwork of thought. New York: Harcourt Brace. Zito, Stephen. “George Lucas Goes Far Out”, American Film, April 1977, p. 13.

Appeals Process

Many occasions inside a sentencing, an offender is given a certain time to file an appeal within. If they don’t appeal a verdict or determination within 30-days for instance, they must wait until the ‘next go-around’ so to speak. Many times a sure period of time have to be served before an attraction can be filed. This can be simply demonstrated in the course of an inmate inside a prison files an appeal. If she or he serves four-years of a 15-year sentence and information an attraction and follows the suitable steps to do so, they’ll nonetheless experience the misfortune of getting their attraction turned down.

If that happens, they’re often made to wait another year before they will file another enchantment. The decisions from these appeals could be returned fairly rapidly or they’ll take anywhere from a day or two, to per week or more. In the case of a parole board listening to an inmate’s enchantment, they usually render a decision the identical day and within an hour or two from the end of the hearing on the longest.

To relate a story, a very shut pal of ours is serving time in a correctional facility within the state of Colorado, a sentence and a call put him there that I firmly disbelieve.

He has served six-years of a ten-year sentence and went before the parole board last November. His authentic sentence is Sexual Misconduct with a Minor. Again, it is a charge that I firmly disbelieve in relation to this specific individual, but nonetheless he is serving it.

His parole got denied and he filed an attraction, due to the truth that accusations were made concerning his conduct before arrest that weren’t associated in in the least to his original charge. An enchantment was filed to contest the parole board’s decision and the accusations made by malicious involvement from former relations.

The attraction was shot down and he was told to continue on along with his sentence and he can be eligible for parole again in November of 2013. We pray that this one goes better! Appeals could be prolonged and could be expensive, however they serve a purpose. It should not be a simple process that these offenders go through in order to be let loose. The finest and handiest means for improvements to be made in the appeals process is to differ the worth of such procedures. If an offender is Page: 3 esirous to file an enchantment, the value of mentioned attraction should differ depending on the severity of the crime committed. If it was a first-time offense and a non-violent offense that put the offender behind bars, the price of their attraction should not match that of an attraction from someone who was convicted of a brutal, violent and bloody homicide of multiple victims where no remorse was shown at all. Offenders don’t pay these prices themselves, but quite the money to pay for such filings is shelled out by their families.

In many instances, these households are struggling sufficient by having their loved one behind bars in the first place. The family shouldn’t need to suffer a financial drain in addition to an emotional drain simply because their relative decided to go hog-wild with a machete or another equally violent crime. When an attraction is filed appropriately, it might possibly also make the method much easier. Another typically forgotten fact is that if an enchantment is not filed appropriately and correct steps followed, it may possibly usually be turned down before it even gets seen by the right folks.

I feel that part of the process that reveals an offender is critical about their appeal, must be to observe every step and every measure laid out before them. If the paperwork telling them the method to file instructs them to quack like a duck while carrying yellow and pink polka dotted pants at a Dixie Chicks live performance, all whereas sporting a sign that says ‘I love purple unicorns’ then they should observe that exact course of. If they leave out a step, they were not severe sufficient and want to return to the drawing board!

Analyze of Sub-Optimal Service Process

Introduction

The objective of this essay is to investigate a sub-optimal service process. The article starts with dissatisfied service expertise, followed by an analysis of customer’s needs from service apply a job map. Then it covers different elements of service quality (reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles) by wanting on the difference between the expected service and perceived service. The next a part of this essay, it discusses the influence of service quality on the company’s aggressive advantage. How to recover and enhance a service said on the end of the article.

Sub-optimal service process

Deeds, processes, and performance comprise service (Zeithaml, Bitner & Gremler, 2006, p. 4). When there’s a mismatch between the service expected and the service delivered, then it’s a sub-optimal service. Service has been analyzed in this article is A individual ordered furniture from an internet furnishings shop, and he acquired damaged gear. Then he known as the company and made an appointment with them to restore the furniture, however the repair worker did not show up.

And the corporate reschedules time with the consumer. However, when the server lastly meets the consumer, he informed the client that the gear couldn’t be repaired and left.

Customers need from the service

Create a job map is one way to understand a client’s demand for service from a customer’s perspective. Identifying work requirements is the first step in forming a map (Bettencourt & Ulwick, 2008). Link to the case, customers need to think about the furniture’s supply technique by means of how far the supply vacation spot is, the furniture measurement.

The second step is to organize components and the physical setting of the service (Bettencourt & Ulwick, 2008). For the furniture supply service, is to pack good quality furniture and put it in a field of the best size. Then is the time to double-check all data and process needs to do earlier than delivery (ex: examine the supply handle be written correctly) (Bettencourt & Ulwick, 2008). Next, carry out and monitor the duty. Customers need to monitor the supply standing of the thing till it been shipped to the last cease. Then is product modification. If the furniture was broken throughout transportation, shoppers might help with modification or repairs (Bettencourt & Ulwick, 2008). To conclude the job, the client must doc all drawback occurred during the service course of and document all patrons info.

Dimensions of service quality

Service high quality is an analysis of how a service been delivered to meet customer expectations (Sudhakar, M.Padmavathi, & Ravindran, 2011). There are 5 dimensions of service quality, that are reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles (Prakash & Mohanty, 2012). Reliability refers to the capability to execute the committed service reliably and exactly. Responsiveness – willing to assist purchasers and serve in time (Bordoloi, Fitzsimmons, & Fitzsimmons, 2019). Regarding the furnishings supply case, the client is anticipating that someone will assist him to examine whether or not the furniture is repairable of their scheduled assembly time. What the customer perceived is nobody has arrived on the appointment time without prior notice. Because the server absent from the appointment for no obvious purpose, so he’s not dependable and responsible. Thus, the anticipated service fails to fulfill the perceived service, and the service quality is unacceptable (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985).

Moreover, assurance demonstrates the experience and politeness of the workers and their capability to transmit belief and confidence. Empathy refers back to the degree of providing a customized service (Bordoloi, Fitzsimmons, & Fitzsimmons, 2019). Link to the case, the shopper wants the server to repair the furniture, or get a refund from the company if the furniture couldn’t be repaired. What the consumer perceived is being advised that the furnishings couldn’t be fastened and the server left. The method the worker communicates to purchasers doesn’t indicate that he values one of the best interests of his shoppers. As the server didn’t show up on the first restore appointment, subsequently, the worker needs to understand how shoppers would possibly really feel, and a minimal of to prepare another choices to help the shopper repair the problem. Thus, the expected service fails to meet the perceived service and makes an unacceptable service quality (Parasuraman et al., 1985). The last dimension of service quality is tangibles (such as bodily facilities) (Prakash & Mohanty, 2012).

The position of service high quality in the company’s competitive advantage

Quality of service is also crucial to obtain a competitive benefit and improve company profit within the service trade. Competitive advantage is the ability to tell apart a firm from its rivals and allow it to obtain a position that tough for its rivals to compete (Daneshvar & Ramesh, 2011). According to Vaura (1992), buyer satisfaction is an important normal to entry service high quality. Price, high quality of service, and personal reasons are some parts that have an result on customer satisfaction, and these components differentiate a company from its rivals, thus making a company extra aggressive (Daneshvar & Ramesh, 2011). Also, service high quality improves the company’s revenue in two ways. First, excellent service quality attracts more new purchasers, thus improve the company’s market share. Second, quality of service is a key contributor to preserving present customers researches exist to exhibits that premium companies enhance customer willingness to purchase extra products and services, scale back price sensitivity, and share their satisfactory expertise with others (Daneshvar & Ramesh, 2011).

Service recovery and repair improvement

Zeithaml and Bitner (2000) state the service restoration is to handle the potential service failure by way of deals with issues, to vary the negative notion of the consumer to the firm, and retain them. Some examples of service restoration actions are apologies, compensation, administration interventions. Moreover, after a service fails to ship, constructing relationships with clients can increase the likelihood of recovery, as a outcome of customers are extra tolerant of employees who construct pleasant relationships. Clients evaluate the service remedy of an organization by three kinds of justice, which are distributive justice (the extent of fair of perceived outcomes, such as compensation, repair), interactive justice (a sense of fairness associated with how prospects are treated, similar to apologies) and justice within the process (the fairness of actions to repairing failures, such as the pace of response, accessibility). Successful service recovery alters and strengthens the greatest way clients consider a company’s service high quality, potential to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty (Budeanu, 2015).

There are a number of issues a company needs to know to reinforce the service. Firstly, the top of the service is more necessary than the start of the service as a end result of it’s one thing that stays within the customer’s memory (Chase & Dasu, 2001). In the furnishings supply service, in the end, the server didn’t deal with the damaged furnishings correctly and make the customer unhappy. Service could be highly rated by clients if it begins comparably powerless and a moderate rise on the finish than with a wonderful start and sloppy finish (Chase & Dasu, 2001). The second principle to improve service is lowering buyer waiting time. Take the furniture supply service for example this service could presumably be higher off if the server confirmed up in the first appointment and repair the issue, because the shopper does not need to attend for one more appointment, thus cut back the ache of waiting (Chase & Dasu, 2001).

Conclusion

To conclude, the first part of the essay presents a poor service experience, then discuss customer’s demand for a particular service by job map. Five parts of service (reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles) has been included by discussing the perceived service and anticipated service distinction. Next, the connection between service quality and the company’s competitive advantage has even be covered. Ways to recovery and improve the service be included on the end of this text.

An Overview of Soil Liquefaction Process

Introduction

Soil liquefaction, additionally referred to as earthquake liquefaction, ground failure or loss of power that causes solid soil to behave briefly as a viscous liquid. The phenomenon happens in water-saturated unconsolidated soils affected by seismic S waves (secondary waves), which trigger floor vibrations throughout earthquakes. Although earthquake shock is the most effective known reason for liquefaction, sure development practices, together with blasting and soil compaction and vibroflotation (which makes use of a vibrating probe to change the grain construction of the encompassing soil), produce this phenomenon intentionally.

Poorly drained fine-grained soils corresponding to sandy, silty, and gravelly soils are the most susceptible to liquefaction.

The damaging energy of liquefaction was abruptly brought to the world’s consideration by two giant earthquakes in 1964”the March 27 Great Alaskan (Mw = 9.2) and the June sixteen Niigata, Japan (Mw — 7.5). Liquefaction-induced lateral spread during the Alaskan earthquake distorted greater than 250 freeway and railway bridges, damaging most past repair and inflicting a quantity of to break down. Flow failures in shoreline areas during this same occasion carried port amenities out to sea, while returning waves overran coastlines inflicting further deaths and destruction.

In whole, more than 50% of the Alaskan earthquake damage was caused by liquefaction-induced floor failure.

During the Niigata earthquake, liquefaction decreased bearing energy beneath many buildings, causing settlement and tipping. At different localities, lateral spreads collapsed bridges, severed pipelines, and wreaked havoc on pile foundations and other underground structures. Research following those two events has clarified mechanisms controlling liquefaction, produced procedures for predicting its incidence, and generated strategies for mitigating damaging results. Field and laboratory exams point out that liquefaction and subsequent ground deformation comprise complicated phenomena that are tough to mannequin either bodily or analytically.

Thus, empirical procedures have turn out to be the standard of practice for evaluation of liquefaction resistance, prediction of ground deformation, and design of remedial measures.

Mechanism of Liquefaction

The formal definition of soil liquefaction is “the transformation of a granular soil from a stable state to liquefied state as a consequence of elevated pore water stress and lowered efficient stress”. Liquefaction happens as seismic waves propagate by way of saturated granular sediment layers, which induces cyclic shear deformation and collapse of unfastened particulate structures. As collapse occurs, contacts between grains are disrupted and loads previously carried via particle-to-particle contacts are transferred to the interstitial pore water. This load transfer generates increased pore water strain and concomitant lower of intergranular or effective stress. As pore water pressures enhance, the sediment layer softens, allowing greater deformation and an accelerated fee of collapse of particulate buildings. When the pore stress reaches a certain important degree, the effective stress approaches zero and the granular sediment begins to behave as a viscous liquid somewhat than a strong, and liquefaction has occurred. With the soil in a liquefied and softened condition, ground deformations happen readily in response to static or dynamic loading. The quantity of deformation is a perform of loading circumstances, amplitudes and frequencies of seismic waves, the thickness and extent of the liquefied layer, the relative density and permeability of the liquefied sediment, and the permeability of surrounding sediment layers.

Damage of Liquefaction

Liquefaction might result in any one of several types of floor failure, relying on surface masses, website geometry, and the depth, thickness, and extent of the liquefied layer. Ground failures are divided into two general classes relying on whether or not induced ground actions are primarily lateral or vertical.Ground failures related to lateral floor displacements are of three sorts: flow failure, lateral spread, and floor oscillation[4]. The bounds between these failure types are transitional, with the type of failure and amount of displacement dependent on local web site conditions.Buildings constructed on loose soil pitch and tilt easily when liquefaction happens, for the reason that soil not supports the structures’ foundations. In contrast, structures anchored to bedrock or stiff soils in earthquake-prone areas undergo less damage, because much less vibration is transmitted via the muse to the structure above. In addition, buildings anchored to bedrock have a decreased threat of pitching and tilting.One of probably the most extreme episodes of liquefaction in trendy times occurred in China in the course of the Tangshan earthquake of 1976. Some scientists estimate that an space of more than 2,400 km2 was subjected to severe liquefaction, which contributed to the extensive damage that happened in the southern part of town.

The liquefaction of the soft lake sediment upon which central Mexico City was built amplified the consequences of the 1985 earthquake, the epicentre of which was situated hundreds of miles away. In addition, the liquefaction of the bottom beneath the Mission and Market districts in San Francisco in the course of the 1906 earthquake brought on several structures to pitch and collapse. These districts had been constructed on poorly filled reclaimed wetlands and shallow-water areas.Liquefaction can also contribute to sand blows, which are also identified as sand boils or sand volcanoes. Sand blows typically accompany the liquefaction of sandy or silty soil. With the collapse of the soil’s granular structure, the density of the soil increases. This elevated stress squeezes the water out of the pore spaces between the soil grains and expels wet sand from the bottom. Sand blows have been noticed within the aftermath of several earthquakes, together with the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811″12, the Tangshan earthquake of 1976, the San Francisco”Oakland earthquake of 1989, and the Christchurch earthquakes of 2010″

Discriminat Methods of Liquefaction

Critical porosity ratio methodology The important porosity ratio methodology is a method to distinguish liquefaction by figuring out the empirical value of the important porosity ratio of saturated sand and the precise porosity ratio of soil. In 1936, Casagrande first put forward the crucial porosity ratio methodology based on the shear shrinkage of low density sand and the broaden of high density sand, and adjusted the state of shear failure. The pore ratio similar to the fixed lower volume is thought to be the critical pore ratio. The crucial pore ratio technique is also the earliest method used in the world to judge the liquefaction potential of sandy soil. But because the important porosity ratio is significantly affected by load conditions and lateral boundary conditions, the critical porosity ratio is used as a single evaluation index to judge the sandy soil liquid.At present, this method has been rarely used. Castro and Poulos et al.[5-7] proposed a way based mostly on the work of Casagrande Steady-state energy technique for retaining the unique steady state of soil when move slip failure occurs. It is considered that only loose sand might happen flow slip failure, and decided the steady-state line of the relationship between pore ratio and consolidation pressure was established. The chance of liquefaction is decided by evaluating the measured porosity ratio with the steady-state line. Zhao chenggang et al.[8] investigated the liquefaction discrimination process of steady-state intensity methodology and steady-state line.

It is pointed out that the steady-state power and steady-state deformation don’t exist under any conditions, and the uniqueness of the steady-state line, and the road form is analyzed and mentioned.Energy Assessment MethodIn 1982, Davis et al.[9] proposed a way based mostly on the idea of power by way of the survey information of seismic liquefaction. It is assumed that the rise or decrease of pore water pressure is said to the power dissipation of soil during earthquake. For a given earthquake magnitude, based on Gutenberg-Richter(1956) earthquake complete radiation energy calculation methodology to discover out its vitality for a given web site. In this theory, the pore water pressure increased with the power dissipation within the soil, and Davis assumed that the increase of pore water strain and energy attenuation had a sure linear relationship. Through numerous earthquake site investigation, the ratio of the pore stress enhance with the effective overburden stress is decided by summarizing the information and analyzing the test outcomes. Law et al.[10] and Trifunac[11] constructed the liquefaction chance respectively on the basis of the seismic vitality calculation method proposed by Gutenberg Richter. Arias (1970) proposed the calculation technique for measuring the intensity of earthquakes, and Kayen et al.[12] used Arias intensity technique to calculate the ground complete power of the earthquake and established the energy discrimination method for evaluating the liquefaction possibility of the location. Based on a large quantity of field survey knowledge, the energy discriminant methodology adopts the parameters corresponding to magnitude, epicentral distance, effective overburden stress and commonplace penetration number.

The relationship between the rise of pore stress and the effective overburden pressure is established. However, when the epicenter distance could be very small, the above hypothesized vitality attenuation relation will not be cheap, and it is not appropriate for liquefaction identification of near-field websites. In addition, within the survey data selected by Divis, the variety of normal penetration strikes is all lower than 20, and when the number of measured penetration strikes is greater than 20, the empirical method wants further revision. Since the efficient overburden strain is proportional to the buried depth of sand layer, and the initial effective overburden pressure in the selected site are less than 135kPa, it ought to be carefully used for liquefaction identification of deep saturated sand.Shear wave velocity methodShear wave velocity is a vital index of soil dynamic traits and reflects the degree of soil compaction and consolidation. In truth, the bigger the preliminary shear modulus is, the smaller the deformation of soil. Shear wave velocity technique has been broadly used in the field of geotechnical engineering because of its benefits of small size, quick test velocity and high effectivity. According to the essential theory of cyclic strain technique, Dobry et al.[13] proposed the method of determining the liquefaction potential of saturated sand soil by using shear wave velocity.

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On the basis of potential check, Dobry suggested that the critical shear strain value for liquefaction of saturated sand should be about 4 ~ 10, and derived the liquefaction discriminant formula. The semi-empirical and semi-theoretical method has been adopted by the nationwide bureau of standards (NBS). Tokimatsu et al.[14] decided the relationship between the modified crucial shear wave velocity and the liquefaction stress ratio through a lot of experiments. In 1984, A new technique of seismic liquefaction identification based mostly on shear wave velocity is proposed in China. In the identical 12 months, Shi zhaoji[15] proposed that the advised worth of important shear strain given by Dobry, which was too conservative.

Based on the measured data of Haicheng earthquake and Tangshan earthquake, the method for determining the liquefaction of silt with the important shear wave velocity as the index is established and extended to totally different seismic depth. Zhou yanguo et al. [33] mixed undrained water Based on the check data of greater than 70 liquefaction factors, a critical shear wave methodology is proposed By comparability, the calculated outcomes of this methodology are in good agreement with the sphere investigation outcomes, which also verifies the anti-liquefaction strength and Empirical conclusion of linear correlation of elastic shear modulus. Based on the liquefaction phenomenon of sand and gravel soil in Wenchuan earthquake, Cao zhenzhong et al.[16] thought of that the modified shear wave velocity discriminant is not relevant to sandy gravel soil. The shear wave liquefaction model of sandy gravel soil was established by deciding on depth, groundwater depth, soil depth, shear wave velocity reference worth and gravel content as analysis elements.

The shear wave velocity methodology is based on numerous in-situ take a look at data and can immediately reflect the properties of undisturbed soil. As the technology of geotechnical testing becomes increasingly more mature, many students have established varied forms of liquefaction discrimination models by using this index. But as a end result of completely different sand samples and shear wave velocity, it’s not straightforward to determine an exact critical value.Cone Penetration Test MethodCone Penetration Test (CPT) is an in-situ take a look at technique for geotechnical engineering. It was firstly used in railway development in Sweden in 1917. Due to the advantages of small impression of soil sample disturbance, quick identification velocity and simple operation, this technique has become a typical in-situ test of geotechnical engineering. In 1984, Olsen [17] proposed the strategy of determining the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) by means of cone penetration resistance and lateral wall friction resistance. In order to simplify the calculation, the stress index was used to normalize the penetration resistance of the cone. Robertson et al. [18] instantly calculated the cyclic resistance using CPT test outcomes. Moss et al.[19] proposed the deterministic and nondeterministic liquefaction analysis method based on CPT based on the statistics of global liquefaction websites.

The outcomes show that when the normalized CPT take a look at result is used as the variable, the load of the effect of the overburden effective stress on liquefaction is reduced, and it is instructed to undertake the iterative technique to modify the secondary stress on liquefaction. Zhou shengen[20] performed a lot of static sounding checks in different intensity areas of Tangshan earthquake, and established the liquefaction mannequin utilizing the epicentral distance, groundwater level, buried depth of sand layer, and coverage space. Li zhaoyan et al.[21] performed a examine on the applicability of static penetration method in determining liquefaction in Bachu earthquake. The results confirmed that the success rate of the standard CPT method in identifying the liquefaction site is 55%. The soil properties of the soil layer in this space was quite different from the information sources of static sounding in the standard, which isn’t suitable for this space. After practically one hundred years of engineering utility, the static sounding methodology has amassed numerous data and practical expertise, and has broad utility. With the development of the precision of the take a look at instrument, the disturbance to the undisturbed soil could be averted to the best extent, the influence of human factors can be lowered, and the take a look at results can extra precisely replicate the character of the soil.

Mitigation of Liquefaction Hazard

Where a liquefaction hazard has been identified, mitigative measures are required to get rid of or reduce the hazard to an acceptable degree. These measures may embrace anyone or a mix of the next actions: (1) avoidance of the hazard through zoning restrictions or relocation of amenities to safer sites; (2) strengthening of the structure to resist the consequences of liquefaction; (3) strengthening of the bottom to forestall liquefaction and damaging ground deformations; and (4) evaluation and acceptance of the chance where hazard to life and limb is minimal. All of these measures have been used effectively to reduce harm. For example, well-reinforced shallow foundations force differential lateral displacements into shear of soil layers beneath the inspiration somewhat than fracture of the muse and superstructure. Similarly, pile or other deep foundations that transfer structural masses to competent layers beneath the liquefiable sediments have proven efficient in preventing injury to structures at websites where little or no lateral floor movement was generated. Insurance has been used as a protection towards giant monetary loss by many people and industries at localities where the specter of damage or loss of life is small.

Achievements and Challenges in the Process of Economic Development of Bihar

Bihar is the twelfth greatest and the third most populous state in India, proper behind the states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. It is widely thought of to be the least developed states in phrases of economic system and sociology by most social scientists and economists. For instance, based on the 2011 Census, it was discovered that 89% of the state’s population lived in rural areas and that it has the second-lowest urbanization rate in India. According to the Annual Report of the Reserve Bank of India of 2013, it has whopping 33.

74% of Population Below the Poverty Line which ranks it amongst the poorest states of India. As seen in this essay, many of the statistics of Bihar only show the state in a foul gentle for which the explanations stated by the majority are apparent; corresponding to alarmingly low industrialization, corruption, poor insurance policies and action of the federal government and so forth. These reasons are highly debatable and against the standard view, there is not any such single/particular factor answerable for Bihar’s under-development however an consequence of a massive number of socio-economic and political problems rooted in its vast history and tradition that embrace relatively low finance/grants received from the government during consecutive planning durations that have undermined Bihar’s capacity of funding in healthcare, infrastructure, and training which have thus resulted in its Low Human Development Index.

Demographics of Bihar:

  • Urbanization Rate: 11%
  • Sex Ratio: 919Females/1000 Males
  • Industrial Training Institutes:724
  • Medical Colleges:8
  • Agricultural Colleges: 3

Bihar is a majorly agriculture-based economy with practically three-fourth of its population engaged in agriculture.

More than half of the state stays under cultivation which ought to naturally improve its economic situation in phrases of agriculture. Unfortunately, this isn’t utterly the case due to its increase in inhabitants stress on its land which has thus pushed cultivation of land to its most possible extent. In phrases of energy sources, Bihar was a extremely wealthy and plentiful source of minerals until its wealthy mineral supply of Chota Nagpur plateau turned of part of Jharkhand after its cut up into two unbiased states in the 12 months 2000, thus leading to one other major blow to the state’s economic system. In terms of schooling, Bihar has been comparatively backward compared with other states when it comes to its GER(Gross Enrollment Ratio), on account of which the current Government of India(NDA) underneath the current monetary leadership of Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, in its finances, has geared toward rising it to 30% for higher training within the subsequent few years. At current. its GER is at a rate of 13%. Presently, the state’s greatest power is agriculture with 79% of the population being engaged in it. Its proximity to Northern Indian states and the nation of Nepal profit the same.

In the earlier couple of years, the state is steadily starting to see some positive changes and improvements which is a huge transition and transformation for such a state which has all the time been on the darkish aspect of the Indian economic system. This transition has, in flip, helped in the total enchancment of the agricultural sector of the country, Some of the present achievements in terms of agriculture in Bihar embrace the state being given the title of the second-largest producer of cotton throughout the nation, changing into the pioneer within the usage of rice husk within the technology of fresh energy to have the ability to convey out about rural electrification and rising its total vegetable production to 14.3 million tonnes in 2017-18, making it the third-highest amongst all of the Indian states. Other achievements include enchancment in renewable energy and sectors such as textiles, leather, and tourism. For occasion, it has more than 1,00,000 weavers and is home to Tasar Silk which is a type of silk completely out there in the state because of which greater market prices/premium rates are charged for the same. With the rise within the variety of power projects, the state has developed a capability of producing greater than 12.5GW of renewable power. The above talked about, thus are a number of the examples of key sectorial enhancements in the state.

On the opposite hand, Bihar is now the highest state within the development of the Gross State Domestic Product in 2017-18, according to a Crisil survey.

It has shown eleven.3% growth in the identical yr and has thus made a exceptional change when it comes to its GSDP which was around 9.9% within the previous yr. According to the 2019-20 Budget introduced by the Finance Minister of Bihar, Sri Sushil Kumar Modi, some of the highlights and major plans laid down include, improve within the allocation of funds in path of education, health, and agriculture sector that are a variety of the most important sectors of the economic system which had been beforehand ignored for many years. A budget of >₹35000 crores in the course of training, ₹5540 crores in direction of healthcare and ₹1690 crores in direction of agriculture has been allocated by the Finance Minister primarily based on various criteria. The total expenditure has been estimated to be round ₹200000 crores, the whole receipts, round ₹179000 crores, and income surplus at ₹21500 crores.

Apart from this, for the development of the Human Development Index in Bihar, the state government on Seven Commitments/Saat Nischay so as to satisfy/meet its needs/agenda. These embrace:

  • Arthik Hal, Yuvaon Bal: Entrepreneurship alternatives for the Youth
  • Arakshith Rozgar Mahila Adhikar: Employment generation for women
  • Har Ghar Bijli Lagatar: Provision of Electricity to a minimum of 5000000 homes within the state
  • Har Ghar Nal Ka Jal: Provision of water to all households in the state
  • Ghar tak Pakka Gali-Naliyan: To increase/speed up the constructing of current infrastructure and construct new rural infrastructure
  • Shauchalay Nirman Ghar ka Samman: End outdoor defecation by offering financial assist and funding the construction of indoor toilets in all households in addition to building neighborhood bogs in varied components of the state
  • Awsar Badhe, Aage Padhe: Increase alternatives to students for higher education and availing loans and scholarship for the same chemes for the implementation and achievement of Seven Commitments/Saat Nischay:
  1. City Surveillance Scheme for Women’s Safety: Installation of cameras at various areas all through the state and deployment of officers at totally different posts to find a way to facilitate higher administration
  2. Free Wi-Fi by way of Campus Wi-Fi Scheme: Provision of free Wi-Fi to around 300 colleges and universities in the state by putting in solar panels worth ₹23 crore around the state to make sure fixed functioning of Wi-Fi
  3. Patrakar Samman Yojana: Ensurement of the provision of pension for Journalists
  4. Kushal Yuva Programme Skill Training Scheme: Improvement of the state by method of properly educated and employed youth in the state
  5. Bihar Student Credit Card Scheme: Provision of training loan as a lot as ₹400000 for students that have cleared 12th grade
  6. Mukhyamantri Swayam Sahayata Bhatta Yojna: Provide monetary assistance to twelfth cross youth in search of employment
  7. Housing Scheme for Fourth Grade Government Employees: Development of housing initiatives for government servants and employees and provide reasonably priced housing with all fundamental services wanted for residing

Regardless of all the above-mentioned insurance policies, schemes and Yojanas, Bihar is still going by way of lots of tragedies such as the recent deaths because of acute encephalitis syndrome due to its mismanagement when it comes to the handling of the disaster because of corruption, lack of implementation and sheer ignorance of the government and other authorities generally. Incidents corresponding to these completely overshadow any/every scheme/policy laid down by the federal government and thus show/portray the utter failure of governance within the state and highlight the government’s partiality and importance given only towards selective issues which it feels needed for its self-benefit than for the benefit of its people. Another such incident is that of the extreme heatwave that killed ninety people within the state which Sri Nitish Kumar’s authorities ignored by saying that it was an incident that occurred all through the nation and never simply the state of Bihar. This again reveals the shortage of dedication of the government in the direction of socio-economic issues.

Therefore, from the above-mentioned statistics and information, it can be concluded that the state of Bihar is still more of an underdeveloped state with the potential to a minimal of turn out to be a developing state, which is being held again because of its poor governance and lack of implementation of beneath and overestimated plans. Therefore, to convey it in the path of improvement, there must be an amazing change in terms of governance both on the state level and central level(in phrases of giving significance and allocation of funds), in addition to different social applications such as publicity to the importance of training and modifications in life such because the abolishment of assorted outdated customs and traditions that are pulling the state again; such as not allowing ladies to work even till date/ignorance of the lady youngster. These would in-turn, directly and indirectly, influence the improvement of the economy of the state of Bihar.

Citations

  1. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/21681376.2014.943804 (Understanding the poor financial efficiency of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India: a macro perspective)
  2. https://www.britannica.com/place/Bihar/Economy
  3. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4403334?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (Political Economy of Poverty in Bihar)
  4. https://www.ibef.org/states/Bihar.aspx (Information About Bihar: Agriculture, Industries, Economic Growth, Geography)
  5. https://www.investindia.gov.in/state/bihar
  6. https://scroll.in/article/927669/the-daily-fix-bihar-encephalitis-deaths-reflect-a-tragic-failure-of-governance (The Daily Fix: Bihar encephalitis deaths replicate a tragic failure of governance)

Accreditation Process

Accreditation refers again to the recognition given to institutions which have totally met particular requirements of academic quality by an agency or an association. In the US, the related companies undertake a evaluate of education high quality at all ranges together with elementary, secondary, faculties and universities. The businesses set primary standards reflecting the qualities of sound educational packages (Hasley et al, 1986 pp 66).

They then develop procedures aimed at determining whether the institutions and programs meet the set requirements. Many different nations lack accreditation methods like those used within the US and as a substitute rely primarily on authorities businesses to verify their training high quality and standards.

In Canada, provincial authorities authorities work closely with private academic associations in periodically assessing the quality of universities, colleges and colleges.

Accreditation offers standards of excellence that assist in encouraging instructional establishments in bettering their packages. It also offers accountability for institutions’ instructional policy, and creates criteria for certifying professions like drugs and legislation.  Furthermore, it helps potential college students to determine quality establishments, while facilitating student transfer from an institution to another.

Accreditation can be among the many factors utilized in determining the institutions and packages eligible for receiving federal and private funds.

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The accreditation process for any company entails 5 fundamental phases, each of which has many different subtasks under it. First, the agency should establish the standards or requirements of educational excellence in consultation with the educational institution being accredited.

The second stage entails improvement of procedures enabling establishments to gauge themselves deeply, to help in determining if they meet the set accreditation standards or not.

In case they do not meet the established standards, the establishments must go back to the drafting board and make the required adjustments and improvements to satisfy the required calls for. Depending on the level of compliance, this will likely require the institution to take a position some more time and sources and resources into it.

Thirdly, the company performs an analysis geared toward figuring out first-hand if the institution actually meets the set standards. This involves analyzing the institution’s amenities in addition to its resources, both physical and human. This is finished till the agency is fully satisfied that the establishment meets its minimal requirements. The analysis is done by the agencies’ experts, who are normally armed with specific requirements for accreditation.

Fourthly, the company then grants the accreditation to the institution after it is convinced that the essential requirements have been met. It then publishes an inventory of institutions that have met comparable necessities and have been awarded accreditation by the company, including the time of the accreditation.

Finally, the company periodically evaluations these institutions to seek out out if they still maintain academic quality requirements. This is completed to ensure the establishments do not compromise on the standard of educational standards. All accreditation companies make the most of these steps even though inspection procedures and specific criteria differ depending on the company.

Current issues within the accreditation process

Problems of the Law School Accreditation Process

For the past ten or so years, the American Bar Association’s accrediting arm has confronted a lot of criticism with regard to its requirements. The association has been accused of getting poorly monitored requirements that aren’t associated to regulation school quality (Marty et al, 1991).

Critics are of the view that ABA’s accreditation requirements lack correlation with skilled competence and institutional quality. The accreditation process puts emphasis on high price inputs; like necessities for bodily amenities, library collections and the variety of professors out there. Moreover, it considers test scores at legislation faculty admission, which has been criticized as not being related to skilled abilities and academic achievement. The association has also been accused of limiting low earnings college students and minorities by placing too much emphasis on standardized exams as properly as raising tuition charges (Luebchow, 2007).

The critics have accused the ABA of being inconsistent and using secret guidelines, which aren’t made public or disclosed to varsities, to make accreditation decisions. The Department of Education has additionally complained about ABA’s failure in abiding by the department’s particular necessities (Hagan, 2004 pp201). The Congress has also raised concerns concerning the association’s accreditation.

Both the federal officers and regulation colleges have often disapproved ABA’s accreditation process from the early 1990s. The Massachusetts School of Law, which has itself not been accredited, has for long strongly criticized the affiliation. In 1993 the college sued ABA citing violation of antitrust regulation as a end result of it functioned as a cartel and set unfair requirements that only raised costs, but weren’t related to law school high quality. The Justice Department filed a similar swimsuit in 1994, leading to a ten year consent decree, which is now defunct (Hagan, 2004).

The Education Department has additionally crossed heads with the association over its failure to comply with the department’s criteria for recognition since the Nineteen Nineties. These deficiencies led to the limiting of the association’s recognition to only three years in 1997. Later in 1998, the Education Department’s workers beneficial the limiting, suspending or terminating the association’s recognition as nationally acknowledged accreditation company (Luebchow, 2007).

A Process of Compromise

Executive Summary

Negotiation may be seen as a procedure of via media affecting parties with different sets of values and aims which are based on their different vested involvements. Effective negotiants recognise these completely different values, goals and involvements, so work towards undertaking a win-win state of affairs in the lengthy run.

One of essentially the most rapidly creating economic systems is that of the People ‘s Republic of China ( PRC ) . Approximately one-fifth of the universe ‘s customers reside at that place and the state is presently undertaking huge substructure undertakings with a continued committedness to market-based reform.

These components contribute to the rising attending from Western concern. Imports to China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have exceeded US $ 336 billion in 1993 ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

The paper highlights the importance of the Chinese cultural market to Western concern, and acknowledges the most important cultural variations between Chinese and Westerners, adopted by a consideration as to how civilization impacts on preferable Western and Chinese method dialogues.

The paper in addition to illustrates the significance of the Guanxi, the job of covering with Chinese bureaucratism and the demand to postpone to senior status which can regularly decelerate down the finalization of a priority trade as Chinese negotiants want to hunt the authorization of their quick foremans.

It is noted that different civilizations have different involvements, values, ethical rules, attitudes, behavior and lingual manners which might influence the process and results of any dialogue ( Ferraro, 2002 ) .

It is really helpful that foreign negotiants in China should comply with a collaborative manner of dialogue, perceive and follow the Chinese constructs of Guanxi, Mianzi and Renging so as to accomplish a win-win result.

It is in addition to of import to know that while the Chinese are willing to subscribe contracts, they do non comprehend them as the terminal of the dialogues as an alternative because the formal motive to make concern, which necessitates farther dialogues. In China, relationships are presently far more of import than minutess they usually pay small shop to formal contracts, trusting as an alternative more on friendly relationship and trust as the footing for making concern. This leads to a drawn-out dialogue procedure which encompasses societal every bit good as concern parametric quantities ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

Footings of Mention

We are Otobo International Limited, a confer withing home based mostly in London, United Kingdom.

Our Client is Justconn Group Plc, a building firm whose central workplace is situated in London, with subdivisions in assorted parts of Europe.

Justconn has merely approached our company because it’s about to direct some of its staff to China to move out a priority dialogue on a enterprise which they’re actually a lot excited about set abouting.

This will be the first clip Justcon will be transporting out any signifier of concern minutess outside Europe and their top path acknowledge the demand to develop their workers in the proper manner of negociating with the Chinese as they know that cultural differences will play a serious operate in the outcomes of the dialogue.

This Briefing paper attempts to sketch the cardinal information to watch when transporting out dialogues within the Chinese manner in order to accomplish a win-win outcome.

Overview of Current Situation

It is of import to observe that no affair how easy or complex the selling system, dialogues between purchasers and Sellerss occur. When buying determinations are complicated, and significantly when overseas dialogues are involved, dialogue techniques can play a major operate within the profitable determination of a concern commerce. It is unrealistic to presume that one dialogue manner matches all civilizations ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

One of probably the most rapidly growing economic methods is the Peoples Republic of China ( PRC ) . Approximately one-fifth of the universe ‘s shoppers reside at that place. The state is presently undertaking huge substructure undertakings and there’s a continued committedness to market-based reform. These factors contribute to the rising attending from Western concern. Imports to China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have exceeded US $ 336 billion in 1993 ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

“Guanxi” , which literally means “relationships” , stands for any type of relationship. In the Chinese concern universe it is understood as the online of relationships amongst assorted events that cooperate together and again up one another. The Chinese man of affairs outlook is one of “you abrasion my dorsum, I ‘ll rub yours.” In kernel, Guanxi includes change of favors carried out regularly and voluntarily. It is an of import construct to know if one is to work efficaciously in the Chinese society. In China it is the proper “Guanxi” that makes all the difference in vouching that concern might be successful. Close attending should be paid to at least one ‘s immediate Chinese web, and attempt should be made to set up good “Guanxi” with them. They can not directly make links to new familiarities and data sources, therefore assisting to develop different proper “Guanxi” ( Lo, 2004 ) .

It is the demand to determine dialogues on the format of Chinese civilization which requires cognition of Guanxi, Renqing ( executing of favor ) , Mianzi ( Chinese assemble of “giving face” ) and a terror of why dialogues might be slow. Foreigners want to know that while the Chinese are prepared to subscribe contracts, they do non see them as the terminal of the dialogues instead because the formal willingness to make concern which necessitates farther dialogues ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

Maddux acknowledged that dialogue is an trade procedure between events to obtain sources or advantages from one other get together when resources are under the “sellers” control. In a profitable dialogue, a negotiant obtains something of higher worth in trade for something on which she or he see as holding a lower comparative value.

Maddux ( 1988 ) developed a six-step dialogue procedure:

  1. Geting to cognize each other.
  2. Statement of ends and goals.
  3. Get downing the process.
  4. Expressions of dissension and wrestle are non a trial of energy however an chance to uncover what people need.
  5. Reappraisal and through media.
  6. Agreement in rule or colony.

These stairss could be executed during the dialogue so as to accomplish a win-win outcome.

It ought to besides be famous that while the Chinese are classified as Holistic negotiants i.e. they cope with points collectively as a whole and do grants merely on the terminal of a dialogue, Westerners are categorised as Consecutive negotiants i.e. they break up complex dialogues into separate issues and do grants on single points. Consecutive negotiants discover it disputing to cover with Holistic negotiant, subsequently consideration must be made in the course of the dialogue and one has to be patient with the Chinese method so as to accomplish a win-win result ( Lapwood, 2009 ) .

Analysis of Situation

Political Factors

The People ‘s Republic of China was founded by the Communist Party of China, the chief of the Chinese individuals. The socialist system is the cardinal system of the People ‘s Republic of China. The people manage the province, financial system, civilization and other societal private businesss through assorted agencies and signifiers. The fundamental undertaking and ends of the province is to concentrate on the socialist modernisation thrust with the purpose of constructing socialism with Chinese options ; to stick to the socialist route, persist in the reform and opening up plan, higher the socialist system in all facets, develop the market economic system, better the regulation of jurisprudence ; to be autonomous and work hard to bit by bit recognize the modernisation of the trade, agribusiness, national protection mechanism, scientific self-discipline and engineering so as to construct China into a powerful and democratic socialist state with a excessive grade of cultural growth ( www.china.org.cn ) .

Foreign commerce is controlled by Customs, the Ministry of Commerce, and the Bank of China which controls entree to the international forex required for imports. Since restrictions on overseas trade have been decreased, there have been more possibilities for single endeavors to take portion in concern with overseas houses without much engagement from official bureaus. Although private sector firms still lead little and average sized issues, the authorities nonetheless performs a big portion within the greater industries. The incontrovertible fact that over a 3rd of the Chinese financial system is province owned proves this ( www.china.org.cn ) .

Therefore, the Chinese authorities encourages concern associations and investing from western companies and firms from other components of the universe.

Economic Factors

The economic system of the People ‘s Republic of China is an influential and quickly developing and market financial system. In China, there was denationalization of most of the province owned endeavors which has led to the gap as much as western states. China is the third largest financial system in the universe after the united states and Japan with a nominal GDP of US $ 4.four trillion ( 2008 ) in exchange-rate footings is the 2nd largest in the universe after that of the United States with a GDP of $ 7.8 trillion ( 2008 ) on a buying energy para footing. China has had the fastest-growing main financial system for the past 30 old ages with an imply one-year GDP growing fee above 10 % . China ‘s per capita earnings has increased at an mean one-year fee of greater than eight % over the past three decennaries.

Foreign trade is supervised by the Ministry of Commerce, imposts, and the Bank of China, the foreign trade arm of the Chinese banking system, which manages entree to the foreign foreign money required for imports. Since limitations on overseas commerce were minimize down, broad possibilities for single endeavors to prosecute in exchanges with overseas houses has been in topographic point without a lot intercession from official bureaus.

In the early 1980s, China restricted international investings to export-based operations and insisted foreign investors to arrange joint-venture partnerships with Chinese homes. Foreign-invested endeavors are responsible for about 58-60 % of China ‘s imports and exports. Since the early Nineteen Nineties, the authorities has approved overseas buyers to manufacture and merchandise a broad scope of products in the domestic market. The authorities besides eliminated clip limitations on the structure of joint ventures, allowed overseas spouses to go chairs of three method partnership boards, supplied some warrant in opposition to nationalisation, and permitted the structure of totally foreign-owned endeavors. Foreign investing remains a serious element in China ‘s speedy enlargement in universe trade and has been a essential factor within the growing of urban occupations. In 1998, foreign-invested endeavors created about 40 % of China ‘s exports, and overseas change militias summed up to about $ one hundred forty five billion. Foreign-invested endeavors right now manufacture about half of China ‘s exports ( www.china.org.cn ) .

Sociological Factors

The PRC seems to be a ambitious environment by which to hold on dialogues, a factor shared with other Chinese-based economic methods such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. China is a high context civilization in which persons are intensely involved with others and data is extensively shared ( Hall, 1976 ) . The cultural variable has been defined by Guanxi, but Guanxi would is a dependent variable gotten from the cultural and matter-of-fact calls for of Chinese society. Research to explicate cultural variations between states was carried out by Hofstede ( 1991 ) who recognized five dimensions of civilization:

  1. Power distance ( measured from little to big )
  2. Collectivism versus individuality
  3. Femininity versus maleness
  4. Uncertainty turning away ( from weak to sturdy )
  5. Long-run Orientation

Hofstede ‘s work makes comparings between Western-based civilizations, corresponding to Great Britain and USA, to Chinese civilizations similar to Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hofstede ‘s ( 1991 ) work for the Chinese and Western states are summarised in the Table beneath.

Power distance is a step of the extent to which the much less highly effective members of institutions and administrations within a state count on and accept that power is distributed inconsistently. This indicates that folks within the Chinese states settle for the reality that energy is erratically distributed in society and concern.

Individualism stands for a society by which the ties between individuals are free. It is clear from the tabular array that Chinese states report a lot lower mean tonss compared to Western states which show comparatively excessive tonss. This indicates that human ties taking to group, as an alternative than single, attempt in concern are extra common in the Chinese based mostly states than in Western states. The Chinese states are usually group-based economic systems and have a clearer hierarchal development of their dedication procedure whereas their Western counterparts are more individualistic and slackly organised. The Chinese excessively are affected person but relentless in their chases and willing to renegociate contracts to perform their long-run goals. These options pose a challenge to Western dialogues as they want to perceive the Chinese group kineticss, their hierarchal constructions and their long-run orientation all of which are a touch to their motivations in concern dialogues. The incontrovertible reality that Chinese negotiants prefer to confer with and transfer jointly might explicate why Guanxi is a phenomenon present in Chinese states.

Femininity versus maleness is a step of how distinguishable gender functions are in society. The difference between the Chinese and Western states is non every bit marked as within the different dimensions. This could be because of the rapid economic rising in these states and the reality that course method has been subjected to Western influences and because in Chinese society every bit good as Western society there are possibilities for fostering, each bit good as self-asserting capabilities.

The uncertainness turning away index, a step of the extent to which members of a civilization really feel threatened by not sure and unknown state of affairss.

With respect to long-run orientation, the Western states replicate a much decrease norm mark than the Chinese states. The “long-term” orientation displays the manner by which Chinese civilizations incorporate, of their values, the directions of Confucius and in peculiar the significance of doggedness and thrift.

It may be seen that the most important Sino-Western cultural differences occur in footings of individuality, power distance and long-run orientation. These three dimensions are likely to impact on the manner all sides chooses to hold on their dialogues.

There is besides acknowledgment that the negotiant ‘s function is managed by components such as the speaking context within his or her civilization, significantly in state of affairss with high context civilization. Hall ( 1976 ) defines excessive context civilizations as those by which info is broadly shared and speaking with deep significance is transmitted freely. Western states are low context in nature and so are non more likely to be inhibited so much by cultural issues. This could additionally be due to the being of individuality in these states and the robust mobility from one topographic point to a different.

It is assumed that in dialogue, each parties regulate their outlooks in the course of the declaration of wrestle which suggests that one aspect does non hold absolute power over the opposite aspect. It is believed that Chinese civilization influences the style dialogues proceed and are structured, which makes masking with the Chinese unique. In sing the way the Chinese enter into dialogues, Guanxi, Mianzi and Renqing are explored as portion of this procedure.

Guanxi is driven by deep frozen cultural beliefs stemming from the instructions of Confucius, and from the matter-of-fact calls for of life in fairly self-supporting communities

Mianzi is the Chinese construct of giving “face” . This means giving regard and recognizing the place and moral reputation of the Chinese negotiant in society. It is of import to protect one ‘s “face” however it’s even more of import to give “face” to others. It entails a mutual relationship of regard and courtesy to and out of your opposite numbers. To “give face” means to reward individual ‘s reputation in a society and to “lose face” is to denounce place and reputation. It apart from indicates a lack of assurance and a deficiency of belief ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) . In concern state of affairss, aggressive behavior from either get together can botch the face of the other get together.

Renqing is the performing of favors and giving of gifts in China. For Instance, a person of affairs might do a contribution to the Department of Transport for infra development proviso or a professor might direct books to a Chinese University. ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) .

If a contract is what’s required by a foreign negotiant it is in addition to of import to realize that there are three distinguishable phases within the process harmonizing to Mente ( 1992 ) :

  1. The societal side.
  2. The sign language of the contract.
  3. The post-negotiation phase.

The societal side entails the formation of relationships, trust and understanding the cultural values of each squads of negotiants. Before the contract is signed there are normally two distinguishable phases: the proficient stage, which is elaborate and the industrial stage. From the Chinese side, these two phases may be performed by two separate negociating squads. It must be famous that the signal language of a contract does non bespeak the terminal of the dialogues but merely the motive of the Chinese to perpetrate to the relationship. This means they could go on to negociate even after the contract has been signed, after all of the Chinese constantly emphasise that every one understandings are primarily based on friendly relationship and good will ( Mente, 1992 ) and so the contract does non bespeak the concluding understanding.

Technological

China ‘s leaders have been described as technocrats due to their involvements in scientific self-discipline and engineering. Since the early Nineteen Eighties scientific and technological modernisation has been given high priority. China is provided with the newest engineering and apart from is presently endeavor large substructure undertakings in its committedness to market-based reform. These elements contribute to the growing attending from Western concern ( Buttery and Leung, 1996 ) .

Therefore China has substructure that will allow a clean executing of the constructing of the proposed undertaking.

Solutions and Recommendations

Western strategies appear to comply with a procedure concluding within the sign language of a contract. It is a affair of fact operation however tradeoffs are made between the strictly proficient excellence and advantage of a dialogue and cognition and belief of the opposite negotiating house perchance due to previous traffics.

It is the demand to ascertain dialogues on the format of Chinese civilization which requires cognition of Guanxi, Renqing and Mianzi and an apprehension of why dialogues might be slow. Foreigners ought to apart from perceive that whereas the Chinese are keen to subscribe contracts, they do non comprehend them because the terminal of the dialogues instead as the formal motive to make concern which necessitates farther dialogues.

The Chinese states tend to be group-based financial techniques and have a clearer hierarchal building of their determination procedure whereas their Western opposite numbers are extra individualistic and slackly organised. The Chinese excessively are affected person however relentless in their chases and willing to renegociate contracts to perform their long-run aims. These options pose a problem to Western dialogues as they need to understand the Chinese group kineticss, their hierarchal constructions and their long-run orientation all of that are a hint to their motivations in concern dialogues.

In China, relationships are presently rather more of import than minutess and they pay small shop to formal contracts, trusting more on pleasant relationship and belief as the footing for making concern. This leads to a drawn-out dialogue procedure which encompasses societal every bit good as concern parametric portions. Therefore, In China it might be misdirecting to see the dialogue process as a pure economic exchange process, instead it’s extra of a process of fiting both the proficient aspects of the merchandise and service to the demands of the purchaser however on the identical time fiting the friendly relationship and trust coevals facets of making concern ( Buttery & A ; Leung, 1996 ) .

Prognosiss and Results

It is predicted that for a profitable dialogue to take topographic level, the negotiant must

  • Adopt an acceptable scheme
  • Undertaking positive personal and organizational feelings
  • Carry out intensive research
  • Make related questions
  • Offer and petition appropriate and thoughtful grants at the proper clip.

It may be disputing to transport out International dialogues and some of the jobs that may be encountered could be due to utilizing a different authorized development, negociating in a special scene, get bying with Government intervention and the potential for new statute legal guidelines in addition to pure disaster and terrorist act. In add-on, transporting out dialogues in another state could ensue in Culture daze, Jetlag and the Host would be at an advantage and would possibly set you under force per unit space to give away grants ( Lapwood, 2009 )

It is anticipated that for a successful dialogue to take topographic point, negotiants should follow N-2 method and apart from take the undermentioned components into consideration

  • Remain flexible
  • Be clip witting
  • Be prepared
  • Pay good attending ( Listen )
  • Use Interpreters who understand the civilization, non merely the linguistic communication
  • Focus on the involvements behind the places

Mentions

  1. Buttery, E.A. and Leung, T.K.P. ( 1996 ) . “The difference between Chinese and Western negotiations” , European Journal of Marketing, 32 ( 3/4 ) , pp. 374-389. EBSCOhostEJS [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-www.emeraldinsight.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Insight/viewPDF.jsp? contentType=Article & A ; Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0070320308.pdf ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .
  2. China ‘s political system [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext switch protocol: //www.china.org.cn/english/Political/26143.htm ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .
  3. Lapwood J. ( 2009 ) “Week eight: Negotiating across cultures” . Communication in Business [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //breo.beds.ac.uk ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .
  4. Lo, V. ( 2004 ) The King of Guanxi – How An Foreigner Succeeded in China [ Online ] . Available at: hypertext switch protocol: //chinese-school.netfirms.com/guanxi.html ( Accessed: 05 December 2009 ) .
  5. Ferraro, G. ( 2002 ) The cultural Dimensions of International Business. 4th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  6. Hall, E.T. ( 1976 ) Beyond Culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
  7. Hofstede, G. ( 1991 ) Cultures and Administrations: Software of the Mind. Hymen: McGraw-Hill.
  8. Maddux, R. ( 1988 ) , Successful Negotiation. London: Kogan Page
  9. Mente, B. ( 1992 ) , Chinese Etiquette and Ethics in Business, NTC Business Book.

Bibliography

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A Critical Analysis of the Policy Making Process in Public Administration

South Africa has changed over time and ever because the democratic elections a lot of laws and policies have been changed as properly. When a coverage is being made it’ll always contain interaction between the population and the institutions that have to carry out the policy making functions. Interaction takes place by the use of elections, conferences between the folks and officers, public opinion surveys, media campaigns, and so on. No policy can be made in an disorderly method, so if the information which is needed to decide on a new coverage is not appropriate, no planning can be made.

For instance, if a policy have to be made which entails the requirements of schools, analysis surveys should be carried out in all the schools of the state.

This must then be interpreted and evaluated correct by the particular person or persons doing it. 2. Public Policy In any society, governmental entities enact laws, make policies, and allocate sources. According to Cloete (1993) a coverage is a declaration of intent to do something or to have it carried out by specified institutions or functionaries as prescribed.

There are a few steps that have to be accomplished efficiently to have a coverage corresponding to a sequence of choices need to be taken, the implementation of a coverage means one other series of selections, and for policy evaluation another collection of choices need to be taken. Cloete (1993:80) states that the structure is a coverage assertion because it declares “the motion to be taken by specified institutions and workplace bearers who observe stated procedures and respect prescribed conduct pointers and values for the creation and maintenance of the state.

However, a coverage assertion is never static due to human society constantly shifting and developing it causes a continuing change in policy to adapt to the altering wants and expectations of the population. Public coverage may be usually defined as a system of legal guidelines, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic formed by authorities entity or its representatives. As a authorities action it’s usually the principled guide to action taken by the executive or govt branches of the state with regard to a category of issues in a way according to law and institutional customs. Schuster, 2009)

Therefore, a major side of public policy is legislation, which includes specific laws and provisions of constitutional or worldwide law. Furthermore, Gerston (2008: 7) additionally states that a public policy is also the combination of primary selections, commitments, and actions made by those who hold or influence authorities positions of authority. These arrangements end result from interactions amongst those who demand change, those that make selections, and those affected by the policy in query.

Issues such as health, crime, education, social welfare and international policy can be addressed by public policy. Leaders of spiritual and cultural institutions can even make public policies for the benefit of the congregation and members. I personally feel that public insurance policies have a blend of each politics and authorities, and that public insurance policies are there to deal with a public concern by instituting legal guidelines, regulations, choices, or actions to regulate the issue at hand. 3. Public Policy Making

Public coverage making is a complex process that involves the interplay of quite a few individuals and curiosity groups competing and collaborating to affect policymakers to behave in a selected way. According to Cloete (1993) the time period coverage making ought to be used to refer to capabilities performed to obtain policies. Individuals and teams are always attempting to shape public policy by way of schooling, advocacy, or mobilization of curiosity teams. Thus, policy making consists of the performance of a gaggle of generic administrative processes.

According to Cliffs (1987) coverage making includes a number of capabilities to be performed namely: the identification of issues on which insurance policies need to be made and the investigation of the issues requiring new policies or coverage diversifications. When new public policies are created, there are typically three key things concerned within the process: the issue, the participant, and the policy. The downside is the issue must be addressed, the participant is the person or group that is influential in forming a plan to address the issue in query, and the coverage is the finalized plan of action decided upon by the government. Schuster, 2009).

The general public will make the federal government aware of a problem by way of writing letters and emails, or making phone calls to local authorities leaders, the problem is then brought forward throughout government conferences and the method for creating new public insurance policies. three. 1Key actors in public coverage making process In essence Wasby (1973: 50) states that he inhabitants plays a huge position in coverage making and that is why there’ll always be a numerous quantity of role-players in policy-making.

The primary classes of actors in the coverage making course of are official actors who’ve statutory or constitutional responsibilities similar to legislative, government, and judiciary. Unofficial actors have participation with no express authorized authority such as interest groups, media. Most of the important work on public coverage is finished in committees, which evaluate legislation, suggest and vote on amendments, and, ultimately, determine whether or not a invoice will die on the committee level or be elevated for consideration by the full body. Legislatures consider bills submitted to them by the political executive office-bearers.

The courts have the power to interpret legislative and govt actions: judicial review. Courts are the weakest as a end result of their authority rests on the legitimacy of the law and their ability to argue their case. Legislatures and executives initiate public coverage, whereas courts react to the sensible results of such policies. Elected executives give attention to agenda-setting, (Cliffs, 1987). The judicial system in a democratic country like South Africa has a serious position within the public coverage making course of. All insurance policies are formulated keeping in view the prevailing laws and legal provisions.

According to Wasby (1973) the judiciary enters the world of coverage making delivering suggestive or advisory judgments aimed on the efficient achievement of the objectives of the country as contained in the Preamble and the body of the Constitution. The judiciary points directions for formulating a particular policy or altering the existing coverage to go well with a specific purpose. The judiciary being the sole guardian of the Constitution ensures that none of its provisions are contravened by the legislative, govt or administrative actions. Interest teams have been part of the political scene because the founding.

Arrangements exist to hyperlink curiosity groups and public institutions to allow these groups to make common inputs for policy-making purposes. According to Cloete (1993) political events can play an important position in making of policies. During elections they concentrate on weak insurance policies of their opponents and counsel higher insurance policies for the state. Media’s major operate in policy process is agenda-setting. Media protection correlates with institutional consideration. Media additionally plays a very important function in educating members of the inhabitants about political and dministrative matters.

Policy Making phases Grindle and Thomas provide a extra interactive model of the levels mannequin. Their central perception is that “a coverage reform initiative could additionally be altered or reversed at any stage… by the pressures and reactions of those that oppose it” (1991:126). However, conflict over coverage tends to center at that time in the course of where a reform initiative has been agreed to in precept by choice makers someplace in government and is moving on for further ratification and eventual implementation.

Most of the heavy coverage action comes after these early determination phases. A coverage established and carried out by the government goes through a quantity of levels from inception to conclusion. These are Agenda-setting, Formation, Adoption, Implementation, Evaluation, and Termination. four. 1 Agenda- setting The “agenda” is the record of topics or issues to which authorities officials, and folks outdoors of government intently associated with these officials, are paying severe attention at some given time (Rainey, 2003).

Before a policy can be created, a problem should exist that is identified as to the attention of the government. Illegal immigration, for example, has been occurring for a couple of years, nevertheless it was not till the 1990s that sufficient people thought of it such a major problem that it required elevated authorities action. Public issues will only attain the political agenda if they converted into political points. This occurs when an curiosity group calls for government motion on a problem, or when there is public disagreement over methods during which an issue must be addressed.

According to Farmer (1995), the agenda- setting process narrows the set of all attainable issues to the set that actually becomes the focus of consideration. People somewhat restricted capability to significantly attend to many things without delay can be characteristic of political techniques, where agenda-setting is the bottleneck. Following Kingdon (1984:8), these could be conceived as three process streams- processes through which individuals affect agendas corresponding to issues, options and politics. Academics, for example, tend to be more involved on formatting proposals than are politicians, who seldom draft detailed coverage documents.

Problems Cliff (1993:7) states that problems are recognized and defined in accordance with processes which are different from the ways during which insurance policies are formulated and political events unfold. Many issues may additionally be seen both as personal misfortunes for many who experience them or as public coverage failures that authorities ought to handle. But private issues must be linked to public causes to draw authorities consideration. When a young girl drops out of secondary faculty because of an unplanned pregnancy, for example, which may be a private misfortune.

But only when women’s organisations and educators complain that adolescent being pregnant threatens the growth of expert work force, and thus undermines economic development, does adolescent pregnancy turn into a problem for presidency that calls for presidency response. Only when a private misfortune is translated into an issue of instructional attainment and financial growth does it turn out to be something that should concern policy makers. ” Problem definition is the active manipulation of images of circumstances by competing political actors.

Conditions come to be outlined as issues through the strategic portrayal of causal stories” (Stone, 1989). 4. 1. 2Solutions Policy alternatives are developed based on their own standards of selection, whether or not or not they’re options to recognize issues or sensitive to political concerns. Career civil servants, technocrats, teachers, and coverage advocates with nongovernmental organisations all play extra of a role in framing of coverage alternatives in Africa is further difficult by the presence of international donors, who may not share the identical priorities or interests and who typically do not converse with one voice. Ogden, 1971). four. 1. 3Politics Political occasions circulate alongside on their very own often unpredictable schedule, whether or not or not they are associated to problems or policy proposals.

The third household of explanations for the way a subject or a downside rises or falls on a government agenda has to do with politics. Developments in the political sphere can be powerful agenda-setters, for example, a change in authorities, a change of government ministers, a significant swing in national mood, can all transfer a topic onto or off of a authorities agenda.

Politicians usually make use of a calculus of political feasibility to determine whether an issue ought to be granted a excessive place on the coverage agenda. 4. 2Formation In this stage insurance policies are created and/or modified. According to Chandler (2000) policy formation means arising with an strategy to fixing an issue. Congress, the chief branch, the courts, and curiosity groups could also be involved. Contradictory proposals are often made. For instance, the president could have one strategy to immigration reform, and the opposition-party members of Congress might have one other.

Policy formulation has a tangible end result: A invoice of rights goes before Congress or a regulatory agency drafts proposed rules. The course of continues with adoption. 4. three Adoption “A coverage is adopted when a Congress passes legislation, the regulations turn into ultimate, or the Supreme Court renders a call in a case” ( Farmer,1995). This stage can additionally be when a coverage is introduced into force, for instance, by state or federal legislation. New or changed public policies are often adopted by means of a decision of cupboard, or an individual minister, with none laws change.

This stage includes the actions and mechanisms whereby insurance policies are brought into apply, that is, the place what is written in the legislation or policy doc is became a actuality. The content material of the coverage, and its impact on these affected, may be modified considerably, or even negated. A statue normally supplies a broad outline of a policy. For instance, Congress may mandate improved water quality requirements, but Environmental safety company (EPA) provides the details on those requirements and the procedures for measuring compliance through regulations.

According to Rainey (2003) the Supreme Court has no mechanism to enforce its selections; other branches of government must implement its determinations. Successful implementation is decided by the complexity of the coverage, coordination between those putting the policy into impact, and compliance. For example, the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education, the justices realized that desegregation was a posh problem; however, they didn’t present any guidance on tips on how to implement it.

Here, implementation depended upon the close scrutiny of circuit and appeals court docket judges, as nicely as local and state college board members who had been reluctant to push social change. Dye indicates that implementation includes all of the activities designed to carry out the insurance policies enacted by the legislative department. These activities embody the creation of latest organizations and departments, companies, bureaus, and the assignment of new obligations to existing organizations. These organizations should translate laws into operational rules and laws.

They should hire personnel, draw up contracts, spend cash, and perform duties. All of those activities involve decisions by bureaucrats and decisions that determine coverage (Dye, 2005). One critical side of policy implementation is the high degree of discretion afforded to the bureaucrats and company procedures to transform legal guidelines into action as outlined by Dye above. four. four. 1 Challenges and pitfalls of coverage implementation Theodoulou and Kofinis determine three key challenges which they consider can routinely impede the effective implementation of public policy.

Those three challenges are: four. four. 1. 1 Clarity of coverage objectives Clear policy or program goals help specify the ends or objectives desired from the policy motion. Ideally, insurance policies must be formulated with consideration of what the actual specific targets of the policy are objective stated with readability and specificity not only offers direction but in addition improves the basis by which policies can be evaluated, for accountability, effectivity, and effectiveness (Theodoulou and Kofinis, 2004, p183). 4. 4. 1. 2 Information intelligence

Information intelligence refers again to the strategic necessity for constant feedback as to how implementation is progressing, as well as the preliminary assessments of impacts. Given the growing reliance on a quantity of bureaucracies, data and suggestions is essential to gauge the degree of interagency and intergovernmental cooperation and conflict, which can be affecting implementation. Information intelligence requires a high level of communication and suggestions not solely from the agencies involved but in addition from the population affected by the coverage motion.

According to Ogden (1971) when they are terminated, it is normally because the coverage turned obsolete, clearly didn’t work, or misplaced its assist among the curiosity groups and elected officers that positioned it on the agenda in the first place. In 1974, for example, Congress enacted a national speed restrict of fifty five miles per hour. It was effective in decreasing freeway fatalities and gasoline consumption. On the other hand, the regulation increased prices for the trucking industry and was widely viewed as an unwarranted federal intrusion into an space that belonged to the states to manage.

The legislation was terminated in 1987. . Conclusion It is evident that policy making is not a task that might be undertaken by a single institution. Numerous private and public institutions must work collectively to ensure the well-being of the inhabitants. Policies cannot stay the same 12 months in and 12 months out. Changing circumstances demand fixed analysis of the present insurance policies. The high officials’ must take the lead in evaluating and proposing policy modifications. It is subsequently very important for Directors- General of state departments and town clerks to evaluate the results of their work and to inform their supervisors about needs for policy change.

A Close up Look at the Selection Process

The Selection Process is a scientific sequence of occasions, which outcomes in a corporation making a selection from a group of applicants. The group of candidates normally consists of individuals who finest meet the selection standards for the place out there. A lot of individuals graduating from school will most definitely ask themselves, “just what’s concerned within the selection course of from a HR managers perspective, or referred to generally because the interviewer. ” Lets take a look at the selection course of, since attempting to land that job of a lifetime is doubtless considered one of the primary explanation why most college students decide to continue their training.

Many employers observe a format known as an employers guide to good practices. First there might be the personnel evaluation. This evaluation is a scientific method to gathering information about the people. This information is used to make employment or career-related decisions about applicants and employees. For example, an employer might use personnel assessment to select staff for a job.

And career counselors might conduct personnel evaluation to offer career steering to shoppers. Personnel assessment instruments, such as exams and procedures, are used to measure an individual’s employment or profession associated qualifications.

There are many forms of personnel evaluation tools. These embody conventional knowledge and skill exams, inventories, subjective procedures, and projective devices. Personnel assessment tools differ in function, what they’re designed to measure what they are designed to predict, work samples, and ranges of requirements, objectives, and productivity. All assessment tools used to make employment choices, regardless of their format, are topic to legal standards.

For instance, each the analysis of a resume and the usage of a extremely standardized achievement test must comply with relevant legal guidelines.

Assessment instruments used just for profession counseling are often not held to the same legal requirements. Employers should do not forget that personnel tests provide solely a part of the picture about a person. However, these steps assist combine and consider all the information gathered about an individual to make profession or employment associated selections. People differ on many psychological and bodily traits. These traits are known as constructs. For instance, folks skillful in verbal and mathematical reasoning are considered excessive on mental ability.

Those who’ve little physical stamina and power are labeled low on endurance and bodily power. The terms psychological ability, endurance and physical strength are constructs. Constructs are used to establish personal traits and to type folks by method of how they possess of such traits. For example, organizations don’t observe physical power but they will observe people with great power lifting heavy objects and different people with restricted power attempting, but failing, to lift these objects. Such differences in traits among folks have essential implications within the employment context.

Employees and candidates vary extensively in their knowledge, abilities, skills, pursuits, work styles, and other characteristics. These variations systematically have an effect on the way folks perform or behave on the job. Why do organizations conduct assessment? Organizations use assessment tools and procedures to assist them carry out the next human resource features: selection, placement, training and development, promotion, profession exploration and steerage, and training evaluation. Organizations should use assessment tools in a purposeful method. It is crucial to have a clear understanding of what needs to be measured and for what function.

It’s additionally necessary to not rely too much on anybody check to make selections. Organizations should use the whole particular person approach to assessment. Secondly, there might be understanding the legal context of assessment employment legal guidelines and the laws with implications for evaluation. For example, the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 (as amended in 1972), and the Tower Amendment to Title VII. Title VII is landmark laws that prohibits unfair discrimination in all phrases and circumstances of employment primarily based on race, shade, faith, sex, or nationwide origin.

Other legislation has added age and disability to the list. Women and males, folks age 40 and older, people with disabilities, and folks belonging to a racial, spiritual, or ethnic group are protected underneath Title VII and different employment laws. Individuals in these categories are known as members of a protected group. The employment practices lined by this legislation embrace the following: recruitment, transfer, efficiency appraisal, disciplinary motion, hiring, training, compensation, termination, job classification, promotion, union or different membership, and fringe benefits.

Employers having fifteen or more staff, employment companies, and labor unions are subject to this regulation. The Tower Amendment to this act stipulates that professionally developed office tests can be used to make employment choices. However, solely instruments that do not discriminate in opposition to any protected group can be utilized. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibits in opposition to staff or applicant’s age forty or older in all aspects of the employment course of. Individuals in this group must be supplied equal employment alternative.

If and older employee costs discrimination underneath the ADEA, the employer might defend the follow if it can be proven that the job requirement is a matter of enterprise necessity. Employers must have documented assist for the argument they use as a protection. ADEA covers employers having 20 or more employees, labor unions, and employment companies. Certain teams of employees are exempt from ADEA protection, together with public law enforcement personnel, similar to police officers and firefighters. Uniformed navy personnel are also exempt from ADEA protection.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of 1972 is liable for imposing federal legal guidelines prohibiting employment discrimination. It receives, investigates, and processes charges of illegal employment practices of employers filed by an individual or group of individuals. If the EEOC determines that there is “reasonable cause” that an unlawful employment practice has occurred, it is approved to sue on behalf of the charging particular person or people. The EEOC participated in developing the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures.

Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures of 1978 govern the use of worker choice procedures based on applicable legal guidelines. They provide the framework for employers and different organizations for figuring out the correct use of checks and other choice procedures. The guidelines are legally binding under a quantity of civil rights legal guidelines. The courts typically stress nice significance to the rules of technical requirements for establishing the job relatedness tests. One of the basic ideas of the Uniform Guidelines is that it’s illegal to use a test or choice process that creates adverse influence, except justified.

Adverse impact occurs when there’s substantial different charges in selection of hiring, promotion, or other employment selections that work to the disadvantage of members of a race, sex, or ethnic group. Adverse influence is generally indicated when the choice price for one group is lower than 80% or 4/5’s of another. If your assessment course of results in opposed impact, you’re required to remove it or justify its continued use. The Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA) of 1990 states those individuals with disabilities have to be given equal alternative in all aspects of employment.

The law prohibits employers from discriminating against certified individuals with disabilities. Prohibited discrimination includes failure to provide affordable accommodation to individuals with disabilities when doing so would not allow extreme hardship. An example of a qualified particular person is one with a disability who can perform the important tasks of a job, with or without cheap lodging. Record preserving of adverse impression and job relatedness of checks requires that each one employers maintain a document of their employment-related activities together with statistics associated to testing and antagonistic influence.

Some state and localities have issued their own truthful employment practices legal guidelines, and some have adopted the federal Uniform Guidelines. These state and local laws may be stricter than corresponding federal legal guidelines. When there’s a contradiction, federal laws and laws override any contradictions. Employees and applicants ought to become thoroughly acquainted with their own state and native laws on employment and testing before making use of. What makes a good test? An employment check is considered good if the next could be said about it. The test measures what it claims to measure consistently and reliability.

For instance, if an individual have been to take the check once more, the person would get an analogous take a look at score. The test measures what it claims to measure. For instance, a check of psychological ability does in fact measure psychological ability, and not some other attribute. The check is job relevant. In different words, the test measures one or more traits that are important to the job. By using the check, more practical employment selections can be made about people. For instance and arithmetic take a look at may help you to pick qualified staff for a job that requires information of arithmetic operations.

The test that has these qualities is highlighted by two technical properties, reliability and validity. Reliability refers to how dependably or persistently a take a look at measures a characteristic. If a person takes the test again, will she or he get a similar test rating, or a a lot totally different score? A take a look at that produces related scores for an individual who repeats the check is claimed to measure a characteristic reliably. How will we account for somebody who doesn’t get exactly the identical test rating each time he or she takes the test? There could be quite so much of causes.

Test taker’s short-term psychological or physical state corresponding to excessive levels of hysteria, fatigue, or motivation could have an result on the applicants take a look at results. Environmental components corresponding to variations within the testing surroundings like room temperature, lighting, noise, or even the take a look at administrator, can have an effect on an individual’s test efficiency. Test varieties as a outcome of many exams have more than one version or type. Items differ on every form, however every type is meant to measure the same factor. Different types of a check are generally identified as parallel types or alternate types.

These types are designed to have related measurement characteristics, but they comprise different items. Because the varieties usually are not precisely the same, a check taker would possibly do higher on one form than on one other. Also, multiple raters as a result of certain test’s scoring is set by a rater’s judgements of the check taker’s efficiency or responses. Difference in coaching, experience, and frame of reference among raters can produce different check scores for the check taker. The elements are sources of likelihood or random measurement error in the evaluation process.

If there were no random errors of measurement, the individual would get the same take a look at score, or the people true check rating every time. The degree to which these scores are unaffected by measurement errors is an indication of the reliability of the test. Reliable assessment instruments produce reliable, repeatable, and constant details about folks. In order to meaning interpret take a look at scores and make helpful employment or career-related choices, you want reliable tools. This brings us to the next principle of evaluation. Essential is the interpretation of data from take a look at manuals and critiques.

For instance take a look at manuals and impartial evaluate of tests provide info on test reliability. The following discussion will assist you to interpret the reliability details about any check. There are a number of forms of reliability estimates; each influenced by completely different sources of measurement error. Test builders have the accountability of reporting the reliability estimates which are relevant for a specific test. Before deciding to make use of a test, read the take a look at handbook and any impartial critiques to determine if its reliability is appropriate.

The acceptable degree of reliability will differ relying on the sort of check and the reliability estimate used. Test validity is the most important issue when an employer is selecting a take a look at. Validity refers to what attribute the check measures and the way nicely the test measures that characteristic. It tells you if the attribute being measured by a test is expounded to job skills and necessities. Validity gives which means to the test scores. It is evidence that helps the link between test performance and job performance. It can let you know what you could conclude or predict about somebody from his or her rating on the take a look at.

If a check has been demonstrated to be a sound predictor of performance on a particular job, you’ll find a way to assume that individuals scoring high on the take a look at are extra likely to perform nicely on the job than persons who rating low on the test. Remember, it may be very important understand the difference between reliability and validity. Validity will let you know how good a test is for a selected situation, whereas reliability will tell you how trustworthy a score on that check will be. You can not draw valid conclusions from a take a look at score until you are positive that the take a look at is reliable.

Even when a check is reliable, it is in all probability not legitimate. You ought to be cautious that any test you select is each dependable and legitimate for your situation. A test’s validity is established in reference to a specific objective and the test is in all probability not valid for different purposes. For example, the test you utilize to make legitimate predictions about someone’s technical proficiency on the job is most likely not legitimate for predicting his or her management skills or absenteeism fee. This leads to the next precept of evaluation in which the test’s validity is established in reference to specific teams.

These teams are called the reference teams. The test may not be valid for each group of candidates. For example, a test designed to foretell the performance of managers in situations requiring drawback fixing might not let you make valid or significant predictions about the performance of clerical staff. If, for instance, the type of problem-solving capability required for the two positions is completely different, or the studying stage of the take a look at just isn’t appropriate for clerical candidates, the take a look at results could additionally be legitimate for managers, but not for clerical employees.

Test developers have the accountability of describing the reference teams used to develop the test. The manual should describe the teams for whom the test is valid, and the interpretation of take a look at results for people belonging to each of those teams. You should decide if the test can be utilized appropriately with the certain sort of individuals you need to check. This group of individuals is called your goal inhabitants or goal group. Your goal group and the reference group don’t have to match on all factors. Yet, they must be sufficiently related so that the test will yield significant scores on your group.

For example, a writing capability check developed to be used with college seniors may be applicable for measuring the writing capability of white-collar professionals or managers, even though these teams don’t have similar traits. In figuring out the right take a look at in your goal teams, consider factors corresponding to occupation, studying stage, cultural differences, and language limitations. A valid personnel tool is one which measures an important characteristic of the job the applicant is interested in. Use of legitimate instruments will, on average, allow you to make better employment-related decisions.

Both from the enterprise and authorized viewpoints, it is important to only use checks which are valid on your meant the organization’s intended use. In order to make sure an employment test is beneficial and valid, proof have to be collected relating the check to the job. The process of creating the job relationship of a check is identified as validation. The Uniform Guidelines exhibit the following three methods of validation research that are criterion-related validation necessary to assemble related check that greatest support validation: criterion-related validation, content-related validation, and construct-related validation.

The three strategies ought to be used to supply validation assist relying on the scenario. These three basic methods typically overlap and depending on the situation, often a quantity of might be appropriate. Professionally developed tests should come with reports on validity proof, together with explanations oh how validation research had been carried out. If you develop your individual checks or procedures, you’ll need to conduct your individual validation studies. As the test user, you might have the final word responsibility for ensuring that validity proof exists for the conclusions you attain using the checks.

This applies to all tests and procedures you utilize, whether or not they have been purchased off the shelf, developed externally, or developed in-house. Validity evidence is particularly critical for checks that have opposed impacts. When a take a look at has antagonistic impacts, the uniform pointers require that validity evidence for that specific employment decision be supplied. The explicit job for which a test is selected must be similar to the job for which the take a look at was initially developed. Determining the degree of similarity will require a job analysis.

Job analysis is a systematic course of used to identify the tasks, duties, duties and dealing conditions associated with a job and the data, abilities, skills, and different traits required to perform that job. Job analysis data could additionally be gathered by direct remark of people presently in the job, interviews with skilled supervisors and job necessities, questioners, personnel and gear data, and work manuals. In order to satisfy the requirements of the Uniform Guidelines, it is recommended that a professional professional conduct the job analysis.

For example, an industrial and organizational psychologist or different skilled properly trained in job analysis strategies. Job analysis info is for certain in deciding what to check for and which exams to make use of. To decide if a selected test is valid for your supposed use, consult the check guide and obtainable unbiased evaluations. Here are three situations illustrating why you must think about these factors, individually and together with one another. It is necessary to keep in mind that an evaluation instrument, like several tool, is most effective when used correctly and can be very counterproductive when used inappropriately.

Here are some necessary points and considerations surrounding these limitations. Careful consideration to those issues and considerations will assist organizations produce truthful and effective assessment programs. Deciding whether to test or to not take a look at is a vital one. You have to fastidiously think about a number of technical, administrative, and sensible issues. Sometimes a more aggressive employee-training program will assist to improve individual and organizational performance with out expanding your current selection procedures.

Sometimes a careful evaluate of each candidate’s educational background and work historical past will assist you to to pick better workers, and typically using further tests will be useful. Consider how much further effort and time will be involved in increasing your assessment program. As in each business choice, one will wish to determine whether the potential benefits outweigh the expenditure of effort and time. Be positive to factor in all the prices, corresponding to purchase of checks and staff time, and balance these against all the benefits, together with potential will increase in productiveness.

In abstract, before increasing your assessment program, you will need to have a clear picture of your organization’s needs, the benefits you’ll have the ability to count on, and the related prices that will arise. Viewing tests as threats and invasions of policy, are thought of be some candidates since they’re intimidated on the mere thought of taking a take a look at. Some could worry that testing will expose their weaknesses, and a few could concern that exams will not measure what they actually can do on the jog.

Yet, some people view certain checks as an invasion of privateness, This is especially true of character tests, honesty tests, medical tests, and exams that display for drug use. Remember that fear or mistrust of tests can decrease the scores of some of some in any other case certified candidates. So to reduce back these fears it’s important for the organization to take the time to explain a couple of things concerning the testing program before administering it to the applicant. Some factors the reason is why the test is being administered, the fairness of the check, the confidentially of the take a look at and the way the check outcomes might be used in the evaluation course of.

Furthermore, organizations should not rely completely on any one-assessment instrument in making employment selections. Using quite a lot of assessment instruments will help a corporation acquire a fuller and more accurate image of an applicant. Every take a look at taker ought to have a good probability to show his or her performance on an assessment process. However there are times when a fair likelihood will most likely not occur. For example, an individual who has a baby at house with the measles may not be capable of consider taking a vocabulary take a look at.

Or somebody sitting subsequent to a noisy air conditioner may not be able to concentrate on the take a look at questions. So on another day under different circumstances, these individuals may obtain a different score. If the check taker believes that the test was not valid for this particular person, they should think about asking for an alternate technique of evaluation. A single take a look at cannot be expected to be legitimate in all conditions and for all groups of individuals. However, employers can effectively use personnel assessment checks to measure job-related expertise and capabilities of candidates and workers.

These instruments can establish and choose higher employees and may help improve the quality of an organization’s overall performance. To use these instruments correctly, employers should concentrate on the limitations of any assessment process, in addition to the authorized issues involved in evaluation. The information is organized round 13 essential assessment rules and their purposes. These thirteen ideas present the framework for conducting an effective personnel assessment program. First there might be the use of assessment instruments in a purposeful manner.

Assessment instruments, like other instruments, are helpful when used properly but may be ineffective, harmful, or unlawful when used inappropriately. Often, inappropriate use outcomes from not having a clear understanding of what you want to measure and why your want to measure it. As an employer, you should first be clear about what you need to accomplish with your assessment program so as to select the correct instruments to realize those targets. Your evaluation strategies must be based on both an understanding of the sort of employment choices to be made and the population to be assessed.

Once you are clear on your function, you will be better capable of choose appropriate assessment instruments, and use those instruments in an effective method. Secondly, use the entire person method to assessment. An evaluation instrument could provide you with necessary employment related details about a person. However, no evaluation software is 100 percent dependable or valid. All are subject to errors, each in measuring job-related traits and in predicting job efficiency. More importantly, a single assessment instrument only offers you with a limited view of a person’s qualifications.

Using a big selection of instruments to measure abilities, abilities, and other job related traits provides you a stable basis upon which to make necessary profession and employment choices. Thirdly, organizations ought to use evaluation instruments that are unbiased and honest checks that will assist them choose a professional and diverse workforce. Organizations ought to evaluate the equity of proof related to evaluation instruments before choosing tools by analyzing the test manual and independent take a look at evaluations. Next, organizations should solely use reliable assessment instruments and procedures.

For example, if an individual takes the identical check again, will he or she get an analogous score or will they get a really completely different rating. A reliable instrument will present correct and constant scores. Test manuals will normally provide a statistic, often known as the reliability coefficient, supplying you with a sign of a test’s reliability. The larger the reliability coefficient, the more confidence one can have that the score is accurate. Fifth, organizations should only use evaluation procedures and devices which were proven to be valid for the specific function for which they are getting used.

Validity is crucial issue in deciding on evaluation tools. It refers to the attribute the assessment instrument measures, and the way nicely the instrument measures the attribute. Validity isn’t a property of the assessment instrument itself but it relates to how the instrument is getting used. A test’s validity is established in reference to a selected purpose, it is in all probability not valid for various purposes. For example, a take a look at which could be valid for predicting someone’s “job knowledge”, is most likely not valid for predicting his or her “leadership skills”.

One must make certain that the instrument is legitimate for the aim for which it is to be used. Selecting a commercially developed instrument does not relieve an organization of this accountability. The check guide usually offers a statistic, the validity coefficient that may give a sign of the test’s validity for a selected objective under particular circumstances. It measures the diploma of relationship between take a look at performance and job performance. The sixth principle pertains to evaluation instruments that are applicable for the target population.

An assessment software is usually developed for use with a specific group whereas it will not be legitimate for other groups. For instance, a check designed to predict the performance of office managers won’t be valid for clerical workers. The abilities and abilities required for the 2 positions may be completely different, or the studying degree of the take a look at is probably not appropriate for clerical workers. Tests must be applicable for the individuals you want to test, that’s, your goal inhabitants. The handbook ought to indicate the group or groups the check is designed to assess.

Your goal inhabitants should be much like the group on which the test was developed. In determining the target of an instrument, a company should contemplate such elements as studying ranges, cultural backgrounds, and language barriers. Principal seven deals with the use evaluation devices for which comprehensible and comprehensive documentation is available. For instance, are the directions for administration and interpretation understandable? Is the data sufficiently comprehensive to evaluate the software, which fits your needs?

An group should fastidiously evaluate the documentation provided by the take a look at publisher to make certain that the tools you select do the job you want them to do and furnish one with the knowledge wanted. If the documentation just isn’t understandable or full, a company runs the chance of selecting inappropriate devices. Test manuals ought to present details about both the event and psychometric characteristic of checks. They should cover topics corresponding to procedures for administration, scoring and interpretation.

They must also embrace an outline of the validation procedures used and the proof of validity, reliability, and take a look at equity. Procedure eight offers with ensuring that the administration staff is properly educated. Assessment devices should be administered correctly to obtain legitimate results. Organizations should as quickly as again consult the administration guide for tips on the qualifications and training required for take a look at directors. These requirements will differ depending on the nature and complexity of the test. Only suitable employees should be chosen.

Administrators must be given ample time to be taught their responsibilities and may practice administering tests. Procedure nine ensures that testing circumstances are appropriate for all take a look at takers. There are varied influences that may affect the reliability and validity of an evaluation procedure. For instance, noise within the testing room, poor lighting, inaccurate timing and broken take a look at gear may affect check takers. Staff ought to ensure the testing environment is suitable and that administration procedures are uniform for all check takers.

Procedure ten supplies reasonable lodging within the assessment process for folks with disabilities. It ensures that certified individuals with disabilities have an equal chance to demonstrate their potential. Modifying take a look at equipment or the testing course of or even offering assistance to the check taker may be necessary. For example, an organization could should administer a check in Braille, or allow for further time to finish the test or even supplying a reader may be applicable. Procedure eleven maintains the evaluation instruments safety is saved up to par.

All supplies used within the evaluation course of have to be stored secure. Lack of security could end in some check takers getting entry to take a look at questions beforehand thus invalidating their scores. To forestall this organizations ought to for instance, maintain testing supplies in locked rooms or cabinets and limit entry to those supplies to solely the staff involved within the assessment course of. Security can also be the duty of the test builders. The safety of a test could turn into compromised over time so to protect security, take a look at builders ought to periodically introduce new types of checks.

Procedure twelve is to maintain confidentiality of assessment outcomes. Assessment results should be regarded as highly personal. Employers must respect the check takers right to confidentiality. Assessment outcomes should only be shared with those that have a respectable must know. This would include workers concerned in interpreting assessment results and making employment selections. Personal data should not be launched to different organizations or people with out the informed consent of the test taker.

And lastly, process thirteen ensures that scores are interpreted correctly. Tests are used to make references to people’s traits, capabilities, and future efficiency. The references must be affordable, nicely based, and not based upon stereotypes. If take a look at scores aren’t interpreted properly, the conclusions drawn from them are likely to be invalid, thus leading to poor choice making. The organization should guarantee that there’s strong evidence to justify the take a look at score outcomes and the employment decisions made primarily based from the scores.

5 steps to the Adjudication Process

The objective of adjudication is to resolve disputes so that you just don’t need to have an costly and lengthy process in courtroom. It is a process of the examination of claims and figuring out the result of these declare advantages. When the claim is filed and obtained goes by way of a 5 stage course of to discover out how the claim ought to be paid, (1) initial processing, (2) automated evaluation, (3) guide review, (4) dedication, and (5) payment. The objective of this circulate chart is to point out you the steps you must take and explain the process of each step and what the aim is for.

5 STEPS OF THE ADJUDICATION PROCESS

START

PAYERS FIRST PERFORM INITIAL PROCESSING CHECKS ON CLAIMS, REJECTING THOSE WITH MISSING OR CLEARLY INCORRECT INFORMATION: This will determine if reimbursed every insurer has their very own method of claim approval but the process is basically the identical.

CLAIMS ARE PROCESSED THROUGH THE PAYER’S AUTOMATED MEDICAL EDITS: Once claim is received it has to go through a complete evaluation that is carried out by a pc software program program that’s designed to search out errors or discrepancies on the declare type by scanning each claim to make certain info is appropriate and all needed info is present on the declare and it conforms to the insurer’s insurance policies.

This is called modifying and any errors discovered may cause the healthcare supplier to not be reimbursed by the insurer.

A MANUAL REVIEW IS DONE IF REQUIRED:

This process is finished provided that the declare fails it could be denied or despatched to an insurance examiner for review that is accomplished manually.

THE PAYER MAKES A DETERMINATION OF WHETHER TO PAY, DENY, OR REDUCE THE CLAIM:

After the completion of the adjudication course of the insurance coverage firm sends a letter to the one who filed the claim detailing the end result of their declare. This is called a remittance advice that features the assertion of whether or not or not the declare was denied or accredited. If denied, the insurer has to ship a proof of the explanation why it was denied it’s a regional legislation for them to do so. An explanation of advantages that includes detailed data of each service that was settled that is mentioned within the declare.

PAYMENT IS SENT WITH A REMITTANCE ADVICE/EXPLANATION OF BENEFITS (RA/EOB):

As a result to the adjudication, the insurance firm may solely pay half and by legislation they are required to ship an evidence of the rationale why they’re only making a partial payment, clarification on advantages, detailed data of how each service was settled and the funds will be sent out by the insurance firm to the suppliers or their billing service if claims are approved.

FINISH

Provide a one-sentence abstract describing how claims adjudication is important to the medical billing process.

The claims adjudication process is essential to the medical billing process as a result of once a declare goes via the adjudication course of and it is accomplished the insurance coverage firm sends the remittance letter and explanation of benefits with detailed information about how every service that’s mentionioned within the claim was settled after which that is when the medical billing course of will know what to do whther send payments out or not and this course of known as Medical Billing Advocacy.

Designing a Manufacturing Process Toshiba´s Notebook Computer Assembly Line

Whenever a new model is introduced at Toshiba, management attempts to improve the assembling process in terms of increasing productivity and decreasing costs. Attentiveness is directed towards reducing the amount of components and simplifying production and assembly. Manufacturing engineering manager Toshihiro Nakamura introduced a prototype assembly sheet concerning the new notebook model. The following precedence graph examines the process sheet. Task numbers: 1-17; task time in seconds (in brackets).

The assembly line consists out of 6 workstations. Labour time (in seconds) for each workstation is indicated in brackets. Workstation 1, task 1 (75). Workstation 2, tasks 2 and 3 (85). Workstation 3, tasks 4, 5 and 6 (97). Workstation 4, tasks 7, 8 and 9 (105). Workstation 5, tasks 10-15 (101). (Workstations 6, 7 and 8 are operating the software load). The final workstation 9 handles tasks 16 and 17 (120). The sum of task time therefore equals 583 seconds. The assembly line is designed assuming that one notebook would be assembled every 2 minutes by six workers. Therefore, daily capacity of the assembly line would be 225 units (450 minutes operating time per day), assuming that on each one of the six workstations a computer is positioned at the beginning of the day. Initial production for the new model is 150 units per day, increasing to 250 the following week and eventually up to 300 units, depending on process success.

The bottleneck in this assembly line is located between workstation 4 and 5. Workstation 4 completes its tasks (7, 8, and 9) within 105 seconds whereas workstation 5 finishes after 101 seconds. This results in a slack of 4 seconds per unit at workstation 5. A potential solution to this problem might be assigning higher skilled staff to workstation 4 in order to push on assembly time. More detailed recommendations will follow. This bottleneck constitutes the major issue within this production process and will be examined in more detail in the following.

Analysing the major issues concerns calculating potential slack times at workstation 5 regarding different amounts of units being produced. With the initial production of 150 units per day, a slack of 600 seconds (10 minutes) at workstation 5 would appear per day. It takes 3 minutes to finish one unit, assuming that 150 units are produced per day with an operating time of 7.5 hours. Producing 250 units per day means that one unit is assumed to be finished after 1.8 minutes or 108 seconds. When production increases up to 300 units per day, operating time per unit would be 1.5 minutes or 90 seconds. Hence, increasing production results in increased slack times at workstation 5.

With a production of 250 units per day, slack time would be 1000 seconds or 16.67 minutes. Within those 16.7 minutes of slack time, 9.3 units could have been produced. With a production of 300 units per day, slack time would even increase up to 20 minutes in which 13.3 units could have been produced. These calculations clearly illustrate inefficiency at workstation 4 which results in major costs due to relatively high idle times. Extrapolating these numbers up to a working week, assuming that 5 days á 7.5 hours the assembly line is in operation, significantly high slack times and therefore unnecessary costs arise. Assuming a production of 250 units per day, slack time at station 5 per week would be 83.5 minutes in which an additional 46 units could have been produced.

Efficiency of the assembly line will be calculated in the following with regard on different amounts of units being produced. Eventually the optimal number of units to reach an efficiency of 100% will be calculated. With 250 units produced per day, a cycle time of 108 seconds per unit results. Hence, using the formula for calculating the line´s efficiency, (sum of task times = 583 seconds/6 workstations x 108 seconds cycle time) results in an efficiency rate of m89.97% (~ 90%). Running at a maximum capacity of 300 units per day (583/6×90), line efficiency would be 107.96% which is not close to reality. Relative to its use of labour, an efficiency of ~ 108% producing at maximum capacity is not achievable. More workers would be needed and staff would have to work on one task simultaneously. An efficiency of 100% can be reached with a daily production of 277 units per day assuming that the assembly line maintains its initial set up of 6 workstations with the same labour time. The actual efficiency rate (with 277 units produced per day) constitutes 99.66% which is the maximum that can be reached.

In order to dispense the previously discussed issue of inefficiency at workstation 4, several recommendations will be highlighted. Firstly, the easiest solution in relation to not changing the assembly set up would be to assign more skilled workers to station 4 in order to speed up the assembling process. Going hand in hand with this assumption is that the supporter might help staff at workstation 4. The problem is though, that the supporter´s task certainly is to help out the assembly workers where help is needed but his/her task is not to stay in one spot at all times. Moreover, redesigning the assembly set up might benefit workstation 4.

The redesign is concerned with the optimal placement of staff. In the case of Toshiba´s assembly line it might be helpful to expand the section of workstation 4 in order to place one or two additional workers. Another possible solution might be to place additional staff not just on one side of the conveyer belt but on the other one as well. Especially in the section of workstation 4 additional help from across might be a solution. The assembly line has space for a total of 12 positions. Not all are being used. Another potential determination might be to split up workstation 4 into two and place the new one in a free spot.

Regarding the calculations of slack times and efficiency with different amounts of units being produced, one can conclude that Toshiba´s assembly line is relatively efficient but has space to improve. Workstation 4 represents the main problem of this case but several potential solutions were presented. Overall efficiency of this assembly line is quite high and appropriate.

(All calculations were made without considering any break times)

Recruitment and selection process

Recruitment and selection is one of the most important aspects in the Human resource management context. In the modern economy, human resource is considered to be the most valuable asset for any organization. Acquisition of exceptional talent pool proves the sustainability of every business. Looking at these aspects it can be easily assumed that the processes involved in the recruitment and selection have to undergo tremendous change to ensure quality of talent acquisition. However the processes involved in the recruitment and selection is misunderstood by the people who find it difficult to derive the technical difference between ‘Recruitment’ and ‘Selection’. Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals or groups on a timely basis, in a sufficient number, with appropriate qualifications to apply for a job in an organization.

Whereas

Selection is a set of processes to scrutinize the recruitment process and filter the most appropriate profile for the vacancy.

Organizational image Vs Recruitment and selection:

Organization’s image plays a vital role in the recruitment and selection process. There is a greater involvement in decision making for recruitment and selection process as the recruitment and selection procedures are directly associated with the brand image and brand equity of an organization. A good image of an organization reflects the organizational culture and work processes with attracts the candidates to join.

An insight of recruitment and selection at Google:

Google being a monopoly in the web based search engine market follows a very rigorous and quality assured process for its internal vacancies. Unlike other IT companies, Google tries to fulfil its resource requirements by developing the skills of its existing employees. As soon as there is a vacancy, Google’s HR department tries to find out the suitable existing employees who can be replaced in the vacant position. If any additional training or functional knowledge development is required then Google ensures that the resources undergo proper training and development program before joining in that position. If the HR department fails to identify such profiles existing within the office then they go for talent acquisition from the market. Before commencing the recruitment and selection process the HR managers ensure that proper documentations are in place describing the roles and responsibilities for the vacant positions and other requirements as well.

For this the HR managers conduct several meetings with the Line managers or head engineers to know the technical know-how expected from the candidates. This leads to generation of a developed competence analysis report. The reports cover different aspects like “reports to, tenure, compensation package, scope of responsibilities and duties, authority, priorities, budget, staff team, location, conditions, knowledge, skills, experience, values, performance standards, problems/objectives, results/priorities, ideal candidate profile”

Then the rest of the process is commenced in three procedural steps. · Suitable profile search.
· Challenging interviews and selection process. · On boarding of the candidate.

Suitable profile search:

Once the competitive analysis report is prepared, HR managers hire a third party or agency to provide suitable candidate profiles for the vacant position. The responsibility of the HR manager lies in providing the requirements expected out of the recruitment and selection process. Challenging interviews and selection process:

Google is known for its rigorous selection process. Normally the recruitment process at Google involves 4 to 12 rounds of interviews and apart from initial 2 rounds of HR interviews, rest all are highly technology oriented. In most of the interviews candidates are asked to demonstrate their technological skills and other proficiencies. In typical Google interviews candidates are asked to write everything that they have learned in their academics regarding the technologies they have and the interview questionnaires revolve around those aspects only. In some cases candidates are even asked to write complex programs. Observing the candidate’s approach towards a solution, the interviewer gauges the employability of the candidate. On boarding of the candidate:

Normally the people who know Google’s operations deeply are allowed to take care of on boarding process. Google follows its best practices to give the candidate an amazing experience. The new employees are clustered into several groups so that they would sooner understand Google’s work culture and group coordination. Apart from all these typical recruitment and selection process Google also recruits through its innovative recruitment process. Google code jam competition and offering any amount the candidates ask for finding out the loopholes in Google’s products, to name a few.

Recruitment process for Google

Rounds:

JAM Just a minute: Talk about a topic continuously for a minute, this tests your skills of communication which are very important. JAM topics – Pollution; describe your student life, Youth politics, IPL scandals, Metro-rail: boon or bane. Some time topics may be given by HR or may ask you to speak about your favourite topic. After preliminary evaluation of language skills, elimination of few people may take place. Written Test: This test will have questions of various types like GK (general Knowledge), Geography, Natural wonders, Google products-Android, Nexus, Maps, Picasa and others. Duration of 1 hr, spot evaluation will occur at vendors location. If your score meets the average selection score your profile will be forwarded to next section i.e. Client Location rounds (Google India). Before you go to clients location vendors will ask you to note down few topics which are frequently asked by Google HR’s. Frequently asked topics by Google HR’s:

Google founders
Google Products
Google maps mainly
Latitudes and longitudes
Natural wonders
Continents and countries
Current affairs
Client Rounds:

Written test: Same topics as covered at the vendor location, at the end there may be letter writing and paragraph writing to test your writing skills Evaluation of written test at client location(Google India) may take 4-5 business days result will be informed to your vendor POC (point of contact).

Personal HR interview:

Main round that will decide your capability to take up duties at Google, You will be grilled about your education, goals and long term commitments. Verbal skills will be tested along with your spontaneous nature, Current affairs and topics mentioned by your vendor as frequently asked topics will be also asked. After the personal interview (PI) the selected candidates will be intimated by mail, Background verification will be conducted by Google India before an offer letter is issued to the selected personnel.

The technology, the culture, the success story and the huge recruiting machine that operates within this goliath organisation make it the most powerful talent magnet on Earth. Each year, Google receives more than 2 million CVs and hires somewhere in the region of 6,000 to 8,000 people. In the first half of 2013 alone; the workforce at Google was increased by over 2,500 people to 40,178. Google employs in the region of 750 internal recruiters, the majority of which may well be on short term contracts. The ratio of employees to recruiter at Google is in a different stratosphere to most other companies. The attitude and enormous effort being made by Google to hire only the very best people for the business is nothing short of mind-blowing. Google loves analytics. Their use of algorithms to monitor everything they do is well documented, and they are taking the results seriously when it comes to recruitment. Google has rethought how it handles hiring since its early days, and a lot has changed.

Candidates’ past academic performance wasn’t predictive either. Google is increasingly hiring candidates who have no formal education, to the extent that you now see teams where 14 per cent have no college background. The company will shift towards behavioural interviews that will emphasise the candidate’s own experience. Google has also simplified the interview and decision making process – shortening the time it takes to make a hiring decision. Previously it took as long as six months from application to hire; we are told it now only takes about a month and a half. And where it was once commonplace for a candidate to undertake 10 interviews, they found that every interview after the fourth only increased useful knowledge about an applicant by about 1%.

The company now caps the number of interviews at five. Google recruiters tend to take a proactive approach, hunting out the best candidates through internet search, social media and CV databases. They know what they are looking for and how to find it. Whilst searching Google’s career portal and applying online is the most obvious route; with only one in approximately 250 who apply actually getting hired, and I’d estimate only one in every 60-80 even getting a call back, it may well feel like a futile exercise. Getting your profile out there through the right social media channels and niche job boards may well prove to be far more rewarding. Inside Google’s recruiting machine

Named Fortune’s Best Company to Work For in 2012, the search giant made a record 8,067 hires last year. The thirteen-year-old firm’s recruiting has an almost mythical quality about it, particularly for the two million candidates applying to work there each year. In terms of elite American institutions, getting a job at Google ranks with being admitted to Stanford Graduate School of Business or becoming a Navy Seal. Behind the glitz there are a few Googley basics at work: data, money (lots of it), sophisticated programming, and an army of young, eager recruiters. In 2009, the company revealed that there were about 400 internal recruiters. The number across all departments and countries is closer to 1,000, with about 300 full-time recruiters in the U.S. and more than 600 contractors. More conservative estimates put the tally at 500. Even if the lower figure was correct, Google would have one recruiter for every 64 employees.

Who are Google’s recruiters? They’re young, highly paid and, often, on a six month contract. There’s a lot to be said for new people trying to prove themselves in the first six to 12 months. It’s difficult to find an accurate or exact employee-to-recruiter ratio at the company, the number of recruiters varies dramatically. At any given time, 70% of the recruiting staff might be on contract. That changes, though, as Google feels the need to gear up or cut back on hiring. This lends the company considerable flexibility depending on its staffing needs. If you need to scale down, you fire 50 people and it’s fine. In two months you hire 50 to 100 and get it going again. It’s very efficient and very effective, but the thing is, it’s also very expensive. Calling Google’s recruiting efforts a machine is not much of a stretch. Google’s recruiting budget is the largest he has ever seen at a private company. The decision to pour in such resources comes, from a calculation the company made early on that a top-notch engineer is worth dramatically more than an average one.

If a great employee is worth 300 times more than average one, it makes sense to spend 10 times more on recruiting. That also partially explains why the company provides lavish perks, job flexibility, and time for personal projects. One common complaint is that the process is so well thought out, and so mechanical, that it gets boring for the human beings involved. Instead of relying just on seasoned, full-cycle recruiters , Google breaks down the process into different functions — sourcing, coordinating, college-only, etc. There are jobs for a wide variety of specific roles. Many companies use similar strategies, but Google’s trademark analytics have made it into something resembling art. “Get guys up to speed very quickly and you just plug them in. It’s really what they do at the infantry level in the army. Keep feeding them into the machine.” Individually, they’re good. But working within the Google system? “They achieve stuff as a group that exceeds anybody’s expectations. And joining the Google recruiting machine can be a very appealing proposition for budding HR professionals, even if the jobs aren’t permanent.

Former employee who declined to be identified says she “loved” work and the company, where she was a full-cycle recruiter for about 11 months. Plus she added, “It will probably never be easier to get someone to respond to a cold call.” Like so many projects at Google, data pumps through the recruiting organization’s veins. An internally designed candidate-tracking program used by recruiters is said to be a thing of mathematical beauty. The company eschews job boards and embraces direct sourcing, to the point where many engineers in the Valley regularly hear from the company. So giant and so aggressive is Google’s machine, a possibly apocryphal but no less telling story goes like this: a happily-employed Google engineer finds a recruiting e-mail in her inbox — from her own employer.

The system does have its flaws. Employees have complained that hiring is too focused on coding, that the emphasis on analytics misses creative talent, and that the interview system can be badly disorganized. A widely circulated 2008 e-mail thread of exiting Google employees excoriated the hiring process for being unnecessarily bureaucratic and arduous. The company, Carlisle counters, is constantly reworking the mechanics. In the last year, Google has changed a few of the distinctive features of its hiring process. It scaled back the focus on GPA and standardized testing scores. They no longer ask candidates for the GPAs if they’ve been out of school for three years. Standardized test scores are no longer required for any candidate. Perhaps most importantly, Google has drastically cut the time it takes a candidate to wend his way through the process. Where it once took as long as six months from application to hire, it now takes about a month and a half.

The previous average time was about 100 days. And where it was once commonplace to sit for 10 interviews, they found that every interview after the fourth one increased useful knowledge about an applicant only by about 1%. The company now caps the number of interviews at five. Google is famous for hiring talent for talent’s sake, even when there aren’t any openings. The philosophy is cut-throat. The company is thinking, not only do I have the best, but you don’t. As in basketball, if you have all the 7-foot centres, you’re going to win a lot of games. And they have the math to back it up, nowhere near a universal feature in HR departments. Many Google recruiters are on a six month contract, but stay longer.

5 steps in a process to collect digital evidence

Some important steps in the process of collecting digital evidence from the time you are called to assist and the time when you have to testify are: identifying evidence, collecting evidence, preserving evidence, analyzing evidence and presenting evidence (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2332). One of the first steps in identifying evidence is understanding the purpose of the investigation. This knowledge will help you to decide what evidence you will need based on the type of case you’re participating in. A critical part of identifying evidence if it is a criminal investigation would be to know what is allowed on the search warrant. As the Computer Forensics Jumpstart we are using for our textbook, seldom is “take everything” allowed (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2332).

Even if the investigation does not involve a search warrant, care must be taken to operate within legal guidelines because ANY investigation may “end up as prime evidence for lawsuits in the future” (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2341). The second step in identifying the evidence is to take a look around. Perform a site survey (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2351). Take pictures, make notes, sketch the area and make sure you have enough information to describe the area in detail should you need at some future date (Solomon et. al, 2011, 2361). Take note of what you see and what you think it means. You will look at the usual laptop or computer and at the hard drive and other portable storage devices of course, but remember to look beyond the obvious. The textbook uses the example of seeing a high-speed scanner and a credit card reader (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2389) and thinking about what possibilities these items would be used for.

Process and Outcome Evaluations

A Process Evaluation is relatively used to monitor as well as document the planning, implementation, and interrelationship of the components of the proposed project are the focus of the process evaluation. The process evaluations main focus is to assist with the description of program interventions’ development, as well as its activities, also to provide quantitative and qualitative data on many services that are to be rendered and their effectiveness. A Process Evaluation is also responsible to document the acceptability of a specific program within the programs targeted community. An Outcome Evaluation is what is known to be based on the project’s ecological systems social constructionist theoretical orientations and its focus on the peer, family, individual, as well as school domains, the outcome evaluation will provide better understanding to some of the key evaluation questions and its effectiveness.

Some examples of process evaluations are: 1. A program that provides addiction recovery services to the communities children ask the clients and their parents to fill out survey forms to specify if the program was helpful for their family to help them to meet specific goals. 2. The children participating in sports work with their coaches to fill out questionnaires about the program services they receive. Examples of an outcome evaluation are:

1. The number of high school students that are graduating goes up after the school implements an after school program to assist children struggling with grades 2. The city was able to increase its funding to the school from $3,000 to 15,000 after implementation of the after school program showed improved graduation…

References
Yuen, F., & Terao, K. (2003). Practical grant writing and program evaluation. . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.

Nursing Process

The client is a 70 year old, Caucasian male who is a retired siding salesman from Riverside, IA, who has an extensive history with Paralysis agitans (Parkinson’s disease). The client was first admitted to the long term care facility in December 2012. The client explained that he came to be at this facility after “already being in two places like this”. He was removed/discharged from the last long-term care facility for being what he called “disruptive”. The client described the staff at the last facility as not very kind to the residents. There was an incident where the drugs that were prescribed to the client made him hallucinate and he became unruly with the staff and was restrained and taken to the hospital for evaluation. He was then transferred to this long term care facility. Wanting to gather the client’s health history, an interview was scheduled.

In starting the interview with the client, he was asked if he would be comfortable with being asked some questions and was informed that he did not have to answer any questions that he was uncomfortable with. Due to the client’s paralysis agitans and his muscle weakness he is primarily in a wheelchair. The client was asked if there was anything that he needed before starting and if he would prefer the door be closed or the curtain be drawn for privacy, he stated that wasn’t necessary. It was observed that the client had tremors in his right hand and arm. A few minutes after sitting down, the client asked for help moving his hand that was resting on the bed to the arm of his wheelchair; in doing this it seemed to help calm the tremors. When speaking with the client, he is of sound mind and has a sense of humor.

This indicates that the client’s paralysis agitans has not affected the area in the right hemisphere of the brain that controls personality. The client noted that he was in respectable physical health until 1996. He then explained that in the spring of 1996, while he was running he suffered from a TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack). The client sought out professional answers from 5 specialists and was diagnosed with Paralysis agitans. The client conveyed this was a concern he had because his father also had Paralysis agitans. The client describes that the Paralysis agitans has progressively become worse over the past 18 years. It was observed that his speech was slow and monotonous. The client spoke in a low and discreet volume. A lack of facial expressions was also noticed. The client can walk with the assistance of a walker but is generally in a wheelchair.

Name of Drug

Dosage
Route
Time
Related to
Carbidopa-Levo 25
100 tab
Orally
TID
Paralysis agitans
Comtan
200 mg tablet
Orally
TID
Paralysis agitans
Seroquel XR
50 mg tablet
Orally
In the afternoon
Nonorganic psychosis

He is prescribed 3 tablets to be taken orally 3 times a day Carbidopa-Levodopa 25-100 (25 mg of Carbidopa and 100 mg of Levodopa) for paralysis agitans. He is also prescribed 200 mg of Comtan to be taken orally 3 times a day for paralysis agitans. These drugs raise the level of dopamine in the brain. A side effect of having elevated levels of dopamine in the brain is psychosis. The client is also given 50 mg of Seroquel XR orally in the afternoon to alleviate his nonorganic psychosis. It is documented in the client’s chart that there are symptoms of sleep apnea. When asked, the client stated that he was unaware of having that condition. The client does not use a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine while sleeping at night.

When talking more in depth about sleep patterns and concerns the client stated that he gets approximately 8 hours a sleep a night, this is without any help from sleep aids. When speaking of his bedtime rituals he said that he does have two beers, back to back, at night right before bedtime, while watching television. He does not have difficulty falling asleep but did claim that he sometimes has a hard time staying asleep at night. When questioned about taking occasional naps throughout the day he stated “depends on if I’ve been up all night”. The client then explained that it is the noise level at the long term care facility that keeps him awake.

When inquiring about the client’s family he stated that he has been married for 48 years and has two children, a son who is 44 years old and a daughter that is 39 years old. The client also has seven grandchildren. When asked what he likes to do in his spare time he replied that he loves spending time with his wife and children. He stated that before coming to this long term care facility he enjoyed playing card and gambling. He now plays computer games for fun, when his wife is there to help him. The client explained that he has a “little bit” of high blood pressure and it was noted in his chart that he is given an 81MG Aspirin daily for atrial fibrillation.

Aspirin

81 mg
Orally
o.d.
A-fib
Acetaminophen
325 mg
Orally
Every 6 hour
Pain

He has no history of heart surgeries or surgeries of any kind. The client reported that he has never had rheumatic fever. When asked about blood clots, the client responded that he believes that his TIA in 1996 was a result of arterial emboli. The client claims that sometimes he has numbness in his legs and his hamstrings tighten up and it can be painful. He stated that he will ask for his prescribed 650 MG of acetaminophen for the pain.

When speaking about everyday stresses with the client, he stated that he doesn’t have a lot of stress but gets irritated when that staff turn on the lights every morning at 6:30 am. When asked if there was anything that he does when he notices that he is stressed, the client mentioned that when he was younger he would travel to Vedic City in Iowa and practice with the Maharishi meditating. He says that meditating has been very helpful in his adult life. The client also mentioned that he liked to follow the Maharishi lifestyle and eat only organic foods but it is not possible to follow that when residing at a long term care facility. Other things that he does to distress are look at his pictures that he has on his shelf in his room. The one that helps him the most is a black and white picture of him in a small airplane with his flight instructor standing on the wing. The client use to pilot planes when he was younger.

When the client was asked if he was religious and he explained that he is Methodist but hasn’t been to church in about 5 years. He did state that he does pray occasionally. The client stated that is not afraid of dying but he is afraid of falling. He then joked that maybe it’s not so much the falling but maybe it’s the landing. When assessing the client’s vitals it was noted that he has slightly elevated blood pressure of 129/84 and could be cause for concern of pre-hypertension.

Metoprolol tartrate

25 mg
Orally
BID
Hypertension

It is noted in his chart that the client is given a 25 mg tablet of metoprolol tartrate orally twice a day for hypertension. His respirations were within normal range at 18 respirations per minute. SaO2 was at 86%. The client’s temperature was taken orally and was 97.6 °F. The client is 6 feet and 1 inch tall and weighs 257 lbs. The client has a BMI of 33.9. The client received a vaccination for influenza on 10/16/13. The clients chart states that he requires assistance with many daily activities. He is dependent on help with dressing, and bathing. When asked, the client stated that it is challenging to get dressed and undressed due to the stiffness in his arms and legs.

The client is on a regular diet and states that he doesn’t have any difficulty swallowing foods and doesn’t require help with feeding. When asked about appetite he said that sometimes he doesn’t have much of an appetite but he believes that is due to the medications that he is taking. The client explains that he is not aware of having any food allergies. He also stated that after eating he does not experience sensations of nausea/vomiting, but does encounter heartburn/indigestion occasionally, which he takes 30 ml an antacid suspension. He is also given one multivitamin orally daily for supplement.

Antacid Suspension

30 ml
Orally
Every 6 hours
Supplement heartburn
Multivitamin
1 tablet
Orally
o.d.

Supplement

When the client was asked about dentures he stated that he does not have dentures even though dentures were noted in his chart. He states he needs aid in transferring from bed to a chair and with toileting. When asked about the character of his stools he explained that both consistency and color were normal. The client also stated that he does not need the help of laxatives. Noted in the client’s chart he is given a 100 mg capsule of Docusate sodium orally 2 times a day to help with constipation.

Docusate sodium

100 mg capsule
Orally
BID

Constipation

The client does not have any history of kidney or bladder disease. He claims that the frequency, amount and color of his urine are normal. He also claims that he does not have any difficulty voiding and there is no pain or burning while urinating. According to the CNA, the client is able to stand, holding the hand rails, while urinating. It is noted in the clients care plan that he is urinary incontinent which is related to impaired mobility and PRN straight catheter needed for intermittent retention secondary to BPH. The client is given one 0.4 mg of Tamsulosin HCL orally a day for BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

Tamsulosin HCL

0.4 mh
Orally
o.d.
BPH
The client needs assistance with bathing as well. The client also has a DNR order.

Parkinson’s disease (paralysis agitans) is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects ones mobility. According to Hubert and VanMeter, Parkinson’s disease is a “dysfunction of the extrapyramidal motor system that occurs because of progressive degenerative changes in the basal nuclei, principally in the substantia nigra.”(UMMC, 2012) The substantia nigra is the primary area of the brain that is affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD). (UMMC, 2012) The substantia nigra is comprised of a specific set of neurons that send chemical signals, called dopamine.

Dopamine then travels to the striatum, responsible for balance, control of movements, and walking, by means of long fibers called axons. (Okun, 2013) These regular body movements are controlled by the activity of dopamine on these axons. With PD the neurons in the substantia nigra break down and die causing the loss of dopamine, which in turn causes the nerve cells in the striatum to trigger excessively. The excessive firing of neurons makes it impossible for one to control their movements, a sign of Parkinson’s disease. (Okun, 2013) According to the Parkinson’s disease Foundation (2014):

As many as one million Americans live with Parkinson’s disease, which is more than the combined number of people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and Lou Gehrig’s disease. Also approximately 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease each year, and this number does not reflect the thousands of cases that go undetected. An estimated seven to 10 million people worldwide are living with Parkinson’s disease. Incidence of Parkinson’s increases with age, but an estimated four percent of people with PD are diagnosed before the age of 50 and men are one and a half times more likely to have Parkinson’s than women. (p 1) Since PD is a progressively degenerative disease the signs and symptoms change over time and vary from person to person. A widely used clinical rating scale is the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY); this helps to identify signs and symptoms in the various stages of Parkinson’s disease. (MGH, 2005)

Early stages, like HY’s stage one, of Parkinson’s disease the symptoms are usually mild and appear unilateral. There may be changes in facial expressions, posture and locomotion; these symptoms are usually untimely and bothersome but not disabling. As the disease progresses, into stage two of the HY scale, it may begin to affect ambulation and be noticeable bilaterally with minimal disability. (MGH, 2005) As symptoms worsen, as in stage three of the HY scale, there is considerable slowing of body movements, early impairment of equilibrium with walking and standing and generalized dysfunction that is moderately severe. The Hoehn and Yahr scale’s stage four explains that signs and symptoms are severe but the person can still walk to a limited extent. (MGH, 2005) Rigidity and bradykinesia become factors in mobility. In stage five the person is unable to walk or stand so is bedridden or confined to a wheelchair. This stage is referred to as the “cachectic stage”. Constant nursing care is required in stage five (Costa and Quelhas, 2009). There are many complications that are associated with PD; one can be difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), likely due to the loss of control of muscles in the throat. (UMMC, 2012)

Drooling can occur since saliva may accrue in the mouth due to dysphagia. Difficulty swallowing can also lead to malnourishment, but also poses a risk for aspiration pneumonia (Leopold and Kagel, 1997). Constipation can be another complication as to the slowing of the digestive tract. Parkinson’s disease can also cause urinary retention and urinary incontinence. Dementia and difficulty thinking comes in later stages of PD. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2012) Depression is very common in patients with Parkinson’s. The disease process itself causes changes in chemicals in the brain that affect mood and well-being. Anxiety is also very common and may be present along with depression (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2012).

Sleep problems and sleeping disorders are also associated with PD, with this comes fatigue. Some patients may experience feeling light headed when standing due to the drop in blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension). Pain can also be another symptom related to Parkinson’s disease (Okun, 2013). There is not yet a cure for Parkinson’s disease but there are treatments that can help alleviate the symptoms. The most commonly used is drug therapy. Medications can help with difficulty with movement, walking and controlling tremors by increasing the brains amount of dopamine. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2012) The most common and most effective Parkinson’s disease drug is Levodopa. This is a natural chemical that passes into your brain and is converted to dopamine (Okun, 2013). There is also surgical procedures available, deep brain stimulation. With this procedure the surgeon implants electrodes into a specific location in the patient’s brain. A generator is implanted in the patient’s chest, which is attached to the electrodes.

This generator sends electrical impulses to the patient’s brain, which may lessen the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2012) Other ways that help control the effects of PD is a healthy diet. Constipation is a complication associated with PD, so a diet that is balanced with whole grains, fruits and vegetables helps to manage this complication. Balance, coordination, flexibility and muscle strength deteriorate with PD so, exercise is encouraged. Exercise also helps with decreasing anxiety and depression. The client exhibits many of the discussed signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The client experiences resting tremors, bradykinesia, mask like face (hypomimic), slowed speech and is in a wheelchair. He scores very poorly according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. The client is on medications to help diminish the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Impaired physical mobility level 3, related to bradykinesia, akinesia, neuromuscular impairment motor weakness, pain and tremors. (Berman & Snyder, 2012)

Evidenced by lack of decisive movement within physical environment, including movement in bed, transfers, and ambulation. Limited range of motion (ROM). Decreased muscle stamina, strength and control. Limitation in independent, purposeful physical movement of the body and impairment unilaterally on the right side. Due to the muscular and neuromuscular weakness related to Parkinson’s disease, evidenced by it being difficult for the patient to ambulate. The client has a defect of extrapyramidal tract, in
the basal ganglia, with loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine. (Berman & Snyder, 2012) Classic triad of symptoms: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (Jarvis, 2012). Tremors associated with paralysis agitans make it difficult maneuver. Tremors cease with voluntary movement and during sleep (VanMeter and Hubert, 2014). Immobility is an expected human response to Parkinson’s disease. The client’s immobility puts him at risk for thrombophlebitis, skin breakdown, pneumonia and depression. Immobility impedes circulation and diminishes the supply of nutrients to specific areas. As a result, skin breakdown and formation of pressure (decubitus) ulcer can occur (Berman and Snyder, 2012).

Immobility also promotes clot formation. Self-care deficits related to neuromuscular impairment, immobility, decreased strength, and loss of muscle control and lack of coordination, ridgity and tremors. Self-care deficits, dressing, hygiene and toileting, evidenced by tremors and motor disturbance. The client lacks the ability to cleanse his body, comb his hair, brush his teeth and do skin care. . The client is also unable to dress himself satisfactory. He does not have the capability to fasten his clothes. The patient is assisted with ADL’s. Patient is incapable to bathe, dress or brush teeth without aid. Patient occasionally needs assistance with feeding. Assistance is also required with toileting. Aid is needed with ADL’s because of the lack of coordination and for safety. This nursing diagnosis is important because it ensures hygiene, improves quality of life, and promotes dignity, self-worth, independence and freedom. Risk for falls related to decreased mobility, and unsteady gait secondary to sedentary lifestyle and Parkinson’s disease. Patient uses a wheelchair and ambulates with a walker. Patients gait is impaired due to Parkinson’s disease. Festination, or a propulsive gait (short, shuffled steps with increasing acceleration), occurs as postural reflexes are impaired, leading to falls (VanMeter and Hubert, 2014).

Falls also result in psychological implications for the patient with a decrease in self-confidence and a fear of further falls. This contributes to a decrease in mobility and culminates in a significant reduction in quality of life (Jarvis, 2012). Impaired bowel elimination/constipation related to medication, physical disability and decreased activity. Evidenced by the client not passing stools daily. Medications prescribed to patient for Parkinson’s disease attribute to constipation. The patients experience with immobility is also a contributing factor for constipation. This nursing diagnosis is important because it allows nursing staff to monitor the patient’s bowel movements and avoid fecal impaction. Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements related to tremors, slowing the process of eating, difficulty chewing and swallowing. Evidenced by the client occasionally needing assistance with eating.

Pressure sores develop more quickly in patients with a nutritional deficit. Proper nutrition also provides needed energy for participating in an exercise or a rehabilitative program. The goal is to optimize the client’s nutritional status. Impaired verbal communication related to decreased speech volume, decreased ability to speak, stiff facial muscles, delayed speech, and inability to move facial muscles. Evidenced by lack of expression on the client’s face, client’s hindered speech. Loss of dopamine can affect the facial muscles, making them stiff and slow and resulting in a characteristic lack of expression. Speech impairment is referred to as dysarthria and is often characterized as weak, slow, or uncoordinated speaking that can affect volume and pitch. Difficulty speaking and writing because of tremors, hypophonia, and “freeze” incidents. This is an expected consequence of Parkinson’s disease.

Nursing Care Plan- Alteration in impaired physical mobility- Parkinson’s disease Related to:
Goals
Intervention

Bradykinsia

Client will use a walker to go to breakfast in the mornings and not need assistance with transfers. Client will be able to perform all active ROM by 3 months

Examine current mobility and observation of an increase in damage. Do exercise program to increase muscle strength.

Perform passive or active assistive ROM exercises and muscle stretching exercises to all appendages. To promote increased venous return, prevent stiffness, and maintain muscle strength and endurance. Without movement, the collagen tissues at the joint become ankylosed (permanently immobile) (Berman & Synder, 2012)

Akinesia

Client will gain power of voluntary movements.
Joint contractures will not occur.
Assess the possibility of deep brain stimulation.
Refer to physical therapy.
When the muscle fibers are not able to shorten and lengthen, eventually a contracture forms, limiting joint mobility (Berman & Synder, 2012)

Tremors
Client’s tremors will decrease.
Encourage deep breathing, imagery techniques and meditation. Encourage holding an object in hand
Suggest holding the arm of the chair.
Stimulating the brain by concentrating on breathing may cease tremors. (www.theparkinsonhub.com)

Pain
Client will not experience pain >4 on a scale of 0-10
Before activity observe for and, if possible, treat pain.
Assess patient’s willingness or ability to explore a range of techniques aimed at controlling pain. Administer pain medication per physician orders.
Encourage/assist to reposition frequently to position of comfort. Pain limits mobility and is often exacerbated by movement.
(www.ptnow.org)

Nursing Care Plan- Alteration in Skin Integrity, Impaired: Risk for – Pressure Sores; Pressure Ulcers, Bed Sores; Decubitus Care Related to:
Goal
Interventions
Rationale
Neuromuscular impairment

Client will be free of any pressure ulcers for length of long term stay. Monitor site of skin impairment at least once a day for color changes, redness, swelling, warmth, pain or any other signs of infection. Pay special attention to high risk areas and ask client questions to determine whether he is experiencing loss of sensation. Apply barrier cream to peri area/ buttocks as needed.

Use ROHO cushion on wheelchair.
Checking skin once a day will ensure that skin stays intact. (Jarvis, 2012)
Immobility
Client will be able to express s/s of impaired skin.
Teach skin and wound assessment and ways to monitor for s/s of infection, complications and healing. Use prophylactic antipressure devices as appropriate

Early assessment and interventions may help complications from developing. To prevent tissue breakdown.
(Jarvis, 2012)

Nursing Care Plan- Self Care Deficits
Related to:
Goal
Intervention
Rationale
Immobility

Client will assist with bathing, grooming, dressing, oral care and eating daily. Assist client with bathing, grooming, dressing, oral care and eating daily. Use high back wheelchair.
The effectiveness of the bowel or bladder program will be enhanced if the natural and personal patterns of the patient are respected. Loss of muscle control and lack of coordination
Client will improve muscle control and coordination in all extremities for the length of long term stay. Client will walk to dining room and in hallways- 5 mins a day 5 days a week. Use consistent routines and allow adequate time for patient to complete tasks. Assist client with ambulation.

This helps patient organize and carry out self-care skills.
Tremors
Client will be able to assist with dressing.
Provide appropriate assistive devices for dressing as assessed by nurse and occupational therapist. Encourage use of clothing one size larger.
Teach and support the client during the client’s activities
Apply extensions on breaks with ball grips
The use of a button hook or of loop and pile closures on clothes may make it possible for a patient to continue independence in this self-care activity. Ensures easier dressing and comfort.
Grips will be easier to grasp with tremors.
Neuromuscular impairment
Client will be clean, dressed, well groomed daily to promote dignity and psychosocial well-being. Assist with shower as needed.
Assist with daily hygiene, grooming, dressing, oral care, and eating as needed. This promotes dignity and psychosocial well-being.

Nursing Care Plan- Falls, risk for
Related to:
Goal
Intervention
Rationale

Decreased muscle tone
Client will express an understanding of the factors involved in possible injury. Educate the client about what makes them at risk for falls.
Bed should be in lowest position.
Provide assistance to transfer as needed.
Reinforce the need for call light.
If the client is educated and shows an understanding of the factors involved with falls, they are less likely to fall. Prevent fall.

Nursing Care Plan- Impaired Bowel elimination/constipation
Related to:
Goal
Intervention
Rationale
Inactivity, immobility
Client will have soft formed stool every other day that are passed without difficulty. Encourage physical activity and regular exercise.
Adjust toileting times to meet client’s needs.
Report changes in skin integrity forum during daily care
Ambulation and/or abdominal exercises strengthen abdominal muscles that facilitate defecation. low-fiber diet

Evaluate usual dietary habits, eating habits, eating schedule, and liquid intake. Initiate supplemental high-protein feedings as appropriate.

Change in mealtime, type of food, disruption of usual schedule, and anxiety can lead to constipation. Proper nutrition is required to maintain adequate energy level.

Diminished muscle tone

Encourage isometric abdominal and gluteal exercise
Apply skin moisturizers/barrier creams as needed

To strengthen muscles needed for evacuation unless contraindicated. (http://www.gutsense.org)
Medications

Encourage liquid intake of 2000 to 3000 ml per day
To optimize hydration status and prevent hardening of stool
(VanMeter & Hubert, 2014)

My thinking about my resident has definitely changed since the initial day when I conducted a health history assessment on him. I knew that first day that I was going to appreciate getting to know this resident because of how smoothly the conversation flowed. This resident had some amazing stories to tell. I absolutely adore that fact that he and his wife have been married for 48 years. I enjoyed listening to him remember what life was like before being diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, it appeared to lighten his spirit. I feel very fortunate to have been given the opportunity to care for such a genuine soul. My whole clinical experience was a positive one. I realized that if I lacked the knowledge about a particular task to ask for help.

I liked the fact that clinicals was hands on and that I gained experience in a long term health care facility. Another thing that this clinical rotation taught me was that it takes an exceptional type of person to go into geriatric nursing. Probably the number one thing that I’m going to take away from this clinical experience is the total importance of dignity. I too will be old someday and I applied the golden rule to this experience. I treated others as I want to someday, and hopefully, will be treated. What a fantastic learning experience.

References:
Berman, A., & Snyder, S. (2012). Kozier & Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process, and Practice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Coleman, J., (September 1, 2013) Meditation & Mitigating Parkinson’s Symptoms. Retrieved from http://www.theparkinsonhub.com/your-quality-of-life/article/meditation–mitigating-parkinsons-symptoms.html Costa, M. & Quelhas, R. (2009). Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009; 21:413-419. Jarvis, C. (2012). Physical Examination & Health Assessment. St. Louis: Elsevier Kegelmeyer, D., (July 1, 2013) Functional Limitation Reporting (FLR) Under Medicare: Tests and Measures for High-Volume Conditions. Retrieved from http://www.ptnow.org/FunctionalLimitationReporting/TestsMeasures/Default.aspx Leopold N., Kagel M. (1997). Pharyngo-esophageal dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease. Dysphagia 1997; 12:11–18 Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) (May, 2005) Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson’s Disease, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living. Massachusetts General Hospital. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu/functional/pdstages.htm#HoehnandYahr Okun, M. (2013). Parkinson’s Treatment: 10 Secrets to a Happier Life. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Michael S. Okun M.D. Parkinson’s disease Foundation (2014, March) Understanding Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://www.pdf.org/en/understanding_pd University of Maryland Medical Center (2012, September) Parkinson’s disease. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/parkinsons-disease#ixzz2upFLCggw VanMeter, K. C., & Hubert, R. J. (2014). Gould’s Pathophysiology for the
Health Professions. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Process of Perception

Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions (sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste) in order to give meaning to their environment. In other words, this is how we make sense of the reality. It is crucial because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.

What are the factors that influence perception?

Attribution Theory

When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. In other words, we try to assign or attribute an internal /external reason for a specific behavior demonstrated by a person. This is one of the most crucial applications of perceptual process and it’s based on three factors. Distinctiveness: The extent to which a person behaves in the same/different way in different situations. If in different situations, person behaves in same way, distinctiveness is low. Whereas, if in different situations, behavior is different, distinctiveness is high.

Consensus: The extent to which other people behave in the same way in a similar situation. If a person’s behavior is same as others in a particular situation, consensus is high. Whereas, if a person’s behavior is not same as others in that situation, consensus is low. Consistency: the extent to which the person behaves the same way at different times in similar situations. If the person behaves same way in different times (similar situation), consistency is high. If the person does not behave the same way in different times (similar situation), consistency is low. Based on these concepts, we attribute internal/external causes to individual behavior in the following way:

Errors and Biases in Attribution
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.

Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.

Halo /Horn Effect
A tendency to allow one’s judgment of another person, (e.g in a job interview), to be unduly influenced by an unfavorable (horn) or favorable (halo) first impression based on appearances.

Contrast Effects
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

Projection
Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. (e.g. social profiling)

Specific Applications in Organizations
Employment Interview
Performance Expectations
Ethnic Profiling
Performance Evaluations
Job Posting
Employee Effort

The Link between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making
Problem: A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. Decisions: Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant.

Rational Decision – Making Model

– Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome Model Assumptions
Problem clarity
Known options
Clear preferences
Constant preferences
No time or cost constraints
Maximum payoff

Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model
Define the problem.
Identify the decision criteria.
Allocate weights to the criteria.
Develop the alternatives.
Evaluate the alternatives.
Select the best alternative.
How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations
Bounded Rationality
Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.

How/Why problems are identified
Visibility over importance of problem
Attention-catching, high profile problems
Desire to “solve problems”
Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker)
Alternative Development

Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem. Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect.

Common Biases and Errors
Overconfidence Bias
Believing too much in our own decision competencies.
Anchoring Bias
Fixating on early, first received information.
Confirmation Bias
Using only the facts that support our decision.
Availability Bias
Using information that is most readily at hand.
Representative Bias
Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category.

Escalation of Commitment
Increasing commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.

Randomness Error
Trying to create meaning out of random events by falling prey to a false sense of control or superstitions. Hindsight Bias
Falsely believing to have accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known.

How can we reduce/minimize errors and biases?
Focus on goals.
Clear goals make decision making easier and help to eliminate options inconsistent with your interests. Look for information that disconfirms beliefs.
Overtly considering ways we could be wrong challenges our tendencies to think we’re smarter than we actually are. Don’t try to create meaning out of random events.

Don’t attempt to create meaning out of coincidence.
Increase your options.
The number and diversity of alternatives generated increases the chance of finding an outstanding one.

Ways to Improve Decision Making
1. Analyze the situation and adjust your decision making style to fit the situation.

2. Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact.

3. Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase decision-making effectiveness.

4. Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation.

5. Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using analogies.

Intuitive Decision Making

An unconscious process created out of distilled experience.
Conditions Favoring Intuitive Decision Making
A high level of uncertainty exists
There is little precedent to draw on
Variables are less scientifically predictable
“Facts” are limited
Facts don’t clearly point the way
Analytical data are of little use
Several plausible alternative solutions exist
Time is limited and pressing for the right decision

Things impact on the effectiveness of the communication process

1.Needs & Expectations
Needs and expectations help people predict the action of ourselves and other people under different environment. If an employee does not complete a work on time, the manager must be disappointed. Also, if the manager does not communicate clearly with an employee when the manager give the employee his expectations, then the person will have some problems on meeting his needs. However, if the manager communicates clearly expectations, then the employee can do works productively and minimize problems.

2.Technology

Most people now use e-mail to communicate with each other. E-mail is really a useful and convenient communication method in the world. However, it also can bring some troubles. If X send an e-mail to Y but there are many mistakes in grammar and spelling, this e-mail must leave a bad impression on Y. As we lack of fact-to-face communication, the impression of someone is from using electronic communication mode such as e-mail, but sometimes this mode will influence the effective of communication progress.

3.Cultural Differences

Culture differences in language, customs, behaviors and so on. Sometimes, culture may set a barrier to communication between individuals. People with different cultural backgrounds may think their culture is the best. This thought may affect the communication between individuals from different cultural backgrounds and set barrier to our stable and harmonious society.

4.Attitude

Bad attitude will affect the effective of communication with another person. The bad attitude can lead to mistrust or nervous or fears which will set barriers to communication. These feelings will make people lack of interest in the topic that they are talking now. Good attitude can make communication effectively. For making a good communication, people need to use “I……” and find the point of other people.

Job Order and Process Costing Systems – Quiz

Question :
(TCO F) Assume there is no beginning work in process inventory and the ending work in process inventory is 100% complete with respect to materials costs. The number of equivalent units with respect to materials costs under the weighted-average method is:

 Student Answer:

XX the same as the number of units put into production. less than the number of units put into production. the same as the number of units completed. less than the number of units completed.   Instructor Explanation:
Chapter 4

Points Received:
5 of 5
Comments:
Great job

2.
Question :
(TCO F) Process costing would be appropriate for each of the following except:

Student Answer:

XX custom furniture manufacturing.

oil refining.

grain milling.

newsprint production.

Instructor Explanation:
Chapter 4

Points Received:
5 of 5

Comments:
Great job

Question :
(TCO F) Lucas Company uses the weighted-average method in its process costing system. The company adds materials at the beginning of the process in the Forming Department, which is the first of two stages in its production process. Information concerning operations in the Forming Department in October follows:

Question :
(TCO F) During December at Ingrim Corporation, $74,000 of raw materials were requisitioned from the storeroom for use in production. These raw materials included both direct and indirect materials. The indirect materials totaled $6,000. The journal entry to record the requisition from the storeroom would include a:

Student Answer:

debit to Raw Materials of $74,000.

XX debit to Work in Process of $68,000.

credit to Manufacturing Overhead of $6,000.

debit to Work in Process of $74,000.

Instructor Explanation:
Chapter 3

Points Received:
5 of 5

Comments:
Great job

6.
Question :
(TCO F) Wedd Corporation had $35,000 of raw materials on hand on May 1. During the month, the company purchased an additional $68,000 of raw materials. During May, $92,000 of raw materials were requisitioned from the storeroom for use in production. These raw materials included both direct and indirect materials. The indirect materials totaled $5,000. The debits to the Work in Process account as a consequence of the raw materials transactions in May total:

Student Answer:

$92,000.

$0.

$68,000.

XX $87,000.

Instructor Explanation:
Chapter 3

Points Received:
5 of 5

Comments:
Great job

1.
Question :
(TCO F) Some companies use process costing and some use job-order costing. Which method a company uses depends on its industry. A number of companies in different industries are listed below:
i. Custom boat builder
ii. Frozen cranberry juice processor
iii. Concrete block manufacturer
iv. Winery that produces a number of varietal wines
v. Aluminum refiner that makes aluminum ingots from bauxite ore
For each company, indicate whether the company is most likely to use job-order costing or process costing.

Student Answer:

Job order costing is where a company produces different products each period, they are made to order, All costs are traced to each job and requires that each job has documentation of all costs associated with it. Process costing is when a company produces a single product for a long period of time and the product is the same or very similar, the costs are accumulated by department. i. Custom boat builder= Job-order costing ii. Frozen cranberry juice processor= process costing iii. Concrete block manufacturer= process costing iv. Winery that produces a number of varietal wines= Job-order Costing v. Aluminum refiner that makes aluminum ingots from bauxite ore= process costing

3. Question :
(TCO F) Harmon Company uses the weighted-average method in its process costing system. The Curing Department of Harmon Company reported the following information for the month of November.

Units
Percentage complete with respect to conversion
Work in process, November 1
10,000
80%
Units started
28,000

Completed and transferred out
30,000

Work in process, November 30
8,000
30%

Costs for November
Materials
Conversion
Work in process, November 1
$34,500
$48,600
Added during the month
$146,000
$194,400

All materials are added at the beginning of the process.

Required: Compute the following items using the weighted-average method:

i. The equivalent units of production for materials.

ii. The cost per equivalent unit for conversion.

iii. The total cost assigned to units transferred out of the Curing Department during November.

iv. The cost assigned to work in process inventory as of November 30.

Student Answer:
Harmon Company i. The equivalent units of production for materials. = 38,000 (See math below) Transferred out= 30,000+ work in process 8,000= 38,000 ii. The cost per equivalent unit for conversion.= $7.50 (see math below) total weighted average units= 8,000 *.3= 24000 plus 30,000 that was transfer= 32,400 Conversion- 48,600 + added during month 194,400= 243,000 cost per unit 243,000/ total weighted avg unit 32,400 = $7.50 per unit iii. The total cost assigned to units transferred out of the Curing Department during November. = Materials= $142,500 (see math below) Conversion= $225,000 Total cost= $367,500 Materials = work in process plus added during month ( 34,500+146,000) = 180500 transferred materials divide by total average unit= 30,000/38,000=.7894 180500*.7894=$142,500

Materials Conversion= materials transferred times cost per equivalent unit 30,000*$7.50= 225,000 Add together for total cost= 225000+142500= 367500 iv. The cost assigned to work in process inventory as of November 30.= Materials $38,000 + conversion $18,000= Total cost $56,000 (See math below) Materials times ending work in process divide total materials= 34500+146000= 180500 180500* (8,000/38,000)= 38,000 Conversion ending work process inventory 8,000*.3=2,400 conversion cost conversion times per unit= 2,400*$7.50= $18,000 Total cost= 38,000+18,000= 56000

Instructor Explanation:

Points Received:
15 of 15
Comments:
Great job

4. Question :
(TCO F) Honeysuckle Corporation has provided the following data for the month of January:
Inventories

Beginning
Ending

Raw materials
$40,000
$23,000

Work In process
$9,000
$13,000

Finished goods
$52,000
$45,000

Additional Information

Raw material purchases
$68,000

Direct labor costs
$90,000

Manufacturing overhead cost incurred
$44,000

Indirect materials included in manufacturing overhead costs incurred $8,000

Manufacturing overhead cost applied to work in process
$39,000

Prepare a Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured and a Schedule of Cost of Goods Sold in good form.

Student Answer:

Honeysuckle Corporation Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured Month of January Direct Materials: Raw Materials Inventory Begining $40,000 Add: Purchases of raw materials: $68,000 Raw Materials Available for use $108,000 Less Raw Materials Ending $(23,000) Raw Materials Used in Production $85,000 Direct Labor Cost $90,000 Manufacturing overhead Manufacturing overhead cost incurred $44,000 Indirect materials included in manufacture overhead costs incurred $8,000 Manufacturing overhead cost applied to work in process $39,000 Total Manufacturing Overhead $91,000 Total Manufacturing Cost $266,000 Add Work in Process Inventory, Beginning $9,000 Less Work Process Inventory end $(13,000) Cost of Goods Manufactured $528,000 Honeysuckle Cost of Goods Sold Month of January Finished Goods Inventory $45,000 Add Cost of Goods Manufactured $528,000 Goods Available for Sale $573,000 Deduct Finished Goods Inventory $45,000 Cost of Goods Sold $618,000

Analyse your contribution to the selection process for the position of Classroom Assistant

Assignment M2

In this assignment I will analyse the contribution of the interview and selection process that leads to the position of Classroom Assistant. I took part both as an interviewee and observer therefore I am able to compare how the different roles have contributed to the process.

Before being selected through for the position, there are three stages that each applicant must face: the pre-interview, the interview itself and the post-interview. Each of these stages plays their part in allowing the employer to carefully select the potential candidate.

Pre-interview

When applying for a position or job role, it is essential that an application form is presented and that the candidate must meet the criteria as identified in the person specification in order that they have the required skills and qualifications to get offered the job.

As an interviewee, I have completed an application form that describes my qualification and experience with children. It also has my information and previous employment as well as any disability or illnesses. It is important that all these details are included correctly so that the workplace can make necessary arrangements in order to deal with the situation. As important skills to work with children are needed, I included my communication and outgoing skills, as well as listening and understanding. I made sure that it was neatly represented and wrote it in black ink and block capitals. I was also able to meet essential criteria as I found them attached on the website and ensure that it was clear that I met the needs.

As an interviewer it is important that the candidate come prepared and organized with a full interview pack that includes every piece of material requested from the interview panel. This will higher their chances to better opportunity and will also show the employer that they are committed and have what it takes to take on the role as a Classroom assistant. It is also important that the interviewer gets a report from past references as so that he/she knows if you are capable for the job. References will recommend you for the position and will tell your employer what makes you a strong team member or weaknesses that you could possibly have.

It is also important on what kind of interview gets chosen as a process of assessing candidates for this position. During our interview process, each candidate was able to get interviewed by the same interview panel and get asked the same amount of questions in the same way and then get assessed from there. This was possible because only 11 candidates had applied and therefore it was an easy process to carry out. Also because the observer is there to assess candidates, it is easier for the employer to pick who is really suitable for the assigned position. In the same way, there was no need to take aptitude tests or any kind of questioning as it couldn’t have been shorter listed. And because the interview was carried out by a professional who has been involved in recruitment for so long and know that requisites for the post there was no need for the process to be shortened.

At the end of the process, one candidate has to be selected for the job post to be offered. This can be done in many ways, however as an interviewer, it is best to write a job offer letter because it is polite and formal and the candidate can more than likely receive it which also saves on time and costs. On the other hand, applicants who didn’t get through will get a job rejection letter instead.

Interview

This is the process where the interviewer has a formal meeting with the interviewee finding out why they want the post and what makes them a good staff member compared to the others. As an interviewee I needed to make a good impression to boost my chances by arriving early, dressing smart, showing my personality through being formal and smiling and stating why I would really love to work for them.

It was also important that as an observer I made it clear that every detail and personal information was going to be strictly confidential and that everybody had an equal and fair opportunity to get the job, therefore seating arrangements and questions were exactly the same for every interviewee and questions could not be asked by me to make interview unfair. I also needed to make sure that the interview was carried out in a Health and Safety policy environment free of any possible danger or harm that could be caused by equipment.

An interview check-list is needed and useful for both sided of the interview panel as it contributes to the process because for the interviewee can know what needs to be included in the interview pack and provide necessary information while the observer or interviewer will use it as a method to ensure that all points they are looking for are being covered. This will also help control the interview because it is mannered and well organised and interviewers are able to control their time and decide what to say for each question. As an observer, notes were also taken to keep on track of the candidates’ performance in order for rank to be given at the end and meet the decision criteria and right documentation.

Communication between the interviewer and interviewee is important because as an interviewee I had to make sure I was listening carefully to questions so that I could give the correct answers, however this was also made easy as I already had an interview questions document already prepared. This is also important because it showed the interviewer that I am capable of listening and communicating well therefore able to work under command and instructions given. I also used body language to make the interview more interactive and make more impression using eye contact with both the interviewer and observer which made them more interested to hear what I had to say. Questions that were used were all open questions which gave me the ability to explain and satisfy them with my answers.

As an observer I noticed that communication between the candidate and interviewer were quite tense but body language tend to loosen the tension and make the interview more relaxing. I listened carefully to answers in order to take accurate notes and able to give feedback to the employer. The candidate came across really clear and I was able to notice that they were confident in their position and therefore it helped with the process even more.

Post-interview

After the interview, this is the final stage of the process in which some candidates are rejected and others are offered the post. It is also referred as recruitment because the candidates are gives a response based on their interview and therefore then judgement is made as to who gets picked.

I informed candidates about their interview giving them feedback on what were their strong points and weak points where they could have improved via phone call. This makes it seem more professional as it shows the interviewee that the employer is making effort in reaching them and sending them their best of wishes for their future career. As an interviewee feedback will be used as a way of improvement for the next job offers and interviews coming ahead. However before candidates could be informed if they were unsuccessful, a job offer was made to the applicant that was selected.

This took place before rejection letters were sent out because if the selected candidate decides to refuse the offer because of lost of interest or new employment, then the employer would pick the next person in line that was likely to get offered. This will therefore save restarting the whole process again as the employer is assure that the selected candidate accepts the offer before telling the others that they weren’t as successful and did not meet their standards.

As an observer I also asked for feedback from the candidates who apply as to hear from them how the process could have been improved and what changes could be done for next time. I took all answers into consideration as it will give better opportunities to other candidates to make a successful interview. I would also check the selected candidate’s reference to hear their point of view on the candidate.

Selection of Lean Manufacturing Tools for Process Industry: A Review Paper

Lean manufacturing is a production strategy for organizational effectiveness focusing on waste reduction and improving productivity through application of various lean tools. The complete elimination waste is the target of any qualified system. This concept is vitally important today since in today’s highly competitive world there is nothing we can waste. The study highlights knowledge and understanding levels of Indian managers about the concept of lean manufacturing, its adaptability, the driving factors that lead to its adoption, benefits derived thereon and application of lean tools looking into operating environments. This review paper attempts to apply the principles of lean manufacturing in the process industry with the purpose of eliminating wastes and increasing capacity. Value Stream Mapping tool was used to expose the waste and identify a proposed plan for improvement Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Waste, Value stream mapping, simulation I. Introduction

Lean manufacturing (LM) may be viewed as a systematic approach to identify and eliminate the waste (non-value added activities) through continuous improvement and synchronizing the production process to such an extent that flow of the product can be possible at the pull of the customer with emphasized focus on perfection (quality) in the pursuit of manufacturing excellence. “Lean” has been originally created and defined as the elimination of muda (waste) in the book “The Machine that Changed the World” by Womack, Jones, and Roos (Womack et al. 1990). Toyota production system evolved from the base of Ford manufacturing system with major emphasis on elimination of wastes and happens to be successfully used for improving system effectiveness.

In the lean philosophy, “value” is determined by the end customer. It means identifying what the customer is willing to pay for, what creates “value” for him. The whole process of producing and delivering a product should be examined and optimized from the customer’s point of view. So once “value” is defined, we can explore the value stream, being all activities – both value-added and non-value added – that are currently required to bring the product from raw material to end product to the customer. (Rother and Shook 1999).

Next, wasteful steps have to be eliminated and flow can be introduced in the remaining value-added processes. The concept of flow is to make parts ideally one piece at a time from raw materials to finished goods and to move them one by one to the next workstation with no waiting time in between. Pull is the notion of producing at the rate of the demand of the customer. Perfection is achieved when people within the organization realize that the continuous improvement process of eliminating waste and reducing mistakes while offering what the customer actually wants becomes possible (Womack and Jones 1996; McDonald et al. 2000).

Lean focuses on the “big picture” or improvements in the entire business process as opposed to incremental improvements. It is the business process system that can significantly improve a company’s profitability. Lean concepts improve operating performance by focusing on the continuous flow of products, materials or services through the value stream. To achieve this, the various forms of waste must be identified and eliminated. Waste can include any activity, step or process that does not add value for the customer.

In order to improve efficiency, effectiveness and profitability, focus relentlessly on eliminating all aspects of the manufacturing process that add no value from your customers perspective. The core idea of lean
manufacturing is actually quite simple relentlessly work on eliminating waste. There are eight major forms of waste described as following Table 1: Table 1 – Eight wastes of manufacturing

II. Implementation
Lean has a very extensive collection of tools and concepts. Surveying the most important of these, understanding both what they are and how they can help is an excellent way to get started. There are a lot of great ideas to explore in lean. The following Figure 1 shows some of the common Lean Tools.
Figure 1. Lean Tools

In the following, few more Essentials Lean Tools or key concepts are given, which are associated with lean manufacturing. 1) 5S
2) Andon
3) Bottleneck Analysis
4) Continuous Flow
5) Gemba (The Real Place)
6) Heijunka (Level Scheduling)
7) Hoshin Kanri (Policy Deployment)
8) Jidoka (Autonomation)
9) Just-In-Time (JIT)
10) Kaizen (Continuous Improvement)
11) Kanban (Pull System)
12) KPI (Key Performance Indicator)
13) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
14) PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act)
15) Poka-Yoke (Error Proofing)
16) Root Cause Analysis
17) Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)
18) Six Big Losses
19) SMART Goals
20) Standardized Work
21) Takt Time
22) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
23) Toyota Production System (TPS)
24) Value Stream Mapping
25) Visual Factory

Tools (methodologies) that are part of “Lean” are addressed in literature. In (McDonald et al. 2000; Rahn 2001), the pull technique of only producing what is required when it is required is used in the improved phases. The results are less rework and scrap, lower work-in-process, reduced lead time, increased throughput rate and higher service level. Other tools such as standard work (Cudney and Fargher 2001), quick changeover (Van Goubergen and Van Landeghem 2001; 2002), 5S (Henderson and Larco 2000), etc. can be referred to the works in the reference.

III. Value Stream Mapping

Value Stream Mapping is a method used for business process and product
improvement, which originated with the development of the Lean business philosophy. The value stream Mapping is the collection of all of the value-added and non value-added activities that generate the product or service that is required to meet the customer’s needs. A value stream map illustrates the flow of materials and information as the product or service moves through the process.

In contrast to the well-defined and rich set of lean tools and methods (Henderson and Larco 2000), as promoted by the Lean Enterprise Institute, there exist very few implementation methods. In recent years, value stream mapping (VSM) has emerged as the preferred way to implement lean. Value stream mapping is a mapping tool that is used to describe supply chain networks. It maps not only material flows but also information flows that signal and control the material flows. The material flow path of the product is traced back from the final operation in its routing to the storage location for raw material. This visual representation facilitates the process of lean implementation by helping to identify the value-added steps in a value stream, and eliminating the non-value added steps/waste (muda) (Rother and Shook 1999). Despite its success, VSM has some drawbacks:

(1) VSM is a ″paper and pencil″ based technique used primarily to document value streams. It is composed by physically ″walking ″ along the flow and recording what happens on the floor. This will limit both the level of detail and the number of different versions that we can handle.

(2) In real world situations, many companies are of a high variety, low volume type, meaning that many value streams are composed of many tens or hundreds of industrial parts and products. This adds a level of complication (and variability) that cannot be addressed by normal methods.

(3) Revealing as a VSM map can be (see Figure 1 and 2 as examples), many people fail to ″see″ how it translates into reality. So, the value stream map risks ending up as a nice poster, without much further use.

IV. SIMULATION AS PART OF VSM

(1) Simulation as a Cost Saving Tool
The use of a simulation model can help managers see the effects before a big implementation: the impact of layout changes, resource reallocation, etc. on the key performance indicators before and after lean transformation without huge investment (Van Landeghem and Debuf 1997, Rahn 2001).

(2) Simulation as a Training Tool
In most companies, especially when they are small, new concepts are hard to introduce. Simulation has proven to be a powerful eye-opener (Van Landeghem and Debuf 1997; Van Landeghem 1998; Whitman et al. 2001). By combining simulation with the visual map of VSM, we aim to achieve faster adoption and less resistance to change from the workforce. V. THE EXAMPLE

A mythical train manufacturer produces multiple products (general trains, fast speed trains, freight trains, etc.). We choose a core product family, general trains that exist in 3 different sizes – large, medium, and small. After drawing its value stream maps (current state and future state), we build the simulation models representing these two maps. This example exists as a physical simulation game (VanbLandeghem and Dams 1995). By using the same example, we will compare in future experiments with simulation approaches.

There are two scenarios being simulated. The two supply chain networks that we simulate are shown in Figure 2 and 3. The first scenario or the “current state” is a MRP (Material Requirements Planning) based production system. There is a production control-planning centre, which generates the time schedule specifying the time (when) and the amount (how much) of materials, parts, and components that should be ordered or produced. The manufacturing processes (the rectangles in Figure 2) consist of material purchasing from suppliers, cutting strips, cutting A/B type strips, cabin assembly, chassis assembly, final assembly and shipping to customers. A typical characteristic of this kind of production system is the inventory storage points in between (the triangles in Figure 2).

Then, this last workstation starts fabricating the final product at the pace of “takt time” which is defined as the available production time divided by the rate of customer demand (Womack and Jones 1996; Rother and Shook 1999). When the parts are taken away from the supermarkets, this is the signal for the upstream workstations to produce new parts to supplement the parts taken away from the supermarkets. This upstream workstation then pulls from the next further upstream workstation, and so on all the way back to the original release of materials. Some features in the model are supermarkets, manufacturing cells (The layout of machines of different types performing different operations in a tight sequence, typically in a U-shape, to permit single-piece-flow and flexible deployment of human effort by means of multi-machine working (Rother and Shook 1999).), etc

Figure 2 Scenario 1 (Current State) – A Push System

VI. CONCLUSION

This review paper has provided a basic overview of the Lean Manufacturing tools and techniques. A more complete review and benefits of lean shows in Table 2. Modern Engineering is given closed look towards all the engineering processes like design, manufacturing, supplying and servicing of equipments and machines to the end customers. The faster and robust processes have always been boon of the industry; to cater the ever-changing taste and demand of customers. Prevailing volatile market condition compels the Industry to implement the various lean tools to meet the fierce competition erupted out of global competition, changing customer demands, pressure on time to market etc. Thus, industry may select VSM to as a viable alternative to enhance their competitive edge. To combat the above situations, Indian manufacturers are all have to implement the Lean Manufacturing System in a big way to join with the global users. VII. References

Askin R G & Goldberg J B, Design and Analysis of Lean Production Systems (John Wiley and Sons, New York) 2002, 352-406. Ohno T, Toyota Production System (Productivity Press, Portland) 1988, 75-80. 4Monden Y, Toyota Production System – An Integrated Approach to Just-in-Time (Engineering and Management Press, Georgia) 1993, 80-102. Groover M P, Automation, Production Systems and Computer-Aided-Manufacturing(Prentice-Hall., New Jersey) 1980, 402-460. McDonald T, Van Aken E M & Rentes A F, Utilizing simulation to enhance value stream mapping: A manufacturing case application, Int J Logist Res Appl, 5(2002) 213-232 Simchi L & Kaminsky D P, Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies and Case Studies (McGraw-Hill, New York) 2000, 280-312. Cudney, E.A. and J. Fargher.
2001. “Using Standard Work in Lean Manufacturing”, IIE Annual Conference.

Rahn, R. 2001. “Lean manufacturing using Computer Aided Simulation”, IIE Annual Conference.
Yang-Hua Lian, Hendrik Van Landeghem, “ An Application of Simulation and Value Stream Mapping in Lean Manufacturing”

The Four Goals of Communication Process

Mary and Bertha (2010) point out that “Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another.” (Page 5) The term communication means that the sender has an idea and the sender encodes the message which will be decodes by the receiver. Here is the process of communication which had been point out from the book of Mary and Bertha (2010) Sender has an idea. – The sender has information to be told to, the idea may be influence by the sender’s mood or the context of situation.

Sender encodes the ideas in a message – the sender converts the ideas into words or gestures to covey meaning. Message travels over a Channel – channels such as computers telephones or even spoken words is used to transfer the message to the receiver, but the sender must choose which way to be used as there might be an interruption in the communication process which is called noise. Receiver decodes messages – the receiver receives the message and translates it into meaning. Feedback travels to the Sender by the Receiver – feedback is given to the sender to show that the receiver had understood the message given by the sender.

Those Five steps shows how the communication process can work successfully but there are four goals in Business Communication that needs to be concerned as it will shows us whether the communication is successful or not.

The Four Goals of Business Communication are:-  Receiver Understanding
As we all know that an effective communication process involves sending information from the sender to the receiver by which the information should be clear and understandable by the receiver, that stated that the receiver understanding is the most important factors as it will prove whether the purpose of the communication had been achieved or not. When the receiver can understand the information which the sender sends, the goal of the communication had been achieved, which in other words, the communication process is successful and as the result, the receiver could give feedback to the sender showing that the receiver had understand the information given by the sender.

Receiver Response
The receiver’s response is the other factor that affect the goal of the business communication because the receiver might not be able give any response if the receiver did not understand what the sender’s information is all about, but if the receiver understand the ideas that the sender gives, the receiver could give response to the sender. The receiver could give respond in 3 ways, positive, neutral or negative. The other things about the receiver response that needs to be concerned is that about the communication barriers which means that sometimes the receiver received the message from the sender but the receiver receives the idea in a wrong way than what it should be as a result, the receiver will give a feedback which are not as like what the sender expected. Communication barriers are that disturbance caused in the communication process which can be in the form of language barriers; different language may cause the communication to be difficult, culture barriers; different cultures have different ways of communicating, so it will be difficult to communicate with people with different kind of culture, and etc.

Favorable Relationship
This third goal convey that we should emphasized on the people involves in the communication process to create a good relationship among the sender and the receiver. Krizan, Patricia, Joyce, and Karen (2008) point out that “To establish a strong business relationship, the sender and the receiver should relate to each other in three important ways which are Positively, Personally, and Professionally” (Page 5) which means that in business communication, the message between the sender and the receiver should be positive, well package and concise. According to the same book, it is also explained that there are ways in maintaining a favorable relationship which are: Emphasized on the receiver’s benefit and interest

Positive words should be used
Show more than what is expected

For example, there is a salesgirl in a supermarket and she sells different kinds of juice products for example let’s say the product name is Buahvita; a famous juice brand in Indonesia, when there is one customer came by to buy the juice, the customer wants raspberry juice as she said that it is good and rich of vitamin C, while the Buahvita Company doesn’t sell raspberry juice product. To build a favorable relationship between the Brand and the customer, instead of saying, “We don’t produce raspberry juice”, it will be much better if you say, “Instead of raspberry juice, why don’t you try Kiwi Juice because it quite having a rich in vitamin C rather than raspberry and I will give you 5% discount in order for you to try.”

Organizational Goodwill
It is important if the company can promote goodwill to the customer, and it is very sure that goodwill is important for a company as it will result the company situation which means that it will increase the company’s confidence in the business. The more goodwill that the company received, the more better the company will be. It’s the duty of the sender (The Company) is to send an idea which is understandable by the receiver (The Customer), so that the goodwill of the company could increase. By that, the company could know whether the customer show a positive aspect throughout the company’s products or services or not. (Krizan, Patricia, Joyce and Karen, 2008, p.6)

Which of the four goals of business communication are the most important and why it has this distinction? Receiver Understanding is the most important factors in the goals of business communication because if the receiver are not able to decode the message given by the sender, the other process might not be accomplished as the receiver couldn’t send feedback to the sender. This process is the most distinct as the receiver understanding is the main purpose of business communication itself, and as we also know in communication, the purpose is to make the receiver understand what we are talking.

Bibliography

Guffey, M. E., & Du-Babcock, B. (2010). Essential Business Communication Second Edition. Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

A.C., K., Merrier, P., P. Logan, J., & Williams, K. S. (2008). Bussiness Communication. CENGAGE Learning. Guffey, M. E., & Du-Babcock, B. (2010).
Essential Business Communication Second Edition. Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

(1995 – 2014). (Wilson, Producer, & Wilson Publishing Ltd) Retrieved March 1, 2014, from www.businesscasestudies.co.uk

Process Design Matrix and Summary Design

Executive Summary- Services

Hair Studio Salons was founded in 2014 and is created so that salon professional can become independent owner. Hair Studio would assist these professional to become their own boss with the hassles of traditional salon ownership. Hair Studio Salons like to have its location in high end areas like downtown area. Hair Studio will provide each independent salon owner their own mini-salon and self services approach. Each independent salon owner will have a solid wall for privacy and security. The independent owner will have personal attention approach in each studio with his/her own styling chair, wash sink, hair dryer and their own locking cabinetry ensemble.

Mission Statement: We are here to make your dream of becoming an independent salon owner. Motto: Beauty is Unique

Andrea Pollock have been in hair industry for 30 years, teaching and assisting her students with job placement. Since Andrea have work throughout Florida building a clientele for her hair care and clients overall needs. Andrea has built a loyal marketing following and fan base due to her fantastic personality. This has allowed Andrea to train a team of experience hair stylist that will help with her business venture. Hair Studio Salon has a standard in the industry that is unparalleled and designed to be successful. To meet Hair Studio Salon objectives, we are seeking $150,000.00 in loans. The loan will be paid from the cash flow from the business and monthly revenues from independent owners. This is just the beginning to preparing for a success Hair Studio Salons.

Executive Summary- Product

Hair Studio Salons is created so that salon professional, could be their own boss, without the hassles of normally associated with “traditional “salon ownership. Hair Studio Salon will provide to the independent salon owners marketing strategic and location. We can provide everything salon professional will need to serve their clients in a private beauty haven. This is what we call Hair Studio so that salon professional will own and control their professional venture. Therefore, Hair Studio Salon will provide a supportive, drama-free environment that allows other salon professional to work side-by-side with other independent salon owners all under the same roof.

Hair Studio salons will provide adequate space divided into 10- 25 individuals “mini-salons” (call Hair Studio). Salon professional can offer the artistic vision, transforming their Hair Studio into that special place are enthusiastically embraced by their clientele. Basically owning a Hair Studio gives salon professionals complete artistic freedom, scheduling, flexibility, and financial rewards without the expense of on their own salon. Allowing salon professional to be independent salon owner will help them to reach the next level of success. Although Hair Studio Salons will embrace the independent salon owner they will have a choice to have a single or double solid nine foot wall for the privacy of their clientele. Within the walls of their studio they will find styling chairs, wash sink, their own locking cabinetry ensemble and a beautiful full length mirror. Hair Studio has our signatures interior design which is gorgeous.

Moreover for the price of a typical booth rental, each independent salon owner will have a stunning space to call their own without the expense of a traditional salon. Where you specialized in hair care, nail care, skin care or massage, there is studio that will fit an independent salon owner need. Each independent salon can choose a small single studio, a large single studio or one of the double studio that are designed especially for two professional working together.

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References
Istudiosalons.com/what-is-istudio-salons

Jacobs, F. R. & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.) Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin

Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process

Introduction

I have chosen to analyze the research and study on Childhood Obesity: Can electronic medical records (EMRs), customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis. The project was done to determine if customization would affect the outcome of prevention, screening, and treatment and improve the rate of diagnosis of obesity in children 7-18 years of age.

Statement of the Problem

The failure to achieve a decrease the child obesity in our nation that was outlined in 2010 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, they have recently released the 2020 projections and objectives that will intensify the focus on primary care physicians and state agencies to attain this goal. Primary care practices are a profound part of identifying, preventing, and managing childhood obesity. Clinicians are being urged to record BMI’s on all patients, in cases of identifying obesity/overweight individuals they would provide educational instructions, counsel patients on nutrition, and weight maintenance.

Practitioners rarely record accurate BMI percentages for pediatric patients, instead they rely on physical appearance or regarded as a result of some other specified cause. This is important to health care because of the subsequent medical conditions such as; type II diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, sleep apnea, and orthopedic problems. Providers have stated that the barriers of diagnosing, and managing childhood obesity is lack of practice resources, time, reimbursement, family motivation, and family resources.

Purpose of Study

Childhood obesity and overweight is a priority health issue, in the United States 32% of children 2-19 being overweight and 18.7% age 6-19 being obese (Ogden, Carroll, Curtin, Lamb, & Flegal, 2010). The development of diseases due to obesity is rising as obesity in our children becomes more profound. Children who had percentiles of BMI in the index between the 95th and 98th became obese adults, a percentile higher than the 98th percentile was related to adult obesity 100% of the time In this study there was a retrospective review done in regards to prevention, screening, and diagnosis of obesity in children.

Data was collected and compared for BMI documentation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether EMR customization using evidence based practices introduced by the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and Expert Panel guidelines for prevention of obesity would improve the rate of the diagnosis of childhood obesity (Savinon, Taylor, Mitchell, & Siegfried, 2012).

The Design

A quasi-experimental design was used comparing outcomes of a group with written records from September 1, 2009 through December 31, 2009 to those using EMR September1,2010 through December 31, 2010

Hypothesis

In this study the hypothesis is based on a conceptual model. The use in the study of growth charts, scoring risk questionnaires, BMI documentation, diagnosis of overweight or obesity in each study individual. This data was able to provide guidelines with the ability to decrease the rate of obesity/overweight in children 2-19 if followed consistently.

Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines

The Health Eating and Activity Together (HEAT) clinical practice guideline developed by the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP), and the Expert Panel recommendations were designed to provide practitioners with the most recent evidence based information to attack childhood obesity. Training of providers in the practice guidelines showed an improvement in confidence, ease, and frequency of obesity-related counseling, a structured training with tools for successful intervention. The study confirmed that the training with in office tools showed improvement in documentation and adherence to guidelines but not with just training alone. There was a profound improvement seen after 3 and 6 month intervals in documentation of BMI percentages. Exposure to the guidelines through structured training and in office tools proved that provider practices in assessment and management regarding overweight and obese patients was greatly improved.

Data Collection

There were several variables abstracted from the written records and EMR using a chart audit form: race, religion, ethnicity, gender, age, provider type, payer source, height, weight, and BMI, Blood pressure, screening tests for lipids, and diabetes, diagnosis for overweight or obese.

Demographics

Statistically there were no significant variables differences in the demographics for each group. Race, gender, insurance status, and age were similar in both the written and electronic records. A larger amount of children with written records were African-American (53%) and male (58%).

Implications for Practices

Customizing EMR with clinical practice guidelines improved the use of recommendations for screening and identifying childhood obesity. Increasing people’s awareness and diagnosis will ultimately lead to better intervention and improved outcomes.

Conclusion

There were clear signs of increase in recording of BMI, completion of grow charts, growth charts, scoring questionnaires. Providers are trained and provided with in-office tools to make sure everyone is complying with the guidelines. The number of children diagnosed overweight or obese increased with electronic medical records. Increasing recognition and diagnosis will lead to a profound reduction in the rate of obesity in the future. It will also lead to improved interventions and improved outcomes for childhood obesity.

Reference
Authors; Savinon C. , DNP, FNP-BC’(Asst. Professor), Taylor-Smith J. PhD, RN, WHNP-BC, Canty-Mitchell J. PhD, RN (Professor), Blood-Siegfried, DNSc, CPNP (Associate Professor), (2012)
2012 Childhood Obesity: Can Electronic Medical

Comparison between five process models of software engineering

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org

A Comparison Between Five Models Of Software Engineering
Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar1 and A. Govardhan2
1

Ph.D Student of Computer Science & Engineering

Jawahrlal Nehru Technological University
Kuktapally, Hyderabad- 500 085, Andhra Pradesh, India
2

Professor of Computer Science & Engineering
Principal JNTUH of Engineering College, Jagityal, Karimnagar (Dt), A.P., India

Abstract
This research deals with a vital and important issue in computer world. It is concerned with the software management processes that examine the area of software development through the development models, which are known as software development life cycle. It represents five of the development models namely, waterfall, Iteration, V-shaped, spiral and Extreme programming. These models have advantages and disadvantages as well.

Therefore, the main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features and defects of
each model.
Keywords: Software Management Processes, Software Development, Development Models, Software Development Life Cycle, Comparison between five models of Software Engineering.

increased recently which results in the difficulty of enumerating such companies. During the previous four decades, software has been developed from a tool used for analyzing information or solving a problem to a product in itself. However, the early programming stages have created a number of problems turning software an obstacle to software development particularly those relying on computers. Software consists of documents and programs that contain a collection that has been established to be a part of software engineering procedures. Moreover, the aim of software engineering is to create a suitable work that construct programs of high quality.

1. Introduction
Computer Science

No one can deny the importance of computer in our life, especially during the present time. In fact, computer has become indispensible in today’s life as it is used in many fields of life such as industry, medicine, commerce, education and even agriculture. It has become an important element in the industry and technology of advanced as well as developing countries. Now a days, organizations become more dependent on computer in their works as a result of computer technology. Computer is considered a time- saving device and its progress helps in executing complex, long, repeated processes in a very short time with a high speed. In addition to using computer for work, people use it for fun and entertainment. Noticeably, the number of companies thatproduce software programs for the purpose of facilitating works of offices, administrations, banks, etc, has

Theories

Computer Function

Client

Problems

The Software engineering

Tools and techniques to solve problems

Fig. 1 Explanation of software engineering conception.

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
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2. Software Process Models

concern.

A software process model is an abstract representation of a
process. It presents a description of a process from some
particular perspective as:

The pure waterfall lifecycle consists of several nonoverlapping stages, as shown in the following figure. The model begins with establishing system requirements and software requirements and continues with architectural design, detailed design, coding, testing, and maintenance.
The waterfall model serves as a baseline for many other lifecycle models.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Specification.
Design.
Validation.
Evolution.

General Software Process Models are
1. Waterfall model: Separate and distinct phases of
specification and development.
2. Prototype model.
3. Rapid application development model (RAD).
4. Evolutionary
development:
Specification,
development and validation are interleaved.
5. Incremental model.
6. Iterative model.
7. Spiral model.
8. Component-based software engineering : The system
is assembled from existing components.

System Requirements
Software Requirements

Architectural Design

Detailed Design

Coding

There are many variants of these models e.g. formal
development where a waterfall-like process is used, but
the specification is formal that is refined through several
stages to an implementable design[1].

Testing

Maintenance

Fig. 2 Waterfall Model[4].

3. Five Models
A Programming process model is an abstract
representation to describe the process from a particular
perspective. There are numbers of general models for
software processes, like: Waterfall model, Evolutionary
development, Formal systems development and Reusebased development, etc. This research will view the following five models :
1. Waterfall model.
2. Iteration model.
3. V-shaped model.
4. Spiral model.
5. Extreme model.
These models are chosen because their features
correspond to most software development programs.

Requirements
Definition

System and
Software Design

Implementation
and Unit Testing

Integration and
System Testing

3.1 The Waterfall Model
The waterfall model is the classical model of software engineering. This model is one of the oldest models and is widely used in government projects and in many major companies. As this model emphasizes planning in early stages, it ensures design flaws before they develop. In addition, its intensive document and planning make it work well for projects in which quality control is a major

Operation and
Maintenance
Fig. 3 Waterfall model[2].

The following list details the steps for using the waterfall

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org

model:
1 System requirements: Establishes the components for building the system, including the hardware requirements, software tools, and other necessary components. Examples include decisions on hardware, such as plug-in boards (number of channels, acquisition speed, and so on), and decisions on external pieces of software, such as databases or libraries.
2

3

Software requirements: Establishes the expectations for software functionality and identifies which system requirements the software affects. Requirements analysis includes determining interaction needed with other applications and databases, performance requirements, user interface requirements, and so on.

Architectural design: Determines the software framework of a system to meet the specific requirements. This design defines the major components and the interaction of those components, but it does not define the structure of each component. The external interfaces and tools used in the project can be determined by the designer.

4

Detailed design: Examines the software components defined in the architectural design stage and produces a specification for how each component is implemented.

5

Coding:
Implements
specification.

6

7

the

detailed

starting coding. There is no overlap between stages. In real-world development, however, one can discover issues during the design or coding stages that point out errors or
gaps in the requirements.

The waterfall method does not prohibit returning to an earlier phase, for example, returning from the design phase to the requirements phase. However, this involves costly rework. Each completed phase requires formal review and extensive documentation development. Thus, oversights made in the requirements phase are expensive to correct later.
Because the actual development comes late in the process, one does not see results for a long time. This delay can be disconcerting to management and customers. Many people also think that the amount of documentation is excessive and inflexible.
Although the waterfall model has instructive because it emphasizes project development. Even if one model, he must consider each of relationship to his own project [4].

1.
2.
3.

design

Testing: Determines whether the software meets the specified requirements and finds any errors present in the code.
Maintenance: Addresses problems and enhancement requests after the software releases.

In some organizations, a change control board maintains the quality of the product by reviewing each change made in the maintenance stage. Consider applying the full waterfall development cycle model when correcting problems or implementing these enhancement requests.

In each stage, documents that explain the objectives and describe the requirements for that phase are created. At the end of each stage, a review to determine whether the project can proceed to the next stage is held. Your prototyping can also be incorporated into any stage from the architectural design and after.
Many people believe that this model cannot be applied to all situations. For example, with the pure waterfall model, the requirements must be stated before beginning the design, and the complete design must be stated before

96

4.
5.
6.

1.
2.

4.
5.
6.
7.

its weaknesses, it is important stages of does not apply this these stages and its

Advantages :
Easy to understand and implement.
Widely used and known (in theory!).
Reinforces good habits:
define-before- design,
design-before-code.
Identifies deliverables and milestones.
Document driven, URD, SRD, … etc. Published
documentation standards, e.g. PSS-05.
Works well on mature products and weak teams.
Disadvantages :
Idealized, doesn’t match reality well.
Doesn’t reflect iterative nature of exploratory
development.
3. Unrealistic to expect accurate requirements so
early in project.
Software is delivered late in project, delays discovery
of serious errors.
Difficult to integrate risk management.
Difficult and expensive to make changes to
documents, ”swimming upstream”.
Significant administrative overhead, costly for small
teams and projects [6].
Pure Waterfall

This is the classical system development model. It consists
of discontinuous phases:
1.
2.
3.

Concept.
Requirements.
Architectural design.

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5,
September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org

4.
5.
6.

Detailed design.
Coding and development.
Testing and implementation.
Table 1: Strengths & Weaknesses of Pure Waterfall

Strengths

Minimizes planning overhead since it can
be done up front. Structure minimizes wasted effort, so it works well for technically weak or inexperienced staff.

Risk reduction spirals can be added to the top of the waterfall to reduce risks prior to the waterfall phases. The waterfall can be further modified using options such as prototyping, JADs or CRC sessions or other methods of requirements gathering done in overlapping phases [5].

Weaknesses

3.2 Iterative Development

Inflexible

Only the final phase produces a nondocumentation deliverable.

Backing up to
address mistakes is
difficult.

The problems with the Waterfall Model created a demand for a new method of developing systems which could provide faster results, require less up-front information, and offer greater flexibility. With Iterative Development, the project is divided into small parts. This allows the development team to demonstrate results earlier on in the process and obtain valuable feedback from system users.

Often, each iteration is actually a mini-Waterfall process with the feedback from one phase providing vital information for the design of the next phase. In a variation of this model, the software products, which are produced at the end of each step (or series of steps), can go into production immediately as incremental releases.

 Pure Waterfall Summary
The pure waterfall model performs well for products with clearly understood requirements or when working with well understood technical tools, architectures and infrastructures. Its weaknesses frequently make it inadvisable when rapid development is needed. In those cases, modified models may be more effective.

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Modified Waterfall

The modified waterfall uses the same phases as the pure waterfall, but is not based on a discontinuous basis. This enables the phases to overlap when needed. The pure waterfall can also split into subprojects at an appropriate phase (such as after the architectural design or detailed
design).

Table 2: Strengths & Weaknesses of Modified Waterfall

Strengths


More flexible than the pure waterfall model.
If there is personnel continuity between the phases, documentation can be substantially
reduced. Implementation of easy areas does not need to wait for the hard ones.

Weaknesses

Modified Waterfall Summary

Milestones are more ambiguous than the pure waterfall.
Activities performed in parallel are subject to miscommunication and mistaken assumptions.
Unforeseen interdependencies can create problems.

Fig. 4 Iterative Development.

3.3 V-Shaped Model
Just like the waterfall model, the V-Shaped life cycle is a sequential path of execution of processes. Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins. Testing is emphasized in this model more than the waterfall model. The testing procedures are developed early in the life cycle before any coding is done, during each of the phases preceding implementation. Requirements begin the life cycle model just like the waterfall model. Before

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
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development is started, a system test plan is created. The
test plan focuses on meeting the functionality specified in
requirements gathering.

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Requirements

The high-level design phase focuses on system architecture and design. An integration test plan is created in this phase in order to test the pieces of the software systems ability to work together. However, the low-level design phase lies where the actual software components are designed, and unit tests are created in this phase as well.

System Test
Planning

High Level
Design

Low Level
Design

The implementation phase is, again, where all coding takes place. Once coding is complete, the path of execution continues up the right side of the V where the test plans developed earlier are now put to use.

Simple and easy to use.
Each phase has specific deliverables.
Higher chance of success over the waterfall model due to the early development of test plans during the life cycle.
Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood.

Unit Test
Planning

Integration
Testing

Unit
Testing

Implementation

Advantages

1.
2.
3.

Integration
Test
Planning

System
Testing

4.

Fig. 6 V-Shaped Life Cycle Model[7].

3.4 Spiral Model
The spiral model is similar to the incremental model, with more emphases placed on risk analysis. The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral, starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed. Each subsequent spiral builds on the baseline spiral. Requirements are gathered during the planning phase. In the risk analysis phase, a process is undertaken to identify risk and alternate solutions. A prototype is produced at the end of the risk analysis phase. Software is produced in the engineering phase, along with testing at the end of the phase. The evaluation phase allows the customer to evaluate the output of the project to date before the project continues to the next spiral.

In the spiral model, the angular component represents progress, and the radius of the spiral represents cost.

Fig. 5 V-Model [3]

Disadvantages

1.
2.

Very rigid like the waterfall model.
Little flexibility and adjusting scope is difficult and expensive. Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early prototypes of the software are produced.
This Model does not provide a clear path for problems found during testing phases [7].

3.
4.


1.
2.
3.

Advantages
High amount of risk analysis.
Good for large and mission-critical projects.
Software is produced early in the software life cycle.


1.
2.
3.

Disadvantages
Can be a costly model to use.
Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.
Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
Doesn’t work well for smaller projects [7].

4.

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org


1.

Spiral model sectors
Objective setting :Specific objectives for the phase are
identified.
2. Risk assessment and reduction: Risks are assessed and
activities are put in place to reduce the key risks.
3. Development and validation: A development model
for the system is chosen which can be any of the
general models.
4. Planning: The project is reviewed and the next phase
of the spiral is planned [1].

99

under which the system would produce win-lose or loselose outcomes for some stakeholders. 3. Identify and Evaluate Alternatives: Solicit suggestions from stakeholders, evaluate them with respect to stakeholders’ win conditions, synthesize and negotiate candidate win-win alternatives, analyze, assess, resolve win-lose or lose-lose risks, record commitments and areas to be left flexible in the project’s design record and life cycle plans.
4. Cycle through the Spiral: Elaborate the win conditions evaluate and screen alternatives, resolve risks, accumulate appropriate commitments, and develop and execute downstream plans [8].

3.5 Extreme Programming
An approach to development, based on the development and delivery of very small increments of functionality. It relies on constant code improvement, user involvement in the development team and pair wise programming . It can be difficult to keep the interest of customers who are involved in the process. Team members may be unsuited to the intense involvement that characterizes agile methods. Prioritizing changes can be difficult where there are multiple stakeholders. Maintaining simplicity requires extra work. Contracts may be a problem as with other approaches to iterative development.

Fig. 7 Spiral Model of the Software Process[1].

 WinWin Spiral Model
The original spiral model [Boehm 88] began each cycle of the spiral by performing the next level of elaboration of the prospective system’s objectives, constraints and alternatives. A primary difficulty in applying the spiral model has been the lack of explicit process guidance in determining these objectives, constraints, and alternatives. The Win-Win Spiral Model [Boehm 94] uses the theory W (win-win) approach [Boehm 89b] to converge on a system’s next-level objectives, constraints, and alternatives. This Theory W approach involves identifying the system’s stakeholders and their win conditions, and using negotiation processes to determine a mutually satisfactory set of objectives, constraints, and alternatives for the stakeholders. In particular, as illustrated in the figure, the nine-step Theory W process translates into the following spiral model extensions:
1. Determine Objectives: Identify the system life-cycle stakeholders and their win conditions and establish initial system boundaries and external interfaces.
2. Determine Constraints: Determine the conditions

Fig. 8 The XP Release Cycle

 Extreme Programming Practices
Incremental planning: Requirements are recorded on
Story Cards and the Stories to be included in a release are
determined by the time available and their relative priority. The developers break these stories into development
“Tasks”.
Small Releases: The minimal useful set of functionality
that provides business value is developed first. Releases of the system are frequent and incrementally add
functionality to the first release.

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org

Simple Design: Enough design is carried out to meet the current requirements and no more.
Test first development: An automated unit test framework is used to write tests for a new piece of functionality before functionality itself is implemented. Refactoring: All developers are expected to re-factor the code continuously as soon as possible code improvements are found. This keeps the code simple and maintainable. Pair Programming: Developers work in pairs, checking each other’s work and providing support to do a good job. Collective Ownership: The pairs of developers work on all areas of the system, so that no islands of expertise develop and all the developers own all the code. Anyone can change anything.

Continuous Integration: As soon as work on a task is complete, it is integrated into the whole system. After any such integration, all the unit tests in the system must pass. Sustainable pace: Large amounts of over-time are not considered acceptable as the net effect is often to reduce code quality and medium term productivity. On-site Customer: A representative of the end-user of the system (the Customer) should be available full time for the use of the XP team. In an extreme programming process, the customer is a member of the development team and is responsible for bringing system requirements to the team for implementation.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

XP and agile principles
Incremental development is supported through small, frequent system releases.
Customer involvement means full-time customer engagement with the team.
People not process through pair programming, collective ownership and a process that avoids long
working hours.
Change supported through regular system releases. Maintaining simplicity through constant refactoring of code [1].


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Advantages
Lightweight methods suit small-medium size projects.
Produces good team cohesion.
Emphasises final product.
Iterative.
Test based approach to requirements and quality
assurance.


1.

Disadvantages
Difficult to scale up to large projects where
documentation is essential.
Needs experience and skill if not to degenerate into
code-and-fix.
Programming pairs is costly.

2.
3.

4.

100

Test case construction is a difficult and specialized
skill [6].

4. Conclusion and Future Work
After completing this research , it is concluded that :
1. There are many existing models for developing
systems for different sizes of projects and
requirements.
2. These models were established between 1970 and
1999.
3. Waterfall model and spiral model are used commonly
in developing systems.
4. Each model has advantages and disadvantages for the
development of systems , so each model tries to
eliminate the disadvantages of the previous model
Finally, some topics can be suggested for future works:
1.

2.

3.

Suggesting a model to simulate advantages that are
found in different models to software process
management.
Making a comparison between the suggested model
and the previous software processes management
models.
Applying the suggested model to many projects to
ensure of its suitability and documentation to explain
its mechanical work.

REFERENCES
[1] Ian Sommerville, “Software Engineering”, Addison
Wesley, 7th edition, 2004.
[2] CTG. MFA – 003, “A Survey of System Development
Process Models”, Models for Action Project: Developing
Practical Approaches to Electronic Records Management
and Preservation, Center for Technology in Government
University at Albany / Suny,1998 .
[3] Steve Easterbrook, “Software Lifecycles”, University
of Toronto Department of Computer Science, 2001.
[4] National Instruments Corporation, “Lifecycle Models”,
2006 , http://zone.ni.com.
[5] JJ Kuhl, “Project Lifecycle Models: How They Differ
and When to Use Them”,2002 www.businessesolutions.com.
[6] Karlm, “Software Lifecycle Models’, KTH,2006 .
[7] Rlewallen, “Software Development Life Cycle
Models”, 2005 ,http://codebeter.com.
[8] Barry Boehm, “Spiral Development: Experience,
Principles, and Refinements”, edited by Wilfred J.
Hansen, 2000 .
Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar was born in Jeddah, Saudi
Arabia in 1978. He studied Computer Science at University of Science and Technology, Yemen from 1997 to 2001. In 2001 he

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814
www.IJCSI.org
received the Bachelor degree. He studied Master of Information Technology at Arab Academic, Yemen, from 2004 to 2007. Now
rd
he Ph.D. Student 3 year of CSE at Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University (JNTU), Hyderabad, A. P., India. He is working as Associate Professor in Computer Science &
Engineering College in University Of Science and Technology, Yemen. His area of interest include Software Engineering, System Analysis and Design, Databases and Object Oriented
Technologies.
Dr.A.Govardhan: received Ph.D. degree in Computer Science
and Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University in 2003, M.Tech. from Jawaharlal Nehru University in 1994 and B.E. from Osmania University in 1992. He is Working as a
Principal of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Jagitial. He has published around 108 papers in various national and
international Journals/conferences. His research of interest includes Databases, Data Warehousing & Mining, Information
Retrieval, Computer Networks, Image Processing, Software
Engineering, Search Engines and Object Oriented Technologies.

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Performance Appraisal & Compensation Process

The performance appraisal is conducted by the immediate manager or supervisor, who does a narrative writing and graphic scale analysis for rating the new employee performance. All of the compensation plan along with benefits; incentives are included in the performance appraisal process of Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. To hold effective performance management they follow some steps:

Know the problems

Using the right and effective appraisal tool
Keep a diary
Get agreement on a plan
Be fair
Review the related performance
Always goal directed
COMPENSATION : Bangladesh Unilever offers compensation packages on par or higher than the industry standards based on the technical skills and experience of the candidates. Employee benefits were standardized across employees. The benefit schemes were re-evaluated twice a year. The benefit programs included: Medical benefits that were aimed keeping the employees healthy and motivated, so as to reach expected productivity levels. Tuition assistance programs which included financial assistance to meet tuition expenses for all employees. This gave them the opportunity to continue their formal education while working.

A range of professional counseling and support services for employees and eligible family members. Facilitation for employees to relocate if transferred to help them settle easily in the new location.  Assistance programs in case of emergency for employees and their eligible dependents travelling on company work to locations worldwide. Company stock offers to the employees to enable them to share the benefits of the company’s performance. In the compensation plan the Unilever Bangladesh use ACR (Annual Confidential Rating) which is followed by most of the companies. The compensation package has been divided into five segments in Unilever Bangladesh like other public companies: Monthly Guaranteed Cash

Annual Guaranteed Cash.
Annual Variable Cash
Terminal Payments
Monthly Cost of Benefits

MONTHLY GUARANTEED CASH : Basic Salary, House Rent Allowance, Domestic Aid’s Wage, Utilities / Maintenance, Transport Allowance, Medical Allowance Personal / Special / Other Allowance, Meal Allowance, Children Education Allowance ANNUAL GUARANTEED CASH: Annual Bonus, Festival Bonus, Leave Fare Assistance ANNUAL VARIABLE CASH: Performance Bonus, Profit Bonus, Incentive Bonus TERMINAL BENEFITS: Provident Fund, Gratuity, Pension Fund

MONTHLY COST OF BENEFITS: Loan system and other Fringe Benefits etc

Memory Process Paper

I remember playing the game Trivial Pursuit and in order to win this game it came down to me acquiring to answer one question. I racked my brain truly hard trying to remember this particular answer. The question inquired about a particular mountain I by no means heard of or could remember learning about.

This paper will describe the beliefs of functioning recollection, short-range recollection, long-standing recollection, the part of encrypting, in addition to the simplicity of recovery in the recollection progress. I participated on an online remembrance test, Speed Match and Memory Matrix, to assess my short-term memory.

The test consisted of memory accuracy and visual recollection. Concepts of Functioning Memory, Short, and Long-Span Memory

Long-span memory and short-span memory have two diverse stages of storage (Cowan, 2001). There is a system of capacity and duration in the short-span memory. In short-span recall data can be detained for a few seconds, before the long-term memory has received it. Long-term memory data can be received, when processing data in short-term memory immediately.

The memories system works to retain reminiscences, in an extended period of time, and even forever would be considered a long-period of memory. Long-span recollection is collected of more than a few diverse modules: semantic recollection, procedural recollection, episodic recollection, and declarative recollection. Declarative recollection is reminiscence of accurate data.

For example, important dates such as anniversary and birthday, names of individuals, and faces of people would be considered declarative memory. Procedural recollection is remembrance for habits and expertise. For example, bike riding or learning to toss a football would be considered a procedural recollection. Semantic recollection is retention for universal understanding and details about the world, in addition to reminiscence for the guidelines of judgment that are used to assume other realities.

For example, reading a chapter in an educational course textbook is considered to be semantic memory. Episodic recollection is recollection for occasions that transpire in a specific place, context, or time. Speed Match and Memory Matrix Results

I took an online memory test from the Lumosity Internet site that invented memory measuring tests called speed match and memory matrix. These tests are apparently a clinically premeditated measure of intellectual performance that practices and unidentified exclusive procedure to interpret game results into some suggestion of cognitive meaning (Lumosity, 2013). The speed match and memory matrix tests are also considered to be used as “Assessment,” which give scores grounded on performance, but provides without question no clarification of those scores.

Speed Match consists of use to think faster than normal rate, having faster response time, moving up the speed of his or her cognitive processing, and exercising his or her working memory. My score in speed match was 210, which meant average accuracy in speed memory. The objective was to recollect the symbols, but to reply rapidly.

It was not a particularly amusing game to play, but then again a round is reasonably short, so I did not have much time to invest trying to progress on my previous scores. Simultaneously, it is not really clear to me if playing this game could actually “speed up my cognitive processes.” There were an abundant amount of impulse-based twitch games.

For example, this game had side-scrolling intergalactic shooters that were used to take over the arcade section, which were more stimulating and had more replay assessment than Speed Match. These games were just as capable of assisting in faster thinking and having quicker response times. Memory Matrix consists of the use in learning individuals’ names for the first time, retention the name of somebody you have met, and exercising your working recollection.

My result in the memory matrix game was 935, which meant above average in recalling facts. The Lumosity Internet site dwelled more on the importance of face-name remembrance, which ultimately came off, a little gimmicky, compared to my above review on speed match.

Nevertheless, while the emphasis on human faces in Memory Matrix was slightly more than an appealing catch, the process behind the game ensures the facts of having an established tool for improving working recollection. Studies have revealed that partaking in reasonable physical activity momentarily can lift flanker test response time. Role of Encrypting and Retrieval in the Recollection Method

Once material has been encoded and put away in recollection, it must be recovered in order to be put in use. Remembrance recovery is significant in virtually every phase of daily living, from recalling where your car is parked to new skills of learning. At hand are numerous aspects that can impact how reminiscences are recovered from long-span recollection.

With the aim of fully comprehending this method, it is significant to discuss more about precisely what is retrieval in addition to the various features that can influence how reminiscences are recovered. Remembrance recollection comprises of the memory being reconstructed, frequently making use of rational structures, partial recollections, descriptions or hints. For example, writing a response on an college exam regularly comprises memorizing tads on data, then after restructuring or encrypting the continuing data founded on these limited reminiscences.

Reminiscence retrieval includes recognizing figures after coming in contact with it again. Reminiscence retrieval includes reeducating oneself with information that was formerly learned. This frequently makes it stress-free to recollect and retrieve data in the upcoming future in addition to improving the strong point of reminiscences. Despite the fact it may be exasperating or very stressful, research has revealed that these involvements are enormously shared, characteristically arising at least twice each week for most young individuals and three to five times per week for older adults (Cowan, 2001).

In several circumstances, individuals can even recollect specifics such as the main letter that a sentence begins with (LaBar & Cabeza, 2006). Assess Variables Connected with Encrypting Data and Ease of Recovery The three main independent variables in my experiment with memory matrix and speed test were free recall, cued recall, and recognition (Cowan, 2001). My dependent variable from these tests consists of the number of words I correctly remembered.

My memory test ran having a within-subjects design, which entailed of three diverse lists of 22 items, each charted by a diverse type of memory test. I formed a relationship between the target words and
their respective cues. Then, when the cues were presented to me in the test phase, I relied on these associations to aid me in recalling the target words.

Conclusion
There are different phases of memory realization, from perception to sensory memory, to short-span memory, and long-span memory. Memory is the capability to encrypt or encode, collect and recollect information. The three main practices intricate in the human memory are storage, encoding, and reminiscence (retrieval). Furthermore, the practice of memory association is considered to be one or the other part of the encoding or encrypting process or the storage procedure, which is understood as a detached process.

References
Speed Match and Memory Matrix. (2013). Lumosity. Retrieved from:
http://www.lumosity.com/app/v4/dashboard

Cowan, N. (2001). “The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental
storage capacity”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 97–185.

LaBar K.S., & Cabeza R. (2006). “Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory”. Nature
Reviews Neuroscience 7: 54–64.

Carver L.J. & Bauer P.J. (2001). “The dawning of a past: The emergence of long-term explicit memory in infancy”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130: 726–745.

Communication Process

1. Briefly describe the misunderstanding, including the setting and the people involved.

At my recent job that I was working a situation came about, I was helping my director file some bills with personal information. Well she did not make it clear that each bill went into a certain folder, which made my job a lot difficult and ending up me having to do the whole process over again, when I had to do another project that my other Director had told me to finish up within that day.

2. Complete the following table with information from your described misunderstanding.

|Question |Answer | |Who was the sender? |My Director | |Who was the receiver? |Myself | |What was the message? |File these documents | |What channel was used to send the message? |Sound and light waves | |What was the misunderstanding? |How to file the documents | |How could you have avoided the misunderstanding? |It could have been avoided if my director would have told me the correct | | |way to file them instead of me trying to figure out how to file the | | |documents.
3. The perception model in Ch. 2 of Communicating in the Workplace shows that prior knowledge and experiences combine with your psychological state to shape your subjective reality. What was your perception going into the situation? How did your perception of the misunderstanding affect the communication process?

My perception of the situation was that there really was not correct way into filing the documents, all she wanted was for them to be filed. It affected the misunderstanding and how the communication process went through my mind was that she should have told me how to correctly do it the proper way, instead of just telling me to finish filing. I just thought that she wanted them out of the way and into the filing cabinet.

4. After reflecting on your misunderstanding and analyzing it with what you have learned this week, what did you learn about the communication process?

I have learned that there are a lot of ways in communicating and that when someone tells another person to do something, then that person is listening and taking in information differently, to ask questions when told to do something if you do not understand what that person is wanting from you. The reason why I say this is because not every person is going to be the same, as it stated in the example of the model in Ch. 2 of Communicating in the Workplace, A hog could be a pig but really the person was referring to a motorcycle. For another instance when someone is telling another person to do something, that person receives the message but might take it another way because of how that person encodes the information, that is why it is important to respond back to the person and making a clear understanding of what that person is wanting. I would not want to risk someone else’s life it I did not understand the information correctly because that will affect my job on the line as well.

Reference

Cheesebro, T., O’Connor, L., & Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the workplace. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.