Audio Amplifier for Electronics Project

The goal of this report is to illustrate the entire means of bringing an audio amplifier from a circuit diagram to a finished, working product. The basis of the amplifier would be the LM386 chip and as such, this might be checked out in additional element together with different technical features of the project.

Aims and Objectives

The overall objective of this project is to design and construct the circuit for a stereo output audio amplifier while guaranteeing a excessive sound high quality in any respect input frequencies and volume settings.

The housing for the circuitry and speakers must also be thought-about, it ought to be strong sufficient to face up to being moved about and durable as to ensure that it doesn’t rattle when it is enjoying music. It ought to seem professionally made and with an attention-grabbing and distinctive design. It ought to be easy to make use of permitting it to be enjoyed by all consumers, of all ages, in addition to having a high quality sound output with minimal static, especially at the extra common ranges of frequencies.

The speaker system should have a variety in volume, which should be simply controlled.

Portability just isn’t a difficulty as this is not to be designed as a portable amplifier, quite a semi-permanent loudspeaker system. The product is to have two speakers set up in stereo, with the input to be offered by an MP3 gadget. The two audio system could have an inner resistance of eight ohms each, with every wired to either the left or right feed of the audio from the MP3 device jack.

The amplifier will have a achieve of 20db. The volume controls shall be an analogue system using a potentiometer connecting each of the two speaker systems together to ensure consistency all through the listening experience.

The system shall be powered by one 9 volt battery which shall be simply accessible for ease of entry. To ensure that the power supply does not drain over time, a swap might be related to allow the whole system to be turned on and off. The housing for the audio system and for the circuitry might be of a novel design while still enabling for practicality by means of connecting the MP3 system, quantity management and powering the amplifier system on and off.


Switch to show the amplifier on and off Volume control which can management each audio system concurrently Power supply from 9 volt battery Gain of 20db.

Apple Research Project

To assist Apple work out what can be accomplished to take care of and/or surpass its current stage of success inside the smartphone market Team D created and administered a ten query survey. The objective of the survey is to achieve information on what consumers take into consideration the iPhone and determine any desired changes to ensure Apple’s top rating inside the smartphone market. The outcomes of the survey will be analyzed to identify any tendencies or similarities between the entire totally different respondents.

Sampling Process and Data Collection

The survey was distributed through Facebook to present and future smartphone owners. It was not a requirement for respondents to be previous or present iPhone customers. Each group member was instructed to post a hyperlink to the survey utilizing her personal social media account together with a short description of the survey’s aim. The website is a free method to acquire the necessary knowledge. Survey Monkey collected and grouped the data from the responses.

Most statistical research are based mostly on samples of relevant knowledge with the principle standards guaranteeing that the sample offers a faithful illustration of the totality from which it’s selected, and to know as exactly as attainable the likelihood that a sample is dependable (Sociology Guide, 2014).

There are several forms of sampling methods that can be used. The sampling methodology that is used for this survey is random sampling. This kind of sampling contains choosing subjects from a population through unpredictable means. All topics have an equal likelihood of being selected out of the population being researched.

This type of sampling is beneficial because a survey is one of the simplest ways to indicate unbiased outcomes. It can also be a quicker, cheaper, extra efficient way to acquire outcomes (Random Sampling, 2014).

Types of Data Collected

The first step to amassing the info was figuring out the pattern population for the survey. The goal population was present and future smartphone customers. The second step to amassing information was to use survey questions that confirmed interval and ratio data. The outcomes from the questions obtained some good data that would help Apple make some good selections to higher their product. The third step to accumulating the data was to conduct the survey, via social networking, and analyze the results that have been collected by way of the Survey Monkey web site.

Data Analysis

The majority of the survey respondents, 61.54%, has owned or used an iPhone for 2-4 years. Most of the respondents seem to be happy with the iPhone giving between a 7 or eight rating on a scale of 1 (Least favorable) to 10 (Most favorable). There was an excellent demand for a larger storage capability with features/camera/apps coming in an in depth second. Other ideas were free access to iCloud, Apple’s digital storage hub, improved GPS/navigation, and multi-tasking capabilities.

Most of the respondents (73.08%) agreed that enhancements would persuade them to maintain their present iPhone or purchase a brand new one. A few respondents advised that Apple supply features corresponding to that of other smartphone manufacturers. Over 60% of respondents agreed that the iPhone is in jeopardy of not being the most well-liked mobile device within the future. The feedback ranged from Apple having robust brand consciousness to the necessity of enhancements and adjustments for the smartphone to remain competitive. A price increase proved to be a determining issue for future gross sales. The majority of respondents mentioned they would not buy an iPhone if the price have been raised. On the contrary, most respondents mentioned that they might still use the cellphone if Apple performed software upgrades as a substitute of rolling out a brand new phone. 73% would advocate the iPhone to household and pals.


Overall, shoppers had been pleased with the iPhone as it’s however most agree that the smartphone could benefit from extra storage. The survey efficiently identified points for enchancment whereas offering perception into consumers’ ideas on the iPhone. The consensus is that Apple should purpose to be extra competitive throughout the market. The responses show that with out changes the iPhone could become less well-liked among customers.


There were 10 questions in your survey. I am having hassle finding the results for these 10 questions. Map your evaluation and graphical representations to the questions. Any question on a survey should be providing wanted information for decision making or it shouldn’t be on the survey. Only one question collected interval knowledge – question 1 of your survey. How would you price your gadget on a scale of 1 to 10.

This query produces interval knowledge – your outcomes should embrace calculations such because the mean and standard deviation. Such calculations are necessary to business choice making. The survey ought to embrace no less than two such questions. Include an extra query in order that further evaluation could be done. Review the McClave text chapter two for methods to research interval and ratio knowledge. Consider mapping to the survey questions –

1. How would you price your system on a scale of 1 to 10?

2. Would you recommend the iPhone to your mates and/or family?

3. What features would you like to see improved and/or offered on the following version of the iPhone that’s currently available on different smartphones?

4. What modifications if any would you like made to the iPhone?

5. What do you think about its finest feature?
6. What does the primary use of your iPhone consist? (school function) (work associated activities) (social media and private contact) 7. Is your iPhone black or white?
eight. Are you male or female?
9. Which age range do you fit? (16-18) (19-25) (26-35) (36-45) (46+) 10. Have you owned a cellphone in addition to the iPhone? If sure, what phone was it? Group_______

Random Sampling. 2014. What is Random Sampling? Retrieved from: Sociology Guide. 2014. Sampling. Retrieved from: SurveyMonkey. 1999-2014. Analyze outcomes. Retrieved from Content

70 Percent
Pts. Earned /Pts. Possible
Identifies sampling process by sampling contact, distribution and collection strategies Include a description of the sampling method (i.e. random, systematic, comfort,…) Includes full directors of surveys and information assortment deliverables Review concludes college students have used right organization, evaluation, and interpretation of the info attained throughout analysis Includes visible representation of data collected utilizing tables and figures with descriptive components to discern categorization

See embedded feedback.
Review the sampling strategies to determine and assist the strategy being used in your research. Review the visualization and presentation of the ten questions in your survey and tips on how to greatest talk the results. A desk or extra graphics to clearly point out the outcomes of the 10 questions. Include analysis of two questions that produce interval/ratio knowledge. Information could be discovered within the McClave text chapter 2 for the calculations of such values because the imply and standard deviation.


Writing Guidelines
30 Percent

Tables or figures should embrace all the suitable labeling, could be simply understood, even within the event of administration problem. Participants’ names and identifiable information should remain anonymous to keep away from perceived bias in the path of the sampling. Intellectual property is acknowledged with in-text citations and a reference web page.

APA pointers adopted.
Consider the research design circulate to communicate the data collected from your survey. I couldn’t comply with out of your week 4 project.


Assignment Total

Additional comments:

Another project underneath GSIF talks of a prosperous India called

Another project under GSIF talks of a affluent India, called Towards a Prosperous India (TAP India) with a mission to finish the vicious circle of poverty by investing in growth and development of kids. In the poverty ridden areas round NCR, TAP India knocks the marginalized sections by establishing schooling facilities. In an all-inclusive manner, the NPO delivers the best swimsuit the interest of the education for complete development by aligning communities, organizations and the state with the larger mission. Where the beneficiaries of the work are sometimes day by day wage earners, development workers, rag-pickers, and beggars, the NPO nurtures native leadership to bring possession within the children’s progress.

Going by the approach of nurturing local leadership, the group very much depends on acceptance of the communities in direction of the concept. In the preparatory workouts, the NPO not solely recognized the day-to-day challenges at the household stage, it additionally derived insights on non-alignment of the guardians to educational necessities of the kids.

They suitability of the program is thus outlined by the extracts from deep interviews, understanding the beneficiary wants very related to the ‘Fly-on-the-Wall’ , drawing conclusions collectively earlier than setting up an academic center in the first place.

While aiming to copy the project to a larger population, the implementation was observed to be challenged with a standardized program course of for organising of education facilities. The program additional realized that as a outcome of irregular information assortment and compilation, there were inefficiencies in operational processes as well. As a thorough understanding of the project was made, the GSIF initiative capitalized design pondering tools with the administration and a few partner group to draw the eye on the operational challenges.

Leveraging on the LUMA tools, the team was collectively able to uncover solutions related to their localities and socio-economic circumstances. While manpower appeared a well known problem, it became more evident when individuals articulated the trigger and effect relationship between manpower – information management – influence assessments of the project implemented. The brainstorming periods collectively brought several recommendations that brought an alignment within the three pillars of the program, folks, know-how and processes.

Add: a quote from TAP India (Ankit’s)

“Looking out into the world at present, it’s straightforward to see why brands are more important now than at any time in the past one hundred years. Brands are psychology and science introduced together as a promise mark as opposed to a trademark····.. Branding is key. Branding is basic. Branding is essential. Building brands builds unimaginable value for companies and firms.” an article published on Forbes ‘Why Brand Building Is Important?’ by Scott Goodson, Contributor.

Non-profits spend years over coming to a common grounds on the Mission and Vision statement, extra so the place numerous stakeholders are involved. In the aggressive world at present, competing with the entrepreneurial innovations, the start-ups and rising aware of the educated humankind, it has turn into important to ‘Not simply be seen, rather be Significant’. To reiterate the authenticity time to time, remaining consistent with the donor requirements and retaining the connections on the beneficiary level, branding plays vital role. It unifies the noble thoughts with the customers (beneficiaries or stakeholders within the case) in pursuit of the larger objective.

Founded in 2006, the Etasha society’s mobilization staff at current goes via the stringent task of mobilizing the neighborhood & native youth to join their training packages. Very excessive effort goes in to herald a trainee on the profession improvement heart. Their major beneficiaries are adolescents and younger adults from low-income communities and slums across Delhi. The mobilization efforts are therefore geared to youth in addition to their parents and, in the case of ladies, other important family members. At this vital juncture of the program, the management determined to revisit some of their approaches to push back the drowning walk-ins and enrolment in their centers.

With a need for systemic change in the way they method the youth, who are largely reached out through the mobilization team on a one-to-one basis or by way of their close nexus, the organization carried out an ethnographic research, starting with detailed discussions, RTB (Roses Thorns Buds) with end-beneficiaries (walk-ins, trainees – present, alumni & drop-outs) to know the community/center stage challenges. They additional carried out discussions with mobilization team in any respect the several growth centers in Delhi (one of the prime locations). This was followed by information assortment and evaluation in Understanding the ache areas leading to excessive drop-out. What introduced the organization’s stakeholders stronger with the objective was brainstorming with ETASHA Society’s key stakeholders on the ideas that can assist in enhancing the mobilization strategy, overall visibility & reduction in early drop-outs, thereby strongly motivating the branding initiatives with not simply the beneficiaries but in addition creating a visual state and stronger connectivity.

Add: a quote from Etasha’s group member

“Social innovation is going via a dynamic part in India and ‘Design Thinking’ – a model new and potent approach to problem solving is creating a buzz amongst innovators. Design considering is centred on innovating by way of the eyes of the end user. It encourages in-the-field research that builds empathy for individuals, which leads to deeper insights about their unmet needs. This helps avoid the widespread problem of enthusiastic “outsiders” promoting inappropriate options and ensures that solutions are rooted to the wants and needs of the neighborhood.”

The CSR journal article further places down, Design Thinking, a particularly useful tool for social entrepreneurs, is not a novel concept to India. In fact, according to Adobe’s 2016 Creative Pulse Survey, 98% of Indian inventive professionals consider that creativity and design thinking are extra important to innovation and 61% really feel motivated to finding design-led solutions to challenges. With the advent of many researches and enterprises that focused on prototyping progressive methodologies over the past decade, the coverage making entities felt the need too. Make in India flagship campaign turned one such thought that not just goals to transform the traditional financial undertakings but encourages the younger entrepreneurs to flourish of their native locations rather than shifting out because of low ranking of India in the ‘ease of doing business’. Quite inevitably we see how most profitable models of the 21st century are depending on being ‘Inspired’ by a new idea to resolve a problem, ‘Ideating’ across the identical and creating ‘Implementable’ prototype to sustain the solution to the problem. The 3Is strategy of Design Thinking isn’t well-known yet, however it thought of the basic and DNA to the younger enterprises.

Let us see through this profitable of social innovation. A social enterprise known as Embrace, goals to help vulnerable infants by way of an affordable baby-warmer, designed for a useful resource constrained area with limited or no electrical energy.

The prototype was designed by the scholars of Stanford University after a visit to Nepal to fulfill families and medical doctors to be able to understand the problem of high infant mortality. After being uncovered to the cruel surroundings of Nepal, the scholars had been capable of empathize with the plight of the dad and mom. They realized that simply designing low value incubators wouldn’t solve the issue since most untimely babies had been born in areas distant from the hospitals and had no access to incubators. This led to a notion change and the scholars developed an toddler hotter prototype that could be heated in a pot of boiling water and would retain the warmth for a few hours, acting as an efficient incubator. This additionally supplied parents with the time to achieve the closest hospital. The students shaped a company referred to as Embrace and began manufacturing the product, and started selling it for just $25. Currently, Embrace runs programs in 11 international locations and has saved over 50,000 untimely and low birth weight infants and it all started with a design thinking process.

The purpose why social improvement innovations seek and implement a 360 degree approach to the need, its realization and making it human centric is to have an enduring impression from its very inception, both in a project mode, by way of some marketing campaign or might be an initiative to invigorate a policy implementation. This is primarily accomplished by creating a platform the place interdependent stakeholders can perform their roles optimally and collaborate with each other more effectively. And thus, beyond just enhancing the look or functionality of a product, design thinking has gone to the social house to influence the policy making, largely pushed by analysis, each primary and secondary, ethnographic approach strengthening the ··················

Android Application Development – Project Report


Mobile learning as an intersection of Mobile Computing and E-Learning providing assets that can be accessed anyplace has capability in an excellent looking system, rich interaction and full support in course of an efficient Learning and performance primarily based evaluation. In the fashionable world of mobile expertise and their rising availability and affordability, cell units notably Android platforms play an necessary role in the subject of communication, leisure and studying. It has tremendously modified the functioning of the world, even the training process.

Learning through mobile phones, abbreviated as Mobile Learning has turn out to be a part of the educative system. Mobile Learning or M-Learning is a specific kind of e-learning that gives educational supplies via cellphones. The objective of this research is to entry the learning materials, work together with faculties and consider different related documentations together with different services, by utilizing android based cell phone inside and out of doors the classroom. This may also determine the users’ prior information on the non-public and academic use and software of cellphones.

Our primary aim behind this whole project is to train a proper method to bring forth all the necessary elements a pupil or a trainer requires to hold out his job effectively. Our app named e-nlight will help the customers gain knowledge about their past records, with which they will improve their means of finding out and thus make the entire competition so much healthier and far more inspiring. Through this app, they will also entry all of the publicly available tutorial sources like books from any department.

As a end result, e-nlight will make positive the reach of schooling to each part of the institution regardless of any obstacles.


  • 2GB Hard-Disk

I3 processor


  • JAVA-> Java SE
  • Android SDK
  • Android Studio
  • SDK tools


In the development of this app, we’ve used the essential language of Android – Java, in addition to XML for establishing the UI properly. This app is built on Android Studio and has taken the assistance of Firebase because the back-end service. We additionally needed a number of libraries and permissions as well to make the very best end result of the built-in widgets. For additional rationalization of the logical implementation, snaps of code snippets have been connected with each characteristic.

Quick View of the Project


  • Java (Android version)
  • XML

Tools & Servers

  • Android Studio
  • Firebase
  • Authentication
  • Realtime Database
  • Storage
  • Crash Reporting
  • Analytics
  • Cloud Messaging
  • Google Play Services


We have used the following libraries to supply necessary functionalities to our m-learning app:

The main libraries are briefly mentioned beneath:

  • design: 25.three.1: This is the Android Design Support Library. Above SDK model 23 there are some new built-in design library for android app improvement. This is recognized as Material Design.
  • cardview-v7:25.three.1: This is a particular feature of the Material Design which permits the developer to make GridViews and ListViews with easy transitions and attractive edges.
  • palette-v7:25.three.1: This is a library from Android that can be used to extract distinguished colours from an image. It has helped us to get the best colors for the colourful look of our app.
  • customtabs-v7:25.3.1: This help library manages the initialization and use of custom tabs in the UI, especially for TabHosts and TabLayout.
  • design: 25.3.1: This library allows using varied essential UI supplies of Material Design for this app, like Navigation Drawer and nested tabs.
  • firebase-core: eleven.0.2: This is the most important library for this app because this and its branches present us a number of the Firebase providers. Firebase is a mobile backend service which takes care of the database, storage, analytics, crash stories, authentication and more for an app, built on Android, iOS or other platforms. We used its companies to keep observe of our authenticated users, sustaining person entry privilege and keeping an updated database and information storage in actual time.
  • com.firebaseui: firebase-ui: This is the Firebase UI library specifically developed for Android functions. It is in fact a set of open-source libraries from Google with Apache license, which lets the information in your app be up to date in real time based on the Firebase Database. It also lets the developer use other sites’ info for authentication such as Google, Facebook and Twitter.
  • com.prolificinteractive: material-calendarview: 1.four.3: We needed this library to make use of the customized calendar view, so that we are ready to mark the necessary events for school students and faculties with completely different colour codes.
  • com.jjoe64:graphview: 4.2.1 : To implement the outcomes graph, we needed this library which supplied us with line graph, bar graph and pie charts.


Here are the permissions our app requires from the user’s device to run this app.

The user might be prompted with an inventory of these permissions whereas installing and s/he can select to grant them.

  • android.permission.GET_ACCOUNTS: Since the minimum SDK our app permits is API 19, we want this permission to get any element about the user accounts within the Accounts Service. From API 23, this isn’t required anymore if the authenticator shares the signature with the one managing the account.
  • android.permission.READ_PROFILE: This permission is to carry out queries on the knowledge of the consumer who owns the gadget.
  • android.permission.INTERNET: This app cannot extract the database info and storage supplies from the cloud if no web is present. So this permission to use the web is important.
  • android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: To upload recordsdata like paperwork and images from the exterior storage, we need this permission. This might be specifically useful to the college members.
  • android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: To obtain the storage files into the external storage like microSD card, we need this permission. This will particularly be useful for the students.
  • android.permission.READ_CALENDAR: We want this permission to get the present date, day and time so as to display the right events within the Event Display part of our app.
  • android.permission.WRITE_CALENDAR: This permission helps us to add new info to the default calendar of the device and thus assist us to add necessary events to the calendar.
  • This permission is necessary to set alarms routinely in accordance with the event dates shown within the calendar. As soon as there’s a new occasion added in any of the assigned programs, this shall be used to set an alarm at 8am of the due date.


This is an overall step-by-step view of how the completely different elements of the app work:

Extracting information from establishment database and changing the dummy knowledge with it

For all users : Authenticate by

  • email and password
  • google signal in
  • specific consumer role

If user_role=student:

  • Student’s database initializes
  • Else if user_role=teacher:
  • Teacher’s database initializes

Navigation drawer clicked:

  • Header image, title and subtitle displaying consumer name and e mail.
  • Drawer part displaying present course titles and logout option.

Files ? storageReference.division.course.section

– accessed and displayed in Navigation Drawer Fragments

  • If user_role=student
  • Download all button’s visibility = ON
  • Upload button’s visibility = OFF
  • Else
  • Download all button’s visibility = OFF
  • Upload button’s visibility = ON

Dashboard clicked:

-Main options visible in a single screen

Data from accomplished programs:

  • Students Reference ? consumer email ? courses completed
  • semester
  • [newline]

  • course name

Current routine clicked:

  • if user_role=teacher Courses = teachers
  • Database.teachersEmail.assignedCourses

elseif user_role=students


xstudentsDatabase.studentsEmail.assignedCourses For each course in programs:

find course database reference from departmentsDatabase.departmentName.courseName

save it to courseRef?) courseNameTab.content material = couseRef.routine

f) Notification clicked: display any change to following branches.

Log out.


Full Manipulation of course supplies by teachers

Faculties of the respective institution can upload, obtain and edit the corresponding course materials via this app.

Downloading and selective importing of files by students

Students of the establishment can only have the total entry to obtain course supplies and sometimes upload submissions if allowed by the respective course instructor.

Specified consumer privileges

Not all customers are allowed all functionalities of this app. Their roles and privileges are specified acutely via Firebase guidelines.

Push notifications

Whenever a brand new document is uploaded in any assigned course or each time an necessary event is added, the users get push notifications via Firebase Cloud Messaging.

Online library of educational books and other documents

From Firebase Storage, all obtainable books and different academic paperwork of a department are made accessible through this app.

Working of the app



The first part entails the sign-in to the application, to allow their customized e-learning services. Sign-in could be done both by signing up through the required credentials or instantly by way of the google authentication.

Analysis of Big-Prog Project Management Consulting Company

Big-Prog is a small project administration consulting firm that may oversee transferring Fiction Corporation from its main information middle operation to a model new headquarters several miles away. This paper will describe tips on how to initiate the project, create a project plan for transferring the info heart, contemplating the budget and time constraints, develop an inclusive plan that incorporates the 5 course of areas and nine data areas of the PMBOK, create the project work breakdown construction and resource sheet in Microsoft Project, describe tips on how to monitor and management the plan, and explain the methods to shut the project.

Pig-Proj & Fiction Corporation Project for Data Center Relocation Background

Our company is a small project administration consulting firm called Big-Proj that is looking for that massive break. I am considered one of ten project managers in the group. Recently, we made a persuasive and high-level presentation of the company’s method to managing initiatives on time and on schedule in accordance with the PMBOK®.

Our small however experienced team of ten PMP-certified project managers have managed a broad range of small capital tasks, particularly wiring closets, wi-fi, knowledge heart strikes, community upgrades, and ERP deployments.

We have been chosen to provoke, plan, execute, monitor, and control and close a knowledge heart transfer in a 30-day interval.


Fiction Corporation is a large nationwide retail chain of 10,000 workers and 500 stores. Fiction is transferring its primary data middle operation to a brand new headquarters constructing a quantity of miles away. The company wishes to upgrade its community and correct any safety flaws in its infrastructure as a half of this transfer.

The Fiction CEO has informed us that the capital budget cannot exceed $500,000 and should not interrupt business operations. What follows is a quick overview that will function your foundation in developing the community design.

The information in the center supports remote retail places, an off-site 100-seat call heart and three remote warehousing operations 24 hours a day. Any vital downtime to its manufacturing methods would impression Fiction Corporation’s operations and profitability. From the data processing viewpoint, the move consists of 2 massive UPS, 4 RS/6000 AIX software servers, 10 virtualized servers, and 20 PC servers.

The network consists of roughly 500 distant location retail shops linked by way of frame relay (with ISDN backup) to 10 routers at the information middle working a typical LAN shared by the whole organization. The retail operations also run WLANs which are on their own subnet. You could have a T1 link and ISDN as its backup. Network managers additionally want to observe the standing of distant techniques. The SNMP administration system must be succesful of detect and report failure of the remote system or its communications hyperlink and the status of particular person functions.

The firm wishes a seamless migration that minimizes influence to its customers and workers. Any gaps in this background will require you to make sound technical and persuasive assumptions that satisfy the customer’s objectives which might be throughout the finances tips. You had been selected in part because of your detailed analysis and settlement to an implementation price that will not exceed $500,000. Your community migration plan will be in accordance to the PMBOK® process areas and can use commonplace project management software to handle the price range and related tasks. Key to the success of this plan is adherence to the scope, time, and value baseline.

Technically, the consumer must guarantee the availability of a T1 link between the distant sites to assist distant bridging and improvement of configurations for all of the distant routers.

The Project

On the floor, the project appears to be a tangles mess of inauspicious work. It consists of many phases and every phase should need to be done in proper method in order to make the project completely profitable. If any part doesn’t meet the project requirement then the entire project will doubtless fail. Although it’s a small project it is nonetheless important, as a result of any misstep will directly affect the shoppers of the corporate, as all the shoppers are linked immediately or not directly to the company’s network accessing the companies offered by the corporate.

First, some of the important things is to not start with the big project. We will that first begin with the small project, then after growing the project step-by-step, that is what the company is doing. The large tasks are those most in danger to fail and turn out to be projects which can’t ship final worth too. It is essential to interrupt massive tasks up into small projects, each one being a serious milestone. As the company is growing and so is the explanation that the corporate is migrating its data center in order to offer more providers to its buyer and to deal with the extra variety of the distant customers.

The planning of the project is the very first step earlier than to start out the project. There are varied benefits of project planning as follows:

  • Finish project on time
  • Uninterrupted and steady work move with out delays
  • Cost Control
  • Reduced quantity of the re-work, fewer changes
  • Increased information of the project standing by way of giving well timed reviews to the administration Proper knowledge of the scheduled times for the necessary thing project parts
  • Stability of people, defined authority and duty.
  • Clear understanding of who does what, when and for a way much

Integration of all the work so as to insure a high quality project for the client. You run project as an alternative of the project running you. These are some of the advantages of the project planning. These factors have to be thought of while planning the project. With this it turns into straightforward to provoke the project. These factors are essential are ought to be saved in mind while initiating the project. The project initiation consists of the Project Charter and the Project Communication Plan.

Project Charter

Project constitution is critical for the initiation of the project. It is defined as a signed document which is formally defined and authorizes the project. This document is taken into account an settlement of the project which incorporates the scope of the project, its goal and the constraints; it may be a troublesome however is taken into account healthy for the group of the key stockholders. Without a project charter it turns into very hard to achieve the goals of the project.

Project Communication Plan

Before the authorization of the project it’s necessary to plan for the disseminating of project data among all those that are involved within the project. Project communication plan is required between key stockholders and the assigned project supervisor.

Key Stakeholder RAM

As the project is done with the group of people, if the group lacks clearly defined management qualities, then it may fail to complete the assigned actions due to the rationale that in that case the responsibility is ambiguous. The project group as a complete don’t usually feel responsible for their actions. But on the other palms, individuals do. So, in order to full the project, accountability of the tasks should be delegate to the individuals. This is the purpose of the RAM (Responsibility Allocation Matrix).

Data middle project while considering the time constraints and the price estimating is achieved by identifying key design standards for 2 areas of project, the Support Infrastructure & Services and the Technology Infrastructure & Services.

Key Design Criteria

  • Availability Requirements
  • Power & Cooling Density
  • Business Objectives Technology
  • Infrastructure & Services
  • Support Infrastructure & Services
  • Data Center Project Budget

Availability Requirements

The very first milestone of the info center migration project is to find out availability requirements for providing assist to the remote retail places, an off-site, hundred-seat name center and three distant warehousing operations for 7x24xforever availability. The primary thing that ought to be thought of and famous is the migration of the info heart. Steep price curves associated with the delivering on this expectation should be realized.

Power & Cooling Density

The next step of the information heart project is to determine energy density. It could be determined by quantity of the power delivered to critical load per unit of area, it’s directly related to quantity of warmth that to be removed by way of CRAC (computer room air conditioner). There are two giant UPS that are offering power.

Business Objectives

Final design standards of the information heart project are whole cost related to attaining business objectives for facility. The choice of network providers delivery is that which drives final choice of all the community, servers, entry, security, communications storage, and the monitoring infrastructure which needs to be deployed inside facility. There are 500 remote locations retail shops that are linked via the body relay (with ISDN backup) to the ten routers on the data heart which are operating on the frequent LAN which has been shared by the entire organization. There is a T1 link and the ISDN backup system which are providing all of the providers which is the target of the business.

Technology Infrastructure & Services (IT)

The knowledge middle infrastructure and the providers are divided into the Supporting and Technology categories for the budgeting functions. The finances of the expertise infrastructure & providers is determined by working with the IT personnel to have the ability to determine current methods and the expansion projections, quantify monetary constraints evaluate deliberate upgrades and the enhancements, and also it defines how to correlate every of the relate to core business strategy which they help. It consists of project administration, technology systems design, WLAN services, relocation companies, know-how system installation, and physical help system.

Support Infrastructure & Services

In this case the price range is determined by considering know-how, availability requirement and the facility density. Having higher power density or/and availability, greater the assist infrastructure might be and the overall cost shall be larger. Support infrastructure & services includes project administration, assist infrastructure techniques design, engineering & construction, architectural design & development, and support infrastructure methods.

At the top, in order to set up design standards for the information middle migration project will result in willpower of area requirements, price range necessities, and the time necessities. There are so many issues that are depending on sort of the enterprise, its platform, and so that is the reason that it is exhausting to generalize knowledge center technology infrastructure budget.

PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge)

The PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) is an internationally acknowledged commonplace which deals with software of tools, skills, data, and strategies so as to satisfy the project requirements. It defines Project Life Cycle, and five (5) Process areas, and 9 (9) Knowledge areas. The 9 information areas of the project management body of knowledge are summarized as: –

  1. Integration. This includes developing of the Project Charter, Scope Statement and Plan. It also covers Direct, Manage, Monitor and Control Project Change.
  2. Scope. The scope of the project is outlined by planning, definition, Work Break-down Structure (WBS) Creation, verification and control.
  3. Time. It is taken into account as the main area of the project. It covers definition, sequencing, resource and duration estimating, schedule improvement and schedule Control. It helps to fulfill the deadline of the data middle project which has a 30-day interval.
  4. Cost. It includes the general finances of the project which covers all the prices which includes useful resource planning, value estimating, budgeting and control. As per the finances the
  5. Quality. This area of PMBOK defines quality planning, high quality assurance and quality control of the project.
  6. Human Resources. It defines the HR planning, hiring, developing and managing project group.
  7. Communications. Communications Planning, Information Distribution, Performance Reporting, and Managing Stakeholders.
  8. Risks. Risk Planning and Identification, Risk Analysis (Qualitative and Quantitative), Risk Response (Action) Planning and Risk Monitoring and Control. Procurement. Acquisition and Contracting Plan, Sellers Responses and Selection, Contract Administration, and Contract Closure.

Data Center Monitoring & Control

Monitoring & control of the info center is a important element in order to keep the utmost availability for the critical operations. PTS emphasizes on utilization of the IPs and the Web Technologies so as to supervise and control the crucial support systems from any location. PTS’s criterion for each the information know-how infrastructure and the assist infrastructure monitoring is similar. Monitoring and control techniques ought to be cost efficient, and must be rapidly deployed and applied, utilize intuitive alarming and supply strong reporting all from the secure, central, and site.

Critical providers like missions want sophisticated monitoring. It should have to supply proactive management and needs to allow quick assessment of the current state of affairs and likewise have to notify acceptable personnel should situations which threaten availability. In the depth, analysis options of the monitoring ought to be plan for the modifications in the availability or the capability requirements.

In either of the case, PTS configures implements and sells monitoring and control systems and offering, no much less than, following:

  • Site Monitoring of the systems, databases, and networks
  • Layered Security Administration together with Physical, Systems, Application, Data store, Network and Process Infrastructure
  • Management & Control
  • Performance Management / Capacity Planning

Closing of the Project

The closing of the project is as a lot important as was in the earlier stages. There are varied necessary things which ought to be famous while the closing of the thoughts. Closing of the project contains formal acceptance of project and ending thereof. There are some administrative activities which incorporates archiving the files and documenting the teachings realized throughout the project plan.


Big-Proj has designed and will implement a robust plan for Fiction Corporation. The project meets the requirements on time and on price range. Further, the project permits for the risk that’s inherent to any large-scale endeavor such as this project.


  1. Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information Technology Project Management, Revised, 6th Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
  2. Rasmussen, N. & Niles, S. (2007). “Data Center Projects: Project Management”. Retrieved on 18 Dec 2011 at 9:38 P.M. JST from
  3. Fisher, J. (2011). “Chapter 2 – Building the Project Plan”. Retrieved on 18 Dec 2011 at 9:forty P.M. JST from

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Fish Scales Wastes for the Recovery of Astaxanthin … … Cached Fish Scales Wastes from Selected Teleosts-Innovative Sorption Materials for the Recovery of Astaxanthin.

This study reveals the potential utilization of fish scales of … Projects – Investigatory Task – Science Projects Example … … Cached Insecticidal Impact of Yellow Oleander Fruit, Glaring Light Emission Auto-Minimizer, Fish Scales Wastes, Cassava starch as a dependable element for Ideal … Investigatory Task


Fish Scales Wastes for the Recovery of Astaxanthin

Fish Scales Wastes from Selected Teleosts-Innovative Sorption Materials for the Recovery of Astaxanthin. This study reveals the potential use of fish scales of telleosts chanos and Tilapia nilotica as pure sorption materials in the therapeutic of astaxanthin.

Astaxanthin, a feed additive, is a major carotenoid answerable for the pink-red pigmentation of fish and shrimps.

Marine animals can not synthesize this hence it must be supplemented in their food plan. Aside from being a colorant, astaxanthin has both organic and dietary importance along with antioxidant house. Astaxanthin for that purpose requires to be recuperated from wastewaters that have been colored with astaxanthin as it may pose major environmental dangers.

Fish scales of teleosts: Chanos chanos and Tilapia nilotica had been utilized for recovering astaxanthin. The innovation in adsorption is the utilization of strong wastes as natural sorption materials and their availability at minimal price. Synthetic astaxanthin dissolved in water was made to move in “Fish Scale Adsorption Apparatus” (FSAA) containing unshredded or shredded scales. Comparison of remedies based on the discoloration of filtrate to be released from the FSAA and the size of time the circulate lasted revealed that shredded tilapia scales have been most effective in retaining the pigments.

Scanning electron micrographs of the floor of tilapia scales revealed porous tooth-like constructions called sclerits. These pores together with particles scattered on the interspacing between sclerits’ particles were inferred to bind the pigment. Based on the effective filtration options of the tilapia fish scales, it’s instructed that the scales be used in wastewater therapy of different factories. Moreover, fish scales as sorption supplies for heavy metals should be explored.

Further clarification of the procedures and outcomes ought to be directed to the researchers and adviser. Researchers
Mark Timothy V. Rodriguez
Mrs. Juana P. Sindac
Claro M. Recto High School

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Acknowledgement: Project Management

Project Team wish to express deepest thankfulness to the following individuals who in one technique or another contributed, assisted, and supported them for the effective advancement of their task which is Software Development Plan.

To Almighty GOD, for offering the Job Group the data and data to make the event of this Software Advancement Plan effective, and for providing the power and true blessing in order to overcome all of the struggles and issues that the project group came across while doing this task.

To the Job Team’s Family, for providing monetary and ethical help and the love that makes the group strive to complete the job.

To Mr. Christian D. Jamisola, for offering the assistance and assistance to the job group in establishing this Software Advancement Plan.

To Ms. Edelvita Marie D. Anonat, the project team content editor, for inspecting and fixing the grammer lapses of the SDP files.

To all friends and classmates, for his or her inspiration, unending encouragement and for being there in occasions of wants.


Creating the Software Development Plan will function the group guide in growing the Capstone Project, “Web-Based The Lewis College Alumni Information System”. It signifies the method mannequin, allocation of sources and different essential matters of the system such as schedules, organizations, and constraints.

This Software Development Plan is a plan to prepare and to information the builders of the capstone project for the next college yr as partial requirement of their course in Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT).

ABC Project


ABC Project started a year prior, and it’s at current two months behind timetable because of the postponement in conveyance of examine hardware which additional deferred completely different workouts that pursued. Besides, environmental change take into consideration has been included as an additional diploma which if not appropriately arranged, will frustrate the endeavor progress additional. In spite of the truth that an additional time of one month has been allowed for the extension creep, if the task isn’t property organized there are conceivable outcomes of deferring the enterprise previous the allowed venture plan.

The first venture the board plan has been seen to need respectable arranging which are altogether tended to in the modified task plan. The important adjustments in the overhauled endeavor the board plan that can guarantee understanding the enterprise objectives no less than rescores and time span are given in the accompanying segments.


Changes in Project Schedule Management Plan

Previously, all the penetrating bundles were needed to be accomplished in-house and the boring bundle III was meant to start merely after the consummation of Package I and II.

Because of enterprise being 2 months behind timetable and with cautious arranging in asset designation, it has been discovered that BHC can’t have more than one boring bundle shut by because it has other growth ventures. Subsequently the two bundles have been contracted out and is wanted to begin and complete on the identical time.

In the plan stage, identical term (60 days) was stored for electrical, mechanical and value gauge already.

Be that as it might, from past task encounters, electrical constructions would take any longer because it has extra components contrasted with mechanical. Consequently all together set reasonable spans, additional 30 days have been included for electrical plans.

Cost gauge is a constant process, will probably be begun as soon as every one of many plans begin and just require couple of weeks after the constructions have been completed to refresh the final expenses. Along these strains, from the day the structures are finished, simply 30 days additional have been saved.

Due to the modification referenced in point number one, adequate time was achieved for extension creep (environmental change). Additionally, the Environmental info accumulation and examination is abbreviated because of diminished geotechnical examination which further permits time for environmental change.

The by and large undertaking thus is visualized to take 3 years and 25 days and it’s booked to finish of 24 April 2020.

Changes made in the Revised Project Cost Management Plan

For the additional extension (Climate change think about), the assessed expense of $ a hundred,00 shall be required. In any case, $50,000 is balanced from ecological info examination by lessening by bettering the amount of working days. Subsequently, just further $ 50,000 might be required for the degree change and thus the extra spending plan for the entire endeavor is evaluated as $ 5,000,000.

Changes made in the Revised Project Quality Management Plan

The high quality verify grid has been included with the aim that the extent of each deliverable recorded might be checked by the audit group. In the past arrangement, the standard check for motion stage was not organized and was expected that the quality examine towards the finish of the enterprise will be enough. Nonetheless, having an motion stage high quality check ensures that there aren’t any gathered high quality commerce off and towards the finish of the undertaking time frame and there in all probability won’t be adequate alternative to recoup if there exist any holes in buildings and examination.

Changes made in the Revised Project Resource Management Plan

 Previously, there was no acceptable asset mapping completed. Since ABC is as of now 2 months behind timetable, a particular asset mapping is required so that there is no further postponement. From past encounters, when belongings usually are not booked forward of time, there are conflicts belongings use and thus defers the endeavor. Particularly when the organization have totally different ventures shut by, fundamental gifted labor might be involved. Along these strains, the asset mapping given in will guarantee that the required labor and gear shall be accessible when required.

For the degree creep, it’s arranged that an identical Environmentalist will do the examination with out causing costs for procuring outside aptitude.

Changes made within the Revised Project Communication Management plan

  1. There had been correspondence hole between venture chief and the endeavor group and with outer companions which is amongst the basic purposes behind deferring the conveyance of study gear within the underlying interval of the task execution. To maintain a strategic distance from additional such charges, an inexpensive correspondence network has been drawn independently for disaster interchanges and arranged customary interchanges. Month to month enterprise discover and configuration audits will guarantee each one of many progressions are being conveyed to every one of many fashioners and moreover educated to all the pertinent companions.
  2. A common data sharing stage will be utilized as strategies for course of knowledge and configuration results.
  3. Project hazard specialised approach by way of hazard archives won’t simply alarm the task group yet as nicely as allow to step toward limiting the dangers.

Changes made in the Revised Project Procurement the board plan

  1. As expressed before, Geological boring is needed to be sub-contracted out and due to constrained time allotment and venture being influenced by postponement up to now exercises, deliberately, restricted providing is being picked with the goal that goal firms that are as of now skilled in Geological boring can partake.
  2. In enlargement, the two bundles are wished to be sub-contracted to various firms in order that there shall be no issues with respect to deficiency of labor and hardware. This will assure quality area examination and guarantee handy conveyance of subject info which is crucial for structures and the conveyance of opportune subject results will colossally affect the all out enterprise plan.


The above plot alterations within the amended enterprise the board plan will assure that the undertaking isn’t postponed additional and moreover ensures quality control. With an extra extension, an extra $ 50,000 will anyway be acquired for essentially the most half bookkeeping to additional working days for the Environmentalist. In this fashion, an additional $ 50,000 is appeared for alongside the endorsement for the modified administration plan.

A Project Studying Advertising Strategy of GUCCI


Company Overview and Brand Analysis:

Influential, progressive and progressive, Gucci is reinventing a wholly modern strategy to style. Under the brand new imaginative and prescient of inventive director Alessandro Michele, the House has redefined luxurious for the twenty first century, additional reinforcing its place as one of many world’s most fascinating trend homes. Eclectic, modern, romantic Gucci products symbolize the pinnacle of Italian craftsmanship and are unsurpassed for their quality and a spotlight to detail.Gucci is a part of the Kering Group, a world chief in attire and equipment that owns a portfolio of highly effective luxury and sport and life-style brands.

Gucci is an Italian firm founded in Florence and regarded to be essentially the most recognizable style manufacturers all over the world.

Gucci is thought for the high-quality leather-based merchandise and hand-making footwear.

Gucci accelerated internationalization in 1989 and targeted at younger technology and Asian Pacific Region.

At current, Gucci is operating 450 shops worldwide.

Guccio Gucci

Gucci was born in Florence.

Guccio Gucci (26 March 1881 – 2 January 1953) was an Italian business man and fashion designer, is the founder of The House of Gucci and son of an Italian service provider from the country’s northern manufacturing area.


  • Accessories


The Gucci Group in now a multi-brand conglomerate, with a collection of high style brands, like:

Alexander McQueen


B?datBottega VenetaBoucheronSergio Rossi

Stella McCartney

Yves Saint Laurent

Today, it is certainly one of the world’s main luxurious brands; in fact, the name Gucci conjures a vibe of exclusivity and status, an Italian model of quality.


Europe, Asia Pacific, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland and U.S Why Gucci household slogan is “quality is remembered long after the worth is forgotten” ?

We assume that high quality is crucial in giving the customers an idea of one of the best product available.


Industry: Fashion

Segment: excessive fashion

A good leader is in a position to make staff really feel involved and a part of company success or failure and he must characterize people’s emotions.

Gucci has created and outlined ideas of trend using charisma and instinct.


Statutory headquarters: The Netherlands

Administrative Centre and Human Resources Department: Florence, Italy


To become a group leader within the luxury market at worldwide degree through placing into impact and sustaining.

Main targets:

to coordinate a normal and global planning process

to cut back world complexity from the totally different regions

to enhance system accuracy and reduce enterprise risk


In Italy:

  • Armani and Versace
  • MoschinoDolce & GabbanaPrada

In the world:

  • Chanel
  • Burberry
  • Ralph Lauren

Gucci, Armani and Versace are probably the most desired designer labels, however are they also the most desired designer clothing? For the good many trend consumers, that manufacturers are the most common designer labels, but they choose completely different designer’s labels too, what quantity of would then actually choose Gucci, Armani and Versace? If nothing else, this survey in all probability reveals some disturbing details about client manipulation.

Chanel: Chanel is a dominant couture company comes from France.

The most famous products of the company is the leather metallic chain purse and the perfume?Chanel N?5.

Chanel has owned greater than a hundred boutiques everywhere in the global.

DOLCE&GABBANA: is an Italian firm based in Milan.

The firm separates the brand into two leading lines.

DOLCE&GABBANA opened the primary worldwide boutique in Japan 1989.

Versace: is an Italian company established in 1978.

Versace Furniture and Versace hotel?Palazzo Versace.

The firm launched an inferior series for the economic group.

Versace do enterprise in 60 international locations and own greater than 200 boutiques.

SWOT analysis of Gucci:


Brand fairness – A trend model which is selling at premium prices requires a really strong brand equity. Gucci’s model ranks thirty eighth in the entire world in 2015 as per Forbes. The brand is valued at a whopping 12.4 billion dollars.

Highest quality merchandise – Naturally, with the standard and the trademark that it represents, Gucci merchandise are of the best quality and essentially the most luxurious objects out there. There are only a few corporations which might match Gucci’s standards in fashion.

Strong presence in international market – Gucci has about 500 shops across many nations. Its main presence is in UK, US and Japan as well as in other emerging international locations.

Product line and depth – A main benefit of Gucci is its product portfolio which includes of premium purses, apparels for men and women, clothes and whatnot in trend. It is a complete extremely premium way of life model.

Keeps Diversifying – It is not simple in the fashion business and one of many advantages of Gucci is that it doesn’t await occasions to launch something new but it retains altering things in order that the shop format at all times seems fresh and hip.

Various CSR actions – Gucci as a brand is involved in varied CSR activities. One of them is with Unicef since a long time and the opposite is “Chime for change”.

Strong tie ups – Being a premium trend brand, it was inevitable that the brand venture into Automobiles as well. Many automobiles over the years have been designed by Gucci giving the car a novel mix of effectivity and trend.


Continous updation is required – One of the main weak point for any brand in the trend industry is that there’s continuous change required. Therefore, some years are good and a few are bad.

Sexuality in Advertising – A main point where Gucci faces flak is in its promoting. It frequently makes use of sexual innuendos and reveals the feminine in bad form because of which it has repeatedly faced criticism through the years. However, many marketers feel that Gucci proves repeatedly that “Sex sells”.

Trademark infringements and counterfeiting – As the GG brand is iconic in its very nature (stands for Guccio gucci, the founder), it has been counterfeited in plenty of international locations over a few years. This is one downside, which Gucci faces repeatedly. Besides this, there have been numerous trademark controversies with Gucci as well.


Youth is more brand aware then ever – The youth of right now literally demand premium brands because the incomes power is on the rise and increasingly persons are having a successful profession.

Emerging markets – Emerging markets like China and India are hotspots for manufacturers like Gucci as the consumption can increase in these markets for extremely premium brands.

Fashion by no means ends – One major advantage for Gucci is that trend never ends. Fashion retains altering and someone who’s initially of the road, won’t discover attaining sustainability that tough.


Competition – A major menace of Gucci is that at present, like another sector, it’s not the one lion in the jungle. There are others that are equally huge though not larger then Gucci. Christian Dior, Ralph Lauren, Burberry are some of the brands which have repeatedly been a thorn in Gucci’s facet.

Fashion Piracy.

Fashion Piracy:

Bad for the corporate, market share, ruins the image, Creates unlawful earnings for the black market.

“Silk Alley” in Beijing was most likely essentially the most infamous marketplace for faux client goods.

Many products (a.s. Gucci handbags) are meticulously duplicated by Chinese manufactures that nobody could tell the difference.

The value of pirated products seized by U.S. customs officials is rising and most fakes are from China, that today exports worldwide.

Positioning: Brand Personality

  • The GUCCI Target Customers:
  • Middle-aged
  • High income
  • High status
  • Businessman

Brand Positioning:

Success and Expansion:

In 1990s, Gucci determined to extend beyond its “mature” fashion in creating a stylish brand. The imaginative and prescient of the company is that Gucci has become an attractive image of maturity with aristocratic lines, and no longer a boring icon.

In few years, the corporate spent a lot to construct new stores and so it came via the global financial bump of 1998. The international expansion permitted brand development.


The Company directly operates shops in major markets all through the world and wholesales merchandise via franchise stores, obligation free boutiques, main division, and specialty stores.


Gucci Group imagine that every worker is an envoy for the Group and its brands.

The Group is committed to equal employment opportunity and does not discriminate in the phrases of situations of employment because of age, race, color, creed, sex, nationwide origin, physical disability, citizenship status.

Company Ethics:

Gucci Group has adopted the Code of Business conduct and Ethics (values and principles) for administrators, officers’ staff of the Company


  • Build common understandings
  • Apply our values
  • Be accountable
  • Work as a team
  • Individuals should know the small print of all relevant legal guidelines, rules and rules.
  • Individual personal interest could not interfere with the interests of the group.
  • Individuals can’t take for themselves personally opportunities by which they may anticipate the Group
  • No one ought to operate with unethical or unlawful business practices.
  • Gucci Group employees must respective their areas of duty.
  • Where Code violations are determinates to exist, applicable corrective and disciplinary actions might be taken.


  • Integrity
  • Excellence
  • Fairness
  • Sense of purpose
  • Inclusiveness


The strategy of Robert Polet, the new chief government of the Gucci Group is:

  • To concentrate on meeting with employees
  • To build one enterprise plan
  • To perceive the style of the people
  • To contemplate what their in search of, their ambition and the target.

Mr. Polet thinks that there isn’t a purpose why high-fashion houses mustn’t borrow some of the standard enterprise practices utilized in different industries.

For him the company ought to be taught from Zara. The luxury-goods enterprise is in a difficult spot; low-priced trend corporations with fast production are biting into the enterprise of well-known companies. Many ladies will now proudly match $1,000 Gucci pants with an $89 Zara jacket.

Advertising and analysis of media strategy:

Advertising informs shoppers in regards to the existence and advantages of products and services and makes an attempt to persuade them to buy them and so to build up a status. We can say that’s an attempt to get the proper message to the best folks at the proper instances.

The technique concerning the message to communicated to the target clients.

The company advertises via media, magazines, tv, posters, and so forth.

Media Tactics:

Reach: the variety of totally different folks exposed to a single medium during the media schedule

Frequency: the variety of occasions that every person in the viewers is exposed to the media schedule

Continuity: the length of time a marketing campaign will run

Budget: the financial constraints positioned on reach and frequency

A few examples of advantages and disadvantages mentioned below:

Mobile phone:

Mobile telephones present continuous access to individuals on the go although reception may range in several markets. Radios, magazines, and newspapers are additionally moveable. People are inclined to own more than one radio, but there are such a lot of radio stations in each market that it could be tough to succeed in all goal customers. People typically are doing another exercise (e.g., driving or studying) whereas listening to the radio, and with out visuals, radio depends solely on audio. Both television and radio must get a message to shoppers rapidly. Although many people change channels or go away the room throughout commercials, tv does allow for demonstrations.

Business service:

Gucci’s merchandise are distributed though shops in Italy and overseas, but in addition via a community of high-end specialty.

Many consumers can’t spend a lot of money to purchase Gucci’s products, which are very costly, and they also search opportunities online. For example, E-bay is an on-line marketplace where people can purchase or sell virtually anything as they please on an public sale or shopping for immediately.


  1. Bacci L., a cura di, (2004), Distretti e imprese leader neisistemi moda della Toscana, F. Angeli, Milan.
  2. Fondazione Edison & Symbola (2009), Italia. Geografie delnuovo Made in Italy, might.
  3. Istat (2012), Le esportazioni dei prodotti dei sistemi locali dellavoro, April, Rome.
  4. Onida F., (2004), Se il piccolo non cresce. Piccole e medieimprese italiane in affanno, il Mulino, Bologna.
  5. Porter M. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nation, New York, Free Press.
  6. Porter M. (1998), On Competition, Boston, Harvard Business School Press.

A Project on the World Trade Organization

The objective is to help producers of goods and providers, exporters, and importers conduct their enterprise. The WTFO is a corporation that intends to supervise and liberalize worldwide trade. The group formally the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATE), which commenced in 1948. The group offers with regulation of trade between participating countries; it offers a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed toward enforcing participants’ adherence to WTFO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments and deified by their parliaments.

Who we are? There are a selection of ways of wanting at the World Trade Organization. It is a company for trade opening. It is a forum for governments to barter trade agreements. It is a place for them to settle commerce disputes. It operates a system of trade rules. Essentially, the WTFO is a place where member governments try to sort out the commerce problems they face with each other. The WTFO was born out of negotiations, and everything the WTFO does is the results of negotiations.

The bulk of the Wet’s current work comes from the 1986-94 negotiations known as the Uruguay

Round and earlier negotiations underneath the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATE). The WTFO is currently the host to new negotiations, beneath the ‘Doth Development Agenda’ launched in 2001. Where countries have faced commerce obstacles and wished them lowered, the negotiations have helped to open markets for commerce. But the WTFO just isn’t Just about opening markets, and in some circumstances its guidelines assist sustaining commerce obstacles ? for instance, to guard shoppers or stop the spread of disease.

At its heart are the WTFO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations.

These documents provide the legal floor guidelines for worldwide commerce. They are essentially contracts, binding governments to keep their commerce policies within agreed limits. Although negotiated and signed by governments, the aim is to assist producers of products and providers, exporters, and importers conduct their business, while permitting governments to fulfill social and environmental goals. The system’s overriding function is to assist trade circulate as freely as attainable ? so lengthy as there are not any undesirable unwanted effects ? because that is necessary for economic improvement and well-being.

That partly means removing obstacles. It additionally means ensuring that people, companies and governments know what the commerce guidelines are around the world, and giving them the confidence that there shall be no sudden modifications of policy. In other words, the foundations should be transparent’ and predictable. Trade relations often contain conflicting pursuits. Agreements, including those painstakingly negotiated in the WTFO system, typically want deciphering. The most harmonious approach to settle these variations is through some impartial process based mostly on an agreed authorized basis.

That is the aim behind the dispute settlement process written into the WTFO agreements. The WTFO agreements are lengthy and complex as a end result of they’re legal texts overlaying a variety of activities. But numerous easy, fundamental ideas run throughout all of these paperwork. These rules are the inspiration of the multilateral trading system. 1 . Non-discrimination-A nation should not discriminate between its buying and selling partners and it mustn’t discriminate between its own and foreign products, services or nationals. 2.

More open-Lowering commerce barriers is likely one of the most evident ways of encouraging trade; these barriers include customs duties (or tariffs) and measure similar to import NAS or quotas that limit quantities selectively. three. Predictable and transparent-Foreign companies, buyers and governments ought to be assured that trade limitations should not be raised arbitrarily. With stability and predictability, investment is inspired, Jobs are created and consumers can totally enjoy the benefits of competitors ? selection and decrease costs. 4.

More competitive-Discouraging ‘unfair’ practices, such as export subsidies and dumping merchandise at under price to achieve market share; the problems are complex, and the rules attempt to establish what is truthful or unfair, and how governments can respond, in reticular by charging further import duties calculated to compensate for damage caused by unfair commerce. 5. More beneficial for less developed countries-Giving them more time to regulate, larger flexibility and special privileges; over three-quarters of WTFO members are growing international locations and international locations in transition to market economies.

The WTFO agreements give them transition periods to adjust to the more unfamiliar and, maybe, difficult WTFO provisions. 6. Protect the environment-The Wet’s agreements permit members to take measures to guard not only the setting but additionally public health, animal well being and plant well being. However, these measures must be applied in the identical method to each national and foreign companies. In other phrases, members must not use environmental protection measures as a way of disguising protectionist insurance policies. What is our mission?


The World Trade Organization ? the WTFO ? is the international group whose major function is to open trade for the benefit of all. The WTFO supplies a discussion board for negotiating agreements aimed toward lowering obstacles to worldwide commerce and ensuring a level playing field for all, thus contributing to economic progress and development. The WTFO additionally offers a legal and institutional framework for the implementation and monitoring of those agreements, in addition to for settling disputes arising from their interpretation and application.

The present physique of trade which all WTFO members are parties) and two completely different bilateral agreements (to which just some WTFO members are parties). Over the past 60 years, the WTFO, which was established in 1995, and its predecessor organization the GATE have helped to create a robust and prosperous worldwide trading system, thereby contributing to unprecedented world economic growth. The WTFO currently has 159 members, of which 117 are growing nations or separate customs territories. WTFO activities are supported by a Secretariat of some seven hundred staff, led by the WTFO Director-General.

The Secretariat is positioned in Geneva, Switzerland, and has an annual finances of roughly CHEF 200 million ($180 million, ?¬130 million). The three official languages of the WTFO are English, French and Spanish. Decisions within the WTFO are generally taken by consensus of the complete membership. The highest institutional physique is the Ministerial Conference, which meets roughly every two years. A General Council conducts the organization’s business in the intervals between Ministerial Conferences. Both of those bodies comprise all members.

Specialized subsidiary our bodies (Councils, Committees, Sub-committees), additionally comprising all members, administer and monitor the implementation by members of the varied WTFO agreements. More particularly, the Wet’s major activities are: Negotiating the reduction or elimination of obstacles to commerce (import tariffs, other obstacles to trade) and agreeing on rules governing the conduct of worldwide trade (e. G. Antiquating, subsidies, product standards, and so forth. ) Administering and monitoring the application of the Wet’s agreed rules for trade in items, trade in companies, and trade-related intellectual property rights

Monitoring and reviewing the commerce policies of our members, in addition to guaranteeing transparency of regional and bilateral trade agreements Settling disputes amongst our members regarding the interpretation and software of the agreements Building capacity of developing nation government officers in worldwide trade issues Assisting the process of accession of some 30 countries who usually are not yet members of the organization Conducting economic research and accumulating and disseminating commerce knowledge in support of the Wet’s different main activities Explaining to and educating the public in regards to the WTFO, its mission and its activities.

The Wet’s founding and guiding ideas remain the pursuit of open borders, the and among members, and a commitment to transparency within the conduct of its activities. The opening of national markets to worldwide commerce, with Justifiable exceptions or with enough flexibilities, will encourage and contribute to sustainable growth, increase people’s welfare, cut back poverty, and foster peace and stability. At the same time, such market opening have to be accompanied by sound home and international policies that contribute to financial development and growth based on every member’s needs and aspirations.

THE CONTENTIOUS ISSUES OF WTFO The Controversy The World Trade Organization has indeed been a controversial group to say the least. In the past few years there have been avenue riots, and if not riots, then boisterous public demonstrations against the actions of the World Trade Organization. Why is this contentious problem for thus very many people? According to the World Trade Organization’s (WTFO) personal website online, The World Trade Organization (WTFO) is the only international international group coping with the foundations of commerce between nations.

At its heart are the WTFO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s buying and selling nations and ratified in their parliaments. The aim is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their enterprise. This definitely sounds like an affordable concept to many individuals on the earth. So what’s the problem? The WTFO was created to become the worldwide successor organization to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATE), once commonly generally recognized as the G-7 nations, led by the United States.

The G-7 nations were the seven nations with the strongest economies on the earth, and their primary focus was the financial system of the world’s nations (primarily the 6-7). The WTFO is a means more inclusive organization which lately agreed to admit two of the least developed nations to membership. Cambodia and Nepal are scheduled for admittance on the WTFO Ministerial Conference at Cancan, Mexico in September, 2003. There at the moment are more than 110 member nations in the WTFO. So again what is the downside for many people with the WTFO?

The WTFO is actually not the one worldwide organization involved with tariffs and commerce. After all, there is the North American Free Trade Association, the European Union, and different such organizations all through the world. The group known as Global Exchange lists seasons to oppose the WTFO. In an article written by Vandal Shiva, The Historic Significance of Seattle (1112/00) he explains the opposition to the WTFO. The WTFO met in 2001 in Doth, Qatar: in the article WTFO Attempts to Silence Opposition By Meeting in Qatar: Why do commerce guidelines trump others? Published in the Toronto Star in its November 9, 2001 Friday Ontario Edition, by Joy Duffy, the journalist explains extra views about what she perceived as unfavorable effects on many issues caused by the coordinated efforts of the World Trade Organization. Furthermore the environmental group Greenback has been actively involved in Now that you have had an opportunity to look at the professionals and cons offered by the web sites offered that concern the topic of the World Trade Organization, of which the United States is a significant supporter each in financial contributions to the group, in addition to actively collaborating in the leadership of the WTFO.

What do you think? Is the WTFO a optimistic worldwide organization with the general betterment of the world as its aim, or it the WTFO a corporation with a silent agenda to solely serve the interests of multinational corporations. Trample over labor and human rights. Destroy the surroundings. Undermine native growth and penalize poor nations. Undermine nationwide sovereignty. What did WTFO do wrong? WTFO has received criticized by various groups and third world countries for numerous issues, including: 1.

Being very opaque and never permitting enough public participation, while being very welcoming to large corporations. (That doesn’t help the claims of free, open and democratic! ) 2. That while importing nations cannot distinguish how something is made when trading, although it sounds good at first alongside the lines of equality and non- discrimination, the truth is that some nationwide legal guidelines and decisions for safety and retention of people’s well being, environment and nationwide economies have been deemed as limitations to free commerce.

Take the next as a really small set of examples: Countries can not say no to genetically engineered meals milk that accommodates genetically engineered development hormones known to trigger well being issues or bushes which were felled from pristine forests and so forth. Guatemala took efforts to assist cut back infant mortality, in accordance with the World Health Organization’s tips, and to counter aggressive advertising by baby meals firms geared toward convincing moms their products are superior to the more atrocious and disease-protecting breast milk for their babies.

The result? The affected firms managed to take this to GATE (the predecessor to the WTFO) and get a reversal of the law amidst the specter of sanctions. Profits prevailed. Also makes the point of how the victim’s views usually are not heard in WTFO proceedings, nor ar they a part of the talk, although there could additionally be hundreds of them. ) The United States’ try to ban shrimp caught utilizing equipment that have been dangerous to endangered sea turtles has been dominated as WTFO-illegal, forcing the US to reverse its determination.

A variety of international locations have also spoken out in opposition to the WTFO saying that there needs to be extra co-operation between the North and South (a general time period to check with the Rich and Developing international locations, respectively) as regards to international commerce. 1 . During the week of May 20, 1998, celebrations marked 50 years of multilateral trade. However, as the next link mentions, the African nations did not feel that there was a lot to rejoice at and said that it was a celebration the place solely the wealthy nations has something to celebrate. 2.

Most individuals on the planet have not benefited from the present form of “multilateral” buying and selling methods. 3. At a Mercury (South America’s Southern Common Market) summit, then South African President, Nelson Mandela, had spoken of the necessity to guarantee that there’s more equity within the globalization process. Mercury is the world’s fourth largest financial power, after the United States, European Union and Japan. WTFO and globalization Environmental teams argue that globalization harms the setting; they want the WTFO to change its rules so that trade sanctions can be used to enforce environmental targets.

They blame international corporations for international warming, depletion of pure sources, production of dangerous chemical substances and destruction of natural agriculture. They have specific criticism in opposition to international funding, which they argue takes benefit of the shortage of regulation in poorer growing international locations. Hence, international companies could find polluting industries in poor international locations, log tropical forests, or develop mines with inadequate controls. They oppose production, use and international trade in toxic chemical compounds, nuclear supplies and other products of which they don’t approve, similar to GM meals, or endangered wildlife, including fish.

They oppose the prevailing guidelines of the WTFO, which don’t allow countries to ban imports of products Just as a end result of their production might have broken the setting n the country of origin. Environmental groups argue that WTFO guidelines are unacceptable from the environmental perspective they usually want the principles amended a concern that world monetary establishments, such as the MIFF and the WEB, aren’t doing sufficient to alleviate poverty and, indeed, could additionally be contributing to it. They argue that poor international locations ought to have their money owed to international banks excused.

Some are critical of the WTFO saying that its guidelines favor firms from wealthy nations. They argue that by making it tough for international locations to guard their very own industries tit discriminatory tariffs, it’s hard for poor nations to construct home industries. Environmental Issues in the GATE and the WTFO Notwithstanding the extraordinary publicity surrounding the Seattle demonstrations, the proposition that environmental issues ought to be addressed internationally along with commerce policies was far from new in 1999. Trade and environment” points first came to prominence virtually three many years earlier. In 1971 the GATE established a Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade, meant as “a standby machinery which would be able to act, on the request of a contracting get together, when he need arose. ” The United Nations conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, highlighted the chance that robust environmental policies might undermine the worldwide competitiveness of a country’s industries.

While the danger that competitiveness considerations might promote a “race to the bottom” or at least discourage adoption of stronger environmental protection?”regulatory chill”? remains a core issue today, the commerce and environment agenda has broadened over the years. In addition to the standard and nonetheless pressing considerations of air and water elution, negotiations might now include such matters as depletion of pure sources, use of hormones to promote cattle progress,18 discount of biodiversity, and genetic modification of plants and animals. Moreover, these newer features Nordstrom and Vaughan, supra observe 8.

The first activation came practically twenty years later, Just prior to the Uruguay Round, on the request of the international locations from the European Free Trade Area. The primary environmental problem raised in the intervening years related to commerce of domestically prohibited goods. Such items included prescription drugs and pesticides whose sale in the exporting country’s home arrest was now not permitted because of health or environmental issues, in addition to radioactive or other hazardous waste supplies. European Union restrictions on imports of beef raised utilizing hormones have already given rise to a WTFO commerce dispute.

See Report of the Appellate Body, European Communities – Measures regarding Meat and Meat merchandise (Hormones)), WET/ADDS/ABA/R and WET/ADDS/ABA/R (1998) of the trade-environment interface have become more and more contentious, despite?or perhaps because of?the lack of a firm scientific foundation for collective motion. Environmental points had moved into the mainstream of the GATE by April 994, when ministers from a couple of hundred international locations met in Marshes to conclude the Uruguay Round of multilateral commerce negotiations.

Negotiators agreed to ascertain a Committee on Trade and Environment throughout the new WTFO. Moreover, the preamble to the settlement establishing the WTFO describes its mandate as “expanding the production and commerce in items and providers, whereas allowing for the optimal use of the world’s resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development… In a fashion according to respective needs and issues at different ranges of financial development. ”

A project on evening blindness


Night blindness also called Nyctalopia isn’t a prognosis, however rather a symptom of an underlying disorder. People with night time blindness (also called impaired dark adaptation) see poorly in the darkness however see normally when sufficient quantities of sunshine are present. The condition does not truly contain true blindness, even at night time. Recovery is pretty fast when consumption is reduced. Night Blindness is commoner than one can expect it to be.


There are many causes of Night Blindness.

Night blindness could be linked to a big selection of conditions brought on by impaired liver operate, which in turn reduces vitamin A within the physique. Vitamin A deficiency is a common trigger for evening blindness. Some individuals are just born with it. Many people who discover themselves alcoholics or drink so much can also get Night Blindness as a result of ingesting can injury your liver, which makes it easier to select up an an infection of any kind.


Symptoms embody problem seeing when driving in the night or at night, poor vision in reduced light.

You may have a feeling that your eyes take longer to “adjust” to seeing in the lifeless of night. Initially there’s slight issue in seeing in dim light later this progresses. The field of regard turns into slim then later limitations in day imaginative and prescient. If no medicine is taken blindness can happen. Toxic signs can occur with a big intake of Vitamin A. This known as Hypervitaminosis A, which leads to lack of appetite, a dry, itchy pores and skin often with peeling, intense complications and an enlarger liver.

Typical Sufferers:

Night Blindness begins at an early age, around 15 years and progresses into maturity. Typical victims of Night Blindness are the aged, teenagers and alcoholics. Many youthful children maybe born with night time blindness it may also be an indicator of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Also Night Blindness can also happen if there’s a poor consumption of Vitamin A. Some individuals could be born with Night Blindness as a result of it’s a genetic disease and runs in households.


Night Blindness could be handled with therapeutic dosages of the vitamin A. Some kinds of injury to the retina, corresponding to Retinitis Pigmentosa, are often irreversible. Many remedies like Vitamin A tablets are being given, however their particular effect has not been documented. Taking supplements of Vitamin A in eye drops is also used to treat Night Blindness. Also simply maintaining a wholesome diet and consuming more Vitamin A products can improve your eyesight at evening, however it’s not a everlasting remedy for Night Blindness.


Preventions of Night blindness is often a bigger consumption of Vitamin A. Eating leafy green greens such as spinach that’s wealthy in Vitamin A. It accommodates more vitamin A than most other green vegetables. This vitamin promotes development and well being, specially the well being of the eyes. Lack of this vitamin could lead to night blindness. Spinach is thus an efficient food remedy for the prevention and treatment of evening blindness. Also consuming animal livers, milk, and yellow vegetables can improve the intake of vitamin A in your physique. These vegetables, which contain carotene, that may be a chemically associated substance that’s converted to vitamin A in the body.


If you assume you may need Night Blindness and are seeing a variety of the signs you should begin eating more Vitamin A. Having an excessive amount of vitamin A can be bad in your physique, as a end result of Vitamin A is likely one of the few vitamins by which excess produces definite and extreme results. Recovery is pretty fast when consumption is decreased. There are many varieties of Night Blindness, some begin earlier and progress sooner. Night Blindness is critical and is commoner than one can count on it to be!


Gottlieb, William. The Doctors guide of home treatments. Prevention Magazine Health Books. 2000. Ch. 99

Medical Encyclopedia. 20 Feb. 2003

Night Blindness. 20 Feb. 2003

Night Blindness Gene. 16 Feb. 2003

Upgren, A.R. Night Blindness: Light air pollution, the setting, and our experience of nature. The Amicus Journal Winter. 1996. Pp. 22-25

Vitamins. 16 Feb. 2003

A Project Report on IoT Based Bridge Health Monitoring System


The bridges over water our bodies are subjected to fixed deterioration because of excessive temperatures, heavy vehicular masses, earthquakes and floods. This has lead to devastating disasters corresponding to lack of property, state economy and most importantly life. Recently Majehat bridge in Kolkata and Siliguri bridge in Darjeeling had collapsed as a outcome of heavy hundreds and dilapidated conditions. So fixed real time monitoring of bridge structural well being is required to maintain the already developed bridges to keep away from any upcoming mishaps sooner or later.

In a rustic like India traditional methods such as human inspection and guide instruments are used to watch bridges. But this can be avoided by using the Internet Of Things and Wireless Sensing Networks. The goal of this research was to develop a system that constantly screens bridge well being after which updates the involved authorities relating to any defects as a end result of environmental circumstances through a mobile app. The system consists of ARM microprocessors, temperature, vibration and ultrasonic sensors together with RF modules.

As a result, extreme temperatures, shocks, and vibrations along with rising water levels are sensed and transmitted by way of the RF module to a Control Unit. This is all processed in real-time with out human intervention. The required data can be despatched to the app and corrective actions can be taken by the executive officials.


Bridges are critical in lots of regions, getting used over the centuries for transportation of products, humans and for viewing scenic beauty. Hence this makes it essential to have a system which constantly monitors the structural well being of the bridge and provides needed updates concerning any issues to the concerned authorities and that too in actual time.

Current advancements in sensing applied sciences and the rise of IOT have led to the event of automated bridge-monitoring techniques. Many lengthy span bridges worldwide have already applied such methods but excessive initial value and maintenance along with wired structures have created serious points as a outcome of which the desire to utilize traditional strategies still persists. In this project the idea of IOT primarily based bridge health monitoring is proposed. Different types of sensors hooked up to the bridge input various parameters similar to vibration, shocks, extreme temperatures and flood level, course of them utilizing microcontrollers according to the set threshold and eventually send the readings wirelessly utilizing RF transmitters. For the prototype bridge mannequin we are making ready we’re solely designing 2 nodes which might be hooked up on the ends of the model. To avoid collision within the networks we’re using an Anti-collision protocol known as as Request and Response. In this the slaves will evaluate their own slave ID after receiving the request and after a match takes place, then the slave will send knowledge to grasp. For the communication objective we are utilizing Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol. It is used for networks with distant places the place a small footprint or the community bandwidth is restricted. The required info will be displayed on an app interface designed using VBScript. The interface might be opened on any digital system with lively internet connection.

Literature Survey

On 18th September, 2011 in Darjeeling, West Bengal a bridge collapsed due to weakening in its structure brought on a 6.9 magnitude earthquake that shook north-eastern India. 32 individuals had been killed and 132 had been injured as a result.

On 4th August, 2016 an old bridge connected to the Mumbai  ‘Goa highway collapsed down due to over flooding as a result of heavy rains and rise of water degree of Savitri river .29 folks were lacking and 10 vehicles were submerged in the river.

On 18th August, 2017 in Bihar’s Araria district a bridge collapsed because of the raging river waters. 3 folks were dead and it affected nearly 98 lakh folks in sixteen districts which resulted within the postpostment of the upcoming examinations and cancellations of practice reservations.

We researched totally different papers from various sources such as

  1. Bridge Monitoring System’ revealed in IJISSET 2016 by the creator Anand Kumar Jha.
  2. Development of an IOT primarily based bridge safety monitoring system’ revealed in IEEE 2017 by the writer Taipei, Taiwan
  3. Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System utilizing IOT’ published in IJARIIT 2017 by creator Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade


  1. To design and develop a sensor interface to detect and inform the base station of bridge structural health monitoring.
  2. To develop a Graphical person interface (GUI) for Monitoring and analysis of bridge safety.
  3. To develop a IOT primarily based APP to access information on internet.


At least 23 people have been killed after a bit of an under-construction overpass collapsed in a crowded space of the jap Indian city of Kolkata . Ponte Morandi motorway bridge collapse in Italy as a result of structural defect -43 dead. Not just these two but there are numerous mishaps as a end result of structural defects. To avoid these accidents a system is required which will detect the structural defects and ship the details about the defect to the central control system.

Many long-span bridges worldwide have already applied such techniques however excessive preliminary price and maintenance along with wired constructions have created severe issues as a outcome of which the desire to utilize traditional methods nonetheless persists.

If there would be a system which will indicate defects in the bridge, the lot of number of mishaps could possibly be avoided

Block Diagram

Block Diagram description:-

We are designing a wireless sensor network based mostly bridge monitoring system. We have connected 2 nodes to bridge mannequin. Both the embedded nodes will acquire knowledge and ship it to PC based mostly Master. For avoiding collision between nodes we are using Request and response kind protocol. In request and response protocol the grasp will send the information request. The slaves will receive the request and examine their very own slave ID. If slave ID matches, then the slave will ship the data to the Master. We are additionally designing a Local PC primarily based server. The server will display the info on the GUI.

Here we’re using completely different sensors to measure the totally different parameters effecting the bridge stability:

Temperature Sensor:

Measure the temperature on the concrete.

Ultrasonic sensor:

Here we are interfacing ultrasonic sensor primarily based water degree sensor.

Vibration sensor (Accelerometer):

Vibration sensor node the adjustments that would point out injury to the bridge .

IOT based mostly APP:

We are designing an IOT primarily based APP to display the info of the bridge . The consumer shall be updates with the sensor data periodically on web. The person can entry the info from wherever on APP.

Power Supply Design


The proposed system contains designing a system for measuring bridge parameters and send the info to the app. The system mainly consists of measuring the temperature, vibration within the bridge and in addition measure water degree. The collected data is distributed to cellular so that parameter monitoring will be simple and required repairing of the bridge might be carried out.

The project consists of two nodes on the bridge. The PC acts as server and nodes will act as slaves. When PC sends the request for data after which only nodes will send the data. This is done to avoid the collision of data.

Hardware and Software Requirement

Hardware Requirement:

  • LPC2138
  • Operating Voltage
  • 10 bit ADC(16 analog inputs)
  • LM 35
  • Operating voltage:4-30V
  • Current drain:60uA
  • Operating range:-550 to +1500 C
  • Accuracy:zero.50 C
  • HC-SR-04
  • Operating voltage:5V
  • operating current:15mA
  • Maximum range:4m
  • Minimum range:2cm
  • RF Trans receiver
  • Worldwide 2.four GHz ISM band operation
  • Ultra low energy operation
  • Operating voltage:1.9V to 3.6V
  • Operating temperature:-400 to +850C
  • ADXL 335
  • Operating voltage:1.8V to three.6V
  • Low energy:350uA
  • Excellent temperature stability
  • Software Requirements:
  • Compiler: KEIL3
  • Programming Language: Embedded C
  • Programming Platform: Flash Magic
  • Visual Basic server 6.
  • B4A

Simulation and Testing

Fig.5 initial stage of simulation

Fig.6 sensors output on LCD

Testing of Individual Sensors

LCD Testing

Fig.7 LCD Testing

ADXL 335 Testing

Fig.8. ADXL 335 Testing

LM 35 Testing

Fig.9 LM 35 Testing

Result evaluation and discussion

We performed testing of the individual sensor module. After profitable testing of sensors we applied the whole system in general setting and observed following results.

Sr.No Parameter Value Observed

Salve 1 Slave 2

  1. Temperature 29.60C 270C
  2. X-axis 490 494
  3. Y-axis 606 389
  4. Water level 204.5cm –

Precision agriculture

Implementation plan:

I – SEMESTER Sr.No Project element Month

  1. Selection of Project August
  2. Data sheet study September (1-15)
  3. sensor selection September (15-30)
  4. Circuit diagram (Proteus) October (1-15)
  5. Seminar report October (15-30)
  6. II SEMESTER 6 Layout Diagram,PCB making January (1-15)
  7. Soldering and Hardware testing January (15-30)
  8. Coding and testing February (1-30)
  9. Final Demonstration March (1-15)
  10. Final Project report April (15-30)


Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular daily. With the newest rise in IoT and wi-fi sensing actual time bridge health monitoring has become fairly advance and futuristic. This has additionally made monitoring correct and simply accessible by everybody. Problems accruing due to co-axial cables and optical fiber cables as well as the cost are additionally reduced. Reliability and ease of this technique is one other profit. This know-how can provide early defect detection which shall be useful in avoiding loss of nation economy and most significantly human life.

Scope of Future work

In proposed system,RF module is used for communication between nodes and PC server. But we can use ZigBee for long range communication. Also Zigbee modules wants less energy which is necessary parameter whereas implementing system on precise bridge.

In proposed system we are utilizing solely two nodes, however in actual time surroundings we want extra node. We can implement star topology in these nodes.

This system can be enhanced with extra options like adding extra sensors to node.

We can even set up auto limitations on bridge. When there’s a critical situation on bridge the obstacles will come down and save additional disasters.


1] Bridge Monitoring System published in IJISSET 2016 by the writer Anand Kumar Jha.

2] Development of an IOT primarily based bridge security monitoring system’ printed in IEEE 2017 by the author Taipei, Taiwan

3] Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System utilizing IOT published in IJARIIT 2017 by creator Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade

4] Feasibility of Vibration-Based Long-Term Bridge Monitoring Using the I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge Lauren Linderman, Principal Investigator Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering University of Minnesota

A Project on CommunicationByRAVI PRAKASHBAM45232016Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirementsFor the

A Project on CommunicationByRAVI PRAKASHBAM/4523/2016Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirementsFor the award of the Degree ofBACHELOR OF SCIENCEInANIMATION AND MULTIMEDIA DEPARTMENT OF ANIMATION AND MULTIMEDIABIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYMESRA ” 835215, RANCHI ” NOIDA CAMPUS2019A Project on CommunicationByRAVI PRAKASHBAM/4523/2016Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirementsFor the award of the Degree ofBACHELOR OF SCIENCEInANIMATION AND MULTIMEDIA DEPARTMENT OF ANIMATION AND MULTIMEDIABIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYMESRA ” 835215, RANCHI ” NOIDA CAMPUS2019Under the steering ofDr. Suparna DuttaAssociate Professor (Humanities) &Coordinator of Programme for AnimationDECLARATION CERTIFICATENew Age Communication and Social HarmonyThis is to certify that the work introduced within the project COMMUNICATION entitled New Age Communication and Social concord in partial achievement of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Science in Animation and Multimedia of BIT Mesra, Ranchi ” Noida Campus is an genuine work carried out underneath my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my information, the content material of this project does not form a basis for award of any previous diploma to anybody else.

Date (Guide’s Name & Signature) Department of Animation and Multimedia, BIT Mesra, Ranchi ” Noida CampusCERTIFICATE OF APPROVALThe forgoing semester project entitled New Age Communication and Social Harmony is hereby approved as a creditable research of research matter and has been presented in a passable method to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is understood that, by this approval, the undersigned do not essentially endorse any conclusion drawn or opinion expressed therein, however approve the project for the aim for which it’s submitted.

(Internal Examiner) (External Examiner)CONTENTS1. Introduction..2. Communication..three. Media.three.1. Folk Media…3.2. Mass Media.three.three. Emerging Media4. Story4.1. Storytelling..5. Main Paper.5.1. Other Paper.6. Some chosen Real Stories.7. Conclusion..eight. References..IntroductionAll changes are assisted by communication whether or not it’s a constructive change or a damaging one. When we discuss human communication we cannot overlook that communication has been an inevitable a half of the human evolution and developments in almost all types. This project looks ahead to counsel how completely different ethnic teams, culture and communities can live collectively in harmony even in and after a battle. CommunicationCommunication is among the fundamental process that acts as a vehicle for all types of (human and economic) development. It is a strategy of sharing data, messages, information, experience, feelings, emotions and so on. The cardinal components of any communication are;1. Sender,2. Receiver,3. Media, four. Message and 5. Feedback. three. Media 4. Message 5. Feedback Social Being Social Being 1. Sender 2. ReceiverSender receiver paradigm of communication. Communication is a two way process that occurs and creates a loop. In different words communication doesn’t get complete unless the goal of communication is achieved. This would mean that communication doesn’t get fulfilled unless the sender of the message realizes his or her objective within the type of the specified feedback i.e. she or he gets the desired suggestions from the receiver of the message.MediaThe word Media is a plural form of the word medium. Anything and every little thing that allows communication between interlocutors is a media. In different words, media permits passage of knowledge or message from the sender to the receiver. It’s also one of the 5 components of any communication, which are, 1. Sender,2. Receiver, 3. Media, 4. Message, 5. Feedback. Media Message Feedback Sender ReceiverFor example; microphone, speaker, newspaper, tv, internet and so forth. Folk MediaFolk media is a conventional form of media which is impartial of the electronic applied sciences. Folk media is close, personalized, and community pushed. That is, it lacks on outreach, but inter-personalization will increase because of shut proximity between the interlocutors and it’s utilized by group and restricted in group. Customization of content is certainly one of its benefit. Its examples are; Rangoli, Nukad Natak, Painting, puppetry and so forth. Mass MediaMass media is a media that enables us to succeed in out to mass audiences via mass communication. It permits a technique data dissemination, that is, audiences’ style, opinion and sentiments usually are not taken care of in order to attain out to the plenty. In other phrases, it lacks feedback system, that is, audiences cannot give feedback to the sender of the message. Its examples are radio, tv, newspaper etc. Mass media ensures outreach of contents but customization of content isn’t potential, keeping the ethics of lots within the mind so, it does not ensure the ownership of the content material by the audiences. That is why, participation of viewers just isn’t there so, we can’t rely on mass media for Developmental and Behavioral change communication. Emerging or New mediaToday there may be nothing new about new media, it’s a media which is facilitated by Internet and low cost and widespread availability of technological devices like smartphone, laptop computer, P.C, and so forth. Facebook, twitter, Instagram, YouTube that is, Social Media, are best examples of it. There is Feedback system for all the customers that makes it dialogue oriented or conversational which is a real communication in actual sense. Emerging media appears to overcome all of the pitfalls of mass media. Therefore, it seems that, it can be used as a New age Folk Media to ensure Developmental and Behavioral change communication. Which will permit possession of content material as does the folks media ” the one thousand Ramayana which every can customize and customized the epic into a comfy and personal possession with the help of the obtainable expertise. A way in course of understanding things betterEgoSocial science denotes or refers again to the individuals because the Ego’. So, any individual or particular person A, B, C and so on is usually referred to as the Ego A, B, C and so on.Homogeneous Ego Those Ego who doesn’t go through many changes (or usually are not uncovered to) in life primarily by means of their tradition, society, place, faith and ethnic existence are by and huge known as a Homogenous Ego. In different words, an Ego whose mother and father continue a lineage that have comparable traits of tradition, society, place, religion and ethnic background and this is continued by the individual under examine is a Homogenous Ego.Heterogeneous EgoIn contrast to the Homogeneous Ego, those individuals who undergo many adjustments in life primarily when it comes to their culture, society, place, faith and ethnic existence are referred to as Heterogeneous Ego’. In other phrases, an Ego whose mother and father don’t have comparable traits of tradition, society, place, religion and ethnic background and who himself or herself is exposed to a plethora of diverse situations and stimulations is a Heterogeneous Ego.Media ChaosEvery now and then we’re all uncovered to and bombarded by many alternative and numerous media. This has been a progressive trend and today we are mindlessly subjected to the Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, T.V (different channels), Radio, and Print so on). Every people notion, mindset all the time has changed and been shaped by the media she or he is subjected to. Widespread exposure to media incessantly leads to confusion of choice and passive acceptance of content that finally creates a situation of bedlam which is generally called the media chaos. TV Radio Internet Twitter Grapevine cinema Social Gossip Facebook Media ChaosPopulation pyramidPopulation could be categorized in four distinct group primarily based on wealth, training and the perquisites that naturally observe this. This can be what is called social class and it’s a common phenomenon. The Elite, Middle Class, the Base of the Pyramid Population and the lowest within the rung occupied by the Below Poverty Line (BPL) population are the four broad categories.Elite classMiddle ClassBase of the Pyramid PopulationBelow Poverty Line (BPL)THE POPULATION PYRAMIDStoryA story is an account of occasion or collection of occasions both real or imaginary. It has an organic kind, that is, it has a particular begin, center and end. In other phrases, it is like a living organism that, is born, matures and eventually dies. This permits the story to have a component of enchantment, feelings, tradition, ethical values, messages and data.StorytellingStorytelling is a strategy of telling or narrating a narrative by way of numerous media be it print (comic books, brief story, novel, magazine, newspaper), digital (posts, audio, video, brief movies, documentary, games, and so forth.) In storytelling the audience(s) listens, experiences and responds accordingly as if they are a half of the story. Their brain features in the identical manner in the event that they have been living the story or in different phrases the story truly happening with them.Main PaperWhat is Storytelling?A Discussion PaperByThe Healing Through Remembering Storytelling sub groupPaper offered at the Storytelling as the Vehicle? Conference Dunadry Hotel, Dunadry, 29 November 2005ContentThis paper was produced by the Storytelling sub group of Healing Through Remembering. The paper goals to take us by way of the story of the sub group. Healing Through Remembering (HTR) is an intensive cross-community project made up of particular person members holding completely different political views. They have come collectively over the last 5 years to give attention to the issue of how to take care of the previous referring to the conflict in and about Northern Ireland. The Project carried out an intensive co
nsultation in 2001/2002 which requested people, organizations and communities the query: How should folks remember the events linked with the conflict in and about Northern Ireland and in so doing, individually and collectively, contribute to the healing of the wounds of society?. It was advised that the individual telling their story, if listened empathically to, could expertise a degree of therapeutic. Equally, it was recognized that recounting painful experiences of the past could, in the words of a number of contributors reopen old wounds’.LearningStorytelling can be used to sensitize frequent man on the problem of social concord especially in a numerous & growing nation like India to avoid all prospects of disquiet & violence capable of marring progress and peace. Other papersSl. No. Name of Paper Name of Journal ISSN No.ISBN No. Year of Pub. Place of Pub. Brief Summary Observation 1 What is storytelling? A Discussion Paper Presented at Storytelling because the Vehicle? Conference. By The Healing Through Remembering (HTR), Storytelling sub group 291105 2005 Dunadry, Northern Ireland The paper is about how totally different ethnic group are living peacefully after years of conflict. The group makes use of storytelling as a tool of wound therapeutic. The group collects and archive people story pertaining to the conflict in Northern Ireland Storytelling from private expertise can work as wound therapeutic and keep away from future battle amongst different Social groups. So, story of individuals must be archived. 2 Social awareness by way of new media International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS) (Print)2279-0047(Online)2279-0055 Dec.2014 ToFeb. 2015 The talks about many terms like multimedia, interactive entertainments, New media, customization comm., Social message, Comm. Driven economic system. Communication acts as a vehicle in economic and social improvement of a rustic. As a customization comm. New media particularly multimedia rich games ought to be used as a interactive entertainment for social message delivery. Sl. No. Name of Paper Name of Journal ISSN No.ISBN No. Year of Pub. Place of Pub. Brief Summary Observation three Storytelling Knowledge Solution,Asian Development Bank 27637 October 2008 Storytelling is the use of stories or narratives as a communication software to value, share, and capitalize on the information of people Stories are a pure device of communication and can simply be remembered. So, analytical reviews should be advised as a story to common individuals for improvement communication 4 The Art of Storytelling It’s a scholar projectNational Center For Distinguished 2015To2016 Syria The project accommodates information about evolution of storytelling, importance of storytelling for youngsters, advertising and societies. Our brains are way more engaged by storytelling than by cold, exhausting facts. While reading straight knowledge, only the language parts of our brains work to decode the meaning. But once we read a story, not only the language components of our brains light up, however any other a half of the brain that we’d use turns into activated if we are literally experiencing what we’re studying about . This means it’s far easier for us to remember stories than onerous details Sl. No. Name of Paper Name of Journal ISSN No.ISBN No. Year of Pub. Place of Pub. Brief Summary Observation 5 Digital storytelling: New opportunities for arts scholarship and pedagogy Cogent Arts & Humanities three: 1181037 2016 It’s about traditional storytelling methodology vs digital storytelling and their advantages. Digital storytelling assisted by multimedia has new advantage over oral storytelling educating. Participators has a larger likelihood of visualization and imagination over conventional forms of educating. 6 The Seven Pillars of Storytelling Sparkol Books Dec.2015 Bristol, UK Emotion, Plot, Structure, Voice, Villain, Hero and conflicts are the seven pillars that the book tries to discover. Storytelling is used broadly in commercial and brand build up. Our brains are wired for stories. 92% consumers want their manufacturers to make ads that really feel like story.Neural coupling of audiences happens with the storyteller thus making certain efficient communication. Some chosen real story1. Hindus and Muslims Shared Some Moments of Grief Together Hindu and Muslim residents of Sendhwa town in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh came collectively to cremate 75-old-year Sitaram who had no member of the family left behind. People from both the communities attended his funeral ceremony and cremated him with full honour. 2. Hindus and Sikhs Helped Repair a Mosque People from the Sikh and Hindu communities helped repair an old mosque in Nathowal village close to Ludhiana. They additionally took care of greater than sixty five % of the restore expenses. The project value was round Rs. 25 lakh, of which Rs. 15 lakh was contributed by Sikhs and Hindus. The three communities live in peace in this village. Muslims and Hindus contribute to the gurudwara work as properly. A resident of the village informed The Times of India that they rejoice all festivals like Diwali, Dusshera, Rakhi, Eid, and Gurupurab together.three. Muslim Man Performed His Friend’s Last Rites Following All Hindu Rituals When Santosh Singh lost his life to a terminal illness, his pal Razzak Khan Tikari, a Muslim, performed his last rites following all Hindu rituals. He set a really touching example of how faith can never be a barrier in relation to true friendship. Razzak is a resident of Chhattisgarh, and he had been friends with Santosh for many years. Santosh and his family were not very well off. After Santosh’s demise, Razzak additionally helped his friend’s spouse financially.

Project management approaches for dynamic environments

This paper sets out to investigate the nature of projects conducted in fast changing environments. Examples and theory are used to illustrate the nature and challenges of this category. Suitable management approaches are identified under the following headings: Planning, Experimentation, Lifecycle, Controls, Culture, Communication, and Leadership style.

The dynamic project category. The paper closes with recommendations for further research. In this paper, control is taken to mean the mechanisms through which resources are managed to achieve objectives [1], and is different to the PMBOK ‘technique’ [2] which is strictly focused on bringing activities in line with a plan [3]. The term dynamic is taken to mean characterised by constant change [4]. In the project management context dynamism is taken to be a dimension of a project that represents the extent to which a project is influenced by changes in the environment in which it is conducted.

This paper argues that this is a non-binary dimension that applies in varying degrees to all projects, so strictly any given project is neither ‘dynamic’ nor ‘not dynamic’. All projects have some degree of dynamism, so the dimension is not dichotomic. Therefore, the ideas in this paper may be applied in varying degrees to any project as deemed appropriate. For the sake of simplicity though, for the remainder of this paper, a dynamic project is taken to be one that is necessarily subject to higher than normal levels of change due to the environment in which it is conducted.

The business environment is changing at an increasing pace [5–7]. Rothwell and Zegveld [8] went so far as to say we are in the midst of a technology explosion. They argued that 90% of our technical knowledge has been generated in the last 55 years, and that technical knowledge will continue to increase exponentially. Perrino and Tipping [9] reported ‘‘the pace of technology is accelerating, raising the stakes and risks for managing innovation, and requiring early warning and shorter response time”.

Change, in all forms of technology and business processes, can be regarded as increasingly pervasive and providing challenges even where
high technology is not a core business, such as in mining [10]. Consider how the Australian Submarine project was challenged by developments in the IT industry between the 1980s design phase, and sea trials decades later [7]. This paper will now investigate dynamic projects from a theoretical point of view. Gray and Larson [11] argued that


Pich, Loch and De Meyer [12] describe a type of project that encounters unknown unknowns and how it is best suited to what they called a ‘learning’ strategy which involves scanning, problem solving and flexibility. They argue that this is distinct from projects conducted in well understood environments which are suited to ‘instructionism’, and distinct from ‘selectionism’ where the most fruitful initiative is chosen after a pool of trials. Turner and Cochran [13] espouse the ‘goals and methods matrix’ that describes four different types of project according to how well defined the methods and goals are.

Projects can have poorly defined goals (‘fire’) or poorly defined methods (‘water’), or both (‘air’). Shenhar and Wideman [14] describe a type of project
that involves high levels of uncertainty, using technologies together for the first time. They call these ‘high tech’ [14]. They also describe a type of project that actually creates new technologies, called ‘super high tech’. Shenhar [15] describes how ‘low technology’ projects are typically performed in construction, production and utilities, and high technology projects in the computer, aerospace and electronics industries. He offers building and bridge construction as examples of low technology projects.

The key difference to Shenhar is the level of development work involved, in that low technology projects have little, and
high technology projects have considerable levels and usually require prototyping. Shenhar and Wideman [14] argue that another key difference is the number of design cycles. In low technology projects they say there is typically only one cycle with a freeze before development, and with high technology there are at least two, typically three cycles.

Operational work Cioffi [16] suggests that ‘projects’ be placed on a spectrum of ‘newness’ from operational to project. The idea has been adapted in Fig. 1 to illustrate the sliding scale of unknowns that applies to projects. Unknowns in this sense refer to any aspect of the project, including the methods to achieve it, the objective, and the environment it has to operate in.

The guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) [2] describes ‘progressive elaboration’, where planning is developed in greater detail as the project progresses. Using progressive elaboration to fill knowledge gaps, it might be possible to move a project to the left in Fig. 1, thereby achieving the objective in a more predictable fashion.

However, rapid changes in the environment, including tools and methods, and attempts to innovate, act to push the project to the right, increasing unknowns. The two forces of exploration and change act against each other continuously throughout the project. The challenge is
to conduct exploration at a greater rate than the emergence of environmental change. It is also important to ensure that the amount of change created by the exploration and implementation is not counterproductive overall. An example of Project A in Fig. 1 might be a production line where there only variable is the colour required.


The intention here is to review literature to provide a broad overview of approaches that might be used to better deal with dynamic environments. Approaches were broken
down as follows:

Project topics – Journal of Engineering Research and Studies

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies


Research Paper

Shekhar Pandharipande*a, Harshal Makodeb

Address for Correspondence
*a- Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Bharat Nagar, Amravati Road, Nagpur,India. b
B. Tech student, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Bharat Nagar, Amravati Road, Nagpur, India. ABSTRACT
An orange, specifically, the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. The present work addresses to the development of the part of the process needed for the extraction of value added products like orange oil and pectin from orange peel, which is the waste of orange juice processing industry. The outcome of the present work highlighted that the sweet orange peels are good source of orange oil and pectin and does have the potential to become important raw material for food processing industries. Two methods namely simple distillation & leaching have been explored for separation of oil from peels.

The remains of cake in this part is further treated for isolation of pectin. It is found from the experimental observations that the peel source, for extraction of pectin, when taken after extracting orange oil through simple distillation gives higher yield than leaching residue. It is concluded that the process in which orange oil is first extracted using technique of simple distillation followed by acid extraction of pectin is most suitable for industrial production for isolation of pectin. These results demonstrate the successful extraction of orange oil and pectin, providing potential benefits for industrial extraction of pectin from an economic and environmental point of view. KEYWORDS orange peel, pectin extraction, orange essential oil

An orange, specifically, the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, & also for the fragrant peel. Citrus fruits are at the top not only in total production, but also in economic value. The albedo is the main source of pectin. Pectin includes all the esterified polygalacturonic acids at different degree of neutralization. In the presence of saccharine and small quantities of organic acids (usually citric acid), pectins gelatinized, and this property is exploited by the agrochemistry and pharmaceutical industries for pectin isolation. Orange essential oil is present in small ductless gland contained in the peel of the orange fruits. The main constituent of orange peel essential oil is d-limonene (present to the extent of at least 90 %), which is the only hydrocarbon present. The d-limonene is extracted from orange rinds or solids. The rinds and pulp are sent to an evaporator and the d-limonene is steamed out.

It is widely known for its pleasant scent and degreasing properties. d-limonene is currently being used in many applications such as chlorinated solvents replacements, hand cleaners and sewage treatments. The orange processing industry can get a complete makeover if due importance is given for separation of useful ingredient from orange peel. Researchers and Scientists have been working on the separation of oil and pectin from orange peel and reporting their findings in journals of repute. A brief summary includes orange peel: organic waste or energetic resource(1), Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)(2), method of distilling a volatile constituent from liquid mixture(3), Optimization of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) using response surface methodology(4),
Assessment of African Sweet Orange Seed Oil(5),
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Comparisons between different techniques for waterbased extraction of pectin from orange peels(6) , microwave-assisted Isolation of essential oil of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.: Comparison with Conventional hydrodistillation(7), Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel(8), microbial production of pectin from Citrus peel(9), Optimization of Pectin Extraction from Peel of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)(10), Determining the Yield and Quality of Pectin from Fresh Peel & Pectin Pomace(11) and Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel(12) .
The present work (13) explored the possibility of separation of essential oils and pectin from the orange peels. Nagpur is major orange producing centre in the subcontinent and even recognised in the name of oranges as, Orange city.
The present work is divided into following parts:
I. Separation of oil from peels.
a) Using the method of simple distillation
b) Using ethanol as solvent in the method
of leaching
II. Extraction of pectin from oil peels
a) From fresh peels, the leftover
b) From dried cake remained after simple
distillation and leaching as in part I
1.2.1 Separation of oil from peels:
Raw Material:
The raw material taken under examination for the
extraction of orange oil (d-limonene) and pectin is
orange peel. Orange peels are removed from fresh
oranges which are procured from local market and
which were harvested in the month of December
2011 to January 2012.
Simple distillation is employed for removal of
essential oil from orange peel. Dried and fined
ground orange peel powder is added with known
quantity of water which is simple distilled off for
approximately one hour. The solid remains of the
residue are dried to obtain the dry cake. The distillate

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies


resulted in to two phases, oil and water. Two phases are separated and orange oil is obtained. For 350 gm of orange powder taken, 8 ml of oil and 126.3 gm of dried cake is obtained.
The method of leaching is also explored for removal of oil from peels. 380 gm of fresh orange peel are
extracted with 225 ml of ethanol. After adequate contacting, two phases, solid and liquid are separated, 198 gm of wet slurry resulted into 150 gm of dry cake. However oil could not be recovered following this method. The dried cake obtained is further treated for separation of pectin in next part of present work. 1.2.2 Extraction of pectin from orange peels: The objective of this part of work is extraction and isolation of pectin from fresh orange peel sample and the dry cake sample left after extraction of oil using simple distillation as in part I. The objective includes the study of the effect of pH of the medium on the yield of pectin extracted. The process flow chart is as
shown in the figure 1.

Table no 1: Experimental observations of yield of
pectin at different pH

Fig no 1: Process flow chart for extraction of
pectin from orange peel sample
Citric acid in distilled water solutions of desired pH values 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are prepared. Orange peel
samples weighing 10 gm each are dipped in to the solution and heated at 800C for 10 minutes. After cooling the solution, it is filtered using cloth filter and Whatman filter paper under vacuum. Ethanol is added to the filtered solution to facilitate filtration of pectin. The solution is filtered using fine filter cloth or centrifuge at 8000 rpm for 15 min at 100C to separate jelly pectin which is dried under vacuum at 500C and -100 mmHg gauge for two hours. Dried pectin is thus obtained. The observations are given in table no 1. Yield % of pectin is based on the gram of peel
sample taken, and is calculated by formula as given

Fig no 2: Pectin yield at different pH of extracting
medium Comparison of yield of pectin from the
dry cake residue left after simple distillation and
Same procedure is applied for separation of pectin in this part of present work, as followed in part 1.2.2.the observations are tabulated in table 2 & pictorial details & output of process are depicted in fig 3.
Table no 2: Experimental observations of comparison of yield of pectin from the dry cake residue left after simple distillation and leaching where Ypec (%) is the extracted pectin yield in per
cent (%), P is the amount of dry pectin in g and Bi is
the initial amount of orange peel in gram.
Results and discussion:
The maximum yield of pectin is obtained at  extraction medium pH of 1. However negligible yield is obtained at pH of 4 and 5 as can be seen from graph plotted between pectin yield % obtained for various values of pH of medium as shown in fig 2.
JERS/Vol. III/ Issue II/April-June, 2012/06-09

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies
Result and discussion:
The yield of pectin obtained is highest in turbid extract, but this might be due to some suspended impurities present in the extract. The maximum overall yield of the pectin is obtained from orange peel residue sample through simple distillation.
Therefore, in the process of orange oil and pectin extraction from orange peel, it is recommended on basis of results obtained, that to first extract oil using simple distillation and then isolate pectin with acid hydrolysis technique.
Nagpur region is well known in central Asia as largest orange producing region. It is also known as the California of India, producing excellent quality oranges in large number. Though it has great production of oranges, the downstream processing and value added product manufacturing technology is not yet developed. The present work is dedicated for


the development of the part of the process technology needed for the extraction of value added products i.e. orange oil and pectin from orange peel, which is the waste of orange juice processing industry. The present work revealed that the sweet orange peels are good source of orange oil and pectin and does have the potential to become important raw material for food processing industries. It is found from the experimentation that the peel source, for extraction of pectin, when taken after extracting orange oil through simple distillation gives higher yield than leaching residue. So it can be concluded that the process in which orange oil is first extracted using technique of simple distillation followed by acid extraction of pectin is most suitable for industrial production.
These results demonstrate the successful extraction of orange oil and pectin, providing potential benefits for industrial extraction of pectin from an economic and environmental point of view.

Fig no 3: Pictorial presentation of the process for comparison of yield of pectin from the dry cake residue left after simple distillation and leaching
Amboni. (2009). optimisation of pectin acid extraction




Martín M.A, Siles J.A.1, El Bari H, Chica A. F,
Université Ibn Tofail. Faculté dos Sciences. Kenitra
(Maroc) .(2008). Orange Peel: Organic Waste or
Energetic Resource?
Tobias I. Ndubuisi Ezejiofor, N. V. Eke, R. I.
Okechukwu, R. N. Nwoguikpe and C. M. Duru. (2011)
Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of
peels of Nigerian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(33), pp.
Gorden P. Gerow, Davenport, Fla.(1982). Method Of
Distilling A Volatile Constituent From Liquid Mixture.
United States Patent, 4,326,926.
Erika Kliemann, Karina Nunes de Simas, Edna R.
Amante, Elane Schwinden Prudeˆncio, Reinaldo F.
Teo´ filo, Ma´ rcia M. C. Ferreira & Renata D. M. C.

JERS/Vol. III/ Issue II/April-June, 2012/06-09




from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa)
using response surface methodology. International
Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44, 476–483.
Nwobi BE, Ofoegbu O & O B Adesina. (2006).
Extraction And Qualitative Assessment Of African
Sweet Orange Seed Oil. African Journal of food
agriculture nutrition and development. Vol. 6 ISSN
S. Yeoh, J. Shi, T.A.G. Langrish. (2008). Comparisons
between different techniques for water-based extraction
of pectin from orange peels. Elsevier, Desalination 218,
Weerachai Phutdhawong, Rungthip Kawaree, Samart
Buddhasukh.(2007). Microwave-Assisted Isolation of
Essential oil of innamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.:

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies
Comparison with Conventional Hydrodistillation.
Molecules ISSN 1420-3049
8. Zheng Jie, Yang Ting, Wu Qiang, Li Jing, Wang YaNa. (2009). Microwave-assisted Extraction of Pectin from Orange Peel. Vol. 30, No. 20,
p. 134-137.
9. P.Y. Tang, C.J. Wong and K.K. Woo. (2011).
Optimization of Pectin Extraction from Peel of Dragon
Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Asian Journal of
Biological Sciences, ISSN 1996-3351, Knowledgia
Review, Malaysia, 4 (2): 189-195.
10. P. G. Crandall, R. J. Braddock, and A. H. Rouse.
(1978). Determining The Yield And Quality Of Pectin
From Fresh Peel And Pectin Pomace. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 91:109-111.
11. Takuo Sakai & Minoru Okushima. (1998). Microbial
Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel.Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 39, No. 4, p. 908912.
12. Harshal Makode (2012).Project report submitted for B
Tech to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur

JERS/Vol. III/ Issue II/April-June, 2012/06-09


HCS 483 Final project: health care robots

Types and Uses of Health Care Robots
Health Care Information Systems
HCS 483
September 08, 2013

Types and Uses of Health Care Robots
Health care robots are exciting advancements in health care delivery by providers. The future of robots in health is promising and the different types of robots are growing. Using robots helps the providers give better care to their patients and using robots behind the scenes for more accurate delivery of care as well. Surgical robots

The da Vinci is currently the most known surgical robot. It is the only surgical robot available for commercial use. The da Vinci robot is in use for gynecological, prostate, and cardiac surgeries. The da Vinci allows the surgeon to work from a computerized workstation across the room from where the patient is prepped on the operating table. The surgeon maneuvers the robotic arms to perform the surgeries. Using the da Vinci eliminates the natural hand tremor that surgeons have through the software in the computer system created specifically for that function.

“’Penelope’ has been developed at Columbia University by general surgeon Dr. Michael Treat with funding from the US Army’s Telemedicine and Technology Research Center, in Fort Detrick, MD” (Schimpff, 2013, p. 1). Penelope is not currently in use but is a promising robot on the health care horizon. Dr. Michael Treat created Penelope to replace the current surgical assistant that hands the surgeon instruments during surgery. Penelope is equipped with electromagnetic grippers that allows for picking up the instruments the surgeon needs. Penelope arranges the instruments for the procedure, recognizes voice commands, and verbally can respond back to the surgeon. Pharmacy robots

Pharmacy robots currently are in use for dispensing medications. The uses are beneficial to the entire hospital staff by reducing medication errors, orders are entered in by the physicians using computerized physician order entry (CPOE), and charging the cost of the medication to the patients account. The ROBOT-RX is currently in use in 34 states around the country. “The ROBOT-Rx® automated medication dispensing system prevents medication errors, reduces pharmacy labor, and lowers drug inventory. The hospital pharmacy robot automates medication storage, selection, return, restock, and crediting functions for 90 percent or more of a hospital’s daily medication volume” (“ROBOT-RX,” 2013, p. 1). Telemedicine robots

Remote Presence Virtual + Independent Telemedicine Assistant (RP-VITA) is used to assist physicians who are not on-site when a critical patient is admitted to the hospital. The robot is used to connect the off-site physician to the bedside of the patient to assess the patient and give orders to the staff for tests and medications needed for immediate care. Especially useful in the immediate care of stroke patients in the emergency department when time is crucial for the delivery of medicines. If the physician is off-site or across the hospital helping other patients, the RP-VITA allows for faster face-to-face response between the physician and the patient. References

Improves patient safety and process efficiency with robotic medication dispensing. (2013). Retrieved from Schimpff, S. C. (2013). Robotics can revolutionize the delivery of medical care. Retrieved from

Science Investigatory Project


We all know that teenagers today are very eligible especially in wearing dress. We are more confident if we are wearing comfortable clothes. So it is very important for us to have a a clean and neat dress. All over the world, it is not ordinary to have a problem with our clothes. Many of the housewives has a difficulties to remove the stains in the clothes of their husband especially those who are working construction helper, chef and etc. Iron in the water supply is a common problem and a very real nuisance in doing the home laundry. Successful removal of clothing stains depends largely on the nature of the stains, the type of fabric, and the colorfastness of the dye. – 2013 Dry cleaning& Laundry Institute

Stains do not just spoil a look. They can also ruin a reputation. Some people judge other people by appearances and stains – on clothes, furniture, accessories and personal belongings. Stains are hard to prevent – they just happen, mostly by accident. But it’s even harder to remove stains. Especially in Manila, there are many possible things that can cause stains in your clothes. In Manila there are many busy persons with their business. . Ballpoint pens, permanent markers and fountain pens are helpful tools but can be trouble makers. Their stains can be the toughest to remove once they have set. – 2013 Manila Standard Today

In Davao City, Bilimbi is observable everywhere. So we can use and apply it anytime to our clothes anytime we want. People in Davao City are very hard work. The primary method of stain formation is surface stains, where the staining substance is spilled out onto the surface or material and is trapped in the fibers, pores, indentations, or other capillary structures on the surface.[1] The material that is trapped coats the underlying material, and the stain reflects back light according to its own color. Applying paint, spilled food, and wood stains are of this nature. -Wikipedia


These are many products out there that are proven to remove stains to our clothes using bleaching agents, but these products are very dependent to the times you need it. Not like an extract of Bilimbi you/we can use it anytime
because it is affordable but it helps us a lot. An extract of Bilimbi fruit is basically an affordable product that can remove stain in our clothes because of the high acid of its juice that makes a good agent for removing stains from metal blades.

We conduct this kind of study to be able to have another background study about natural bleaching agent and to build natural product that is a solution for a stains. This kind of project is very affordable as well as the materials are easily to found. We want to solve the problem of most people in removing stain. So, aside for this product is natural, health-friendly and affordable we also conduct this study because it is not harmful to use and to experiment.


In this study, these problems to be concluded and generalized

a) Is the Bilimbi effective as a stain remover?
b) Could it really remove fabric stain?
c) If it can, how long does it take to do so?
d) Is it harmful to us?
e) What’s in Bilimbi that makes it remove stains?


In a study there are always its ins and outs. There are four possible outcomes in the study:

1) Our homemade product cannot remove the stain in our clothes. 2) The extract of Bilimbi affects our skin
3) The extract of Bilimbi can damage our clothes
4) It is harmful to use


This study involves the use of materials that are locally available and cheap. All of us can benefit in this study since it is cost-friendly and all natural. People away from the city can also benefit in this study since most of the people around rural areas are farmers who plants Bilimbi. In fact, not only the farmers can benefit with it, also housewives who has difficulty to wash clothes that has rust stain. Another thing is, people can save money because the supplies used in the research are expensive and in contemptible.


We’ve encountered a few topics about the harmful affects of chemical-based bleaches and found out that these are quite number of people who get allergic reaction and minor during a prolonged use.

For about 3 days, our group was planning for our experiment. But in our experiment, it only took 5 minutes to do the experiment but we still observed the next 5 minutes that is why we came up with the duration of 10 minutes. . The data will be gathered and noted. However every study has its limitations, this study will not go deeper with further analysis of the reactions taking place and compositions of the substances that are being involved. The group will also not use any chemical substances or bleaching agents in experimenting.


The operational terms that had been used in our study, are the following:

Bilimbi fruit- Bilimbi is a fruit-bearing tree from the genus averrhoa plant family, a close relative of carambola. Bilimbi fruit are used in many medicinal purposes because of its high acidic properties. Eligible- able to be chosen for something : able to do or receive something Oxalic acid- is an organic compound with the formula H2C2O4. It is a colorless crystalline solid that dissolves in water to give colorless solutions. Endeavor- to seriously or continually try to do (something) Nuisance- is a common law tort. It means that which causes offence, annoyance, trouble or injury. A nuisance can be either public (also “common”) or private. Cappilary- re the smallest of a body’s blood vessels and are parts of its microcirculation. Contemptible- not worthy of respect or approval : deserving contempt Bleaching agent- refers to a number of chemicals which remove color, whiten or disinfect, often via oxidation.


It is proven fact that Bilimbi fruit is useful for cleaning and bleaching. According to The Bilimbi fruit juice has a high concentration of oxalic acid which is useful for cleaning and bleaching. Bilimbi can be used as a syrup, spice or vegetable dishes, clean the stain clothes, polishing brass goods, and as an ingredient of traditional medicine.

According also to Wikipedia, In Malaysia, very acidic Bilimbi is is used to clean the Kris blade.[5] In the Philippines, it is often used in rural places as an alternative stain remover.[6] In Indonesia, its red flowers are sought as the ingredients of natural red dye for traditional textile. Both calamansi and kamias contain weak acids. Citric acid in calamansi and oxalic acid in kamias. Citric and oxalic acids have bleaching properties and are also specially useful in removal of metals including rust and some dyes.

There‘s also another study from wherein its juice is popular for making cooling and refreshing drinks similar to lemonade. It has high acid content of the juice makes it a good agent for
removing stains from the skin. The juice is useful for bleaching stains from white cloth, and also tarnishes from brass. In olden days it was used for cleaning the blade of a keris, the short, wavy dagger of the Malays .The juice serves as mordant (serves to fix color) in the preparation of an orange dye for silk fabrics.

Health Benefits:
The juice is effective as eye drops (regarded as a magic curative). Decoction of leaves or the juice of the leaves, are often consumed as a cure for venereal disease. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve rectal inflammation.

The fruit is given to children as a protection against coughs. A flower infusion is believed be effective against coughs and thrush. A leaf infusion is a remedy for Bilimbi has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. According to In folk medicine, the fruit is known for the following health benefits: As a drink, it cools fevers

The Japanese apply a paste to get rid of acne and rheumatism. As a syrup, the vitamin C combats bowel hemorrhages, stomach problems, and internalhemorrhoids. Javanese use the leaves to reduce rectal inflammation and fruit conserve for biliousness, coughs and beriberi Malays make a paste from the fruit to help new mothers heal from childbirth, apply it on the skin to reduce itching and even to alleviate syphilis. Its antibacterial and properties cause many in Asia to use the juice like a soap or cleansing agent.

Medical studies show several promising insights with bilimbi as well. Australian researchers discovered that the fruit keeps food borne diseases like salmonella at bay, when studied as a cleansing agent applied to shrimp Indian researchers found that the fruit, when tested on rats, may treat and prevent hyperlipidemia (or, high cholesterol) Researchers in Singapore discovered anti-diabetic activities of Bilimbi In a collaboration of researchers from Brazil and Trinidad, studies indicate Bilimbi might help control glycemic levels. The fruit also boosts muscle and liver glycogen levels.

coughs and is taken after childbirth as a tonic.
The leaves are applied as poultice on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin problems. The fruit and leaves are applied on bites of poisonous insect..

According to Wikipedia A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. They are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials. Staining is used for biochemical research, metal staining, and art(e.g., wood staining, stained glass). A solvent or detergent is generally used to conduct stain removal and many of these are available over the counter. But in this product that we have conducted we can benefit more, because it is affordable and easy to use.

The purpose of bleaching agents is to bleach the natural substances in cotton fibres and cellulose fibres that make the fabric yellowish and to bleach spots that are not removed by the laundering process. Bleaching agents also bleach textile colours and hence should be avoided for coloured textiles. Bleaching also impacts on the fibre structure and in that way reduces the lifetimes of textiles. Hence textile service companies naturally will be very concerned to not over-use bleaching. No general remark on the health and environmental effects can be given since the nature of different bleaching substances used varies greatly.





The respondents of this study are Mrs. Emma Raniel and our parents who are knowledgeable enough to answer our questions posed in this problem. They
also help us to give more information about our study and to encourage us to do this project.


This study was conducted in Toril Davao City, Philippines. According to Wikipedia Toril Davao City belongs to the 3rd legislative district of Davao, it has 125,978 population as of 2012.


In performing this experiment, the researchers used three Bilimbi fruit and three clothes with different stains:

Gathered all the materials needed.

We cut the Bilimbi fruit into two pieces.
Then, we applied it to the clothes were the stains are located. Scrub it.
Then we waited for 5 minutes.
Finally, see the result. If the result is not as desired, scrub the cloth and wait for another 5 minutes, the you will see the result

This experiment did for about three times. The researchers gathered all these data by surfing the internet.


A. Interpretation


A. Summary

The study focused on making an alternative bleaching agent on how to remove a stain using a Bilimbi. We research about the features about the Bilimbi. Then we know that Bilimbi has a high acid that can remove a stain. So, we planned that this would be our problem. The solution’s composition provided a simple how-to ways help people to remove stains from their clothes. The material used were very affordable like a blender, bowl, strainer, sponge and a clothes. The product were wiped to the cloth that has stain. Data were collected to gather relevant information. From the experimentation, it was found out that the solution composing of extract of Bilimbi is effective remover to a stain. It only took 10 minutes before the stains were removed.


Arriving at our results and outputs, we came up that Bilimbi fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) are effective stain remover. It only takes at least 10minutes before the effects will be observed.


From the investigation, the researchers would like to recommend this study to the students who would pursue the Bilimbi fruit as an alternative stain remover to use and apply it.

Contribute to running a project

Routine work is basically things that you do every day in your job, note the name ‘routine’, it is what you are contracted to do and what you are used to doing. However when you are taking part in a project there tends to be a time limit and milestones are measured.

1.2 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using projects and when projects are appropriate

The advantages of using projects are that they can allow you to focus on a certain part of the business, for example my project is to run the ebay store within the company that I am working for. This has allowed me to pay a lot of attention to a marketplace that was virtually non-existent and with a little care to it it has excelled throughout the months and now has a good turnover as oppose to this time last year. Another advantage of using projects is that it allows extra funding and resources to be used so that the project reaches its full potential. A disadvantage of using projects is that they can distract you from your regular routine work that is required, this leads me to my second point which is another disadvantage of using a project, they can be extremely time consuming.

Therefore I have come to my conclusion that projects are only appropriate when you have enough time to focus entirely on them and when you have the resources and funding available too.

1.3 Explain the project-planning methodologies appropriate to the types of projects run and the tools that can be used to assist project planning and control

Basically all projects should have milestones and an opportunity to evaluate and reflect the milestones to see what needs to change within the project in order to gain more profit. If a project has a financial target then it needs to have perfect opportunities to sit and look at when the project is making
the most money and when it is making the least to see what can be changed to alter any financial figures.

1.4 Explain the purpose and benefits of identifying stakeholders involved in the project.

It is important to identify stakeholders because in a way they are almost like your customers and even more like your suppliers, they are someone that is involved in the project, if someone is involved in something important to you then it is very important to know who they are so you know exactly who you’re dealing with.

1.5 Explain the purpose of contributing to agreeing a projects purpose, scope, timescale, costs, aims and objectives.

The purpose of a project is basically why are you doing it, in my case it is to boost revenue, gain more custom via external marketplaces (eBay) and also to gain more experience and responsibility for myself. The scope of the project is basically building up the ebay website, the project covers numerous things but the main objective is the development of the ebay site. The timescale of the project is from June 2012 until April 2013. there are numerous costs over the course of this project, such as the fees for listing each product, the fees for using ebay itself and my own personal wages. The whole aim of the project is to increase turnover for the company, whilst the objective for me is to meet the financial targets set by my boss which is £21,000 over the period of time.

1.6 Explain the purpose of agreeing a budget for a project.

It is important to agree a budget for a project to work out whether it will be cost-effective, for example if the project is going to cost more than you are going to work then there would be no point going through without it. This is why a budget needs to be discussed to see what needs to be spent and how much it will turnover.

1.7 Describe how to estimate types and quantity of resources needed to run a project

In the past around 70% of my time was spent building up the ebay site this is just a rough estimate as I would spend about two hours on general admin work and then the rest of my day (6 hours) on running the project, I now spend about 40% of my time on the project I would say this because I work on all the customer service and then managing stock. There wasnt really any estimation on the quantity of resources needed because they are basically the stock I have on hand which is usually more than enough and will always be there when I need them.

1.8 Describe how to identify project risks and develop contingency plans, if required.

A risk with this project could be supplies and the quantity we have, for example if a supplier promises to send stock that is needed to fulfil an order but then doesnt you should always have a plan b such as having other suppliers on hand or giving them plenty of notice to deliver the goods.

Outcome 2: Understand how to contribute to a project

2.1 Describe the types of information needed to monitor projects and the methods that can be used to give information

On the home page of my ebay summary there is a graph that shows all of the recent activity (how much profit I have made), it is shown in the last 24 hours, 7 days, 30 days and 90 days. This graph then transfers on to a white board where my manager takes notes of how much I have made and if I am on target for the month.

2.2 Describe how to estimate and control resources in an area of work during a project
The main resources for my project are stock and time, the best way to estimate the stock is to see what is being ordered the most by customers and
ensure there is enough to continue fulfilling orders which should keep me in firm control. The other resource I have to estimate and control is the time that I spend on a project, I have to roughly estimate how much time I spend managing my project each day and then take that to use as a guideline as to how much work needs putting in to the project using the time I have.

2.3 Explain the purpose of reporting own progress during a project

The purpose of reporting my own progress is to record the profits I am making per calendar month which then add up to a yearly target, once I have reported my own progress I can inform my manager of this as he also likes to keep track.

2.4 Outline the reasons for seeking advice in response to unexpected events

Earlier this month I had an issue with some of the prices on my site and whilst explaining this to customers I encountered a problem with one of them who was not happy about the increase in price, I consulted my manager who told me how to deal with the situation in a professional manner and thankfully it was resolved quickly and smoothly. Therefore it is important to seek advice to ensure that issues are dealt with correctly.

2.5 Explain the purpose and benefits of

Investigatory Project


These days, people can’t oppose the boosting of the countless pest that disturbs our daily habits. That’s why we made a product that could be the answer for this problem that we all face. By mixing-up the three main elements of the by-product, the garlic, chili pepper, and Euphorbia, we come up to put up an alternative botanical insecticide that can kill harmful insects such as cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes and other plant insects. Even though there are hundreds of problems out there that is still unsolved, we choose this problem because this is one of the problems people really can’t solved quickly and could make houses “pest-free”.

Background of the Study:

Our all-natural insecticide derived from different plants could kill insect and pest anywhere, inside or outside of our home.

Talking about the main ingredients, the garlic, that was used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Aside from using garlic as a flavoring, it could also be a benefit to make insecticides. It has a powerful stimulating odor or flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. The property of the garlic that was considered as an effective force that can kill pests is its allicin. But, allicin is not seen in the garlic on its natural state, when chopped or crushed, the enzyme alliinase acts on the chemical alliin converting it to allicin. Alliin is an amino acid that does not build proteins. Alliinase has been demonstrated to be irreversibly deactivated below a pH of 3; as such, allicin is generally not produced in the body from consumed fresh or powdered garlic.

Thus, it could kill insects because of its smell. Insects don’t like the smell of the garlic, which humans also dislike too. Being a strongly oxidizing compound, it protects garlic from attack by bacteria and insects by disabling the enzymes that are found in the substrate necessary for infections to occur, thus acting as a natural insecticide. It does so by attacking the SH groups found on their active sites. In the body, it oxidizes the hemoglobin in the blood to methemoglobin. Garlic could be found at any place here in the Philippines. But mostly, the best native garlic originates at Badoc Ilocos Norte. The Garlic helps the insecticide more effective due to its smell that usually insects don’t want. Garlic is said to be the foundation of many insecticidal formulations. It is also lets the insecticide to be more secure and natural.

For the siling labuyo, which can be purchased at any markets, was also proved to be an efficient ingredient in making insect repellants. Siling labuyo has an active component that is the capsaicin. It was said to be an irritant for mammals that causes a perception of burning of tissues that comes to a contact. Capsaicin is the primary ingredient of pepper sprays. With this and several related compounds, they are called as capsaicinoids. They are generated as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as preventive against herbivores and insects. They are called as secondary metabolite because they are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of organisms. .Siling Labuyo is typically found at the Bicol region, specifically at the heart of Bicol region, Naga City.

While for the Milk Hedge, that is a part of the specie of Euphorbia was a cactus-like plant with spiny stems and flowers that are solitary, short and color yellow or green. This kind of Euphorbia has poisonous principle in all parts. That’s why; we mixed all parts of the Milk Hedge to our product. Those parts are the stems, leaves and the latex, which is the milky sap of the plant. Milk Hedge can be found at any place here in the Philippines.

Statement of the Problem: 1.) How do domestic bugs react when sprayed with an all-natural insecticide? 2.) Is euphorbia a good ingredient in making an organic insecticide? 3.) Are garlic and chili pepper a good addition to make an organic insecticide? 4.) Could we make a good all-natural insecticide in mixing euphorbia, garlic and chili pepper?


Therefore, euphorbia plant together with garlic and chili pepper is a good source in making an effective all-natural insecticide.

Significance of the Study: The purpose of every experiment conducted is to help people to extinguish pest that could destroy our daily routines. This problem could alter a huge population of persons that are tired of killing pests and could be also made in every house. This query is of current interest for many individuals, because almost all homeowners considered insects as one of the reasons why their life become uneasy for them. 5million children are sensitive to cockroaches according to the This could eliminate any existing pest infestation and prevent any future pest problems that could possibly go back again in your house. Our research findings may lead to some useful change in best practice because it could lessen the population of domestic bugs at every house.

Scope & Limitations: In this study we gathered evaluations on how effective an insecticide is with the combination of natural ingredients such as the euphorbia plant, garlic, and chili pepper. And also how do insects react when they are sprayed with it. We did not study the reaction of other domestic bugs such as termites, alupihan, and only concentrated to flies, cockroaches, mosquitoes and ants.


I. Materials
2 Jars of cutted euphorbia stems and leaves
2 pcs. of garlic
20 pcs. of siling labuyo Knife
Cutting Board
Filter Paper
Sterilized Bottles
Mortar & Pestle
Misting Bottle
Hand towels

II. Procedure

Collect euphorbia stems and leaves that are required. Buy 20 pcs. of siling labuyo and 2 pcs.of garlic. Before anything else wash your hands thoroughly. Wear your apron incase you get dirty. Remove the thorns of the euphorbia stem and cut the stem into pieces. Together with the leaves wash the euphorbia stems and leaves. While waiting for the stems and leaves to be dry, peel the garlic until it become garlic cloves. Put the garlic cloves in the mortar and pestle, and begin pounding the garlic cloves. Then start chopping the garlic cloves into tiny ones. Now, with the help of the gloves, chop the bird’s eye chili pepper or in Tagalog siling labuyo also into small ones carefully.

When the stems and leaves are already dry, mix it in the blender so that you could separate the dagta from the leaves and stems. After the pounding, chopping, cutting and mixing, put all the ingredients on a cooking pot except the garlic cloves. Then, put it on the beaker together with the garlic that hasn’t been boiled. Using a filtering paper and a funnel, filter it and put to another beaker or bottle instead. Repeat the step until no excess ingredients that you can see in the bottom of the beaker or bottle. Place the finished product on the misting bottle. Finally, you can use it to kill insects and pest in your house.

Recommendations: In using the insecticide, wear gloves and stand clear of the mist. Never spray where there is high wind. Prevent spraying serviceable insects. Wash your hands thoroughly after spraying especially before eating or washing. Be sure to follow the procedure to avoid problems. Remember to boil the euphorbia and chili pepper at 210-220 °C. Be careful in chopping the chili pepper to avoid irritating one’s eye or other parts of the body.


Project Management Recommendation Paper

According to Jacobs and Chase (2011), there are five different phases in which the Palomino will need to deliver: Project Conception and initiation: This project maintains medium amounts of risk for risk but this new line of products makes enhancements on past technologies helping reduce the thought of risk. Project Definition and Planning: Sticking to the produced production plan already in place and maintaining costs according to priorities and timelines in association to existing technology is critical. Project Launch or Execution: The project manager will be responsible for the above conceptions, initiations, and planning. Project performance and control: The above named “Project Manager” will be responsible for timely execution and lunch of product in 9 month production window through effective management techniques and leadership abilities. Project Close: At the completion of project and consumers are providing positive feedback on Palomino impact on their lives, a recap will be provided. This feedback will include notes on production process obstacles, success stories, and personal feedback allowing for future organizational growth in innovation and creation. Through the table included below a break down on the costs associated with each project allow for you to see the project recommendation in quantitative figures.

Critical Path
Cost Per/Mo
Return Per/Mo
Total Profit/ Per Month
6 Mos
2-3 yrs
(15.6 mos to B/E)
(20.4 mos @$20.833.33
9 Mos
5 years
(17.46 mos to B/E)
(42.54 Mos @$37,000
$750K (5yrs)
Tot:7 yrs

The verdict on the Palomino project still gives Piper Industries Corporation some positive traction in developing a new line of widgets that have been formed off of existing technology. While the idea of continuing to spend on the new product line, Stargazer widgets comes with great reward, it is not without great risk. While sales and marketing teams have already had minor dialog with a few of your strategic customers, there are still far too many questions. Therefore proceed with the Palomino project and enjoy the deliverables projected including the growth of you widget line as well as the projected ROI of 5 years bringing great profitability over the 7 year projected life cycle. With the delivery of the Palomino project, Piper’s ability to move forward in developing new advancements on existing technology will give you greater insight into how further the Stargazer project further down the line.

Jacobs, F.R., & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.). Retrieved from b1b3-2a6518a9897d&assetmetaid=564ca34f-cdef-4bba-9c2d-026be3a2b17f.

Project Time Management

As project manager, you are actively leading the Green Computing Research Project team in developing a schedule. You and Ben found three internal people and one new hire to fill the positions on the project team as follows: Matt was a senior technical specialist in the corporate IT department located in the building next to yours and Ben’s. He is an expert in collaboration technologies and volunteers in his community helping to organize ways for residents to dispose of computers, printers, and cell phones. Teresa was a senior systems analyst in the IT department in a city 500 miles away from your office. She just finished an analysis of virtualization of server resources for her office, which has responsibility for the company’s data center. James was a senior consultant in the strategic research department in a city 1,000 miles away from your office. He has a great reputation as being a font of knowledge and excellent presenter.

Although he is over 60, he has a lot of energy. Le was a new hire and former colleague of Ben’s. She was working in Malaysia, but she planned to move to your location, starting work about four weeks after the project started. Le has a lot of theoretical knowledge in green computing, and her doctoral thesis was on that topic. While waiting for everyone to start working on your project, you talked to several people working on other projects under the Environmental Technologies Program and did some research on green computing. You can use a fair amount of the work already done on telecommuting, and you have the name of a consulting firm to help with that part of your project, if needed. Ito and Ben both suggested that you get up to speed on available collaboration tools since much of your project work will be done virtually. They knew that Matt would be a tremendous asset for your team in that area.

You have also contacted other IT staff to get detailed information on your company’s needs and plans in other areas of green computing. You also found out that there is a big program meeting in England next month that you and one or two of your team members should attend. It is a three-day meeting, plus travel. Recall that the Green Computing Research Project is expected to be completed in six months, and you and your four team members are assigned full-time to this project. Your project sponsor, Ben, has made it clear that delivering a good product is most important, but he also thinks you should have no problem meeting your schedule goal. He can authorize additional funds, if needed. You have decided to hire a part-time editor/consultant, Deb, whom you know from a past job to help your team produce the final reports and project proposals. Your team has agreed to add a one-week buffer at the end of the project to ensure that you finish on time or early.


1. Review the WBS and Gantt chart you created for Tasks 5 and 6 in Part 2. Propose three to five additional activities you think should be added to help you estimate resources and durations. Write a one-page paper describing these new activities. 2. Identify at least four milestones for this project. Write a one-page paper describing each milestone using the SMART criteria. 3. Using the Gantt chart created for Task 6 in Part 2, and the new activities and milestones you proposed in Tasks 1 and 2 above, estimate the task durations and enter dependencies as appropriate. Remember that your schedule goal for the project is six months. Print the Gantt chart and network diagram.

4. Write a one-page paper summarizing how you would assign people to each activity. Include a table or matrix listing how many hours each person would work on each task. These resource assignments should make sense given the duration estimates made in Task 3 above. 5. Assume that your project team starts falling behind schedule. In several cases, it is difficult to find detailed information on some of the green computing technologies, especially financial data. You know that it is important to meet or beat the six-month schedule goal, but quality is most important. Describe contingency strategies for making up lost time and avoiding schedule slips in the future.

After reviewing the work breakdown structure (WBS) and Gantt chart, three additional activities are being proposed. The addition of these activities will assist with estimating resources and durations. This project will benefit from the identification of four milestones throughout the project. Using these milestones as markers for time, budget, and personnel resources, the project will be kept on track. These milestones will be developed using the SMART criteria outlined in the text (Schwalbe, 2014). The identification of these milestones is the first added activity. The second activity to be added is the contingency plan. The contingency plan will outline strategies for making up lost time and remaining on schedule for the remainder of the project.

Group Project Nike Paper

Your specific assignment is to conduct research, analyze, and prepare a report for the CFO on the actual financial performance of the company that you choice for the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. In addition to reviewing the traditional financial performance indicators, you are also to review the companies past and current stock performance for the same periods. Your report is to consist of three parts:

1. an evaluation of the company’s financial performance for the periods 2009, 2010, and 2011

2. an evaluation of the company’s stock performance for the periods 2009,
2010, and 2011

3. finally, a specific recommendation, with supporting rationale, as to whether or not the company’s recent financial and stock performance are of sufficient financial strength to warrant entering into a long-term commitment with the company

To assist you in your task, the CFO has provided the following general guidance. As it is recognized that the many companies are undergoing a major contraction, it is very important for you to compare the company’s financial and stock performance trends with those of the industry. You are to consider all necessary and relevant financial performance and stock information, trends, and projections in supporting your recommendation. Relevant factors include, but are not necessarily limited to, financial statement analyses, financial ratio trends and industry comparatives, capital spending, stock growth, Beta values, credit rating service valuations, bond rating valuations, and management and investment reports, when these documents are available.

Your final report is to be an executive-level financial report directed to the CFO. This report must be no longer than six (6) single-spaced typewritten pages. Include suitable comparative, quantitative, and qualitative analyses and conclude with a specific and supported recommendation based on the projected financial viability of the company for the next several years.

Essential research data, financial calculations, and other documentation needed to support your recommendation should be referred to in summary form in your report and attached in detail as enclosures. All major sources should be referenced. There is no set limit to the size of the enclosures, but it is recommended that only essential enclosures be attached. You should use references and a bibliography to identify any remaining supporting documents you wish to include.

Your report is to be submitted electronically and limited to a maximum of three, one for the executive report, one for attachments and one for power point presentation. Two files are acceptable, with attachments included as separate pages at the end of your report. Only Word, Plain Text, Rich Text, and Excel file formats are acceptable.

This report is a group effort and must be researched, developed, and prepared by the entire group. However, to maximize the learning benefit, you are encouraged to share freely and exchange sources of information (Web sites), general approaches, alternatives, and information on general financial theory and applicability as related to the report with other teams.

All questions related to this assignment should be referred to the mythical CFO (i.e., me).

Science Investigatory Project

The topic I have chosen is very important in terms of agriculture because it will help us most specially the banana dealers, exporters and importers to equip enough knowledge on how to prevent banana from early deterioration or over ripening only in a small period of time during the transportation. A solution finally may be at hand for the number one consumer gripe about bananas: their tendency to ripen, soften and rot into an unappetizing mush, seemingly in the blink of an eye. Like other fresh fruits like banana are alive and actually “breathing” or respiring. The more banana respire, the quicker it ripens. Unlike many other fruits, the respiration rate for the banana does not slowdown, and bananas do not ripen slowly.

Once banana begin to mature, they quickly become yellow and soft, and then they rot. Bacteria on the banana skin start to thrive and cause the banana to rot. So, how will the freshness of banana stay longer? There’s a “hydrogel”, made from chitosan, a substance derived from shrimp and crab shells that is a superabsorbent like those with many medical and commercial uses. Based on a report, chitosan is attracting considerable attention in efforts to keep fruits and veggies fresher longer due to its action killing bacteria that cause produce to rot by spraying green bananas with chitosan aerogel, we can keep bananas fresh for up to 12 days. This is the way to keep bananas green for a longer time to inhibit the rapid ripening that occurs. Aerogel chitosan coating could be used at home by consumers, in supermarkets or during the shipment of bananas.

Behavior Modification Project

Identify Target Behavior: Get a Healthier Amount of Sleep/Stop Napping Daily I chose to modify my sleeping behavior for my behavior modification project. Sleep is something that I have always had a problem with. In high school I would get an average of about 5 hours of sleep a night, and now as a junior in college I get about 5-6 hours a night. I wanted to modify this behavior because I feel that not getting enough sleep is negatively affecting my mood, health, and overall outlook on my every day experience. It would be beneficial to me to be more awake and happy throughout my days rather than be tired and pushing myself to stay awake. My main issue with my sleeping behavior is the amount of time I spend per day napping. If my nightly sleeping patterns were increased, I could eliminate the need for naps during the day.

Baseline Data: 4.5-5.5 Hours of Sleep per Night At the beginning of the term I observed my sleeping patterns for a week. Since I have a different schedule on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays than I do on Tuesdays and Thursdays I found that I do get slightly more sleep on some nights than I do on others. I did not include weekend sleep times in my data. On Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday nights I would go to bed between 11:30 and midnight. I would then wake up at 5:30 am the following mornings. Therefore 3 nights of the week I was getting around 5.5/6 hours of sleep.

On Monday and Wednesday nights I would go to bed somewhere in that same time frame of 11:30 to midnight. However on the following mornings I needed to be awake an hour earlier, so I would wake up at 4:30 am. On these nights I was getting about 4.5/5 hours of sleep. I noted that on Tuesdays and Thursdays I was more likely to get home from work and fall asleep around 4 pm for about 3 hours each of those days. On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, I would nap for about an hour and a half around 3 pm. I observed that during the times that I would come home and nap, I could have been doing something more valuable with my time if my body had the energy to keep going rather than take a few hours to rest itself.

Stimulus Conditions: School, Homework, and Distractions I live at home and commute to school, so the main stimulus condition was the distractions that are available to me such as TV and internet. I have slept with my TV on for as long as I have had it. Usually I will turn on a show or a movie and fall asleep half way through watching it. This is the main problem for me because once I start I have an extremely difficult time stopping myself. My brain is still concentrating on the website I was on or what I was watching as I am trying to fall asleep.

Another condition is school. Since I do commute, I have to be up a lot earlier than I would if I were living on campus. I work a lot of days after I get out of class so I have to have my hair and makeup done and can’t go to class looking the way I did when I woke up. I realize that I could not change my wakeup time for this project because that is the amount of time that I need to get ready and drive to school. Another condition is my homework. I usually study and work on homework after dinner which is around 7 pm so homework doesn’t usually affect my sleep that much unless I have a lot of work or studying to do.

Set Goals: Every Week Sleep 30 Minutes More per Night At first my goal was to increase the amount of sleep I got by 10 minutes every day. I attempted that the first week and found it to be extremely difficult because the times were so close together that it was almost impossible to make myself fall asleep at that exact time. I also was thinking about it too much and thinking about it made it even more difficult to fall asleep. I decided to switch my goal by going to bed a half hour earlier than I did the week before. That way with a starting point of 5.5 hours, by week 5 I would be getting 8 hours of sleep.

The national sleep foundation states on their website that 7-9 hours is the recommended amount of sleep for the average person over the age of 17. Therefore I took the median of that to use as my final goal. Since the main problem that I had was the distractions such as TV and Internet, I made it a rule that I needed to close my laptop and turn off my TV at the specific sleep time goal for that week. I found that with my TV off I was able to fall asleep almost immediately after laying down. I recorded the amount of sleep that I got every night, though it is not exact I did fall asleep almost immediately after the start times so it is only off by a few minutes at most. Sleep Time

Week 1 – 11:30
Week 2 – 11:00
Week 3 – 10:30
Week 4 – 10:00
Week 5 – 9:30
*Since Week 1 was unsuccessful in going to sleep around that specific goal time I changed my project by pushing my sleep goals back 30 minutes for the remaining 4 weeks. *Altered Sleep Time Goals

Week 1 – 11:30 (Already Passed)
Week 2 – 11:30
Week 3 – 11:00
Week 4 – 10:30
Week 5 – 10:00
Actual Sleep Times
Week 1
Monday: 11:55 pm-5:30 am – 5 hours 35 minutes (5.58 hours) Tuesday: 11:45 pm-4:30 am – 4 hours and 45 minutes (4.75 hours) Wednesday: 12:00 pm-5:30 am – 5 hours and 30 minutes (5.5 hours) Thursday: 11:50 pm-4:30 am – 4 hours and 40 minutes (4.66 hours) Friday: 11:45 pm-5:30 am – 5 hours and 45 minutes (5.75 hours)

Week 2
Monday: 11:20-5:30 – 6 hours and 10 minutes (6.17 hours)
Tuesday: 11:15-4:30 am – 5 hours and 15 minutes (5.25 hours) Wednesday: 11:25-5:30 am – 6 hours and 5 minutes (6.08 hours) Thursday: 11:20-4:30 am – 5 hours and 10 minutes (5.17 hours) Friday: 11:15-5:30 am – 6 hours 15 minutes (6.25 hours)

Monday: 10:50 pm-5:30 am – 6 hours and 40 minutes (6.66 hours) Tuesday: 10:55 pm-4:30 am – 5 hours and 35 minutes (5.58 hours) Wednesday: 10:45 pm-5:30 am – 6 hours and 45 minutes (6.75 hours) Thursday: 10:50 pm-4:30 am – 5 hours and 40 minutes (5.66 hours) Friday: 10:50 pm-5:30 am – 6 hours and 40 minutes (6.66 hours) WEEK 4

Monday: 10:25 pm-5:30 am – 7 hours and 5 minutes (7.08 hours) Tuesday: 10:30 pm-4:30 am – 6 hours (6.0 hours) Wednesday: 10:35 pm-5:30 am – 6 hours and 55 minutes (5.92 hours) Thursday: 10:20 pm-4:30 am – 6 hours and 10 minutes (6.17 hours) Friday: 10:20 pm-5:30 am – 7 hours and 10 minutes (7.17 hours) WEEK 5

Monday: 10:00 pm-5:30 am – 7 hours and 30 minutes (7.5 hours) Tuesday: 10:05 pm-4:30 am – 6 hours and 25 minutes (6.42 hours) Wednesday: 10:00 pm-5:30 am – 7 hours and 30 minutes (7.5 hours) Thursday: 9:55 pm-4:30 am – 6 hours and 35 minutes (6.58 hours) Friday: 10:00 pm-5:30 am – 7 hours and 30 minutes (7.5 hours)

Below I have included the graphs that I made weekly with the data I collected over the course of that week. The actual amount of sleep I got, my goal amount of sleep for that week, and the National Sleep Foundation recommended amount of sleep are all included.

I found that these graphs are excellent for displaying how much closer I got to my sleep goal every week. I was very pleased with the results as I did not expect the project to go so smoothly. Since I live with them, I had asked my mother and my sister to look for any changes in my behavior during this time. Both of them agreed that around week 3 I was more fun to talk to because I wasn’t being so negative in our conversations.

My mother enjoyed the fact that I was more willing to go out and run errands with her when I got home rather than go in my room and pass out. By week 5 both of them had said that they noticed I seemed to be getting through my days without as much complaining. Overall I also didn’t notice any changes myself until about week 3. Weeks 3-5 made a big difference because I no longer felt that I “needed” to take a nap and since I felt that I had more time to do things that I wanted I had a much more positive outlook on my day as a whole.

Encourage/Remove Stimulus Conditions: Time Management and Eliminate Distractions Since my main stimulus condition was the distractions that I had, the most important thing for me to do was to set a rule for myself to always turn off my TV and laptop before the goal sleep time of that night. I have always thought that I needed the background noise of my TV to sleep, and I was very surprised to found that I did not have a single problem with the TV being off. The only issue I had with this alteration was the fact that I didn’t create this rule until after week 1. For the first week of my project I continued to go to bed with the TV on, and even though I was technically in bed at my goal sleep time I was not falling asleep until approximately a half hour after laying down.

Once I made this change and altered my sleep time goals the project went a lot more smoothly. Since I could not change the time that I woke up in the morning, I knew I needed to work on time management with my homework so that I could have at least a little free time before I made myself shut off my electronics. I stopped taking so many breaks during the time that I was working on homework and I just used a solid block of time to finish everything I had to do. It was a lot easier for me to get done faster when I wasn’t losing focus on other things all of the time. I was happy with the decision I made to turn off my TV and laptop at the time I planned to go to bed every night.

I believe that that factor made all the difference in the direction that my project went. I feel that there would have been more obstacles and challenges if I had not created that rule for myself. Modifying these two conditions helped me be able to fall asleep faster and also enjoy falling asleep much more than I had before. Punishers & Reinforcers: Activities During the Time that was used for Naps I at first contemplated the punishments that I could use for not going to sleep at my goal time.

The first week of my project I was still not going to sleep around my goal time and I was continuing to sleep at the times I had been sleeping before. I realized that since I used this time to watch movies, I could instead turn it into a reward by watching movies during the time in which I usually napped. Therefore when I returned home around 4 pm, rather than napping for 3 hours I could use that time for “free time” watching movies and going on the internet so that I could get my fix during that time instead of getting my fix right before I went to bed. If I went to bed earlier, I would not need the naps.

It was almost like a cycle that just needed to be adjusted. I stopped needing naps around week 3 when I was getting roughly 6 and a half hours of sleep. It was a nice feeling to look forward to coming home and having free time rather than coming home and wasting a few hours of my day to feel refreshed. The fact that I had something to look forward to was a good reinforcement. I didn’t feel that I needed many more rewards because being on a normal schedule and not losing as many hours of my day was a reward enough for me. I enjoy having more free time as opposed to having nap time. In a way I was using positive and negative reinforcement because I was taking away my time on the internet and watching movies late at night, but rewarding myself by using my time during the day for those activities which I got from going to sleep earlier. Design Schedules of consequence and Administer Schedules:

I am going to modify my sleep patterns in order to get an increasingly healthier amount of sleep per night. This will aid in the elimination of daily naps. I am going to sleep 30 minutes earlier every week until I am getting 8 hours of sleep a night. My reward will be having more free time to relax and do what I want after a long day rather than wasting those few hours by sleeping. The free time will be my motivator since I already wish I had more time during the day to do things that I want to do. The Results:

Creating this program was somewhat of a challenge because the main problem was my bad sleeping habits. I learned a lot about myself as a result of doing this project, and the most that I learned was near the end when I was organizing all of my data. Though week 1 did not go as planned, I was very proud of myself for actually following through with my goal sleep times for the remainder of the project and I can clearly see the benefits I have gained from the changes that I made. Even though my main goal was to work on the amount of naps that I would take, I noticed many more benefits along the way. I found it easier for me to pay attention in class, and my note taking skills have also improved. My need for coffee in the morning has gone down and I actually drink more water in place which is a much healthier alternative.

I also find it much easier to drive to school. I also am in a much better mood in the mornings that I was before. I found the most difficulty in this project during week 1. I believe this is because I had not yet made the adjustment to turn my electronics off. After making that change in my project everything seemed to work out much better and I never really went off track again. I feel that I am more productive and I now also have more time during the day to relax and enjoy myself. I felt that I made a good choice in choosing this specific behavior to modify because it has really improved more than one area of my daily life. I really have learned what a difference a healthy amount of sleep can do for you and I will continue to try and stay with the amount I have worked to getting right now.

Investigatory Project

1. Get an idea. All of the following steps will base on your idea. Make sure it doesn’t break any rule or else you might get disqualified. You can search for it if you don’t have any idea.

2. Form a title. Usually titles are in a form of a question. This are examples. The question can start in how, does and many other. Does temperature affect the growth of molds?

Does salt affect the density of water?

3. Research your idea. You have to know your idea more. You can do this by reading, surfing the Internet or discussing it. Knowing your idea more will help you construct your work.

4. Form a hypothesis. Hypothesis will be your prediction in the idea that you choose. You don’t need to research for this. You just have to guess. Make sure it is accurate and clear.

5. Plan your experiment. Your experiment will confirm your hypothesis. Make sure the experiment will answers or really confirms the hypothesis.

6. Plan your materials. You will need on your experiment. Make sure they are easy to buy and cheap. As much as possible, plan materials that is already in your house.

7. Test your experiment. Use the steps that you have planed. If all else fails try a different step or a different material. If you really want to win the science fair, this will be a big step for you.

8. Observe the result. Sometimes it is in a form of a graph but it depends on your work. You can write it in a journal so you can review it.

9. Have a conclusion. Now that you have confirmed your hypothesis, it’s time to write a conclusion. You can answer the question in your title. You may also tell if your hypothesis is correct or not. Again, make sure it is accurate and clear.

Most of us have conducted an investigatory science project without even knowing it—or at least without knowing that’s what it was called. Most science experiments performed, from elementary to high school students and all the way up to professional scientists, are investigatory projects.

What’s an Investigatory Project Exactly?

An investigatory project is basically any science experiment where you start with an issue or problem and conduct research or an investigation to decide what you think the outcome will be. After you’ve created your hypothesis or proposal, you can conduct a controlled experiment using the scientific method to arrive at a conclusion.

What’s the Scientific Method?

Remember, however, that a successful investigatory science project does not necessarily have to result in the intended outcome. The purpose of these projects is to think critically, and if the solution doesn’t work out, that doesn’t mean your project will fail.

What Kind of Investigatory Projects Are There?

In order to conduct a great investigatory experiment, you have to ask an interesting question and be able to conduct an experiment that can hopefully answer that question. The harder and more intriguing the initial question is, the better the resulting investigation and experiment will be. I’ve listed a few examples below of some of the best investigatory experiments out there, so hopefully you’ll have no problem coming up with an idea.

Project #1: Making Soap Out of Guava

Basic hygiene should be available to everyone, but what about people who live in areas without easy access to grocery stores or pharmacies? This is a great question that makes you think about scientific alternatives to store-bought soap. Below is an example project that creates soap from guava leaf extract and sodium hydroxide, but there’s no shortage of materials you can use to replace the guava, like coconut oil or a fat like lard, butter or even the grease from your kitchen.

Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in Science. Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge, scientific concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature. They can use their higher-order process or thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report below.


The Title should be clear and precise. It has an objective or purpose. It should not be written too long or too short. By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about.


The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only. It includes your research problems, the method or procedure that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study.

Chapter I
1. Introduction and Its Background

The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its rationale. It usually leads into the research problem.

2. Statement of the Problem

The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific problems. Usually, one general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general problem. The research problems should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated. It can be a question form or in a declarative statement.

3. Formulation of the Hypothesis

The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative hypothesis. Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation. It is recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project.

4. Significant of the Study

The Significant of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people, environment and community as a whole. It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact into the field of technology.

5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research. It includes the period of research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used.

6. Definition of Terms

The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational definitions which derived from how these terms were used in your research.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature

The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers and any documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies. These statements can support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and laws. Footnoting is important on this part.

Related Studies

The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to your research or can support your investigation scientifically. Footnoting is also important on this part.

Chapter III

Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment

1. The Subject of the Study

The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample. It applies the sampling techniques to obtain a good sample of the study. Your sample should be valid and reliable.

2. The Procedure

The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research. It includes the materials with right amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the scientific investigation. It consists of several trials with control variables, independent variables and dependent variables. Gathering of data is essential in any kind of research. It is recommended to use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion.

3. The Statistical Treatment

The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways. It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chi-square, standard deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II. It is recommended to use T-test in any experimental research.

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyzed. It may be presented in two forms namely: through table or graph. You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your data. A table has labels with quantity, description and units of measurement. Graph has several types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that you prefer to use. Analyze the data that had been gathered, presented in table or graph scientifically. You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and measured. The numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements.

2. Results

Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation. The result must be based according to the interpreted data.

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

1. Summary

The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the research problems, methodology and findings. It consists of one or two paragraphs only.

2. Conclusion

The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis and research problems.

3. Recommendation

The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion. You may give few recommendations which you think can help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community where people live in.

Project Management Recommendation

Dear Mr. Gritsch:

In continuation of your email dated February 10, 2014, I have completed analysis of three projects: Juniper, Palomino and Stargazer. The risk levels in Juniper, Palomino, and Stargazer are low, medium, and high respectively. It is in the best interest of Piper Industries Corporation to move forward with the Stargazer project.

Stargazer is selected due to its feasibility and risk level. From market feasibility study, some strategic customers have already indicated interest in the product. Therefore, I would recommend that the board invest in the project, Stargazer; particularly because the company has already invested $450,000 and the ROI is very high.

My feasibility study focused on Return on Investment (ROI), length of project, risk level and overall benefit to Piper Industries. See below for the results.

Return on Investment (ROI): 77% or $250,000 for a period of 2 to 3 years Length of project:

Risk of completion on time:

Overall benefit: Enhancement of current product, increased product demand Palomino:
Return on Investment (ROI): 69% or $450,000 for a period of 5 years Length of project: 7 Years
Risk of completion on time:

Overall benefit: New product, use of existing technology, custom part, constant demand Stargazer:
Return on Investment (ROI): 278% or $1,600,000 for a period of 3 years Length of project:

7 Years
Risk of completion on time:

Overall benefit: Research & Development of a new product, market leader, project in-progress

Five Phases of a Project:
A project can have any number of phases depending on how you break it down. A project for land reclamation in dump site would probably have three phases such as:

1. Facility Decommissioning Phase

2. Waste removal phase
3. Landscaping Phase.

While a project involving the building of a new factory may contain four phases such as:

1. Environmental Impact Assessment Phase
2. Design Phase
3. Construction Phase
4. Commissioning Phase.

It is therefore assumed that what is been referred to here as five phases of a project is what is known in project management as process groups. The following phases / process groups will be used to complete the project:

1. Project conception and initiation

The conception of the project is that the project is a new line widget product including enhancements through the use of existing technology. The initiation of this project will be upon the approval of the project by the CEO.

2. Project definition and planning

Stage two of the project is making a project plan. The project plan will be completed by the project team with the consultation of the technicians and experts. The project plan will be in writing and will be well defined.

3. Project launch or execution

The project plans and task will be discussed amongst all team members and the task will be divided among the project team.

4. Project performance and control

The project manager will be the leader of the project. His or her task will be to monitor performance and control. All project team members are responsible in evaluating each other and helping the team to perform better together.

5. Project close

The project will be closed only upon completion of the project, evaluation of the project, and client approval of the project. Key deliverables associated with the selected project:

If after the Estimated Budget at Completion of $575,000 is spent and the product is developed as specified in the project plan, then the project would have met the substantial product deliverable. Secondly, if the Piper Industries Corporation is able to deliver the product within 12 months, the company would have met the project schedule deliverable.

Investigatory project

Pest is an organism that is damaging to livestock, crops, humans, and land. Because of this problem, this study was conducted by the researchers by using garlic and black pepper after they found out that these materials have the ability to control pests. The materials were 2 whole garlic, 40 grams of black pepper, 600 ml of water, beaker, Erlenmeyer flask, tripod with wire gauze, alcohol lamp with denatured alcohol, mortar and pestle, knife, chopping board, 4 spray containers, and 150 pests. There were five treatments tested with three replicates each. Treatment A (garlic only); treatment B (black pepper only); treatment C (mixture of garlic and black pepper);treatment D(commercial pesticide) and treatment E(no pesticide applied).

The researchers used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) as their experimental design and the statistical test of significance used was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). After testing, the researchers summarized the results and found out that there is significant difference between the five treatments. And the researchers concluded that garlic and black pepper can be used as an organic pesticide in controlling and irritating pests. To further improve the study, the researcher recommended the following:*test to determine the right and appropriate amount of the pesticide to be applied *test to determine the effects of pesticide (using garlic only, black pepper only and mixture of garlic and black pepper ) aside from controlling and irritating pests.

Pest is an organism that is damaging to livestock, crops, humans, and land. Because of this problem, this study was conducted by the researchers by using garlic and black pepper after they found out that these materials have the ability to control pests. The materials were 2 whole garlic, 40 grams of black pepper, 600 ml of water, beaker, Erlenmeyer flask, tripod with wire gauze, alcohol lamp with denatured alcohol, mortar and pestle, knife, chopping board, 4 spray containers, and 150 pests. There were five treatments tested with three replicates each.

Treatment A (garlic only); treatment B (black pepper only); treatment C (mixture of garlic and black pepper);treatment D(commercial pesticide) and treatment E(no pesticide applied) . The researchers used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) as their experimental design and the statistical test of significance used was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). After testing, the researchers summarized the results and found out that there is significant difference between the five treatments. And the researchers concluded that garlic and black pepper can be used as an organic pesticide in controlling and irritating pests. To further improve the study, the researcher recommended the following:*test to determine the right and appropriate amount of the pesticide to be applied *test to determine the effects of pesticide (using garlic only, black pepper only and mixture of garlic and black pepper ) aside from controlling and irritating pests.

Project management of a company

With the current rapid development of various business. Market competition becomes more and more fierce. Hence, a specific business plan is crucial to help a business successfully achieve goals and become competitive. The aim of this report is to prepare a business plan for a business. Some parts will be analysed in detail below which include a description of the business, sales and marketing strategy and risk management plan. A famous interior designer, Mark, owns Master Furniture (MF) which is located countryside in Melbourne.

The major function of MF is providing customized furniture. There are three options provided to customers by MF: buying the existing furniture without any changes, changing the design of existing furniture displayed in showrooms, and providing design plans by customers themselves. In the next five years, MF plans to develop its own ERP system and expand his business to open linkage shops around Victoria. The main marketing principle is that the entire efforts of a company should be directed towards customers needs. MF is positioned as a high quality retailer that offers a unique selling proposition. MF sets its business apart from others due to its unique feature of providing customized goods to its customers. Advertising and Promotion also necessary through a variety of channels in order to attract customers.

These approaches include the Internet, newspaper, radio, television and tradeshows. Besides sales and marketing strategy, risk management plan is also a significant factor that cannot be neglected. Specific and deliberate risk management plan should be established in order to minimize the negative influences on the business development and better achieve business goal and objective. The risk management plan contains the following parts, identifying and recording the potential risks, classifying the identified risks and assessing impacts of risks and developing the risk mitigation strategy for each risk. Those identified risks are categorized into six groups, including customer risks, supplier risks, staff risks, competitor risks, product risks and financial risks.

2.Description of the product/service
Master Furniture (MF) is a business planned to provide furniture design and sale services for both individual and companies who have special or unique furniture requirements. Goals of enterprise are to provide high-quality customized service that is reliable and convenient. Mark, the owner of Master Furniture, also is a famous interior designer and won many relevant international prizes.

Mark praised free spirit as his operation concept, which also directly affects his design. Purposes of establishing this entity are expressing and disseminating his artistic concepts, as well as exchanging ideas with professors and hobbyists. Customers are on top and middle class of society, who have special requirements and enthusiasm for furniture designing are targeted customers. The primary market focuses on special groups, such as the blind, the elder and people who are passionately fond of designing personal furniture. The physical shop locates in the city of Melbourne.

Therefore, the target market areas are the suburbs around Melbourne. The shop includes three showrooms, which divided into bedroom, living room and kitchen. Mark designs all furniture displayed in the shop. There also have one meeting room and one stock room, which store the art works and goods customers ordered. Initially, the major function of MF is providing customized furniture. There are three options provided to customers by MF: buying the existing furniture without any changes, changing the design of existing furniture displayed in showrooms, and providing design plans by customers themselves. For the first situation that customers buy furniture directly from the shop and without any change, MF provides discount in delivery service if customers do not want to pick up by themselves. For the second situation that customers want to change the size, color or materials of furniture based on the design of Mark, MF charges extra service fee.

The extra service fees are based on the change of furniture. For example, MF charge extra 20% of the furniture price for changing color and extra 30% of price for changing size. In this case, MF provides the design drawing directly to customers in the shop or sent to customers by email. After customer confirm the design, especially in size and color then it will be sent to factory. For the last situation that designs are provided by customers, Mark may provide professional suggestions based on design, such as budget, drawbacks, and safety risks. After the negotiation between Mark and customers, the design drawing will send to the factory. MF owns a truck, which is able to provide delivery service to customers. For loyal customers who had transaction records in MF database, can enjoy discount delivery service as well as customers buy furniture directly from shop and do not have any change. On the other hand, customers also can pick up by themselves.

All advertisements include leaflets, which displayed the new designed furniture and price, a phone number that potential and current customers can call to query the service. For the customers who want to change the design or designed by themselves, MF calls customers once their goods arrived in the shop. The background factory of MF is outsourced to Rojos furniture factory, which is located in the countryside of Melbourne. Once Mark confirms the design drawings and send to factory by email or fax, factory sends an invoice which includes due time of production, price, and quantity back to MF. In this period, MF will confirm the price with customers and then response factory. Factory will start to work after receiving the confirmation from MF. After factory completes the invoice and sends goods back to MF, MF will inform customers to decide whether they want to pick up by himself or herself or delivery furniture to home.

MF has two full-time receptionists and one part-time driver. When customers step into the MF, the front desk receptionists, who understand Mark’s design concept completely and have excellent communication skills, will communicate with them and introduce products in the showroom to clients. If clients want to design furniture by themselves no matter completely self-design or partly design, they could make appointments with Mark to discuss. When customers decide to purchase, they need to pay whole amounts for existing products or deposit for new design products.

Then receptionists will create account for clients in the MF customer information database, which can help customers get discounts for delivery service in next purchase. On the other hand, receptionists also need to confirm delivery information with customers, such as delivery address, time and payment method. Once clients confirm the delivery, it is the responsibility of receptionists to inform delivery information to the driver. The major responsibilities of driver are delivering and unloading products as well as receipts to customers.

After customers signing for confirmation, the last mission of driver is bringing back confirmation of customers to MF. MF offers after-sale services to customers, such as maintenance, consultancy. In the next five years, MF will develop its own Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) system, which includes a website for advertisement Customer Relationship Management System. Moreover, Mark is planning to expand his
business, which focusing on open Linkage shops around Victoria. In order to attract more clients, membership will be applied in MF system. Based on the expanding business, more staff is required for different purpose. There are several kinds of positions will available in MF: designers, receptionists, salesman, full time delivery drivers, and back officers. Moreover, as a famous designer, Mark will provide videos in shops to show his award-winning art works, and by this way to disseminate his design concept and let more people know about furniture art.

3.Sales and marketing strategy
3.1 SWOT
Based on the goals of MF: build company image, gain competitive market share and refine logistic, productions and operational systems, SWOT analysis applied to in this subsection to analyze strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The evaluation of the strategic process has to be done in order to conduct the SWOT analysis. Strength

•In these recent years there is an increase in demand of furniture products that is modern and unique. These classifications make the house of the MF customers to be different from others. And the minimal design is used to express a maximum effect of the art used in the furniture; the arts used in minimal design mostly will be in the form of visual art and music. •The MF has the highly educated workers in the organization. The human resources used in both the outlet shop and the factory are skilled, capable of producing the design requested by the customer. •Diversity and ideas is the most important strength of the organization. This innovative idea makes us differ from our competitors. Integrating different ideas into a furniture product, that forms the critical success factors. •The furniture market has a big democratic market, where there is always a way to establish our organization and product information through the media. This also forms the strength of our organization. Weakness

•The major part of the weakness lies in the stock control, which is inefficient. There are many cases where the stocks may be outdated. In some cases there may be insufficient stocks. And at sometimes the stocks would not be available on the time needed, sometime available more than what is needed. •Trust, forms the core of the business process. The materials that are supplied by the external organizations at sometimes create a lack of trust in them. As the furniture company is mainly dependent on external organization for the raw materials, lose their trust when the raw material is not good and when it is not supplied the time needed. •Master Furniture is known especially for its uniqueness in the product.

When there is some situation where the organization has to share the knowledge with the other employees and external organization, the knowledge shared can be misused. These cases the organization has to take the risks. •The demand for the traditional structure of the furniture’s is decreasing rapidly. On the other hand new innovation and change in this industry has slow absorption. •Till a product is completed the quality of the product cannot be judged. Once the quality of the product fails a new product has to be created and the raw materials used cannot also be reused. As known for producing single furniture a large quantity of raw material has to be invested. Opportunities

•Big potential is developing in the market sector for designing. As the main part of this business is designing as per requested by the customer, the minimal designs are creating new opportunities for these kind of design patterns in the market. •The labor cost can be reduced by outsourcing it to the other countries such as China. •There is a large scope in the research and development as the customers are looking forward for the uniqueness in the product they buy. So, research and development capability is high. •Hybrid solutions can be achieved by blending and balancing. This can be done using the effective production methods. •There is only a very little competition in the designing of the modern furniture’s. Threats

•The major threat to be considered is that the cost of the raw materials, which is always showing upward trend in the rise of the prices. This causes the regular price fluctuation of the products produced. •The new ideas or methods that are used in the manufacturing of the product sometimes lead to uncertainties. The innovation in the product cannot be always successful. •The MF Company also has to hope with the fast changes and new inventions in the industry. When a new production method is introduced then there will
be a change in the stock control. This will lead to a large fluctuation in stock control.

3.2 Marketing Strategy
Customers are considered as core in any business. The companies manufacture goods according to the needs of its customers. They would like to increase their market share by beating their competitors through sales. One should have a proper business plan to achieve this. The company should know the likes and dislikes of its customers. Based on these factors it can build a business strategy that allows you to satisfy your customers. The two main marketing principles are: •The entire efforts of a company should be directed towards customers needs. •Profitable sales volume is more important than maximum sales volume.

Master furniture is positioned as high quality, moderate price retailer that offers unique customizes goods. As Master furniture provides special services to their customers their goods are positioned at high quality which lean towards higher prices. Their market positioning goals are accomplished through the following: •Appointing outstanding sales persons in Master furniture retail store who understand the customer needs. •Explaining their manufacturing capabilities and uniqueness through demonstrations. •To highlight their ability to customize and quality they should provide invitational sales.

Unique Selling Proposition:
A unique selling proposition is what your business stands for. It sets your business apart from others. Instead of attempting to be known for everything, businesses with a unique selling proposition stand for something specific, and it becomes what you’re known for. Master furniture sets its business apart from others due to its unique feature of providing customized goods to its customers.

Price vs. Quality & Design:
Master furniture maintains high quality & provides appealing customized
design according to the customer needs at affordable prices.

Advertising and Promotion:
Master furniture will use different sources to communicate with their targeted market. Newspaper, local cable, billboards, pamphlets are different sources to attract customers. They use the electronic media to attract customers and explain their concept of customization. Their customers being the middle and high class in the society Master furniture uses radio and television to advertise. Posturing and vehicle writing methods can also be implemented to advertise. Master furniture uses media to advertise. These include: •Internet


Internet: Advertising through the Internet is the best way to advertise these days. Social networking websites like Facebook are used for advertising. This would be the most effective advertising plot for Master furniture.

Newspaper: Most people in Australia read newspaper. So for that reason Master furniture can use the most popular newspaper to advertise.

Radio: Radio is also considered as a popular media item. Many people use it for audio entertainment. So Master furniture can also use radio as to advertise.

Television: Television is the most popular media item. Every person in the country uses television for entertainment. Therefore Master furniture can use television to advertise.

Tradeshows: The trades how is an excellent mechanism to stay connected with the market and network potential customers. Aside from sales promotion the trade shows offer you the ability to see your competition. Master furniture
will attend the trade shows held every year and try to attain potential customers.

4.Risk management plan
4.1Purpose and Objectives
Risk management plan is to identify and record the potential risks which may threaten the company and also assess identified risks and establishing risk mitigation strategies to mitigate negative impacts on achieving goals and objectives of the business. The purpose of the risk management plan is to describe all aspects of risk management, including: 1)Identifying and recording the potential risks;

2)Classifying the identified risks and assessing impacts of risks; 3)Developing the risk mitigation strategy for each risk;
4)Allocating responsibility;

4.2 Target Audience
The target audience of the risk management plan includes: all employees of MF company and its customers and the supplier.

4.3 Risk strategy
In order to minimize the negative influences on the business development, the risk management procedure is developed by considering both internal and external factors. The necessary steps are risk Identification, risk assessment and risk Mitigation. All identified risks are categorized into six groups, including Customer Risks, Supplier Risks, Staff Risks, Competitor Risks, Product Risks and Financial Risks. Identified risks are measured in terms of likelihood of occurrence and impacts. By combing the likelihood and impacts, the risk rating is identified to provide the priority of the risks, which would present a better perspective for risk management. The detail information is shown in Table 1below.

Table 1
•L=Likelihood: 1=Unlikely; 2=Possible; 3= Very Likely
•C=Impact: 1=Minor; 2=Moderate; 3= Major
•R=Risk Rating: L=Low; M=Medium; E=Extreme

#Risk NameRisk DescriptionConsequence

RRisk MitigationResponsibility
ACustomer Risks
A.1The company highly relies on a small number of major customers Once the larger customers turn to other companies’ product, then the company’s profit will be affected in the short time.The company’s profit and cash flow will be affected in a period of time until finding the new customers to yield revenue.22M•Improving the customer satisfaction and keeping long-term relationship with valuable customer groups by regularly contacting them and continually providing the superior products and services. •Locking the existing customers and make them become larger customers. •Expanding the target customer groups and seeking new and profitable customers.•General Manager •Department Managers

BSupplier Risks
B.1Highly depends on one supplierOnce the existing supplier is not able to provide the products and services or produce the products to the company, then the company’s normal operations will be affected.The company’s normal operations will be affected because of the shortage of supply.33E•Seeking alternative suppliers who are able to provide the similar products and services to the company. •Locking the existing supplier by the long-term contracts and maintaining the relationship with the supplier regularly.•General Manager •Department Managers

B.2Product delivery delay riskThe suppliers cannot produce the product and deliver products on time.The company will not deliver products for its customers on time and loss reputation and credibility.11L•Seeking
alternative suppliers who are able to provide the similar products and services to the company. •Monitoring supply contract regularly and urging products delivery.•Department Managers •Salesman

•Customer Service Manager
CStaff Risks
C.1The staff turnover riskSome employees are critical to the business success, such as they deal with the key supplier and larger customers. The company will be affected by staff turnover.Resulting in disruption of the business operation and hard to find the appropriate new staff. The company has to spend both time and money to train the new staff.22M•Implementing a strict personnel selection mechanism to find the right employees for the company. •Allocating more employees to key position and training employees for backup.

•HR Manager
•Department Managers
C.2Employee face occupational health and safety(OH&S) risksBecause of the nature of the work, the employees, such as vehicle drivers and porters, would injure in the particular event.The company will be under the risk of fines or paying for injury or death of an employee.11L•Establishing appropriate OH&S policies. •Regularly maintain vehicles and advocating safe driving.•Employees DCompetitor Risks

D.1Competitor riskCompetitors will pose a current or potential threat to the business, such as competitors may open the new business nearby or launch similar products with lower price in the market.The sales and revenue of the company will be affected.12L•Improving the relationships with large clients. •Investing money in developing new products and services. •Protecting intellectual property assets confidential and proprietary information, such as designs and copyright. •Continually monitoring competitors.•General Manager

EProduct Risks
E.1Large-scale product recall riskDue to product defect, the company has to recall all sold products.The company will huge losses in expense of reworking and the sales and reputation of the company will be affected in long term.13M•Monitoring the quality of the products and avoid the situation which would damage the company’s reputation. •Training employees.•General Manager

•Customer Service Manager
E.2Copyright riskThe company’s copyright is violated.The sales and revenue of the company will be affected.13M•Establishing a copyright policy. •Protecting intellectual property assets confidential and proprietary information. •Signing a confidential agreement when contracting work out to third parties. •Getting copyright consultancy services.•General Manager •Designers

•Department Managers
FFinancial Risks
F.1Liquidity riskThe company doesn’t have enough money to pay its debts.The company’s operation will be affected.22M•Managing and monitoring cash flow. •Carefully making financial decisions.•General Manager •Finance employees

F.2Credit riskDue to the products and services sold on credit, the customers may be unable to pay the money back.Resulting in financial loss.12L•Checking customers’ credit status and signing terms an conditions of trade with customers.•Finance employees •Salesman

From what mentioned above wo can get the conclusion that a business plan which includes several parts, a statement of the business, marketing strategy and risk management plan. Establishing a detailed business plan plays a significant role in operating the business and achieving their goals successfully. When setting a plan, the organization should particularly pay attention to risk management plan which can help the business reduce loss
the risks result and operate in a smooth way.

Project Management Wembley

Project Description

The aim of the Wembley Stadium project was to build a new 90,000 seat state of art stadium. The new stadium was going to be used for a variety of functions ranging from football and rugby matches to concerts and private events. The stadium was to have a 50-year design life, and be both functional and architecturally significant. In addition, it was essential that the stadium allowed as much daylight and ventilation to reach the pitch as possible. A main goal was to have the build achieve UEFA five-star stadium status. The project was to be funded by a combination of state (National Lottery Fund) and private investment.


Multiplex is a global contractor based in Australia with expertise across the entire property sector. John Roberts started the firm in 1962 and was President for the next 44 years. In 2002, Roberts passed control of the firm to his son, Andrew. However, one of the last deals that John brought to the table before his retirement was the Wembley Stadium project. Multiplex had completed a number of stadiums prior to the Wembley project, most notably Stadium Australia. Stadium Australia was used as the Olympic stadium for the 2000 summer Olympics. It was constructed at a cost of $690 million and was able to hold 110,000 spectators. Although the Stadium Australia project was a success, Multiplex began to realize that their was much more risk in stadium construction than large-scale landmark buildings.

Multiplex won the Wembley stadium contract after selection through a competitive bidding process in 1999. The bidding process was first narrowed down to two bids, however, it was eventually reopened to include two additional contractors. After final review, Multiplex signed a contract to complete Wembley stadium at a fixed-price cost of £352m.

Mott MacDonald

Mott MacDonald was the lead designer of the new Wembley stadium. They are a UK based employee-owned multidisciplinary consulting serving the public and private sectors world-wide.

Cleveland Bridge

Cleveland Bridge was the initial steel contractor associated with the project. They are based in Darlington, England and have a renowned reputation for bridge building.

The Old Wembley Stadium

The Empire Stadium in Wembley, popularly known as Wembley Stadium, was the most famous football ground in the world. After it opened in 1923, it evolved into England’s national team stadium for football matches. The FA Cup Final between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United on April 28, 1923 was the first event to take place at Wembley Stadium. The official attendance for the event was 126,047, which is still the largest for any football match in England. A year later, international football made its debut as England tied 1-1 with Scotland. Since then Wembley has hosted 78 FA Cup Finals, 258 England senior internationals, the 1966 World Cup, 40 League Cup Finals, 6 European Cup Finals, and Euro’96.

However, it is not just football that has made Wembley stadium great through the years. In 1948, Great Britain won 23 medals at the Olympic games featured at the stadium. In addition, the stadium has hosted such events as boxing matches, rugby championships, greyhound racing, hockey, and even Evel Knivel. With some much history and importance, it was no surprise that a modern stadium was needed to continue the Wembley tradition into the next

Project Goals

The goal of the project was to create a new modern stadium that would continue in the tradition of Empire Stadium. As pointed out in the history section, the greatest tradition was football. In order to attract major football events (FA Cup, UEFA Finals, World Cup) the stadium must be built to five-star status. In order to adhere to this standards, the stadium must meet the minimum requirements in terms of the size of playing field, floodlighting, VIP parking, seat capacity, VIP seats, VIP seats for visiting team, VIP hospitality, media working area, space for camera’s, number of box seats, number of commentary positions, number of TV studios, outside van area, and press conference seats.

B. Reasons for Project Failure

The new Wembley stadium was completed in 2007—five years late, £360m over budget, and surrounded by legal disputes. Before we perform our analysis, we would like to highlight some of the facts that lead to failure.


Multiplex argued that Mott MacDonald’s design for the Wembley steel work was not fit for purpose and that the initial designs were not correct, constructible, coordinated and consistent. In other words, although the design looked good, it was very challenging and maybe impossible to replicate to scale.

Scope Changes

The initial scope was to include football, rugby, and athletics in the same stadium. This later became very controversial and resulted in the removal of athletics from the design in 1999, because of the technical and commercial challenges of accommodating three sports within the same stadium. In 2001, the scope was further changed with the removal of a hotel from the project, the expansion of hospitality suites, and considerably changes to the north side of the stadium. These changes took Mott MacDonald an additional 8 months to redesign.


There was no formal bidding process. In addition, it appeared that not all bidders were treated equally. This can be seen when the bidding process was opened back up after the contractors were narrowed down to the final two.

Anchoring to a Completion Date

When it became a prime objective to finish the project in time for the 2006 FA Cup Final, efficiency and cost effectiveness became secondary issues. It appears many problems could have been avoided if Multiplex did not have to rush the job in order to meet unrealistic expectations. Multiplex claims that it has sustained significant losses as a result of a magnitude of contract breaches and acts of negligence by the client.

Loss of Steel Contractor

Cleveland Bridge terminated their contract in 2004 because they did not believe that they would be paid for materials and because they felt like the differences between them and Multiplex were too great. This was a major setback to the project. Multiplex now had to search and integrate a new steel contractor for the job.


Apart from the major changes in the scope, Multiplex was not given access to vital design information. In turn, Multiplex underpriced the steelwork. Mott MacDonald had thought that Multiplex was aware of the state of design because they managed the design process and had intimately been involved in the design work.

Project Management Organizational Structures Paper


At the start of every project, it is important to select the organization structure. There are three organizational structures the functional, matrix, and pure project structures. Each structure has its advantages and disadvantages. All three are different and when it comes to structuring a project the project managers is in charge of deciding which organizational structure is best fit for the project. This paper will focus on functional structure, matrix structure and pure project structure.

Functional Project

In a functional project structure, employees are departmentalized by task similarity, and projects are performed inside the departmental unit such as accounting, marketing and human resources departments are examples of units grouped together based on the functions they perform (Murray, 2014). Functional project structure is the most successful and oldest structure. In functional project structure components are divide into two a project is assigning to a functional manager who coordinates with others to assigning the project to different departments. Each department is in charge of completing their portion of the work and reporting to the department managers.

Advantage and Disadvantages

Functional structure project has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is the flexibility and staff contributions. Employees are switched back and forth between projects. The department will be able to provide professional and technical personnel and after completion of the work it can go back to his original work. The disadvantage is that this structure is not very effective when used on more complex projects. The individual accountability is not recognized. An other disadvantages the focus is not set on the client it is focused on activities rather than function, slow responses , lack of interest and motivation in certain areas, and difficulties in communicating.Difficulties in coordination is an other disadvantage since project manager are only responsible for part of the project and others are responsible for other parts of the project.

Matrix Project

The matrix structure is a combination of both the functional and pure project organizational structures. The matrix structure was evolved from the flaws of the functional and pure project structures. In the matrix structure, functional managers and project managers have the equal powers. Since both functional and project manager are equal the staff generally works under two bosses. This structure works well when more than one project is being coordinated.

Advantage and Disadvantage

The advantage of the matrix structure is the highly skilled and capable resources can be shared between the functional units and important strategic projects. An other advantage is that efficiency is higher. A disadvantage is that staff has to report to two bosses, which can add confusion, and conflicts may arise since both bosses have equal authority and power. The disadvantages of the Matrix structure include balancing out who is in charge of the project, failure of project due to lack of negotiating skills, and balancing time, cost, and performance.

Pure project

The pure project structure dedicates it resources and self-contained staff to work full time on the project. Pure project structure is mostly used on complex projects since it strongly focuses on the work and completing the project. This structure reacts rapidly to the needs of clients contrary to those in the functional organizational structure. In this structure each project manager is appointed and is responsible to conduct all responsibility associated with the project. The project manager has full authority of the of the project.

Advantage and Disadvantage

The pure project structure advantages are that it is clear of who has the projects authority, it access special expertise, the project is focused and prioritized, as well simplified communications. This structure allows the project to be separated from the rest of the parent system becoming a self contained unit with its own staff, administration, and tying to the parent firm through periodic progress reports and oversight (Meredith, 2012). In this structure staffs only report to on person so decisions are made quicker. Pure project structure disadvantages are include duplication of effort, rivalries, uncertain reintegration of resources and unclear motivations and loyalties as well goals and policies can be ignored. This structure disadvantages also include the transfers in technology and the use of resources, inconsistencies, and the project taking on a life of its own.

Best Method

Not any of the three organization structure is better than another. Each structure has its advantages and disadvantages as discussed above. When it come into choosing which organization structure to use decision depends on what the project manager is trying to accomplish. All three structures work differently depending on the project so the project manager has to decide which organizational structure best suits that project. In doing so the factors that contribute to the project manager decision are the available resources, finances, and the timeline that project needs to be completed. For the project to be successful the project manager must compare and contrast the three organization structures and decide which is most suitable.


Organizational structures show the methods that can be used by an organization. The use of these structures determine the success and improvement of the productivity in an organization. Each structure is used to improve how organizations report and communicate with the other elements within the organization. Organizational structures are viewed as guidelines to set in place to assist task performance to all involved in the project. Functional organization, Pure Project organization, and Matrix organization are the three most popular project management structures that are still used today due to their success.

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