Attachment – Psychology

Developmental
Psychology
Early Social Development:
Attachment

Attachment
  An emotional bond between two folks. It is a two-way course of that endures over time. It results in certain behaviours corresponding to clinging and proximity-seeking and serves the perform of defending the toddler.
  Primary attachment figure

The one that has formed the closest bond with a child,demonstrated by the depth of the connection. Usually the biological mother, however other folks can fulfil the function.

  Learning theory

A group of explanations which explain behaviour in terms of learning somewhat than any innate or larger order tendencies.

Mainly utilized by behaviourists who quite focus their explanations purely on what behaviour they observe.

Learning Theory
 Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – food

Unconditioned Response (UR) – pleasure

Neutral Stimulus (NS) – the feeder

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – food from a feeder

Conditioned Response (CR) – pleasure/attachment

Learning Theory
  Operant Conditioning
  Reinforcement
  When doing something leads to a pleasant consequence, the behaviour is more likely to be produced.

  Punishment
  When doing something leads to an unpleasant consequence, the behaviour is unlikely to be produced.
  Dollard and Miller (1950) clarify attachment utilizing operant conditioning:
  When an infant is fed it reduces discomfort and increases pleasure, this serves as a reward and is the primary
reinforcer. The person supplying the meals is associated with avoiding discomfort and is the supply of reward which becomes the secondary reinforcer. Attachment occurs as a end result of the child seeks the one who provides the reward.

Evaluating the Learning Theory
  Strengths

It can provide sufficient explanations of how attachments form.

  Behaviourists argue that since we are made up of the identical building blocks of stimulus/response environments experiments accomplished on animals are safe to generalize to human behaviour.

  Weakness
  It may be attention and responsiveness from the caregiver that is the primary reinforcer, not meals.
  Learning principle is essentially based mostly on research with non-human animals. Human behaviour could additionally be related in many ways however studying concept doesn’t think about greater order considering and emotions that can affect behaviour.

  Harlow (1959) demonstrated that it’s not food but the level of contact and comfort the toddler receives that increases attachment levels. The use of younger rhesus monkeys have been used to demonstrate this.

  60 infants had been studied in Glasgow and located that attachment was greater to the particular person who was most responsive and who interacted with them more (Schaffer and Emerson,1964).

Cant clarify the importance of sensitivity in attachment.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory (1969)
  ELEMENTS OF BOWLBY’S ATTACHMENT THEORY:
  Attachment is adaptive and innate
  Bowlby’s theory is an evolutionary theory because it sees attachment as a behaviour that adds to its survival and ultimately its reproductive worth. Having attachment capabilities is an innate drive, much like imprinting, that has long run advantages making certain it stays near its caregiver.   Background on the Theory of Evolution
  Adaptive behaviours are behaviours that enhance the chance of survival and copy.
  Natural selection is the continuation of these adaptive traits throughout the animal to increase possibilities of survival.
  Sexual selection is the ability to reproduce, not simply survive. Adaptive genes that lead to possessing traits to assist in replica increases sexual choice.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
  Sensitive Period
  A biologically determined time period in the course of the second quarter of the primary yr is the most essential interval in which attachments can be made. Once missed then it’s tougher for a kid to make attachments and reveal social difficulties.

  Caregiving is adaptive
  Not only attachment but in addition caregiving is adaptively innate. Social releasers from the infant give alerts to the caregiver (smiling, crying, etc) to care for it. Attachment is the innate system in babies and caregiving is the innate system in adults.

  Secure base
  Having a secure attachment supplies a baby with a secure base by which to explore the world from. It fosters independence, not dependence.   Monotropy and hierarchy
  Infants type numerous completely different attachments but has one specific bias towards a really special one referred to as the first attachment, this is called monotropy. Even with secondary attachments, this hierarchy of attachments recognizes the importance of a primary attachment figure (PAF). The PAF is one that responds most sensitively to the childs social releasers. Secondary attachments are necessary, with out them, youngsters tend to lack social abilities.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
  Internal working model
  A psychological mannequin of the world that allows individuals to foretell and management their setting. The internal working model primarily based on attachment has several penalties:
  In the short-term it offers the kid insight into the caregivers behaviour and permits the child to influence the caregivers behaviour so that a true partnership can
be shaped.
  In the long-term it acts as a template for all future relationships because it generates expectations about how people behave.
  The continuity hypothesis
  The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults.

Evaluating Attachment Theory
  Strengths


Lorenz (1952) supports that imprinting is innate because the goslings imprinted on the first thing they saw shifting, which was Lorenz.

Research exhibits that once the delicate interval has passed and no attachments are formed, kids show social difficulties with friends. If attachment and caregiving are an necessary biological function as Bowlby suggests then they’d be discovered universally. Tronick et al (1992) studied an African tribe in Zaire and located regardless of tribal duty for raising children a PAF is present. This can also be proof of monotropy.

Schaffer and Emerson discovered that the more quickly a caregiver responded to a childs needs and the more interplay they had led to a stronger degree of attachment. This interaction is essential as it’s not enough to have one thing to cuddle however to really be cuddled again builds a stronger attachment.

The Minnesota longitudinal examine (2005) discovered that continuity between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour. Infants categorized as safe have been later rated highest for social competence, less isolated, more empathetic and extra popular.

Evaluating Attachment Theory
  Weaknesses
  Multiple attachments, in accordance with psychologists, are as equally necessary. There are not any primary or secondary attachments, all attachments are built-in into one single working mannequin. However, a evaluate the analysis factors to the hierarchical model as being predominant (Prior and Glaser,

2006).
An different clarification to the continuity hypothesis exists, generally known as the temperament hypothesis. This is the belief that youngsters type secure attachments simply because they have a more ‘easy’ temperament from birth, whereas more innately troublesome kids a extra more likely to type insecure attachments. The infants temperamental characteristics shapes a moms degree of responsiveness. Thomas and Chess (1977) identified toddler persona varieties as easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up. Belsky and Rovine (1987) found a link between physiological behaviours and later attachments types. The more calm and less anxious (aspects of temperament) an infant was the more likely they have been to develop safe attachments.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation (Ainsworth and Wittig, 1969)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU

Aim: to see how infants behave underneath situations of stress with the introduction of a stranger and the separation of the parent. This checks stranger anxiety and separation nervousness and likewise the infants willingness to discover with its safe base.
Procedure: a 9×9 analysis room marked off into sixteen squares was used. The process consists of eight episodes…
MEMORISE THEM!!!
Data is collected by a bunch of observers that recorded what the toddler was doing each 15 seconds. Observer famous the sort of behaviour and stage of intensity on a scale of 1-7.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation Findings:
  Ainsworth mixed knowledge from a number of studies to make 106 middle-class infants observed.
Similarities and differences have been discovered in the way the infants behaved. In terms of similarities, it was noted that episode 2 onwards exploratory behaviour decreased while crying elevated.
Proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining elevated during separation and when stranger appeared. Finally, contact-resisting and proximityavoiding behaviours not often occurred in path of the caregiver previous to separation.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation Findings:

Ainsworth found differences in three primary types of youngsters. 

Insecure-avoidant: this is a style of attachment characterising these kids that are likely to avoid social interplay and intimacy with others. 

Secure attachment: this may be a robust and contented attachment of an infant to his or her caregiver which develops on account of sensitive responding by the caregiver to the infants needs.

Insecure-resistant: this is a fashion of ambivalent attachment characterising children who both seek and reject intimacy and social interplay.

Main and Solomon (1986) re-analysed the strange situation video tapes and created a fourth attachment kind:

Insecure-disorganised: these infants lack a coherent and constant strategy for coping with the stress of separation.
Secure

% of infants
(Ainsworth, 1978)
% of infants (Van
Ijzendoorn et , 1999)

Insecure
avoidant

Insecure
resistant

Insecure
disorganised

66%

22%

12%

XXX

62%

15%

9%

15%

Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Strengths

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation approach has given psychologists a means to grasp and research attachment which might result in new future findings. 

Intervention strategies have been developed to strengthen caregiving behaviour and attachments varieties. The Circle of Security Project (Cooper et al, 2005) which teaches caregivers to recognise indicators of misery confirmed a lower in disordered caregiving and an increase in safe attachment sorts.

It has confirmed to be experimentally valid as its assemble validity has been demonstrated by different studies supporting the 4 forms of attachments and its predictive validity has been demonstrated in correlations between early attachment sorts and later behaviours.

  Its findings are additionally consistent which makes them reliable. Using interobserver reliablity strategies, Ainsworth found virtually good settlement at . 94 between the raters (1.zero is perfect).
  Weakness
  Or does it lack validity, as a outcome of it’s intended to measure the attachment kind of an infant, BUT does it really merely measure the quality of a particular relationship? Main and Weston (1981) claim it’s measuring one relationship instead of one thing innate within a person. 

Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Effects of attachment types
  Bowlby’s continuity speculation would predict that a child’s behaviour later in life can be effected by specific
attachment varieties they develop.
  Prior and Glaser (2006) found that in later childhood, if as infants they developed a safe attachment sort, they would be less emotionally dependent and possess more interpersonal harmony. Infants with the opposite three types would be more aggressive, adverse withdrawn in later childhood.
  It would also effect you in your adult romantic lives as properly. Hazen and Shaver (1987) conducted the ‘Love Quiz’ which asked questions about early experiences and current love experiences and located that there have been characteristic patterns of later romantic behaviour related to each early attachment sort.

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Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Factors that affect attachment type

Sensitivity
  Ainsworth developed the Maternal Sensitivity Scale to price mothers’ behaviour corresponding to sensitivity and insensitivity to infants signals. The scale discovered:
Securely hooked up infant

Observed Mothers bx

Insecurely
attached infant

Avoidant infant

Resistant infant extra sensitive, cooperating

Unresponsive to crying less affectionate

More rejecting and much less attention giving

Preoccupied with routine actions when holding infant

Maternal reflective functioning
  Some studies have proven low correlations between measures of sensitivity and power of attachment. Slade et al (2005) discovered the flexibility to understand what another person is considering or feeling could also be more important.

Temperament
  May play a task as earlier research signifies, but it’s unclear.

Cultural Variations in Attachment
  KNOW the definitions of culture, cultural

variations and the difference between
individualistic and collectivistic cultures (pg.45)
  Cross-cultural Similarities
  Ainsworth’s

Uganda study (1967)
  Tronick et al (1992) research on the African tribe in
Zaire
  Fox (1977) infants in Isreali kibbutz raised by nurses when examined within the Strange Situation appeared equally attached to both caregivers, except in the reunion behaviour the place they showed higher attachment to their mothers.

Cultural Variations in Attachment
  Cross-cultural Differences
  Grossman and Grossman (1991) found that German infants appear more insecurely attached rather than safe. This could additionally be because of the totally different childrearing practices as German tradition entails maintaining some interpersonal distance from the mother or father and toddler.

  Takahashi (1990) used the Strange Situation on a group of 60 middle-class infants in Japan and located similar rates of safe attachment. However, the infants confirmed no proof of insecure-avoidant and high rates of insecureresistance (32%). Different childrearing practices can explain the distinction for in Japan the infants are hardly ever ever separated from their mother and father which is why they would be more distressed than their American counterparts.   Conclusions

  These research suggest that the strongest attachments are nonetheless formed with their moms and that there are differences in attachment that can be related to differences in cultural attitudes.
  Meta-analysis examine by Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) examined over 2000 Strange Situation classification studies in 8 international locations. They discovered the variation between nations and culture were small with secure attachment being the most typical in all nations adopted by insecure-avoidant except in Japan and Israel. Variations inside cultures nonetheless have been greater. In conclusion the findings appear to be just like that found in the US and this helps the view that attachment is an innate and organic course of. Also knowledge collected on completely different subcultures shouldn’t be generalised to be representative of a particular culture.

Criticisms of Research on Cultural
Variations
  Culture bias

Rothbaum et al (2000) argued that attachment principle and research isn’t relevant to other countries because it’s rooted in American tradition. For instance, the sensitivity speculation reflects western ideas of autonomy whereas in Japan sensitivity is about promoting dependence. The continuity hypothesis states that secure infant attachments create extra competent adults, nevertheless, this ‘competence’ is defined when it comes to individuation. The safe base speculation in the west explains secure hooked up infants as independent and assured exploring whereas in Japan they promote dependence and the idea of amae and so this can explain why insecure-resistant behaviours are extra typical.

Rothbaum concludes that psychologists should produce a set of indigenous theories that are explanations of attachment which might be rooted in particular person cultures with a small group of universal ideas (infant need for protection) however principally with childcare practices regarding cultural values.

Rothbaum was challenged by Posada and Jacobs (2001) which
shows that attachment principle does apply to most cultures.

Criticisms of Research on Cultural
Variations
  Criticisms of cross-cultural research
  Tests of procedures used may not be equally valid in the nation and should make the tradition appear ‘inferior’ or ‘abnormal’. This is an example of imposed etic. This is when a analysis technique is utilized in one tradition even thought it was designed to be used in one other (intelligence tests or observations).
  The group that was examined may not be representative of the tradition and yet researchers may make generalisations about the whole culture and even the whole nation.

Disruption of Attachment
  Effects of Separation


Spitz and Wolf (1946) noticed a hundred kids in an establishment became severely depressed after a few months.

Skeels and Dye (1939) discovered comparable kids scored lower on intelligence exams.

Bifulo et al (1992) discovered that adverse results of deprivation may happen later in life. When 249 girls who had lost their moms earlier than they had been 17 had been studied, it was discovered that they were twice as prone to develop depressive/anxiety issues later in life.

Robertsons (1967-73) made films observing the consequences of separation in youngsters:

When given a high level of emotional care and related constructions to that of their residence life, the kids exhibited some indicators of misery, nevertheless, slept nicely and didn’t reject their PAF after they were reunited. Some have been even reluctant to part with the foster mother which is a sign of an excellent emotional bond.

John, nonetheless, was in a nursery and never given such consideration. He became withdrawn and gave up on proximity in search of bx. When he was reunited with his mom he rejected her for months and demonstrated outbursts of anger in course of her.

Disruption of Attachment
  Physical and Emotional Disruption
  As the research proof shows differences in the greatest way physical and emotional consideration is given can produce unfavorable results in children. However, there are studies that show these sick effects can be reversed.
  Sigvardsson (1979) studied over 600 adopted children in Sweden and on the age of 11, 26% of them were classified as ‘problem children’. However in a comply with up research, ten years later they had been no worse off than the common population.
  So when various emotional care is provided, ill effects of separation may be reversed. However, for some youngsters disruption of attachment leads to permanent difficulties.
  To criticise the validity of the research consider that they’re based on case studies. Weakness of case studies are that they’re based mostly on generalisations and they rely on objectivity of the observers and are susceptible to observer bias.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Isolated children
  Privation is the shortage of getting any attachments because of the failure to

develop such attachments early in life.
  Genie

The Czech twins

Locked in a room by her father until she was 13. When discovered she couldn’t stand erect or communicate. She was disinterested in folks and never recovered socially.

Locked away by their step-mother until the age of seven. Were taken care of by their sisters and by 14 had normal social and intellectual capabilities. By 20 they’d above average intelligence and
excellent social abilities.

Evaluation

Was unclear whether or not Genie was retarded at delivery or if she ever fashioned an attachment with her mother. The Czech twins could have shaped attachments to every other to compensate for full lack of care. It is tough to succeed in agency conclusions based on only these circumstances.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Institutional Care

Multiple research present that the consequences of institutionalisation inside kids is acute misery.
Longitudinal studies have been conducted to see what long run effects are
caused by institutionalisation.

Hodges and Tizard (1989) followed a bunch of sixty five British youngsters from adolescence to adolescence. Children have been place in an establishment from before they have been 4 months old. Children have not but formed attachments at this age. An early study found that 70% of the kids weren’t able to care deeply for anybody.

The children were assessed regularly up to the age of sixteen. Some children remained while most were adopted or restored with their authentic families. The restored kids were much less likely to develop an attachment with their mothers however the adopted ones had been as closely connected to their adopted parents as the management group. However, each groups had problems with friends and showed indicators of disinhibited attachment.

These findings recommend that early privation had negative results on the ability to form relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. If failure to develop attachments after the sensitive interval occur it could possibly have an irreversible effect on emotional improvement.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Effects of Privation and Institutionalisation
  Attachment disorder
  This has been recognised as a psychiatric condition and has been included in the DSMIV. There are two kinds of attachment disorder, inhibited and disinhibited. Children with an attachment disorder don’t have any PAF, cant interact or relate to others before the age of 5 and have skilled extreme neglect or frequent modifications in caregivers.

  Poor parenting skills
  Harlow’s monkeys that have been raised with surrogate moms went on to become poor parents. Also, Quinton et al (1984) discovered similar findings when he compared 50 women who had been raised in institutions. When the women have been in their 20’s the ex-institutionalised mothers had been experiencing extreme
difficulties appearing as dad and mom.

  Deprivation dwarfism
  Physical proof by Gardner (1972) that institutionalised kids are bodily underdeveloped, potentially caused by stress hormones.   Evaluation
  In the study of Romanian youngsters, one-third recovered nicely despite not establishing a PAF previous to the sensitive period. Therefore, privation alone can’t explain unfavorable outcomes. This suggests that damage occurs when there are a quantity of threat elements (Turner and Lloyd, 1995).

  Not sure if the kids didn’t type attachments early in life. Maybe they did and the issues they skilled later were extra associated to rejection.

Impact of Day Care

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Day Care – the type of short-term care not given by the family or someone well-known to the kid and normally exterior of the home.
Social development – the aspect of a child’s progress concerned with the development of sociability, where the child learns to narrate to others and with the method of socialisation, the kid learns social skills acceptable to the society.

  Negative effects on social development
  Meta-analysis from findings of 88 research supports Bowlby’s research that extended separation from the PAF results in maladjustment. Violata and Russell (1994) concluded that regular day care for more than 20 hrs every week had an unmistakable negative impact on socio-emotional development, behaviour and attachment of younger youngsters.

  NICHD in USA conducted a longitudinal research of over a thousand kids. Parents were interviewed concerning the consequences of normal day care. The examine showed that the extra time a child spent in day care, regardless of high quality, the adults rated them as extra disobedient and aggressive (NICHD, 2003). The children in day care had been three instances more more doubtless to reveal behavioural issues than children that were cared by their moms. Melhuish (2004) found evidence that kids with high levels of day care within the first two years of growth had elevated dangers of growing anti-social behaviours.

  The Minnesota longitudinal research demonstrated the extra securely attached infants are the extra well-liked with peers they turn out to be. So therefore, the extra insecure an infant, more peer associated issues could be anticipated. Belsky and Rovine (1988) assessed attachment in kids in day care and located that have been more prone to be insecurely attached in comparison with youngsters at home.

Impact of Day Care
  Positive results on social development



Good day care supplies plenty of social stimulation, whereas, youngsters dwelling at residence could lack social interactions.
Brown and Harris (1978) discovered depressed mothers contributed their low moods to being isolated at residence with youngsters.
Depressed mothers are prone to form insecure attachments with their youngsters which might have a unfavorable impact on their children. Therefore, the independence gained with having a child in day care is a method to prevent this.

Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) studied 150 children and found they have been constantly extra compliant and independent.
The EPPE adopted 3000 children in pre-schools and found
elevated sociability (Sylvia et al, 2003).
Day care exposes youngsters to their friends thus enabling them to develop social
strategies (negotiate and make friends). Field (1991) discovered a positive correlation between the amount of time in day care and the number of associates youngsters have as soon as they enter college. Also, people who began day care before 6 months have been more sociable than those that began later.

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Weaknesses of research on day care

When evaluating the analysis, one should consider the
circumstances under which one can find optimistic or negative
outcomes.

Prodromidis (1995) discovered no correlation between Swedish children in day care and aggression.

Freidman from NICHD explains the aggression research actually exhibits that day care kids could also be extra aggressive than non-day care, but still 83% of children in day care between 10 -30 hours per week show no indicators of aggression.

Second necessary discovering from the NICHD analysis is that the mothers sensitivity to the kid, larger maternal education and revenue all play a more necessary position in decreased behavioural issues than the amount of time in day care.

Finally, the findings are not causal. The information can not show that day care triggered aggression solely that there’s a link between the two. Therefore, the data suggests that childrens improvement is extra strongly affected by factors at home than these in day care (Belsky et al, 2007).

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Weaknesses of Research on Day Care
  Cannot apply a cause relating to peer relations as nicely, only a link. For instance, shy and unsociable
kids have mothers which are shy and unsociable, subsequently, its attainable that more outgoing parents/children that go to day care.
  A lot of analysis helps the concept that day care alone has no direct effect on growth and that there are other elements involved. Gregg et al (2005) analysed findings from the Children of the 90’s study and concluded that for almost all of children, maternal employment of their first 3 years of life had no adverse results on behaviour.

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Mediating Factors

Quality of Care

Individual Differences

As the standard of care decreases it’s expected that the attachment kind will turn into poorer. NICHD research (1997) discovered that low-quality care was related to poor social growth. As parents have completely different pursuits of their youngster, day care workers are less invested and due to this fact provide a unique sort of consideration. This is mirrored in Howes and Hamilton (1992) findings that secure attachments occurred in only 50% of day care staff but 70% in moms.

The NICHD examine found the safer a child’s attachment level is the better they deal with time spent in day care. However, one other study confirmed that insecure youngsters coped better than secure children (showed more aggressive bx) in day care.

Child’s age and variety of hours

Gregg et al (2005) found that adverse effects were more likely to be found in youngsters beginning day care before 18 months of age. However, the magnitude of those results was small.

Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) found no distinction in attachment between spending a lot of time in day care (more than 30 hours) with people who spend somewhat time (less than 10 hours).

Implications of Research into
Attachment and Day care
  Attachment Research
  Attachment research has shown that when separation occurs, unfavorable results of this separation can be averted if substitute emotional care can be supplied and hyperlinks to the PAF are made obtainable. This analysis has changed the finest way hospitals deal with visiting preparations and the way institutional care is offered.   A second implication is the way the adoptions course of is managed allowing babies to be adopted earlier strengthening child/parent attachments (Singer, 1985).   Another implication is the improvement of parenting abilities, ie, Circle of Security, which improves infant/mother relationships.

  Finally, attachment research has been used to improve day care high quality focusing on the importance of secondary attachment figures.
  Day Care Research
  As research exhibits, high quality care leads to positive outcomes. What is highquality care?   Low child-staff ratios – 3:1 is right for sensitive care to be given   Minimal employees turnover – permits for constant care and decreases nervousness   Sensitive emotional care – only 23% of carers demonstrated highly sensitive care, 50% was average care and 20% were emotionally detached.   Qualified employees – certified managers lead to better social development   To guarantee high-quality care, legal standards are implemented regarding workers ratio to age of the kid, minimal qualifications of employees, Ofsted inspections and at last the certain Start programme.

Art Therapy And Trauma Psychology

Art therapy is a type of psychotherapy that use arts their major technique of communications in order to improve the emotional and psychological well being of the patients. It combines the areas of human developments, visible art similar to drawing, sculpture, painting and other forms of art and the inventive process with counselling and psychotherapy. Apart from psychological illness similar to nervousness, depression, phobia and trauma, they also tackle other issues corresponding to substance abuse and different types of addictions. Their clients additionally contains victims of abuse and domestic violence and people who have family and relationship points, who experiences social and emotional difficulties linked to incapacity and illness, who have cognitive, neurological and psychosocial issues related to their medical points (What is Art Therapy, 2013).

Clients who need to endure artwork therapy wouldn’t have to be skilled in art as a result of the artwork therapy is not concern about the outcomes of the humanities that their shoppers made (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2011).

The main objective of artwork therapist is to help their shopper to encourage optimistic change and private progress using art materials inside a secure and comfy surroundings. In this type of remedy, they think about relationship between the affected person and client with high importance. However, this isn’t like different psychological therapies since it includes three method course of between the affected person, the therapist and the artefact/image. Therefore, it offers opportunity for expression and communication. This may be practically useful in supporting individuals similar to youngsters who encounters problem in expressing their emotions and thoughts verbally (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2011).

Art therapists normally have great understanding about artwork processes due to their enough information and experiences in therapeutic practices and so they often work with people whether or not individually or by teams, as an example, grownup psychological well being, studying disabilities, baby household facilities, jail service and palliative care (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2011). They usually work in a broad variety of settings similar to: private practice; elder care centres; art facilities; correctional; clinics and hospital whether or not medical or psychiatric; out-patient psychological well being centers; halfway houses; residential therapy facilities; shelters for the homeless and victims of home violence; faculties, faculties and universities; residential treatment facilities; non profit organizations and neighborhood businesses and sheltered workshops. They can work as a team with different medical professionals such as nurses, mental well being counsellors, psychologists, physicians, marriage and family therapists, lecturers and social staff. Together with different medical professionals, they’ll find out the needs of their patients and impose therapeutic goals and goals. Sometimes additionally they work alone and sustain private practices with youngsters, adults, youngsters, teams and/or families (What is Therapy, 2013).

Work of artwork therapist is often difficult and requires abilities and degree of sensitivity and therefore, anybody who wish to serve as artwork therapist have to be versatile and mature sufficient. They also wants to end first a Master’s Degree inside two years that involves theoretical and experiential work. They must additionally finish a primary diploma in artwork although graduates of other courses are thought of and some adequate experience in health, social care and schooling (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2011).

History of Art Therapy

Visual expression has been employed for therapeutic objective for a very lengthy time. On the other hand art remedy isn’t considered as a singular career until the Forties. During the early twentieth century, psychiatrists centered their consideration on the artworks produced by their sufferers who are suffering from psychological illness. During that point, lecturers also discovered that children’s artwork expressions shows developmental, emotional and cognitive progress. In 1950s, hospitals, rehabilitation companies and clinics thought of the use of art therapy packages along with discuss therapies (What is Art Therapy, 2013). During that time art remedy was emphasised as a result of they verified that art making can improve recovery, health and wellness of their patient. Consequently, as time passes by, the artwork therapy is recognized as efficient and valuable method of communication, analysis and coverings with kids and adults in various settings. As of present, artwork therapy attracted considerable consideration from medical area corresponding to counselling, schooling, arts, psychology and psychiatry (What is Art Therapy, 2013).

Art Therapy for Children

Art remedy for children may give these kids an easier means of expressing themselves as a end result of kids are normally inventive and artistic. Young children are sometimes extra comfy in expressing him/herself using crayons and markers similar to communicating their feelings and feelings by means of writing some words that they perceive and drawing photographs. It could be exhausting for kids and intimidating for them to engage in remedy using question and answer format contemplating that they solely perceive restricted vocabulary. Because of the children’s nature, artwork remedy for kids can served as a feasible technique of communication, than simply communicating and talking about it. This is often true for youngsters who experienced traumatic events (How Art Therapy for Children Can Help, n.d.).

Treating Trauma in Children Using Art Therapy

In order to provide more practical intervention in addressing trauma by way of art therapy, it is to acknowledge the complicatedness of continual trauma all through the lifespan of the affected person. Most trauma specialists and other skilled meet youngsters with a history of multiple chronic traumatic events throughout their lives. Before, this is known as as “complex trauma.” Sometimes, they’re referred as Type II and even Type III trauma (Malchioldi, 2013). The purpose why therapist and traumatic specialists need first to understand the complexities of trauma of their patient is as a end result of kids who have experienced many traumatic occasions such as abuse, violence or abandonment have a tendency to respond in a different way compared to those that have encountered acute, single incident of loss or trauma. Some organizations initiated steps towards identification and resolving points in terms of diagnosing complicated trauma. For example, youngsters who experience a selected sort of trauma such as DTD usually encounter points when it comes to attachments and authority and infrequently discover exhausting to regulate their emotions and impulse. They may also expertise issues in cognition and a spotlight (Malchioldi, 2013).

Art remedy specifically the expressive arts therapy can be a great assist for kids who suffers from trauma. This fact is supported by the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) since they offered a whole abstract of how important creative artwork therapies in treating posttraumatic stress disorders. The abstract highlights the rising interests concerning the relationship between inventive arts, therapies and the mind similar to how human mind course of traumatic incidences and the possibilities for reparation via music, movement, play and drama and artwork (Malchioldi, 2013).

Furthermore, expressive arts therapy offers a less provocative means of communication. The medium corresponding to paper and crayons, or paper and water shade function a bridge between the therapist and the consumer, enabling exploration and expression where affected person feels extra snug. The therapist selects the medium fastidiously to help youngsters that suffer from trauma to precise their experience (Mitchell, 2012). The therapists won’t drive the affected person to draw the precise that they wish to since any outcomes as introduced in the medium can converse itself. This is because emotions are best specific by the use of art somewhat than via verbal language. Even though they might not be ready to categorical what they feel into words, viewing their works would characterize what they really feel inside which can result in making and implementing therapeutic solutions (Mitchell, 2012).

Art remedy also helps shoppers of all ages, whether adults or children, to undergo repression which is course of where the mind will ship difficult ideas to the unconscious. Repression can assist sufferers in handling trauma. Trauma victims often encounter problem in remembering disturbing events and artwork remedy may help trauma victims to recollect them in order that they are often healed and reconciled their darkish past. This data is expounded to the reason relating to the left-brain and right-brain principle which is a standard data for many people. The proper brain is the creative expression and that very same brain also stores visual reminiscences. Many believes that maybe as a result of creative expression and visual reminiscences are in the identical a half of the brain, it is not stunning why art remedy is an efficient technique of remembering repressed and unconscious recollections (Mitchell, 2012).

Two kinds of artwork remedy similar to Trauma-Informed Art Therapy and Trauma-Informed Expressive Arts Therapy mix neuroscience and neurodevelopment, mindfulness processes, resilience improvement and somatic techniques, using artwork marking as the principle method. Trauma-Informed Art Therapy and Trauma-Informed Expressive Arts Therapy have 5 components. First one is that it employs an approach called Neuro sequential technique by means of expressive artwork therapies in order to make body response extra secure (Malchioldi, 2013). Secondly, it includes identification of physique responses to tense incidents and memories by the use of trauma-informed assessment and sensory-based activities using expressive arts. The third one is it reacts to the body’s responses to the traumatic incidents via somatic and sensory approaches in direction of self-control. Fourthly is it ensures the sensation of safety and security by way of utilizing constructive attachment and relaxation. Lastly, it creates strengths via artwork making in order to normalize and improve resilience (Malchioldi, 2013).

Conclusion

Art therapy is a sort of psychotherapy that use arts their major technique of communications in order to enhance the emotional and psychological properly being of the sufferers. It combines the areas of human developments, visible artwork similar to drawing, sculpture, portray and different kinds of artwork and the creative process with counselling and psychotherapy. Clients who want to endure artwork remedy do not have to be expert in art as a outcome of the art remedy just isn’t concern in regards to the outcomes of the arts that their purchasers made (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2011). The primary purpose of artwork therapist is to assist their client to encourage constructive change and personal progress utilizing artwork materials within a protected and comfortable surroundings. In order to provide more practical intervention in addressing trauma via artwork remedy, it is to recognize the complicatedness of continual trauma throughout the lifespan of the affected person. The purpose why is as a end result of children who’ve skilled many traumatic events similar to abuse, violence or abandonment tend to respond differently in comparability with those who have encountered acute, single incident of loss or trauma.

Approaches in Psychology

We also can describe the definition of developmental psychology as “It is the research by which conduct develop and change throughout a life span. Special areas of interest embrace the event of language, social attachments, feelings, thinking and perception” More In Developmental Psychology: Developmental psychology is the scientific examine of age-related modifications throughout the human life span. A discipline of scientific inquiry, developmental psychology recognizes people of all societies and cultures as beings who’re “in process,” or continually rising and changing.

There’s a special system or you can say that there’re particular cells in the mind of a baby and has the specific interval by which baby learns the language and this sort of thing is not out there within the minds of animals. The improvement of feelings and considering are also primarily based upon the development of thoughts and language. When a child learn the language he also try to act and reveals feelings like hunger, pain and one thing like that.

2- Industrial Psychology: What is Industrial Psychology? Industrial and Organizational Psychology is a specialist rea that applies psychological knowledge and expertise to work, with the purpose of bettering organizational effectiveness and the quality of work life. More In Industrial Psychology: Psychologists in this subject advise companies and organizations on a wide range of topics: the selection and coaching of employees; tips on how to promote environment friendly working circumstances and methods; tips on how to enhance worker morale, productivity, and job satisfaction; and one of the best methods to gauge employee efficiency and create incentives that encourage workers.

I-O psychology first grew to become prominent during World War II (1939-1945), when it turned essential to recruit and practice the large number of new workers who were needed to meet the increasing calls for of trade. The choice of workers for particular jobs is essentially a problem of discovering the particular aptitudes and personality characteristics wanted for the job and of devising tests to determine whether or not candidates have such aptitudes and traits. The improvement of tests of this kind has lengthy been a area of psychological research.

Once the worker is on the job and has been skilled, the fundamental goal of the I-O psychologist is to search out methods during which a particular job can finest be accomplished with a minimum of effort and a most of individual satisfaction. The psychologist’s function, subsequently, differs from that of the so-called efficiency skilled, who locations primary emphasis on elevated production. Psychological methods used to lessen the trouble involved in a given job embody an in depth examine of the motions required to do the job, the gear used, and the conditions underneath which the job is carried out.

These situations embrace ventilation, heating, lighting, noise, and the rest affecting the consolation or morale of the employee. After making such a examine, the I-O psychologist often determines that the job in question could also be achieved with much less effort by altering the routine motions of the work itself, altering or transferring the tools, enhancing the working conditions, or a mix of a number of of these methods. Industrial-organizational psychologists have additionally studied the consequences of fatigue on staff to discover out the length of working time that yields the best productivity.

In some circumstances such studies have confirmed that whole manufacturing on explicit jobs could probably be increased by lowering the number of working hours or by increasing the number of relaxation periods, or breaks, in the course of the day. I-O psychologists may counsel less direct necessities for basic improvement of job efficiency, corresponding to establishing a better line of communication between workers and administration. 3- Child Psychology: What is Child Psychology? It’s the study in which we research how children grow and issues related with their upbringing, physical and psychological health. More In Child Psychology:

Child Development, physical, intellectual, social, and emotional modifications that occur from start to adolescence. Although individuals change throughout their lives, developmental adjustments are especially dramatic in childhood. During this period, a dependent, susceptible new child grows right into a capable young one that has mastered language, is self-aware, can assume and purpose with sophistication, has a particular persona, and socializes effortlessly with others. Many talents and characteristics developed in childhood final a lifetime. Some developments in conduct and thought are very similar for all kids.

Around the world, most infants start to focus their eyes, sit up, and learn to stroll at comparable ages, and youngsters start to amass language and develop logical reasoning expertise at approximately the identical time. These elements of particular person growth are extremely predictable. Other features of development show a a lot wider range of individual differences. Whether a child becomes outgoing or shy, intellectually superior or average, or energetic or subdued is determined by many unique influences whose results are tough to foretell at the child’s birth. A number of factors affect youngster improvement.

Heredity guides each side of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and personality improvement. Family members, peer groups, the school surroundings, and the neighborhood influence how kids think, socialize, and turn into selfaware. Biological factors such as nutrition, medical care, and environmental hazards in the air and water affect the growth of the body and thoughts. Economic and political institutions, the media, and cultural values all guide how youngsters reside their lives. Critical life events, such as a family disaster or a national emergency, can alter the growth of character and id.

Most important of all, youngsters contribute considerably to their own improvement. This occurs as they attempt to know their experiences, reply in particular person ways to the folks around them, and choose actions, pals, and interests. Thus, the factors that information development come up from both outside and inside the person. Why is the examine of child development important? One cause is that it provides sensible steering for folks, academics, child-care providers, and others who care for children. A second cause is that it allows society to assist wholesome progress.

Understanding early mind development, for instance, implies that mother and father can present higher alternatives for intellectual stimulation, and society can cut back or remove obstacles to wholesome brain development. Third, the examine of child improvement helps therapists and educators better assist children with particular needs, similar to those with emotional or studying difficulties. Finally, understanding baby improvement contributes to self-understanding. We know ourselves better by recognizing the influences that have made us into the individuals we are at present. 4- Educational Psychology:

What is Educational Psychology? Educational Psychology, utility of scientific technique to the examine of the habits of individuals in educational settings. Although the conduct of academics and college students is of biggest interest, instructional psychologists also research the conduct of other teams, such as trainer aides, infants, migrants, and the aged. The areas lined by academic psychologists inevitably overlap with other areas of psychology, including baby and adolescent development, social psychology, psychological testing, and academic counseling.

There are different theories of child psychology which are as observe: • Learning (Different theories of learning assist instructional psychologists perceive, predict, and management human habits. For instance, academic psychologists have worked out mathematical fashions of learning that predict the probability of a person’s making a correct response; these mathematical theories are used to design computerized instruction in studying, arithmetic, and secondlanguage learning. Different psychologist have their contribution on this field. Ivan Pavlov and B.

F Skinner are prominent) • Motivation (Attribution principle describes the function of motivation in a person’s success or failure in school situations. Success on a take a look at, for instance, might be attributed to luck or onerous work; the idea predicts the habits of scholars relying on their responses. ) • Development (The concept of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget that mental capability is qualitatively totally different at completely different ages and that children need interplay with the setting to gain intellectual competency has influenced all of schooling and psychology.

Analytical Psychology of Carl Jung

Psychological Therapeutic System, more generally often recognized as, Analytical Psychology, was developed and founded by a Swiss psychiatrist, Carl Gustav Jung. Carl’s family was very concerned with the Christian religion, when Carl had his “initiation” he didn’t have any shifting emotions and that was mentioned to be a main reason to why he selected to go on along with his later work, he was trying to exchange the faith that was lacking from his life (Mitchell). Jung and Freud met up and started a six year long journey of analysis and work collectively till they split right earlier than World War I in May 1914.

Jung soon started his own analysis which became Analytical Psychology in response to Freud’s psychoanalysis. (Mitchell). “Jung taught that the psyche consists of various methods together with the non-public unconscious with its complexes and a collective unconscious with its archetypes,” (PsychoHeresy Awareness Ministries). Analytic psychology is the evaluation of the human mind, psyche and the unconscious, in addition to the acutely aware components of the mind.

It is assumed that man’s conduct and his conscious states may be explained only by unconscious sources of what motivates him.

Jung believed that the thoughts might be divided into unconscious and aware elements. The unconscious thoughts was made up of layers; the non-public unconscious is the part of the unconscious mind the place each person’s distinctive personal experiences and that may not be consciously remembered are saved. Jung believed that the contents of each person’s private unconscious are organized when it comes to complexes, clusters of emotional unconscious thoughts.

One may have a fancy in the course of their mother or towards their companion. Jung referred to the second layer of unconsciousness because the collective unconscious.

This stage incorporates recollections and behavioral predisposition’s that each one people have inherited from common ancestors within the distant human previous, providing us with primarily shared reminiscences and tendencies. People across space and time are most likely to interpret and use experience in similar methods because of “archetypes”, inherited human tendencies to understand and act in sure ways. During Analytic Therapy, Jung could use certain archetypes to elucidate a person’s unconscious thought that even have an effect on their conduct. Jung believed that there are specific archetypes which are essential in people’s lives.

These archetypes are as follows. The persona archetype is the part of our persona that we show the world, the half that we’re willing to share with others. The shadow archetype is the darker a part of a person, the part that embraces what we view as frightening, hateful and even evil about ourselves – the a part of us that we hide not only from others but also from ourselves. The anima is the feminine aspect of a males personality, which exhibits tenderness, caring, compassion and heat to others, yet which is more irrational and based mostly on feelings.

The animus is the masculine side of a woman’s personality, the extra rational and logical side of the girl. Jung posited that males typically attempt to disguise their anima each from others and from themselves as a result of it goes towards their idealized image of what males should be. According to Jung, these archetypes play a task in our interpersonal relationships. For example, the relationship between a person and a woman calls into play the archetypes in each individual’s collective unconscious. The anima helps the person to understand his feminine companion, just as the animus helps the woman to grasp her male partners (PsychologyCampus. com, 2004).

Jung distinguishes two differing attitudes to life, two ways of reacting to circumstances, which he finds so widespread that he could describe them as typical. The extraverted attitude, characterized by an outward character, an interest in events, in folks and things, a relationship with them, and a dependence on them. This type is motivated by exterior elements and significantly influenced by the surroundings. The extraverted kind is sociable and assured in unfamiliar environment. The introverted attitude, in distinction, is one of withdrawal of the personality and is concentrated upon private factors, and their main influence is ‘inner needs’.

When this attitude is habitual Jung speaks of an ‘introverted type’. This type lacks confidence in relation to individuals and things, tends to be unsociable, and prefers reflection to activity. This method is particularly helpful to shoppers that can bear in mind their desires and are both involved or troubled in them. They are sometimes asked to maintain a journal of their dreams and different impressions that they feel. When working with analytical psychology shoppers are expected to be as open, spontaneous, and self-observant as they will.

Jungians will typically not use any formal assessment procedures while in therapy, and aren’t prone to diagnose problems. They take desires very significantly and contemplate them central to establishing dialect between consciousness and unconsciousness. In a clinical setting, the helper will pay attention fastidiously to the client’s desires and thoughts and intervene and determine essential features which are seen (Sommers-Flanagan, 2004). References Mitchell, G. (n. d. ). Carl jung & jungian analytical psychology. Retrieved from http://www. trans4mind. com/mind-development/jung. html PsychoHeresy Awareness Ministries, Initials. (n. d. ).

Psychoheresy: c. g. jung’s legacy to the church. Retrieved from http://www. psychoheresy-aware. org/jungleg. html PsychologyCampus. com, Initials. (2004). Analytical psychology. Retrieved from http://www. psychologycampus. com/analytical-psychology. html Sommers-Flanagan, J & R. (2004). Counseling and psychotherapy theories in context and follow. Retrieved from http://books. google. ca/books?

id=BpzrBuSe0ikC&pg=PA128&lpg=PA128&dq=case+example+analytical+psychology&source=bl&ots=ANhhYx5RIS&sig=NdjE_dCewzWNnrxc3dL0sB28ZUo&hl=en&ei=VNG0TITqJYGCsQPzkKjsCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=falseю

Analysis of Bandura’s Cognitive Theory in Psychology

Introduction

The examine of human conduct or behaviorism focuses on attributes of humanity that are discernible, measurable and which may be manipulated. The emphasis of behaviorism is on experimental methods and avoids attributes which might be subjective, internal or unavailable. The experimental method involves the manipulation of 1 variable and measurement of its impact on another variable. It is from the research of variable and results that a Canadian psychologist, Albert Bandura discovered the cognitive concept (or social cognitive theory) (Bandura, 2006).

Bandura as an example noticed aggressive conduct in adolescents and opined that the aggressiveness is attributable to the surroundings during which the adolescents develop.

On the other hand, he additionally realized that habits causes an surroundings as nicely. Thus, since conduct and surroundings are causes and effects of one another, Bandura referred to the concept as reciprocal determinism (Bandura1986). In brief, Bandura’s principle was based on the reality that the world and a person’s character (behavior) have an effect on each other (Bandura, 1986).

While it might seem that the setting was the trigger of conduct and character, Bandura additionally realized that personality is an interplay of a person’s psychological responses in relation to the setting (Bandura, 2006). The psychological processes consist of the human being’s ability to entertain different images and languages. Thus, the cognitive concept is constructed on two important principles.

The first one is a framework for explaining how totally different personalities function, whereas the opposite one addresses the sort of variables (that is the weather of analysis) on which the character principle should be centred (Bandura, 2006).

In evaluation of the affect of reciprocal determinism, Bandura categorically makes use of the word “determinism” to suggest the facet during which effects are produced by events (Bandura, 2006). However, this opinion doesn’t imply that a human being’s actions arise from simple and predictable chains of trigger and consequence.

Rather, it implies that occasions produce effects by likelihood. As a outcome, the chance or likelihood of an occasion producing an effect is emphasised in Bandura’s cognitive concept (Bandura, 2006). Perhaps the most important aspect of Bandura’s principle is the means in which in which the speculation treats conduct. Unlike many different theoretical frameworks, this principle has equal action on both the enter of the character and the output of personality (Bandura, 1986). In essence, Bandura’s opinion is that a person’s actions and the resultant results shape the person’s aptitude, feelings and belief in a single self (Bandura, 2006).

For instance, many behaviorist theories depict scant curiosity in self-process as a end result of the theorists assume that human functioning is caused by external stimulus rather than the inner stimulus which is just thought-about as transmitting somewhat than causing conduct (Bandura, 1986). This paper critically evaluates the notable features of Bandura’s cognitive principle and discusses in detail the viewpoint of the Bandura on the time of formulation of the idea and the theory’s subsequent modification.

The paper may even appraise the strengths and weaknesses of the idea based on the dialogue. Analysis of the salient options of Bandura’s cognitive theory The most notable feature of Bandura’s social cognitive theory is the idea of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1986). Reciprocal determinism is a phenomenon that means the causes and results of different actions on behavior and environment and the way they have an effect on each other.

Thus, Bandura’s theory was based on the purpose that personal elements within the type of cognition, biological events and have an effect on, habits and environmental elements create interfaces that end in a triadic reciprocality as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1: The foundation of Bandura’s (1986) idea of the social cognitive concept. Source: Created from the outline by Bandura (2006) Bandura modified the label of his principle from the common perspective of social studying to social cognitive to have the ability to distance it from the common social learning theories of his time (Bandura, 1986).

He additionally needed to put emphasis on the thought that cognition plays a big role in people’s functionality to assemble reality, regulate their persona, encode information and display other kinds of habits. According to Bandura (1971), the reciprocal form of the determinants of particular person human functioning in social cognitive concept enables companies such as therapeutic and counseling efforts to be rendered with give attention to personal environment or behavioral elements as illustrated within the diagram above.

Based on this, methods to enhance a person’s well-being can be aimed toward ameliorating the emotional, cognitive and motivational process of the human being (Bandura, 1986). The focus may additionally be on improving behavioral capabilities or altering the communal situations beneath which individuals stay and work. As an instance, lecturers in faculties have a job to not solely enhance their students’ educational learning and confidence, but in addition enhance their (students’) self-beliefs and habits of pondering.

Hence, academics and students have to embrace all of the parts of Bandura’s triadic expression of cognitive principle. As earlier mentioned, Bandura’s social cognitive theory units itself except for other theories that overemphasize the role performed by environmental elements within the development of human habits (Bandura, 1986; Bandura, 2006). These theories are often dismissed since they’ve the redundant factor of trigger and impact that’s unworthy in the context of evaluating the psychological aspect of human beings.

Thus based on Bandura, psychology per se and not using a clear self-examination can’t purport to elucidate the complexities of human intricacies of human functioning. Bandura (1986) further famous it is by evaluating their very own aware minds that individuals discern their own psychological processes. Therefore, to have the ability to predict how the human conduct is affected by environmental outcomes, it is crucial that the individual’s cognitive course of and the way he or she interprets the outcomes be understood.

Analysis of Abnormal Psychology in The Rain Man

“Of course I don’t have my underwear. I’m undoubtedly not wearing my underwear…. These are not boxer shorts. Mine are boxer shorts. These are Hanes 32… My boxer shorts have my name and it says Raymond…I get my boxer shorts at K-Mart in Cincinnati”. (Rain Man, 1988) This quote from the favored film Rain Man perfectly captures the dysfunction that plagues Raymond Bobbitt, one of many primary characters. He is a very explicit man who should at all times do every thing on a schedule; any disruption in this schedule utterly turns his world the incorrect method up.

He exhibits little or no emotion, unless something occurs to upset him, during which case he fully melts down. His conduct is kind of that of a younger youngster. However, he additionally has a very unique present. He has an absolutely astounding memory and may recall the smallest particulars from events that occurred when he was only a younger youngster. At one level in the movie, a girl drops a box of toothpicks and Raymond is ready to immediately determine how most of the toothpicks spilled out of the field.

The behaviors of Raymond Bobbitt, while very interesting, are nowhere close to normal and so they prevent him from functioning in any kind of normal society. It is due to this that I have decided he has a psychological dysfunction and may benefit significantly from treatment. In order to diagnose Raymond, you will need to look at all the elements which will contribute to his behavior. The DSM-IV multiaxial system is a nice way to break every thing down and do that.

It has 5 sections that take a deeper look in to all the elements that contribute to the attainable mental dysfunction of a patient and provides a regular for classifying psychological disorders. Because of this, it’s closely relied on when making an correct diagnosis and shall be used to diagnose Raymond.

AXIS I

Axis one of many DSM-IV system is reserved for the scientific signs of the dysfunction. Raymond showed lots of the typical scientific symptoms of an individual with autism. The first symptom that they often show is developmental regression. Most sufferers of autism do not show any signs of developmental problems until round 15-30 months. Since Raymond was a younger child and never an toddler when he was despatched away to stay at the care house, it can be assumed that he did not begin to show issues until he was a younger toddler, which is consistent with the autism analysis. Another clinical symptom of autism is abnormal reactions for environmental stimuli. This is clearly seen by Raymond once we see him utterly soften down when the fireplace alarm goes off. The loud noise, which is not one thing that might bother regular individuals, is an extreme quantity of for him to deal with. Abnormal social interactions are another factor that Raymond shows that can be characterised by autism. He cannot maintain a normal conversation and has big problems understanding the social intentions of his brother as he takes him on their trip. It can also be clear whenever you take heed to the best way that Raymond talks that he would possibly endure from autism; he refers to himself as “Raymond” instead of “I” and he often rambles on to nobody particularly about his schedule or whatever else he’s thinking on the time. The final characteristic of autism that is seen in Raymond is the stress that he feels every time his routine is broken. (Brasic, 2013) When his brother takes him away from the care house and changes every thing, Raymond shows significant anxiety. He insists that they watch Jeopardy at 5:00 and is constantly speaking about what he ought to be doing at any given time. He begins to melt down when he is not doing what he normally does and continues on till his brother lastly lets him get his method.

AXIS II

Under axis II, the persona problems and mental disabilities are assessed. There are a number of of those which would possibly be related to each Raymond and Autism, particularly and autistic Savant. The biggest personality disorder that’s shown by Raymond and that’s also exhibited by autistics is that he has excessive anxiety. (Mayo Clinic, 2013) It is clear by the way that he will not get on an airplane as a outcome of there aren’t any out there airlines that have by no means experienced a airplane crash. A regular particular person wouldn’t suppose that much in to getting on a plane, they usually definitely wouldn’t know the statistics of every airline that there’s. Even after they start driving, Raymond starts rambling off statistics about driving and car accidents, making it clear that he is not even snug riding in a automobile. You can even look back at some of the other examples that we now have already checked out to indicate his elevated anxiousness levels. When the fire alarm goes off, and he begins breaking down, he is reacting abnormally (the symptom from axis I); it’s because of his excessive anxiousness that he starts to display this conduct. The similar goes for why he is continually rambling and is so distressed about missing his exhibits, not having dinner at the proper time and every little thing else that has modified in his schedule; he does all of this as a result of he is affected by constant nervousness as a result of his autism and his change in routine. Another thing to take a look at underneath axis II is his mental skills. While he isn’t capable of perform as a traditional particular person intellectually (another symptom of autism), he reveals extraordinary abilities intellectually in other areas. He remembers particular occasions from his childhood beginning at a very younger age, and he remembers them with extreme accuracy and element. He can be capable of retailer things in his reminiscence that no regular individual would be succesful of, such as when he knew the one and only airline that had by no means had a plane crash (it was a really small and unknown airline at that) or when he knew the entire highway statistics regarding automobile accidents. It can additionally be made clear that he’s sensible at math, counting and patterns when he’s in Vegas and is counting the playing cards with ease. All of these superb mental skills that he exhibits are characteristics of a savant as well. (Hiles, 2002)

AXIS III

Axis III is reserved for and bodily problems that may be related in diagnosing or treating the mental dysfunction. For instance, if a person is suffering from a temper dysfunction and they even have a disease which causes them pain or discomfort, then that could be something that contributed to their depression. (Edelson, 2013) Raymond doesn’t show any of those nevertheless, so there can be no diagnosis for him underneath this axis.

Axis IV

Axis IV is used to assess any environmental stressors that may have an result on the prognosis or treatment or the mental dysfunction. This was a big consider Raymond’s diagnosis and his show of signs. He was doing pretty nicely at the care home and, although he was nonetheless displaying some symptoms of an autistic savant, he was capable of reside fortunately and relatively stress free.

However, when his brother took him from his place of consolation, his signs received considerably worse. His anxiety ranges went by way of the roof and it was clear that he was not handling the change properly. He had lost his major help group, which included all of the nurses on the hospital and he was left only with his brother who he had not seen since they have been younger youngsters. This caused him nervousness as a end result of he was not acquainted with him and his brother was not ready to take care of all the behaviors that Raymond displays. He was additionally showing elevated levels of tension because of his surroundings. When they left the care house, it was clear that Raymond didn’t want to go as a outcome of he mentioned it and started appearing out. But his brother made him, and his actions just obtained worse from there. Every night time Raymond would insist that they no less than follow his schedule and he would start throwing a tantrum in the event that they didn’t. Also, once they were within the casino, he could not deal with the entire flashing lights and the ringing of the bells. This eventually led to another melt down. After being with his brother for almost their complete journey, it seemed like Raymond began to warm up to him a bit. Since his brother was the one constant throughout their trip, this once more reveals how much Raymond wants something consistent and some sort of routine, a necessity that is quite common in autistic. (Bellini, 2013)

AXIS V

Axis V is used for the Global Assessment of Funtioning (GAF). It is an analysis of the patient’s capacity to operate in day by day life and is predicated off of a 100 point scale (100 being probably the most functioning and zero being the least). When looking at Raymond, I would assign him two separate GAF scores. When he is in an comfy environment, similar to when he is residing in the care home, I would give him a GAF of 40 because he nonetheless shows signs and would not have the flexibility to hold a job and performance in society, but he’s not extreme. However, when taken out of his environment and put out on the planet, I would give him a GAF of 20 as a end result of he begins to show excessive behavior and even becomes a menace to himself or others. (PsyWeb, 2013) There was a degree when considered one of his soften downs became so unhealthy that he started banging his head and hurting himself. He is in need of constant supervision when he is not in a comfortable acquainted place.

After taking a look at the signs that Raymond displayed (which embrace things like not making eye contact and continually fidgeting, not seeming to pay attention to when individuals talk to him and never having the ability to hold a conversation, and resting touch and changes in routine) and breaking them down with regard to the DSM-IV multiaxial system, I even have determined that he suffers from Autism, and extra specifically, he is an Autistic Savant. He would be categorized as a Savant because he, while missing in lots of areas, does have extraordinary expertise in different areas. There was a time in the film when his brother takes him to Vegas and tells him to count cards in blackjack and Raymond (having to prior training) is prepared to do it with ease. His symptoms underneath the DSM-IV model are extremely in maintaining with these of an autistic savant. He shows all of the clinical signs (axis I) that an autistic would show, including abnormal social conduct, the lack to hold a normal dialog and the constant fidgeting. These behaviors are also in keeping with the autistic and savant personality problems and psychological skills (axis II), including the acute nervousness and the extraordinary skills in particular areas. There usually are not essentially any bodily issues (axis III) that contribute to being an autistic savant, and Raymond didn’t present any of those both. His environment (axis IV) nonetheless, did play a significant role his conduct and that is fairly common with autistics as nicely. (First Signs, 2012)

After diagnosing Raymond as an autistic savant, the most important remedy that I would suggest for him would be to return to the care house and live the rest of his life there. When treating autism, there isn’t a one set treatment as a result of every particular person with autism is exclusive. (Autism Speaks, 2013) Since we had been in a position to see how Raymond responded to living in the care house and sticking to a strict routine, we have been in a position to see that it labored for him. This plan, and the routine that was tailor-made for him, labored to reduce his signs and reduce his behavioral issues. As far as him being a savant as properly, there actually is no remedy wanted for that as a result of it doesn’t pose an issue in his life. It is a expertise that he lives with and not something that needs to be mounted. If Raymond is returned to the care residence and his acquainted schedule, there is not a reason that he can not reside out the rest of his life as happily and comfortably as attainable.

References

  • Autism Speaks. (2013). How is Autism Treated? Retrieved from: http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/treatment
  • Bellini, Scott. (2013). The Development of Social Anxiety in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved from: http://foa.sagepub.com/content/21/3/138.short
  • Brasic, James. (2013). Autism Clinical Presentation. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/912781-clinical
  • Edelson, Steven. (2013). Research: Autistic Savants. Retrieved from: http://www.autism.com/index.php/understanding_savants
  • First Signs. (2012). DSM-IV Criteria Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Retrieved from: http://www.firstsigns.org/screening/DSM4.htm
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Analysis of Adolescence Developmental Psychology in Juno As

Analysis of Adolescence Developmental Psychology in Juno

As every particular person develop and age they be taught increasingly about themselves, shaping their persona and methods of thinking. An individual’s expertise can greatly affect who they come to be sooner or later and since not everybody goes by way of the very same life conditions, each expertise and response becomes unique. However, there are common phases that an average particular person will undergo throughout his or her life time that researchers and theorists have categorized.

This essay will be examining an individual named Juno, who is going via the adolescence stage of her life, to see how the theories of developmentalists corresponding to Erik Erikson, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky apply to the development of Juno as she faces difficult life problems as nicely as how she offers together with her obstacles.

Synopsis

The film Juno is about a sixteen-year-old lady named Juno Macguff, who after having a one-night stand, grew to become pregnant with her crush’s baby.

After finding out that she is pregnant, Juno tells her crush and the child’s father, Paulie. Paulie supports Juno in her choice to have an abortion, however she by no means follows by way of with the deed after going to a clinic and meeting a pro-life protester. Instead Juno decides that she would carry the kid to time period and provides it to another household who would raise the child with love and care. From there Juno is compelled to inform her dad and stepmom about her being pregnant, who to her surprise, had been supportive of her decision regardless of their lack of concern about her at first.

The story continues as Juno searches for the best adoptive parents for her unborn youngster. To her luck, she finds a couple the place the father is a failed rock star and the mom is infertile. Juno continues to fulfill with the couple for the next few moths of her pregnancy, updating them about her state of affairs and serving to them put together for the incoming child. Sadly, as time goes on the father the Juno selected because the adoptive dad realizes that he’s not prepared for kids and still wants to be a rock star. As a end result, the couple divorces and Juno begin questioning what’s love and what is the greatest plan of action for her unborn youngster. After talking things over with her dad, Juno realizes that the particular person who’s been there for her all long and loves her for who she is was her crush, Paulie, all along. After professing her like to Paulie, Juno’s water breaks and he or she rushes to the hospital the place a wholesome baby is born. She decides to observe via with giving the infant to the original adoptive mom that she had chosen regardless of there not being a father anymore, she is conscious of that the child will nonetheless be very beloved and well cared for. The movie ends with Juno and Paulie becoming a pair who’s deeply in love regardless of how they had a baby before falling in love.

Discussion

The story of Juno is an exceptional illustration in a creative method of how an adolescence mind develops. When taking a more in-depth look, one can see how Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological methods concept comes into play in a Juno’s development. In the start of Juno, her microsystem, which include friends and family, just isn’t its greatest and even dysfunctional. As a results of this unstable and uninvolved parenting and friend microsystem, Juno becomes isolated from her friends at college as nicely as have unsure relationships with those around her. In the film the effects of a person’s macrosystem can also be seen in how the cultural worth pressure causes Juno to be confronted with harshness and judgement for her teen pregnancy. Which in flip leads to Juno feeling upset at Paulie for making her pregnant and having her face all the discrimination that she is going through. However, despite the unpleasantness of her micro- and macrosystems, Juno doesn’t let it affect her over all capacity to suppose logically and is in a position to keep her emotions from influencing her choices about what’s best for her child. This capacity of hers to think logically is described by Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental concept, in which adolescences above the age of 11 are in the formal operational stage where they can use hypotheses and deductive reasoning to create summary concepts that are primarily based on logic quite than feelings. Juno’s capacity to do so demonstrates that she has mastered this stage of growth. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological techniques concept also touches on the backgrounds of households and the way totally different backgrounds can affect the event of individuals in a unique way. For instance, in Juno’s case, she comes from a divorced household that is not high in social economic standards however not deep in poverty either. However, because of the dearth of warmth in her household she seeks warmth from others leading to the upper possibilities of errors happening, which for her was a teen pregnancy.

The movie can also be a fantastic illustration of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages, specifically the adolescence year’s fundamental conflict of id versus position confusion. As seen by way of the general plot of the film by which a young girl, who is still in highschool, is trying to find herself and discover who she is and what she desires for herself in life. According to Erikson, failure to successfully identify oneself on this time leads to position confusion which can result in the sensation of being misplaced in life and not figuring out what one desires or even hopelessness. This can be seen on the starting portion of the movie when it seemed like Juno was destined to be confused due to her dysfunctional family and unstable relationships. However, after having a dialogue along with her dad about what love really is and when you know you’ve found the one, Juno comes notice precisely who she is, what she desires, and that she loves the father of her youngster, Paulie, and wants to be in a committed relationship with him after conceiving.

Another developmental concept that may be studied in the movie Juno, is Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory which focuses on how culture and social interactions have an effect of an individual’s improvement. This is particularly current when seeing the a quantity of interactions that younger Juno has, from friends in school who looked down on her to the mother and father who she thought didn’t take care of her when actually they did. All these totally different interactions aided in shaping Juno’s thoughts set of tradition values and the type of culture and household she wants to boost her future family in.

Conclusion

Juno is an extraordinary film that’s respected for each its content material and the illustration of the developmental development of the mind of an adolescence. The movie demonstrations how an individual can grow and prosper well regardless of the hardships of life as nicely as present a visual understanding of the completely different developmental theories which were created to elucidate and categorize a person’s growth. In relation to the developmental psychology course, it permits students to apply course materials in real world conditions and to higher perceive how it is not only a single theory that applies in life, but somewhat that each one the theories studied apply to one’s life in some sort of means they usually work together to affect the individual that we are at present.

Advantages of the Use of the Scientific Method in Psychology

Advantages of the utilization of the scientific technique in psychology There are an a wide range of benefits to utilizing scientific strategies in psychology. Firstly an important facet of imperial data is that it is goal, i. e. not affected by expectations of the research. So, without objectivity we now have no way of being certain that data collected is valid. An instance of this is seen with Gardner & Gardner. When they observed Washoe they may have judged that Washoe was using actual words because they wanted her to succeed, for that purpose the Gardners developed a strict set of standards to make judgements.

This reveals that by way of objectivity it allows for there to be no bias evident. Another advantage is that the scientific method permits for control. Laboratory experiment allows researchers to demonstrate causal relationships. The experimental technique is the one way to do that – where we range one issue (IV) and observe its results of the DV. It order for this to be a fair test, all over situations should be managed and the best place for it is a laboratory.

This is an advantage because if we can’t demonstrate causal relationships then we can’t be sure that, for an example, an individual anxiety was decreased by the drug used.

Also the scientific methodology permits replication. If scientists report their methods and standardise them fastidiously so the identical procedures can be adopted in the future, i. e. replicated. This is a bonus as a end result of by repeating a examine is an important method to demonstrate the validity of any remark or experiment.

If the result is similar this affirms the reality of the unique outcomes. An example the place this might be seen is with Milgram and his research not having ecological validity.

But the fact it has be replicated means that the examine does have ecological validity. Throughout the historical past of psychology they’ve moved from Psychodynamic to behaviourism to humanistic and finally to cognitive. This is recognized as the Fundamental Shifts in Psychology. Freud first developed the fundamental ideas which underline the approach as an entire. This method was not seen as scientific, although Freud tried to develop the science of psycho-analysis. Psychology then moved right into a behaviourist strategy which rejected the mphasis on both the aware and unconscious thoughts. Instead, behaviourism strove to make psychology a more scientific self-discipline by focusing purely on observable behaviour. Pavlov’s research with canines led to his discovery of the classical conditioning process. Then the humanists got here into play and the end result was not merely new variations on psychodynamic concept, however somewhat a essentially new method. The Humanistic Approach began in response to considerations by therapists in opposition to perceived limitations of Psychodynamic theories.

They have been completely different from different approaches as a outcome of they confirmed emphasis on subjective meaning and a rejection of determinism. Finally the cognitive method developed as a separate area inside the self-discipline for the rationale that late Nineteen Fifties and early Nineteen Sixties following the “cognitive revolution” initiated by Chomsky’s critique of behaviourism. It accepts the use of the scientific method, and generally rejects introspection as a legitimate methodology of investigation. Finally laboratory experiments are thought-about essentially the most scientific methodology of research because it permits analysis to be managed; objective and replicable.

Whereas the least scientific method is taken into account to be case studies, these generalise from one person’s experiences and often let the researcher turn into ‘attached’ to the subject. For example Loftus and Palmer did an experiment the place 45 students have been shown seven films of a traffic accident, these movie segments ranged from 5-30 seconds. Participants acquired a questionnaire in which they were asked to “give an account of the accident you could have just seen”. Participants have been then divided into five groups of nine participants. Each group was given a barely completely different specific question about the accident.

So, advantages of utilizing laboratory experiments is that it gave Loftus & Palmer greater control over confounding variables similar to environment the movies were watched in. It additionally makes it simpler to replicate analysis to check findings about EWT are reliable. Case studies however, relate to single instances so it’s not attainable to generalise to other individuals. The results of the research are only valid when utilized to that case. Also a case examine realises on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation, there’s a danger that behaviour is interpreted in the finest way the researcher needs (subjective).

An instance of this could be seen with Freud and his research ‘little Hans’. Hans was a 5 year old boy dropped at Freud’s attention by the boy’s father as a result of he had a phobia of horses pulling laden carts. The drawback with this case study is that by Han’s father utilizing leading questions it means that Hans’s answers might nicely have been influenced by his father’s expectations. So, as you can see there are numerous advantages of using scientific methods in psychology as it allows for results to be controlled, goal, replicable and as a result legitimate.

Adolesence Psychology

The most critical stage in a life of an individual is in the period of adolesence.  It is a particularly turbulent in addition to a dynamic period of any person’s life. It is also a interval of “strorm and stress” characterized by moodiness, inner tormoil and rebellion.  This is a interval of transision from childhood to maturity.  This transition includes organic,  social, and psychological modifications, though the biological ones are the simplest to measure objectively.”Adolescence” is a contemporary cultural and social phenomenon and due to this fact its endpoints aren’t simply tied to bodily milestones .

The time is identified with dramatic changes within the body, together with developments in a person’s psychology and tutorial career. In the onset of adolescence, children usually complete elementary school and enter secondary schooling, corresponding to center school or highschool. During this period, the young develops to sexual maturity and establishes an identification as an individual.  Their  sense  of id develops progressively out of the assorted identification of childhood.

The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. Ego identification is the accrued confidence that the internal sameness and continuity prepared prior to now are matched by the sameness and continuity of one’s that means for others, as evidenced within the promise of a profession. The inability to decide on a college or occupational identity is disturbing.

A major task confronting the adolescent is to develop a sense of individual identification, to search out solutions to the questions “Who am I” and “where am I going” .

  The process also entails feelings about self-worth and competence.  Although development  of sel-concept begins in early childhood and continues throughout the lifespan.

Searching of the distinctive identification is doubtless one of the issues that adolesence often face.  Some, but not all, teenager usually challenge the authority or the rules as a method to set up their individuality.  There can additionally be a probability of medication and alcohol use, or psychological well being dysfunction, eating disorders and depression.

Historically this stage of improvement began much later, sometime between the ages of fourteen and eighteen, which allowed the kid to mentally and emotionally mature extra and introduced them nearer to the age of consent before reaching this bodily and emotionally challenging

Physical maturation resulting from puberty results in an interest in sexual activities   generally leading to teenage pregnancy.    Since teenagers will not be emotionally or mentally mature enough or financially able to help kids, sexual activity amongst adolescents is problematic.

Given the emotional immaturity of adolescents, many nations think about those under a certain age to be too young to have interaction in and other sexual actions, even if they are physiologically capable.

Family battle is extra frequent throughout adolesence than during different period of improvement.  Puberty seems to play a central role in initiating this battle.  Adolesence of each sexes have significantly extra conflicts with their moms than with their fathers.  Probably because mothers are extra involve in regulating the everyday details of household life.  Parents are often torn between the need of sustaining the household system and allowing their baby increasing jurisdiction over his or her conduct.  Childhood even with intact families is rarely troubled free.  The proven truth that an important emotionla construction in the childhood’s life is the parents’ marriage.  Ends in failure becomes endlessly embeded in that child’s history.

It can’t be denied that fathers are crucial within the household.  Without a father there is no family.  The absence of the father perhaps related to some undesirable habits of the kids.  Among wihich are poor faculty efficiency,poor relationships with peer, issues with impulse control, rebellious and other adjustment difficulties.

It is just like the case of a 16 year old lady whose dad and mom are divorce.  She displayed undesirable behavior like rebellious, trouble in school and he or she needs male attention.  Adolesence are in the process of affirming up their identity.  They need both parents  to affirm them in growing womanliness and the method to relate to other individuals of the opposite sex.

Childhood, even with intact households is rarely troubled-free.  The proven reality that crucial emotional construction in the child’s life is the parents’ marriage – ends in failure turns into eternally embeded in that child’s history.  Being a child of devorce,  there’s a want of a number of therapy.  A joint therapy of oldsters can be wanted to grasp the want to work collectively for the youngsters.

In order to pass from childhood to maturity the adolesence must solve a variety of issues.  He should develop heterosexual curiosity, turn out to be free from residence supervision, make new emotional and social adjustments to actuality.  They ought to evolve a philosophy of life, achieve economic and mental independence and discover methods to use their leisure time profitably.  If they fail of those any achievements, he fails to gain full maturity.  Because adolesence are caught between two worlds, one of the dependence, the opposite of the duty.  They would love the ability to resolve for themselves, but usually are not sure they need to increased responsibility that accompanies adulthood.

Psychology Ad Analysis

The British University in Egypt

Duracell Ad

Nowadays, there is no means of escaping from all of the advertising messages and techniques. Almost every year, huge amounts of money are paid on commercials in hope of attracting the consumer’s consideration, and to drive them into shopping for the product which was marketed. CITATION Jan10 l 1033 (Jansson-Boyd, 2010) One of probably the most used methods is psychological methods. For instances, perception, feelings, consideration, arousal, etc. This essay consists of the evaluation of two commercial advertisements from the attitude of psychological results.

The first one is an commercial for batteries referred to as “Duracell” and the other one is for selling jewelry referred to as “I’m the money man”.

The ad is a couple of lady whose father is in the navy. He sends her a bear with a voice recorder that works with a button saying “I love child girl” together with his personal voice using Duracell batteries. So the aim of this ad is that the batteries are as trusting because the people close to us; furthermore, the slogan is “the ones you belief are at all times there” which refers again to the batteries.

One of the primary psychological results which was used is the emotional effect. Advertisers use the feelings to seize the consumer’s consideration; as an example, the music on this advert is appropriate to it as a end result of it’s mild and delicate, which helps so much in making the ad extra emotional than it already is and this is also because of the content; The use of a relationship between a father and a daughter and the long distance between them which makes it relatable to most people who get separated from their families.

A theory referred to as Maslow’s hierarchy of wants was developed to measure basic need satisfaction CITATION Sha15 l 1033 (Shaun Saunders, 2015); Maslow arranged the wants into 5 stages. First, physiological needs, after that’s security needs then belongings and love needs, then esteem wants, and, self actualization. The Duracell advert fits in the safety wants as the batteries are basic wants. Moving on to another factor which is how persuasive the ad is, persuasion has some elements that affect the individuals; the source, and the message and the audience. Starting with the supply, the source is just like lots of families as talked about above which one factor that will make the advert persuasive. Another factor is the period of the ad itself; the ad is nearly 2 minutes which is ready to make the consumer end the ad until the tip and see the message or the product behind it.

The audience is nearly everybody as all of the folks use batteries; from teenagers and their video games to old individuals and radios and TVs; lastly, the message which is that these batteries are as trusting because the close individuals to us as mentioned above as well. Another thing related to persuasion is the elaboration likelihood mannequin (ELM), it’s a theory that was developed to understand extra about persuasion literature CITATION Fat17 l 1033 (Moghaddam, 2017), it suggested that there are two routes to be taken; the primary is the central route and the second is the peripheral route. This ad encourages the audience to make use of the central route, because is that higher perceived DS tools quality will positively affect consumer’s perspective in the path of buying products. CITATION Mar15 l 1033 (Hassanein, 2015). Something else is that there are two persuasive emotional theories; one is Mandler’s concept of emotion which means that positive emotions can be produced by way of divergences between an expectation of a stimulus and one other stimulus. CITATION Sab11 l 1033 (Chowdhry, 2011) The different one is Zillman’s principle of emotion which predicts an enhancement of emotional reactions to immediately present emotion?arousing conditions by portions of excitation which are left over from previous associated or unrelated emotion?arousing situations. CITATION Zil08 l 1033 (Zillmann, 2008) This advert satisfies the primary theory which is Mandler’s concept of emotion as a result of the prior knowledge of this product plays an necessary function in producing optimistic feelings about it. Moving on to attention, consideration is the contents of the short-term reminiscence and the short-term reminiscence is a system that has a limited capacity for data obtainable for brief durations of time CITATION Sid13 l 1033 (Simon, 2013) which means that something that might seize a consumers consideration must be a vivid stimuli this implies it should stand out from different ads by being emotionally involved, stable and image-provoking and regarding time, house and emotions. There are some elements that help in grabbing the consumer’s consideration; for example, top quality content material as it supplies vital information, stunning the audience; for instance, on the finish of this advert the father surprises his daughter by returning house to her which was a surprise, the ad must have a story in order that it grabs the consumers attention of desirous to know what goes to happen and this was applied on this advertisement, physique language plays a role on this advert as it was visible the facial expressions of the three of them, and so forth. All the earlier factors prove that the advertisement grabbed the consumer’s attention. By understanding how to grab a consumer’s consideration and to influence them as well, the only factor left is how to inspire consumer.

Motivation is the reason individuals behave in a particular conduct, motivation has plenty of components; the most typical factor is the want to reduce the unlikable situation of sure feelings, this motivates any human being in doing what is going to fill this void, spreading positive vibes helps in motivating a consumer, something else that helps is model loyalty; a recent study proved that Duracell is the very best selling batteries in the US which signifies that a lot of people are loyal to Duracell batteries. There are lots of theories that specify why persons are motivated however the one that fits this advert is the drive discount concept, the drive discount theory explains why people are motivated to employ in particular conduct CITATION Ken18 l 1033 (Cherry, 2018) which is because of the technology of unpleasant states of arousal which makes folks motivated to reduce these emotions this leads to goal-oriented conduct. CITATION Jan10 l 1033 (Jansson-Boyd, 2010) A lot of things help in influencing the consumer’s behavior; for illustration, repetition as when the patron will get exposed constantly to advertising stimuli it can enhance the chance of evoking the advert, one other thing is specializing in tendencies, trends helps a lot in motivating a consumer to purchase one thing. The advert would have been better if there was a celeb in it as a result of they’re perceived as being reliable. Keeping in mind people’s financial conditions goes a good distance and along with the tradition as in alternative the culture of the target market as well.

I’m the money man ad

This ad is a few man whose name is Russell Oliver who folks sell their jewelry to. In the advert, Russell says to the digicam “if you might have diamonds bring them to me” then he sings about it as well. So the goal of this ad is to let people come to his store and promote their jewelry to him so he can buy them. A good advert ought to have psychological effects in order that it grabs the consumer’s attention, and on this ad, there were no psychological effects; this made the advert not enticing or persuasive to the patron because of also the background music which was irritating as for the content itself; really, psychological affects help in grabbing the consumer’s consideration or typically it’d trigger an emotion which additionally helps. This ad failed in these because of the absence of psychological results. Another factor is that advertisements that grab the consumer’s consideration, and that is shown in a recent analysis exhibits entertainment presented after the first coverage of the model all the time improves purchases while leisure introduced earlier than the model at all times weaken it. CITATION Tei15 l 1033 (Teixeira, 2015) This advert failed in doing was stated earlier. Moving on to the persuasive emotional theories which are Mandler’s and Zillman’s, the ad doesn’t apply to both of those 0theories but when one has to be chosen, it goes to be Zillman’s emotional principle. Zillman’s emotional concept which advised that emotional stimulation may be reworked to another stimulus.

For instance a shopper would possibly hear very pleasant information which is in a position to make them excited and after they watch the video, this might lead to them liking the commercial due to the switch of feelings. One of the few things that this advert succeeded is capturing the eye of the buyer however in an irritating which ends up in adverse emotions, there are some elements within the function of consideration which are the vivid stimuli and the silent stimuli. This ad is an example of silent stimuli as it captures the consumer’s attention unwillingly this is shown the video because of the use of quantity and the music, the use of brilliant shapes which are asymmetrical and it shifts the brightness between two scenes. CITATION Jan10 l 1033 (Jansson-Boyd, 2010) This brings us to the central route and the peripheral route. It encourages utilizing the peripheral route as a outcome of it is an indirect method of shaping notion and outlooks. CITATION Nug13 l 1033 (Nugent, 2013) In different phrases, people use this route when they are not inspired to involve in the lead message. Getting back to Maslow, Maslow has categorized the needs into 5 phases and this advert satisfies the safety needs as the opposite advertisement. It is listed beneath the security needs as a end result of safety wants embrace monetary safety as jewelry is counted as cash. Most of our selections and actions are based mostly on sustaining or improving our circumstances that are driven by the necessity for safety for us and our loved ones. CITATION And17 l 1033 (Komninos, 2017)The advert doesn’t apply to any motivation theories as it does not inspire customers at all; it grabs the consumer’s attention however doesn’t motivate them in taking what the presenter “Russell” is providing. Lot of techniques should have been used for a greater influence, for example bringing a celebrity in the ad as this helps sometimes as a end result of folks take celebrities as trustworthy or bringing a gorgeous person because it was found that individuals are inclined to please the enticing. Another factor that would have helped the advertisement slightly bit more was the use of humor because it was foolish enough to make consumers change of the commercial. “Humorous promoting is extra more doubtless to safe audience consideration, improve reminiscence, overcome sales resistance, and improve message persuasiveness”. CITATION Dan18 l 1033 (Karell, 2018) Something else uncommon but generally works which the sleeper impact, the sleeper effect is convincing messages that are not originally alleged to be believed can alter people’s opinions in a while. CITATION Jan10 l 1033 (Jansson-Boyd, 2010)

Music should have been better and extra soothing than what was within the commercial ass music helps in boosting the facility of persuasion and motivation. Creating a narrative may have labored as nicely as it grabs the consumer’s attention and makes them need to complete the story of the advertisement. Another idea is that the presenter has a store called “Loans”, he could have shared the placement of his shop and used some atmospheric stimuli; for illustration, in the exterior of the store sighs, colors, smell and music may have been used with some of the layout design. The pervious content material was examples of issues that may have made the ad a lot higher. To sum up, this advert is infective ad as proven as shown, it failed to attract shoppers within the perspective of emotionally and also in being motivational and persuasive. It failed to include theories that might assist in bettering it and it was not skilled as well. The other advertisement may be very efficient as it used so much psychological theories and results which helped in capturing the consumer’s curiosity.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY Cherry, K. (2018, October 10). Drive-Reduction Theory and Human Behavior . Retrieved December 02, 2018, from Verywell Mind:

Chowdhry, S. (2011). Critique Of Mandler’s Thoery Of Perceptual Anaylsis . Cleveland: Indiana University Undergraduate Journal of Cognitive Science .

Hassanein, M. G. (2015). Impact of Persuasion Processes on Consumer Attitude. Puerto Rico: Twenty-first Americas Conference on Infromation systems.

Jansson-Boyd, C. V. (2010). Consumer Psychology . New York: Maidenhead .

Karell, D. (2018, April 09). Is Humor in Advertising Effective? Retrieved December 03, 2018, from Point Park University :

Komninos, A. (2017, December 03). Safety: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved December 03, 2018, from Interaction Design Foundations :

Moghaddam, F. M. (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Nugent, P. M. (2013, April 7). PERIPHERAL ROUTE TO PERSUASION. Retrieved December 03, 2018, from Psychology Dictionary:

Shaun Saunders, D. M. (2015, May 01). Maslow’s hierarchy of wants and its relationship with psychological health and materialism. Retrieved December 01, 2018, from cambridge.org:

Simon, S. A. (2013, April 16). Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism. Retrieved December 02, 2018, from Plos One:

Teixeira, T. S. (2015, October 14). When People Pay Attention to Video Ads and Why. Retrieved December 03, 2018, from HBR:

Zillmann, D. (2008, June 05). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved December 02, 2018, from onlinelibrary.wiley:

Abnormal Psychology Reflection

The goal of the course was for a better understanding of mental issues. This course has given me the flexibility to apply data learned about human experience, and relate it to psychopathology. During the semester I even have learned numerous forms of psychological perspectives and numerous therapy plans; and by taking this class I actually have been given the tools, and expertise to assume critically about mental disorders.

The course of abnormal psychology is a department that deals with the outline, causes, and remedy of irregular behavior patterns.

Abnormal psychology is the thoughts or habits that trigger social, cognitive, emotional, and varied other tribulations for a person. When there might be an abnormal conduct pattern disrupting one’s psychological functioning or behavior, it is because of a psychological disorder. I even have realized that to have the ability to distinguish when an individual has a psychological disorder, it is important to have the ability to decide the definition of the abnormal behavior. The traits that classify irregular conduct are unusualness, social deviance, faulty perception, significant personal distress, maladaptive habits, and dangerousness, all traits that need consideration and prognosis.

Abnormal conduct can convey unhappiness, battle, and even discomfort within the individual’s everyday life not only impairing one’s way of life, but can affect others.

However, behavior that’s regular in a single area may be considered abnormal in one other, henceforth I should even be refined in the cultures around the world and of the patient. Each tradition approaches mental issues differently, and have totally different types of normality’s, and solutions for one’s conduct.

In this class I was taught how American and western cultures approach mental problems. Throughout the course I learned about completely different perspectives of psychology and different approaches to treatment. The perspectives that I contemplate to greatest explain irregular habits is the biopsychosocial mannequin. The biopsychosocial model is an integrative mannequin, which explains abnormal behavior by way of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. The reason why I consider this model is essentially the most accurate is because it takes into consideration that there is not only one issue that may trigger a mental illness.

One of essentially the most interesting methods it approaches issues is that it comes up with the diathesis-stress model. This model is a way of explaining how individuals find yourself affected by mental problems, by assuming that mental problems come from the interplay of two things, genetic and life experience. A person that’s genetically susceptible, minimal stress from the surroundings can trigger a mental sickness; in distinction a person can withstand immense environmental stress and face up to psychological sicknesses. I find this mannequin to be conclusive as a result of it explains how all three elements contribute to completely different mental issues.

The therapy that I found best and effective for psychological disorders is cognitive-behavioral therapy. This remedy treats a maladaptive-learned habits by way of applying the behavioral ideas of learning. This provides the individual the ability to reconstruct his or her ideas in a extra optimistic matter. Disorders are probably to make a person really feel hopeless and maladaptive, but this treatment allows the person to have management of their thoughts and emotions.

Mental diseases can result in disturbances in a person’s ideas and could also be an emotional expertise. Mental diseases tend to make life tough as a end result of an individual could discover it exhausting to sustain relationships, maintain a job, or encourage oneself to do day by day activities. Without treatment, they can and sometimes do make life insupportable to stay. From this class I even have a better understanding how mental problems can have an result on one’s life and what one can do to vary their life. Furthermore, this class has given me a greater understanding of the various psychological issues, and tips on how to prognosis, as properly as deal with them. This has guided me so that in the future I may help other people, and make their lives gratifying and fulfilling.

Developmental psychology

Collate evidence which describes the role of the practitioner in meeting children’s needs. Practitioners can help meet the needs of children by approving the rights of children. For example (UNCRC) United Nations conventions act on the rights of the child. Which allows every child and young person inclusive set of rights. When the practitioners support the rights of children, it will benefit children by meeting their learning needs as all the setting “complete their rights and needs so all children despite religion, disability and gender have a right to quality of life.” www.nurseryworld.co.uk/working-parents-support-children-learning E2: Provide information about current influence on play

Different sorts of approaches to play will differ depending on the needs and age of the children involved. Help a child achieve more: is designed to make sure the quality provision of children and young people’s play and learning, no matter their race and situation. It is aimed to support children from birth till 19 and has an impact on all play based provision. Practitioners must carry out the 5 outcomes that are most important to children and young people Be healthy

Forest school: A forest school is an innovative educational approach to outdoor play and learning. The philosophy of forest schools is to encourage and inspire individuals of any age through positive outdoor experiences. By participating in engaging, motivating and achievable tasks and activities in a woodland environment each individual has an opportunity to develop. Forest school approaches:

Wider range of physical skills that are usually developed indoors An understanding about their own natural and man-made environment E3: Provide information about current influences on the planning and provision of learning opportunities The EYFS covers the first stage of a child’s education and development, from birth to five years old. The principles of the early year’s foundation stage are: Mathematical development – Shape, numbers, measure

Creativity development – Imaginative, materials and exploring Understanding the world – World & technology, people and communities Communication and language – Speaking, understanding listening & attention Personal, social and emotional development – Self- confidence, self-awareness, handling behaviour Literacy – Reading & writing

The framework of the EYFS describes how early year’s practitioners should work with children and their families to support their learning and improvement. It is necessary in all Ofsted-registered childcare setting, included maintained, non-maintained and independents schools and child-minders. The national curriculum from 5-16 years has set out specific subjects which needs to be completed during the period of time. The main subjects that are a must are English, Maths and Science.

The other subjects are selected by children at secondary, the range is P.E, music, drama, , art and ICT. E4: Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn Behaviourists theory is by Skinner which has stages of development: The children will repeat an experience or activity if they gain a positive experience from it. The experiences the children didn’t enjoy they will keep away from it. By doing the above, children will learn trial and error.

Social learning theory is Bandura. He believes children learn by looking at the behaviours of adults and others around them, therefore they imitate what they have seen. For example practitioners are role models, who need to encourage children to learn and familiarise to good behaviour. Children learn by getting praised and encouraged by practitioners especially whilst doing an activity as this reassures children to aim higher and learn effectively. E5: Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s needs The practitioners observations of children
help to evaluate the progress which children are making “observations help practitioners to decide where children are in their learning and development and to plan what to do.”

Tassoni, P 2007 Practitioners can obtain information like what the child likes and dislikes and practitioners can plan activities according to children’s needs. The importance of confidentiality of information is necessary when the practitioner is observing the child. The observation sheet must be kept in a secure place and the practitioners have no right to discuss the observations to another person except for the child’s co-workers and parents, to ensure safety for the child and family. The practitioner needs to use the policy of Data protection act 1998 to protect personal information of a person. Planning and curriculum requires practitioners to collect information in form of assessments and observation. Making formal assessments

Watching children
E6: Include TWO examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs. Health visitor works with NHS to reduce illness from children and support them to stay healthy. They observe the setting they are in and ensure there are in good condition for a child’s learning environment. Also working with parents in a partnership to encourage positive health plans to meet the needs. Examples of what health visitors do:
Speech and language therapists help assist children’s needs who have a difficulty with stammer, voice problem, cleft plate and understanding language. By splitting up words into syllables, speech and language therapists support children by helping them improve in their learning and eventually “the child can develop their speech and language”. www.specialeducationneeds.co.uk/speech-and-language-therapy-salt-2.html E7: Include TWO plans for curriculum activities which show different approaches to planning learning opportunities Date

E8: Include information about the important of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities Parents/ carers may have concerns about the safety of their child, and may need to be reassured about activities their child will take part in. By involving the child’s family and practitioners in assessment and in subsequent planning. It can enhance the relationship the practitioners have with the parents/ carers by making them feel valued and included.

When parents involve children in assessment it can help to show their strengths and weaknesses. It can enable to plan activities for the child that are pitched at a level for their development stage, therapy making sure that they have experience success and no failure. www.uk.answers.yahoo.com/questions/index?qid=20100118014744AAn0y9b E9: Provide evidence of current and relevant research throughout the portfolio E2, E3, E4, D1, C1, C2, B1, A

E10: Show an understanding of diversity and inclusive practice Practitioners should promote diversity within the nursery setting and celebrate all the different races. Practitioners should provide a safe and supportive learning environment, in which the contribution of all the children and families are valued. Inclusive practice is to organise collaborative classes, extra activities and group activities so all the children can take part in. Children with disabilities or not should be able to take part in activities . www.childs-play.com/teacher-zone/diversity_and_equality_for_tea.html E11: Include references and a bibliography

Books:
Tassoni. P 2007 childcare + education – Pages, 36,321,54,293,97,96 Websites:
www.childs-play.com/teacher-zone/diversity_and_equality_for_tea.html www.uk.answers.yahoo.com/questions/index?qid=20100118014744AAn0y9b www.nurseryworld.co.uk/working-parents-support-children-learning Videos:

Psychology of lying

In order for an individual to detect that a person is telling a lie, the person needs to understand the psychology of lying to know the reason behind the act.

In fact, having knowledge on the psychology of lying can help you become more observant to the different signs of lying, as well as the mentality that comes with it. This is useful in order to avoid being put in a sense of doubt or under emotional stress when you are confronted with it.

The psychology of lying can be a complicated concept because people lie for a different reasons, While some people lie in an attempt to avoid punishment or to avoid hurting someone else’s feelings, others lie out of impulse or because they want to present themselves as someone they are not.

Lies are common. People studying the psychology of lying will soon find that telling lies does not automatically indicate any type of mental disorder. Even if there is an instance where a person tells a lie without first considering the reasoning behind it or the consequences resulting from the lie this is not considered a symptom of psychopathology. It would only be considered a symptom if the person does this often and it has negative effects on his or her life.

Lying is not simple as telling the truth versus falsifying it. It is deeper than that, it is not always about distortion or nor disclosure of facts, it may well be about creating a whole new set of truths that only the liar knows of.

It appears some lie for no reason at all while many lie with great reasoning, some lie for a cause, and many build a cause to lie. It is not always about the flip side of truth, sometimes, a lie stands on its own two feet: 1upon deep explanation, you will find that lying is a complex act, a complicated aspects of ones personality. 2it is more than a habit, almost a natural
human trait.

You can run from the truth
You can hide from the truth
You can deny the truth
But, you cannot destroy the truth…

Sometimes knowing the truth may hurt even more, yet still, in the longer run, a lie causes more damage than truth.

Chapter Two

REVIEW THE LITERATURE

Self-esteem is one of the biggest culprits in our lying ways. “We find that as soon as people feel that their self-esteem is threaten, they immediately begin to lie at higher levels.” Many lies are simply for the purpose of maintaining social contacts by avoiding insults or discords. Small lies that avoid conflict are probably the most common sort of lie… and avoiding conflict is a top motivator for deception. The farther one’s true self is from their ideal self, the more likely they are to lie to boost themselves up, in others eye or their eyes… or perhaps how they perceive others to perceive them. That is hard train of thought to follow, but lying is a complex phenomenon.—Robert Feldman (psychologist)

A person’s first instinct is to serve his or her own self-interest. People are more likely to lie when they can justify such lies to themselves. When under time pressure, having to make decision that could yield financial reword would make people more likely to lie and when people are not under time pressure, they are unlikely to lie there is no opportunity to rationalize their behavior. – Shaul Shalvi (psychological scientists, university of Amsterdam) & Ori Eldar and Yoella Bereby-Meyer (university of the Negev Investigated)[TITLE: what factors influence dishonest behavior]

To lie is to state something that one knows to be false or that one has not
reasonably ascertained to be true with the intention that it be taken for the truth by oneself or someone else, then a lie is a lie big or small but since lie usually has consequences, people always want to differentiate between some of them. What the people (or court system) are actually trying to do is to weigh the effects of a lie by a liar on its victims the conceptions and outcomes of lying can be many but when a person finally make a choice to speak, write or present something knowingly to be false, that single piece there is a lie unless the liar is insane or incapable to understand what she or he is doing. – Stephanie Ericcson [TITLE: The way we lie]

“Trustworthiness is a highly esteemed commodity, when one has it, one is considered valuable. When one has lost it, one may be considered worthless.” A lie is a false statement to a person or group made by another person who knows it is not the whole truth, intentionally. Lying is when a person doesn’t tell the truth. There are many reasons a person may tell a lie. Usually people lie to get themselves out of trouble. Some people actually have a disorder that makes them lie without realizing they are doing so. it is one of the most common wrong acts that we carry out.

It’s an avoidable part of human nature so its worth spending time thinking about it. Most of people would say that lying is always wrong, except when there’s a good reason for it—which means that it’s not always wrong. Lying is giving some information while believing it to be untrue, intending to deceive by doing so.—

People have reasons for not telling the truth. Whether it’s to not hurt someone’s feelings, or to not let a parent find something out, or to even make life’s harsh reality more bearable. There are dozens of reasons that someone out there thinks is a reason to not tell the truth. Even as I write this, I still wonder. Are the people that justify their reasons for not telling the truth actually hurting themselves?

The oddest thing happens if you are constantly not telling the truth. Somewhere in there, you start to forget what truth is. If someone is constantly lying to everyone around them, how in the world can they go on telling the truth to themselves. Usually people don’t even know that they are doing it. After awhile, the alter reality takes over and you won’t be able to tell the difference between a lie and the truth. So, in essence, you could say that one of the realities of not telling the truth is that you lose yourself, literally, but you may not even notice it.

You would think that this phenomena would be something that would take a lot of big choices–large decisions to arrive at a point where you didn’t recognize the truth. Actually, it’s the opposite. It takes just one tiny step at a time to lose yourself somewhere in non-truths. —unknown( What Kinds of Reasons Are There for Not Telling the Truth?Is it Okay Not to Tell the Truth? )

Chapter Three

RESEARCH PROBLEM

To determine the causes of telling a lie, the consequences it takes, the types of lies they told, and the different kinds of liars that there is.

Chapter four

Design the Study

a) Research design

In order for an individual to detect that a person is telling a lie, the person needs to understand the psychology of lying to know the reason behind the act.

In fact, having knowledge on the psychology of lying can help you become more observant to the different signs of lying, as well as the mentality that comes with it. This is useful in order to avoid being put in a sense of doubt or under emotional stress when you are confronted with it.

Everybody lies, it may only be white lies but everyone tell lies or omits the truths sometimes we start lying at around age of four (4) or five () when children gain an awareness of the use and power of language. This first lying is not malicious but rather to find out or test what can manipulated in a child’s environment.

Eventually children begin to use lying to get out of trouble or get something they want. The person who seems to feel compelled to lie about both small and large stuff has a problem. We often call these folks pathological liars they lied to protect themselves, look good financially or socially to avoid punishment. Quite often the person who has been deceived knows that this type of liars has a certain extent deluded him or herself and is therefore to be someone pitied.

A much more troubling group is those who lie a lot and knowingly for personal gain. These people may have a diagnosis called anti social personality disorder, also known as being a sociopath and often get into scrapes with the law.

Lying often get worse with the passage of time when you get away with a lie it often impels you to continue your deceptions. Also liars often find themselves perpetrating more untruths to cover themselves. We hold different people to different standards when it comes to telling the truth we expect. For example, less honesty from politician than from scientists, we have a vision of purity about those who are doing research, while we imagine that politicians will at least shade the truth about themselves in order to get elected.

There are many reasons why does a person tell a lie, but here are the major causes of why people choose to tell a lie: 1Fear, One of the reasons why a person tells a lie is because of the fear of possible consequences involved when telling the truth. This psychology of lying is quite prevalent in younger generations when they are hiding something sensitive from their friends and family members — opting to tell a lie rather than being punished for telling the truth.

It is a sign of escape of possible punishment that comes with the act of telling the truth. 2Self-Image, improving their own image in the eyes of their friends and families is one of the reasons why people tell a lie. In order to uplift their social on par with others, a person would often create stories, usually on the spot, to make sure that the other party is kicked out of the limelight. This psychology of lying is just a temporary rise on the social ladder, and will often be replaced with embarrassment when the truth comes out. 3Harming Others, Another purpose is to attack other people, indirectly, by telling a lie about them. In fact, this is often seen felt by prominent individuals in the society.

In order to lower the status or career of this individual, a person will often create a lie that will put others into a state of doubt regarding their own beliefs and truths. To summarize, people may lie due to the fear of the consequences when they tell the truth, to boost their self-image inappropriately, or to deliberately harm others. Using the psychology of lying, you’ll be able to handle circumstances when people are not telling the truth.

Lies might have been part of human life since language appeared. Although they are something people frown upon, they are not all vicious. According to the purpose to tell lies, they can be divided into three types: “the types of lies people tell”, Beneficial Lies. Usually means to help. They are told out of kindness and people benefit from them. They help avoid hurt, sadness, insult, and impersonality. For example, a peasant lied to the Nazi Army that no Jews were hiding in his place; parents lie to the children that their beloved grandpa is living happily in the heaven. These do cheat the listeners, but the liars ought to be praised instead of being criticized. Spiteful Lies. Mean to gain benefit and hurt people.

They may come in the form of deceit or rumors. For example, lawyers lie on the court to help his criminal client to win the lawsuit; sellers lie to their customers to talk them into buying the fake and shoddy products. These liars just benefit from the lies and get reputation, profit or toleration. In comparison, rumors are more vicious. Liars make them to revenge or to pull their rivalries down. These happen a lot in politics, business, and entertainment world.

A politician and his party make rumors that the rivalry involved in sexual scandals or corruptions; an enterprise tell the media that their competitors use forbidden additive to their products; a famous star expose to public that another star has a bastard raised somewhere. These lies are mean and should be condemned. Neutral Lies. Are meant nothing and much more simpler.

When asked about private things, people may avoid answering the truth by telling a lie. This does no harm to both sides and is a protection to privacy. White Lies. Is often called the least serious of all lies. People tell white lies claiming to be tactful or polite. It can create distance between you and others, and destroys your credibility.

If there are lies are not mean to harm others, there are also lies that mean to hurt others and these are: 1Fabrication. Is telling others something you don’t know for sure is true. It is extremely hurtful because they lead rumors that can damage someone else’s reputation. Spreading rumors not only a lie but is also stealing another’s reputation. 2Bold-faced Lie. Telling something that everyone knows it’s a lie. Simple and sometimes cute for a little child to tell a bold-faced lie about not eating any cookies, even though there’s chocolate all over his face. As we get older, we try to be more clever with our cover-ups, some people never grow up and deal with their bold-faced lying even though others know what they’re saying is completely false.

When people hear a bold-faced lie they are resentful that the liar would be so belittling of their time and intelligence. 3Exaggeration. Is enhancing a truth by adding lies to it. The person who exaggerates usually mixes truths and untruths to make themselves look impressive to others, an exaggerator can weave truth and lies together causing confusion even to the liar. After a while, the exaggerator begins to believe his or her exaggeration. 4Deception.

Tries to create an impression that causes others to be misled by not telling all the facts or creating a false impression. It is a dangerous one because the liar intends to harm or disadvantage the victim for their own benefit. 6Plagiarism. Is both lying and stealing. It consists of copying someone else work and calling it your own. It is a very serious act, some college and graduate students have even been kicked out of school because of it.

Lying is bad because it treats those who are lied to as a means to achieve the liar’s purpose, rather than as a valuable end in themselves. Many people think that it is wrong to treat people as means not ends. it makes it difficult for the person being lied to make a free and informed decision about the matter concerned. Lies lead people to base their decisions on false information. it cannot sensibly be made into a universal principle. Many people think that something should only be accepted as an ethical rule if it can be applied in every case, it’s a basic moral wrong. Some things are fundamentally bad—lying is one of them. it’s something that good people don’t do.

Good behavior displays the virtues found in good people. it corrupts the liar. Telling lies may become a habit and if a person regularly indulges in one form of wrong-doing they may well become more comfortable with wrong-doing in general. Some religious people argue lying is bad because it misuses the God-given gift of human communications. God gave humanity speech so that they could accurately share they’re thought—lying does the opposite. To make it short, lying is bad because language is essential to human societies and carries the obligation to use it truthfully.

Some people are so expert at deception that it often takes a long time to find out that we have been lied to, the following are the example of different liars that we encounter in our everyday life:

The Occasional Liar. These people seldom lie. But when they do they are blown away by their actions and feel guilty for what they have done. These types of people are the ones who are quick to seek forgiveness from the person their lied to. The occasional liar is not perfect but is usually respected for his/her strong attempt at being a truthful person and humble enough to admit their mistakes. Frequent Liars. The frequent liar goes about his/her life lying every which way. This person is not concerned about covering his tracts, or making sure his lie make sense. Everybody knows this person is lying because he is sloppy with his lies.

This person has very few friends, because people get sick of his obviously twisted stories. The Smooth Liars. The smooth liar is just what their description sound like—this person has become very smooth and skilled at telling lies. There are those that say they can pick out a liar every time, but that’s not necessarily so when it comes to the smooth liars. This liars is so good with words and body language people tend to believe him even when they know he has a reputation of being a liar. Yet, all the time, the smooth liar knows he’s lying.

These people are fun to be around, and very entertaining, but after being found out, the smooth liar tends to move on to others to whom he can apply his dark talents. The Compulsive Liar. This person lies when they don’t have to, even if telling the truth makes more sense than the lies they tell. These people have an addiction to lying, and they simply cannot stop. They are out of control. They spend hours studying situations to come up with more lies that will allow them to maintain all their previous lies. These people are totally untrustworthy and end up unable to keep friends.

A compulsive liars ends up lonely, sad person who tragically lies the most to their own self. The Pathological Liar. A pathological liars is a liars who believes the lies he/she is telling, he/she manages to convince him/herself they are true, in comparison to a compulsive liar who will lie for any reason, and knows they are lies but apparently can’t stop him/herself from dong so.

There is no proof way to detect weather we are being misled or not but there are often clues you can see in behavior that should make you suspicious.

Avoidance of Eye Contact. Usually someone makes eye contact at least half the time they are talking to you. If you notice them avoiding eye contact or looking down during a specific part of a conversation, they may well be lying. Change of Voice. A variation in pitch of voice or rate of speech can be a sign of lying so can lots of ummms and ahhhs… Body Language. Turning your body away, covering your face or mouth, a lot of fidgeting of hands or legs can indicate deception. Contradicting Yourself. Making statements that just don’t hold together should make you suspicious.

Lies obviously hurt the person who is lied to (most of the time), but they can also hurt the liar, and society in general. The person who is lied to suffers if they don’t find out because: (a) They are deprived of some control over their future because they can no longer make an informed choice about the issue concerned, (b) They are not fully informed about their possible courses of action, (c) They may make a decision that they would not otherwise have made, (d)

They may suffer damages as a result of lie, (e) They doubt their own ability to assess truth and make decisions, (f) They feel badly treated—deceived and manipulated, and regarded as a person who doesn’t deserve the truth, (g) They become untrusting and uncertain and this too damages their ability to make free and informed choices and last and more worst, (h) They may seek revenge.

The liar is also hurt because: (a) He has to remember the lies he’s told, (b) He must act in conformity with the lies, (c) He may have to tell more lies to avoid being found out, (d) He has to be wary of those he’s lied to, (e) His long-term credibility is at risk, (f) He will probably suffer harm if he’s found out, if he’s found out, people are more likely to lie to him, he’s less likely to believed in future, (g) His own view of integrity is damaged, (h) He may find it easier to lie again or to do other wrong. Those who tell “good lies” don’t generally suffer these consequences—although they may do so on some occasions.

Society can also be hurt because: (a) The general level of truthfulness falls—other people may be encouraged to lie, (b) Lying may become a generally accepted practice in some quarters, (c) It becomes harder for people to trust each other or the institution of society, (d) Social cohesion is weakened, (e)Eventually no one is able to believe anyone else and society collapses.

In some culture, lying is part of everyday life for most people (like in japan) and people are used to it and don’t expect to be told the truth (esp. about opinions and feelings) all the time. In other cultures (e.g. France), even a white lie is objectionable, as the truth is more important than “flattering” or avoiding shocking people.

Some lies lead to someone’s death, the best example of this was the movie about “I know what you did last summer” it is the story of four friends who are being attacked by a killer, one year after covering up a car accidents in which they were involved.

Most of the people choose to believe in lies because believing in lies make less thinking and sheep hate to think. They like others to think for them and lie is sweet and truth is bitter. Sometimes the truth strings and some people cant handle it so they choose to believe the lies that been told to them.

Lying takes many forms, whether it is mere exaggeration or blatant untruths.
It is the severity of the lies, the frequency of the lies and the reasoning behind the lies that points to a psychological problem.

The capacity to lie is noted early and nearly universally in human development. Social psychology and developmental psychology are concerned with the theory of mind, which people employ to simulate another’s reaction to their story and determine if a lie will be believable. The most commonly cited milestone, what is known as Machiavellian intelligence, is at the age of about four and a half years, when children begin to be able to lie convincingly. Before this, they seem simply unable to comprehend why others don’t see the same view of events that they do — and seem to assume that there is only one point of view, which is their own.

Those with Parkinson’s disease show difficulties in deceiving others, difficulties that link to prefrontal hypometabolism. This suggests a link between the capacity for dishonesty and integrity of prefrontal functioning. Pseudologia fantastica is a term applied by psychiatrists to the behaviour of habitual or compulsive lying. Mythomania is the condition where there is an excessive or abnormal propensity for lying and exaggerating.

Young children learn from experience that stating an untruth can avoid punishment for misdeeds, before they develop the theory of mind necessary to understand why it works. In this stage of development, children will sometimes tell outrageous and unbelievable lies, because they lack the conceptual framework to judge whether a statement is believable, or even to understand the concept of believability When children first learn how lying works, they lack the moral understanding of when to refrain from doing it. It takes years of watching people tell lies, and the results of these lies, to develop a proper understanding.

Propensity to lie varies greatly between children, some doing so habitually and others being habitually honest. Habits in this regard are likely to change in early adulthood. Lying takes longer than telling the truth. Or, “It does not require many words to speak the truth.” Researchers find that college students lie to their mothers in one out of two conversations. We’re not talking little white lies, here. We are talking about actually misleading someone, deliberately conveying a false impression.

If your niece is very young and she lies, it may be a sign that she needs more attention from her parents or caregivers. Kids may resort to lying when a new sibling is born or when parents seem distracted by their own problems. It could also be a signal that something is going on in school that needs remedying. It’s wise for a parent to ask a child what’s going on. It could be as simple a conversation as: “Tell me about some things that happen in your day that you like,” followed by, “Now tell me about things that happen to you that you don’t like.” That’s generally a good way for adults to get helpful information without making the child feel ashamed about her lying.

If your niece is older and concocts fabulous stories, perhaps her work and other aspects of her life need to be more challenging. It may be that she feels overly constrained by rules and regulations or a situation that deprives her of stimulation and experience. Most people who lie are not entirely comfortable doing so. The conversations in which they lied were not as pleasant or intimate as truthful encounters. But the mental distress felt from being untruthful doesn’t last long…

b) Operationalized the Variables

Lying & Deception
–no, no, what I mean is…
the art of mendacity…
Lying. Tell a lie? Nah, you’d never do that–would you? Recent research on lying is showing that up to 60% of people lie, males doing so more than females by two to three times. People lie an average of 25 times a day, mostly to dodge trouble, make themselves look good, or to avoid discomfort to others. By about age 2.5-3 about 70% of children are capable of lying, and some can do it well. At age four, they will peek when told not to do so. Young children will lie about actions, but not about how they feel. By age 10 they are more sophisticated because they can pretend.

As they get older, cheating becomes more common. In a self-test experiment in which they were asked to take a test but not look at the answers on the back of the page, 40% routinely cheated (60% if there was a reward for performance). 100% of those who cheated lied about doing so. In experiments at the University of Massachusetts, students were encouraged to introduced themselves to others. Over 60% lied about themselves (3 times every 10 minutes!), made up fictitious information to make themselves look better, yet there was no benefit to the lie.

Regarding detection of lying: FBI agents and judges actually no better than others at detecting a lie. Robert Feldman at the University of Massachusetts reports that most people aren’t aware of how often they mask the truth. His research shows that people “shade the truth” 1-6 times per hour in interactions. Gender differences show that women more often lie to protect others, while men lie to promote themselves (The truth about lying, 2001).

c) Set up observation

d) Write questionnaire

What is lying?
Why lying is wrong?
What are the difference between a compulsive liar and pathological liar? What is hypometabolism, Pseudologia fantastica, and Mythomania? Why does people usually lie? Is plagiarism can be considered a minor lies? Why do most of the time people believed in a lie, Even they know that it is a lie? What should a parent do to encourage his/her children to tell the truth instead of lying? Is lying can be considered as a crime or an offence?

What are the effects or consequences of telling a lie? And how to tell truth despite the consequences?

Chapter Five

The truth about lying
(understanding the psychology of lying)

Some people are so expert at deception that it often takes a long time to find out that we have been lied to.

If you lie all the time even about unimportant things you are likely to have a problem that will eventually cause you real relationship, financial or
legal troubles.

Figuring out what is driving you to lie in the first place will help you heal this self-destructive behavior. This may mean going into treatment with a therapist to discover why you feel the need to deceive.

Most of the people choose to believed in a lie because some lies are hard to take and just like what they say what you don’t know wont hurt you, some cannot handle the truth so they choose to believe what others say even though they know it themselves that it is not true.

We hate liar or dislike liar because it’s a matter of trust, when person lies they have broken a bond—unspoken agreement to treat other as we would like to be treated serious deception often makes it impossible for us to trust another person again.

Because the issue of truth is on the line, coming clean about the lies as soon as possible is the best way to mend fences. If the truth only comes out once it is forced, repair of trust is far less likely. For example, as a parent, the most important message you can send your children about lying is that you always want them to come clean with you no matter how big a whopper they have told, remind them that you would always rather hear the truth, no matter how bad it is than be deceive.

There are many kinds of lies. Lying in court after taking an oath is called “perjury” and is usually treated as a crime or offence. At the other extremity, there are “white lies”, which give good feelings to another person (e.g. telling your friend that you like their new jacket, when in fact you hate it)

Logically, white lies can be good because they avoid creating unnecessary trouble and make people happy. But on the other hand, when people find out about a lie (even a white lie), they may be even more hurt than if they were told the truth at first in a tactful way.

Lies that create a serious trouble and can even lead to some people’s death or serious injuries, damages or lead to paranoia or depression. Imagine someone who is in love and the loved person tell him/her that they also love her/him, but after some time, when the first person is already deeply committed emotionally, they find out that their loved one really doesn’t care at all about them and he/she commit suicide. Or what a person selling his/her car and telling the buyer that everything is fine, when in fact he knows that the breaks are dysfunctional, and the buyer dies in an accident because of that?

What about someone lying to their partner about their faithfulness and transmitting them a fatal STD by abusing their trust these lies are simple and pretty common examples of lies that can have tragic consequences.

That is why lying can be considered as crime, even a white lie (like the first and last example in the above paragraph). What differentiate of crime from an offense, is that a crime harms people or create physical or psychological damages. An offense (like speeding, drunk, driving, etc.) means not respecting a law or rule, without causing any harm or damage to anybody else (if a person drives under the influence of alcohol and commits an accident, it becomes a crime)

The problem with lies (esp. white lies) is that the harm is not direct and does not always happen afterwards (e.g. if the person doesn’t find out and nothing bad happens). But as it depends somewhat on the motivation of chance of the person who is lied to, to find out the truth, lying is always a potential crime (people can always find out if they try or just by chance). That is why any lies can considered as a crime, even if the harm has not yet been done, because it can still happen in the future. Of course, lying about how much you like your friends new clothes is a benign crime.

Lying is very much like stealing in that it can be graded, from benign to extremely serious, stealing a blank sheet of paper from your company is not even punishable but stealing a Leonardo da Vinci in a Museum is quite another matter. Lying is the same, a small lie with little consequence is a
pardonable crime, but it’s still a crime, like stealing.

Lying causes anxiety, depression and physical illness. You constantly worry your lies will be revealed. Keeping your stories straight requires a lot of work. After you lie to someone, you may not like being around that person. Lies ruin friendship, work relationship and marriages. If someone catches you lying, he or she wont easily believes you again. Your status in that person’s eyes drops to zero.

You lie because you are afraid of what might happen, if you tell the truth. You afraid you can’t handle the consequences, but then the lies become a problem and you suffer worse consequences. So instead of worrying about the consequences as your first priority. Tell the truth as your first priority and then deal with the consequences.

There are some benefits that a person can get from telling a truth, (a) Because you tell the truth, you don’t have to remember what you said to whom. You wont accidentally contradict yourself, (b) You earn the reputation as an honest person, if you are a manager, your staff members tell each other, “our boss might be more honest about your work than you sometimes want to hear, but it’s better to know the truth ”, (c) People follow your example and are more truthful to you, (d) Your stress level drops.

You sleep better, eat better and look better, (e) You can look at yourself in the mirror. Lying causes self-criticism and depression. Honesty causes self-confidence and pride, (f) You’re more persuasive, To be persuasive, you need to be believable. To be believable, you must be truthful, (g) Most of all, you are trustworthy. When people can trust you, you earn their support. You need people’s support to reach your goals.

In general, lying is not considered a good habit. But it is always depends on the situation and purpose of lying. If it is meant for achieving some superior objectives with some universal interest like universal peace or universal happiness, one can lie, But it is not suggested for anyone to tell a lie.

A lie has three essential features:
A lie communicates some information. The liar intends to deceive or mislead. The liar believes that what they are saying is not true. A lie doesn’t have to give false information.
A lie doesn’t have to be told with a bad(malicious) intentions.

Lying is bad because a generally truthful word is a good thing. Lying diminishes trust between human beings: if people generally didn’t tell the truth, life would become very difficult, as nobody could be trusted and nothing you heard or read could be trusted—you would have to find everything out for yourself. An untrusting world is also bad for liars—lying isn’t much use if everyone is doing it.

Types of Liars

A “Natural Liars” is someone who does have a conscience but is confident of their ability to deceive, and has been doing so since childhood. Often they learned to lie to their parents to avoid terrible punishments that would be handed out if they told the truth. Many natural liars capitalize on this ability as adults by becoming trial lawyers, salespeople, negotiators, actors, politicians and spies.

An “Unnatural Liar” is a person who, as a child was convinced by his parents it was impossible for him to lie and that the parent and others would always detect it, These poor saps go through life telling everyone, insisting “I can never tell a lie” and causing anger and trouble among everyone they meet.

Chapter Six

Analyze the Data

Lying is a skill that requires intelligence, intuition, emotional intelligence, quick-wittedness, and knowledge of what makes a lie generally believable or generally not believable. You can’t tell a lie if you start out looking untrustworthy. When you’re deceiving people you care about in a way that would harm them, lying can be fatal. Lying has its share of problems, especially in the compulsive or pathological sense, but people also couldn’t exist entirely without it.

Bad thing about lying is that it can affect your psychological well being if you lie most of the time. It can create a conflict between your super-ego (conscience) and ego (the reality principle). It creates tension, which makes you feel unpleasant. And in the end, you might have disorders or behavior problem due to constant lying, and lying will not solve any problem

Lying is often a useful skill to have in the short-term. The problem is when you’re revealed to have a reputation for lying, and thus everyone will be less willing to help you with anything. Most of the time, people will believe anything, as long as it’s a logical, at least in their minds. But if you lie to absolutely everyone, someone’s going to call you on it, and everyone else you’ve ever spoken to is going to know about it. It can be disastrous for your reputation, including occupationally.

Over a long-term, it is not so useful, and can get you in trouble in all areas of life. It should be used only when appropriate; as in, when you can get away with it without needing to think too hard about the lie itself. In situations where you have to defend your lie, it becomes more difficult, as well as risky.

Lies doesn’t only hurt the one who’s been lied to but also the society and the liar itself.
Lie have a different reasons, its either to hide something or are afraid to the consequences it would create. There are lies that comes even if it didn’t intended to. But there are also others who would lie to hurt others, these kinds of lying is not good to exercise and may consider as a crime. Avoidance of the eye contact can be considered as one of the proof that a person is lying.

People who have psychological problems that result in perpetual lying can seek treatment with a competent behavior professional. Treatment may include counseling, behavior modification or contracts between the patient and therapist that include negative consequences for lying and positive reinforcements when the patient consistently tells the truth. If you have trouble with a compulsion to lie despite efforts to stop, consider seeking out professional assistance from a specialist who has experience in helping people who cannot seem to stop lying. Lying is well researched in the field of psychology, and for this reason there is hope for people who have a problem with compulsively telling a lies for whatever reasons

Chapter Seven

Conclusion

There are different reason why we lie, its either we didn’t have a choice because of the situation or because we cant face the consequences if we tell the truth. For example, if a person was saw the crime scene and he/she’s the only witness and the investigation found out that he/she was on the crime scene and they would interrogate him/her that person would choose to lie to be able to save her life and he/she was afraid that if he/she would tell the truth the criminals would chase him/her and eventually kill her/him.

Sometimes we lie not because we are afraid at the consequences we would face if we tell the truth, sometime we didn’t lie for others, most of the time we lie to ourselves, we choose to tell a lie to others so they would not pity to us, sometimes we tell to them that we are happy even if we don’t really, sometimes we tell to them that we are ok and we will be ok even though we knew to ourselves that we’re not.

We choose to lie to them because we love them, we don’t want them to worry for us anymore, telling a lie doesn’t always means we want to harm others, its not simple to tell a lie because you’re not only making that person believe you but you want to believe yourself that it is ok, sometimes lying is our only way to scape those scenario that we cant handle, it is our self-defense for us not to be hurt from those person who hurt us badly.

Even there are different reason why we lie it is still consider as a sin and
should not be exercise, we should always tell the truth and face the consequences it would take.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Psychology

Watson believed that psychology did not accomplish the goal of predicting and controlling the behavior of a person. He believed that psychology had two problems; the pursuit of consciousness as an object of study and the use of introspection as a method. Watson developed a type of psychology that he believed would address these issues, behaviorism. “Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior” this is the definition of behaviorism that John Watson expressed as his Columbia address. Behaviorism is said to limit the psychological study of behavior. Watson believes that humans had three innate emotions when they were born: fear, rage, and love. The goal would be to take one of the emotions and condition it to a stimulus in order to create a response that was not previously elicited. This was demonstrated in the “Little Albert” experiment.

Watson had a baby, Little Albert, who was not fearful of white rats. During the experiment whenever Little Albert was shown a white rat Watson would pair it with a loud noise until the baby showed fear. This experiment showed that fear can be conditioned in a person. Behaviorism tended to dominate American Psychology until approximately 1954 when cognitive psychology started. “You say you want a revolution. Well, we all want to change the world.” This quote describes the change in psychology that developed cognitive psychology during an era of social change. Experimental psychologist began seeing a change when the number of unexplained human behavior increased. Psychologist started to think that in order to understand human behavior, mental processes can no longer be ignored. Cognitive psychology was created to understand these mental processes by analyzing the way sensory information is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recover, and used in the brain. It can be explained using a computer metaphor, which means that the ideas of conceptual models played a role in the processing, storage, and retrieval of information.

Which leads to Gestalt’s psychology experience should be studied as it occurs. Experience is processed into storage in our brain and that storage is available for retrieval for later experiences. An example of this would be Gestalt’s Organizing Tendencies, organization such as grouping is learned at a young age and stored in our memory, now every time after that  experience the mind tends to organize the stimuli into groups without the person’s awareness this is happening. In conclusion, behaviorism is the prediction and control in behavior and cognitive psychology has to do with the way the brain senses, percepts, imagines, retains, recalls, problem solves, and thinks. Behaviorism and cognitive psychology both need each other to exist it is not possible for one to exist without the other. Behaviorism is human experience that is argued that experience is not directly knowable.

Scientist began to see an increase in unexplained behavior and determined that mental processes must be analyzed in order to have an accurate depiction of the experiences that should be studied as they occur. Cognitive psychology may be superior to behaviorism because it takes behaviorism to the next level. Behaviorism is the human experiences and cognitive psychology added the extra factor of analyzing the mental processes. In closing, cognitive psychology would not exist without the basic theories of behaviorism and behaviorism would have faded away quickly having so many unexplained behaviors. Cognitive psychology and behaviorism need each other to exist.

Work Cited

Benjamin, L.T. (2007). A brief history of modern psychology. Malden, MA: Wiley- Blackwell.

Psychology as a science

In this subject, Psychology will help you understand yourself and others. You will gain insight about why people behave the way they do, presented from a biological, behavioral, social and clinical perspective. We will explore the inner workings of the brain. It will help you to learn how to apply what you learn to yourself and your environment.

Psychology is a science because it is systematic and empirical, and it is dependent on measurement.

Behavior means activities that can be observed objectively, such as the reactions of the muscles and the glands, as well as the organized patterns of responses as a whole. It also includes internal processes such as thinking, feeling and other reactions which cannot be directly observed but can be inferred from external behavior. Behavior may be classified as overt or covert and intrinsic or extrinsic behavior.

In this subject, Psychology will help you understand yourself and others. You will gain insight about why people behave the way they do, presented from a biological, behavioral, social and clinical perspective. We will explore the inner workings of the brain. It will help you to learn how to apply what you learn to yourself and your environment.

Psychology is a science because it is systematic and empirical, and it is dependent on measurement. Behavior means activities that can be observed objectively, such as the reactions of the muscles and the glands, as well as the organized patterns of responses as a whole. It also includes internal processes such as thinking, feeling and other reactions which cannot be directly observed but can be inferred from external behavior. Behavior may be classified as overt or covert and intrinsic or extrinsic behavior.

In this subject, Psychology will help you understand yourself and others. You will gain insight about why people behave the way they do, presented from a biological, behavioral, social and clinical perspective. We will explore the inner workings of the brain. It will help you to learn how to apply what you learn to yourself and your environment.

Attachment – Psychology

Developmental
Psychology
Early Social Development:
Attachment

Attachment
  An emotional bond between two people. It is a two-way process that endures over time. It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking and serves the function of protecting the infant.
  Primary attachment figure

The person who has formed the closest bond with a child,demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship. Usually the biological mother, but other people can fulfil the role.

  Learning theory

A group of explanations which explain behaviour in terms of learning rather than any innate or higher order tendencies. Mainly used by behaviourists who rather focus their explanations purely on what behaviour they observe.

Learning Theory
 Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – food

Unconditioned Response (UR) – pleasure

Neutral Stimulus (NS) – the feeder

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – food from a feeder

Conditioned Response (CR) – pleasure/attachment

Learning Theory
  Operant Conditioning
  Reinforcement
  When doing something results in a pleasant consequence, the behaviour is more likely to be produced.
  Punishment
  When doing something results in an unpleasant consequence, the behaviour is unlikely to be produced.
  Dollard and Miller (1950) explain attachment using operant conditioning:
  When an infant is fed it reduces discomfort and increases pleasure, this serves as a reward and is the primary
reinforcer. The person supplying the food is associated with avoiding discomfort and is the source of reward which becomes the secondary reinforcer. Attachment occurs because the child seeks the person who supplies the reward.

Evaluating the Learning Theory
  Strengths

It can provide adequate explanations of how attachments form.   Behaviourists argue that since we are made up of the same building blocks of stimulus/response environments experiments done on animals are safe to generalize to human behaviour.

  Weakness
  It may be attention and responsiveness from the caregiver that is the primary reinforcer, not food.
  Learning theory is largely based on studies with non-human animals. Human behaviour may be similar in many ways but learning theory does not consider higher order thinking and emotions that can influence behaviour.

  Harlow (1959) demonstrated that it is not food but the level of contact and comfort the infant receives that increases attachment levels. The use of young rhesus monkeys were used to demonstrate this.

  60 babies were studied in Glasgow and found that attachment was higher to the person who was most responsive and who interacted with them more (Schaffer and Emerson,1964).

Cant explain the importance of sensitivity in attachment.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory (1969)
  ELEMENTS OF BOWLBY’S ATTACHMENT THEORY:
  Attachment is adaptive and innate
  Bowlby’s theory is an evolutionary theory because it sees attachment as a behaviour that adds to its survival and ultimately its reproductive value. Having attachment capabilities is an innate drive, similar to imprinting, that has long term benefits ensuring it stays close to its caregiver.   Background on the Theory of Evolution
  Adaptive behaviours are behaviours that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction.
  Natural selection is the continuation of these adaptive traits within the animal to increase chances of survival.
  Sexual selection is the ability to reproduce, not just survive. Adaptive genes that lead to possessing traits to assist in reproduction increases sexual selection.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
  Sensitive Period
  A biologically determined period of time during the second quarter of the first year is the most crucial period in which attachments can be made. Once missed then it is more difficult for a child to make attachments and demonstrate social difficulties.

  Caregiving is adaptive
  Not only attachment but also caregiving is adaptively innate. Social releasers from the infant give signals to the caregiver (smiling, crying, etc) to take care of it. Attachment is the innate system in babies and caregiving is the innate system in adults.

  Secure base
  Having a secure attachment provides a child with a secure base in which to explore the world from. It fosters independence, not dependence.   Monotropy and hierarchy
  Infants form a number of different attachments but has one particular bias towards a very special one called the primary attachment, this is called monotropy. Even with secondary attachments, this hierarchy of attachments recognizes the importance of a primary attachment figure (PAF). The PAF is one that responds most sensitively to the childs social releasers. Secondary attachments are important, without them, children tend to lack social skills.

Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
  Internal working model
  A mental model of the world that enables individuals to predict and control their environment. The internal working model based on attachment has several consequences:
  In the short-term it gives the child insight into the caregivers behaviour and enables the child to influence the caregivers behaviour so that a true partnership can
be formed.
  In the long-term it acts as a template for all future relationships because it generates expectations about how people behave.
  The continuity hypothesis
  The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults.

Evaluating Attachment Theory
  Strengths


Lorenz (1952) supports that imprinting is innate as the goslings imprinted on the first thing they saw moving, which was Lorenz.

Research shows that once the sensitive period has passed and no attachments are formed, children display social difficulties with peers. If attachment and caregiving are an important biological function as Bowlby suggests then they would be found universally. Tronick et al (1992) studied an African tribe in Zaire and found despite tribal responsibility for raising kids a PAF is present. This is also evidence of monotropy.

Schaffer and Emerson found that the more quickly a caregiver responded to a childs needs and the more interaction they had led to a stronger level of attachment. This interaction is important as it is not enough to have something to cuddle but to actually be cuddled back builds a stronger attachment.

The Minnesota longitudinal study (2005) found that continuity between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour. Infants classified as secure were later rated highest for social competence, less isolated, more empathetic and more popular.

Evaluating Attachment Theory
  Weaknesses
  Multiple attachments, according to psychologists, are as equally important. There are no primary or secondary attachments, all attachments are integrated into one single working model. However, a review the research points to the hierarchical model as being predominant (Prior and Glaser,

2006).
An alternative explanation to the continuity hypothesis exists, known as the temperament hypothesis. This is the belief that children form secure attachments simply because they have a more ‘easy’ temperament from birth, whereas more innately difficult children a more likely to form insecure attachments. The infants temperamental characteristics shapes a mothers level of responsiveness. Thomas and Chess (1977) identified infant personality types as easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up. Belsky and Rovine (1987) found a link between physiological behaviours and later attachments types. The more calm and less anxious (aspects of temperament) an infant was the more likely they were to develop secure attachments.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation (Ainsworth and Wittig, 1969)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU

Aim: to see how infants behave under situations of stress with the introduction of a stranger and the separation of the parent. This tests stranger anxiety and separation anxiety and also the infants willingness to explore with its secure base.
Procedure: a 9×9 research room marked off into 16 squares was used. The procedure consists of 8 episodes…
MEMORISE THEM!!!
Data is collected by a group of observers that recorded what the infant was doing every 15 seconds. Observer noted the type of behaviour and level of intensity on a scale of 1-7.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation Findings:
  Ainsworth combined data from several studies to make 106 middle-class infants observed.
Similarities and differences were found in the way the infants behaved. In terms of similarities, it was noted that episode 2 onwards exploratory behaviour decreased while crying increased.
Proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining increased during separation and when stranger appeared. Finally, contact-resisting and proximityavoiding behaviours rarely occurred towards the caregiver prior to separation.

Types of Attachment
  The Strange Situation Findings:

Ainsworth found differences in three main types of children. 

Insecure-avoidant: this is a style of attachment characterising those children that tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy with others. 

Secure attachment: this is a strong and contented attachment of an infant to his or her caregiver which develops as a result of sensitive responding by the caregiver to the infants needs.

Insecure-resistant: this is a style of ambivalent attachment characterising children who both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction.

Main and Solomon (1986) re-analysed the strange situation video tapes and created a fourth attachment type:

Insecure-disorganised: these infants lack a coherent and consistent strategy for dealing with the stress of separation.
Secure

% of infants
(Ainsworth, 1978)
% of infants (Van
Ijzendoorn et , 1999)

Insecure
avoidant

Insecure
resistant

Insecure
disorganised

66%

22%

12%

XXX

62%

15%

9%

15%

Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Strengths

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation technique has given psychologists a means to understand and study attachment which can lead to new future findings. 

Intervention strategies have been developed to strengthen caregiving behaviour and attachments types. The Circle of Security Project (Cooper et al, 2005) which teaches caregivers to recognise signs of distress showed a decrease in disordered caregiving and an increase in secure attachment types.

It has proven to be experimentally valid as its construct validity has been demonstrated by other studies supporting the four types of attachments and its predictive validity has been demonstrated in correlations between early attachment types and later behaviours.

  Its findings are also consistent which makes them reliable. Using interobserver reliablity methods, Ainsworth found almost perfect agreement at . 94 between the raters (1.0 is perfect).
  Weakness
  Or does it lack validity, because it is intended to measure the attachment type of an infant, BUT does it really simply measure the quality of a particular relationship? Main and Weston (1981) claim it is measuring one relationship instead of something innate within an individual. 

Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Effects of attachment types
  Bowlby’s continuity hypothesis would predict that a child’s behaviour later in life would be effected by specific
attachment types they develop.
  Prior and Glaser (2006) found that in later childhood, if as infants they developed a secure attachment type, they would be less emotionally dependent and possess more interpersonal harmony. Infants with the other three types would be more aggressive, negative withdrawn in later childhood.
  It would also effect you in your adult romantic lives as well. Hazen and Shaver (1987) conducted the ‘Love Quiz’ which asked questions about early experiences and current love experiences and found that there were characteristic patterns of later romantic behaviour associated with each early attachment type.

Evaluating Types of Attachment
  Factors that influence attachment type

Sensitivity
  Ainsworth developed the Maternal Sensitivity Scale to rate mothers’ behaviour such as sensitivity and insensitivity to infants signals. The scale found:
Securely attached infant

Observed Mothers bx

Insecurely
attached infant

Avoidant infant

Resistant infant more sensitive, cooperating

Unresponsive to crying less affectionate

More rejecting and less attention giving

Preoccupied with routine activities when holding infant

Maternal reflective functioning
  Some studies have shown low correlations between measures of sensitivity and strength of attachment. Slade et al (2005) found the ability to understand what someone else is thinking or feeling may be more important.

Temperament
  May play a role as previous research indicates, but it is unclear.

Cultural Variations in Attachment
  KNOW the definitions of culture, cultural

variations and the difference between
individualistic and collectivistic cultures (pg.45)
  Cross-cultural Similarities
  Ainsworth’s

Uganda study (1967)
  Tronick et al (1992) study on the African tribe in
Zaire
  Fox (1977) infants in Isreali kibbutz raised by nurses when tested in the Strange Situation appeared equally attached to both caregivers, except in the reunion behaviour where they showed greater attachment to their mothers.

Cultural Variations in Attachment
  Cross-cultural Differences
  Grossman and Grossman (1991) found that German infants appear more insecurely attached rather than secure. This may be due to the different childrearing practices as German culture involves keeping some interpersonal distance from the parent and infant.

  Takahashi (1990) used the Strange Situation on a group of 60 middle-class infants in Japan and found similar rates of secure attachment. However, the infants showed no evidence of insecure-avoidant and high rates of insecureresistance (32%). Different childrearing practices can explain the difference for in Japan the infants are rarely ever separated from their parents which is why they would be more distressed than their American counterparts.   Conclusions

  These studies suggest that the strongest attachments are still formed with their mothers and that there are differences in attachment that can be related to differences in cultural attitudes.
  Meta-analysis study by Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) examined over 2000 Strange Situation classification studies in 8 countries. They found the variation between countries and culture were small with secure attachment being the most common in all countries followed by insecure-avoidant except in Japan and Israel. Variations within cultures however were greater. In conclusion the findings appear to be similar to that found in the US and this supports the view that attachment is an innate and biological process. Also data collected on different subcultures should not be generalised to be representative of a particular culture.

Criticisms of Research on Cultural
Variations
  Culture bias

Rothbaum et al (2000) argued that attachment theory and research is not relevant to other countries because it is rooted in American culture. For example, the sensitivity hypothesis reflects western ideas of autonomy whereas in Japan sensitivity is about promoting dependence. The continuity hypothesis states that secure infant attachments create more competent adults, however, this ‘competence’ is defined in terms of individuation. The secure base hypothesis in the west explains secure attached infants as independent and confident exploring whereas in Japan they promote dependence and the concept of amae and so this can explain why insecure-resistant behaviours are more typical.

Rothbaum concludes that psychologists should produce a set of indigenous theories that are explanations of attachment that are rooted in individual cultures with a small group of universal principles (infant need for protection) but mostly with childcare practices relating to cultural values.

Rothbaum was challenged by Posada and Jacobs (2001) which
shows that attachment theory does apply to most cultures.

Criticisms of Research on Cultural
Variations
  Criticisms of cross-cultural research
  Tests of procedures used may not be equally valid in the country and may make the culture appear ‘inferior’ or ‘abnormal’. This is an example of imposed etic. This is when a research method is used in one culture even thought it was designed to be used in another (intelligence tests or observations).
  The group that was tested may not be representative of the culture and yet researchers might make generalisations about the whole culture or even the whole country.

Disruption of Attachment
  Effects of Separation


Spitz and Wolf (1946) observed 100 children in an institution became severely depressed after a few months.

Skeels and Dye (1939) found similar children scored lower on intelligence tests.

Bifulo et al (1992) found that negative effects of deprivation may occur later in life. When 249 women who had lost their mothers before they were 17 were studied, it was found that they were twice as likely to develop depressive/anxiety disorders later in life.

Robertsons (1967-73) made films observing the effects of separation in children:

When given a high level of emotional care and similar structures to that of their home life, the children exhibited some signs of distress, however, slept well and did not reject their PAF when they were reunited. Some were even reluctant to part with the foster mother which is a sign of a good emotional bond.

John, however, was in a nursery and not given such attention. He became withdrawn and gave up on proximity seeking bx. When he was reunited with his mother he rejected her for months and demonstrated outbursts of anger towards her.

Disruption of Attachment
  Physical and Emotional Disruption
  As the research evidence shows differences in the way physical and emotional attention is given can produce negative effects in children. However, there are studies that show these ill effects can be reversed.
  Sigvardsson (1979) studied over 600 adopted children in Sweden and at the age of eleven, 26% of them were classified as ‘problem children’. However in a follow up study, ten years later they were no worse off than the average population.
  So when alternative emotional care is provided, ill effects of separation can be reversed. However, for some children disruption of attachment leads to permanent difficulties.
  To criticise the validity of the research consider that they are based on case studies. Weakness of case studies are that they are based on generalisations and they depend on objectivity of the observers and are prone to observer bias.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Isolated children
  Privation is the lack of having any attachments due to the failure to

develop such attachments early in life.
  Genie

The Czech twins

Locked in a room by her father until she was 13. When discovered she could not stand erect or speak. She was disinterested in people and never recovered socially.

Locked away by their step-mother until the age of 7. Were looked after by their sisters and by 14 had normal social and intellectual capabilities. By 20 they had above average intelligence and
excellent social skills.

Evaluation

Was unclear whether or not Genie was retarded at birth or if she ever formed an attachment with her mother. The Czech twins may have formed attachments to each other to compensate for complete lack of care. It is difficult to reach firm conclusions based on only these cases.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Institutional Care

Multiple studies show that the effects of institutionalisation within children is acute distress.
Longitudinal studies have been conducted to see what long term effects are
caused by institutionalisation.

Hodges and Tizard (1989) followed a group of 65 British children from early life to adolescence. Children have been place in an institution from before they were 4 months old. Children have not yet formed attachments at this age. An early study found that 70% of the children were not able to care deeply for anyone.

The children were assessed regularly up to the age of 16. Some children remained while most were adopted or restored with their original families. The restored children were less likely to develop an attachment with their mothers but the adopted ones were as closely attached to their adopted parents as the control group. However, both groups had problems with peers and showed signs of disinhibited attachment.

These findings suggest that early privation had negative effects on the ability to form relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. If failure to develop attachments after the sensitive period occur it can have an irreversible effect on emotional development.

Failure to Form Attachment
  Effects of Privation and Institutionalisation
  Attachment disorder
  This has been recognised as a psychiatric condition and has been included in the DSMIV. There are two kinds of attachment disorder, inhibited and disinhibited. Children with an attachment disorder have no PAF, cant interact or relate to others before the age of 5 and have experienced severe neglect or frequent changes in caregivers.

  Poor parenting skills
  Harlow’s monkeys that were raised with surrogate mothers went on to become poor parents. Also, Quinton et al (1984) found similar findings when he compared 50 women who had been raised in institutions. When the women were in their 20’s the ex-institutionalised mothers were experiencing extreme
difficulties acting as parents.

  Deprivation dwarfism
  Physical evidence by Gardner (1972) that institutionalised children are physically underdeveloped, potentially caused by stress hormones.   Evaluation
  In the study of Romanian children, one-third recovered well despite not establishing a PAF prior to the sensitive period. Therefore, privation alone cannot explain negative outcomes. This suggests that damage occurs when there are multiple risk factors (Turner and Lloyd, 1995).

  Not sure if the children failed to form attachments early in life. Maybe they did and the problems they experienced later were more related to rejection.

Impact of Day Care

Day Care – the form of temporary care not given by the family or someone well known to the child and usually outside of the home.
Social development – the aspect of a child’s growth concerned with the development of sociability, where the child learns to relate to others and with the process of socialisation, the child learns social skills appropriate to the society.

  Negative effects on social development
  Meta-analysis from findings of 88 studies supports Bowlby’s research that prolonged separation from the PAF leads to maladjustment. Violata and Russell (1994) concluded that regular day care for more than 20 hrs a week had an unmistakable negative effect on socio-emotional development, behaviour and attachment of young children.

  NICHD in USA conducted a longitudinal study of over 1000 children. Parents were interviewed regarding the effects of regular day care. The study showed that the more time a child spent in day care, regardless of quality, the adults rated them as more disobedient and aggressive (NICHD, 2003). The children in day care were 3 times more likely to demonstrate behavioural problems than children that were cared by their mothers. Melhuish (2004) found evidence that children with high levels of day care in the first two years of development had elevated risks of developing anti-social behaviours.

  The Minnesota longitudinal study demonstrated the more securely attached infants are the more popular with peers they become. So therefore, the more insecure an infant, more peer related problems could be expected. Belsky and Rovine (1988) assessed attachment in children in day care and found that were more likely to be insecurely attached compared to children at home.

Impact of Day Care
  Positive effects on social development



Good day care provides plenty of social stimulation, whereas, children living at home may lack social interactions.
Brown and Harris (1978) found depressed mothers contributed their low moods to being isolated at home with children.
Depressed mothers are likely to form insecure attachments with their children which would have a negative effect on their children. Therefore, the independence gained with having a child in day care is a way to prevent this.

Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) studied 150 children and found they were consistently more compliant and independent.
The EPPE followed 3000 children in pre-schools and found
increased sociability (Sylvia et al, 2003).
Day care exposes children to their peers thus enabling them to develop social
strategies (negotiate and make friends). Field (1991) found a positive correlation between the amount of time in day care and the number of friends children have once they enter school. Also, those that started day care before 6 months were more sociable than those that started later.

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Weaknesses of research on day care

When evaluating the research, one must consider the
circumstances under which one can find positive or negative
outcomes.

Prodromidis (1995) found no correlation between Swedish children in day care and aggression.

Freidman from NICHD explains the aggression study actually shows that day care children may be more aggressive than non-day care, but still 83% of children in day care between 10 -30 hours a week show no signs of aggression.

Second important finding from the NICHD research is that the mothers sensitivity to the child, higher maternal education and income all play a more important role in decreased behavioural problems than the amount of time in day care.

Finally, the findings are not causal. The data cannot show that day care caused aggression only that there is a link between the two. Therefore, the data suggests that childrens development is more strongly affected by factors at home than those in day care (Belsky et al, 2007).

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Weaknesses of Research on Day Care
  Cannot apply a cause relating to peer relations as well, only a link. For example, shy and unsociable
children have mothers that are shy and unsociable, therefore, its possible that more outgoing parents/children that go to day care.
  A lot of research supports the idea that day care alone has no direct effect on development and that there are other factors involved. Gregg et al (2005) analysed findings from the Children of the 90’s study and concluded that for the majority of children, maternal employment in their first 3 years of life had no adverse effects on behaviour.

Evaluating Research on Day Care
  Mediating Factors

Quality of Care

Individual Differences

As the quality of care decreases it is expected that the attachment type will become poorer. NICHD study (1997) found that low-quality care was associated with poor social development. As parents have different interests in their child, day care staff are less invested and therefore provide a different kind of attention. This is reflected in Howes and Hamilton (1992) findings that secure attachments occurred in only 50% of day care staff but 70% in mothers.

The NICHD study found the more secure a child’s attachment level is the better they cope with time spent in day care. However, another study showed that insecure children coped better than secure children (showed more aggressive bx) in day care.

Child’s age and number of hours

Gregg et al (2005) found that negative effects were more likely to be found in children starting day care before 18 months of age. However, the magnitude of these effects was small.

Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) found no difference in attachment between spending a lot of time in day care (more than 30 hours) with those that spend a little time (less than 10 hours).

Implications of Research into
Attachment and Day care
  Attachment Research
  Attachment research has shown that when separation occurs, negative effects of this separation can be avoided if substitute emotional care can be provided and links to the PAF are made available. This research has changed the way hospitals handle visiting arrangements and the way institutional care is provided.   A second implication is the way the adoptions process is managed allowing babies to be adopted earlier strengthening child/parent attachments (Singer, 1985).   Another implication is the improvement of parenting skills, ie, Circle of Security, which improves infant/mother relationships.

  Finally, attachment research has been used to improve day care quality focusing on the importance of secondary attachment figures.
  Day Care Research
  As research shows, high quality care leads to positive outcomes. What is highquality care?   Low child-staff ratios – 3:1 is ideal for sensitive care to be given   Minimal staff turnover – allows for consistent care and decreases anxiety   Sensitive emotional care – only 23% of carers demonstrated highly sensitive care, 50% was moderate care and 20% were emotionally detached.   Qualified staff – qualified managers lead to better social development   To ensure high-quality care, legal standards are implemented relating to staff ratio to age of the child, minimum qualifications of staff, Ofsted inspections and finally the sure Start programme.

Psychology Analysis on Disney Character

Extra Credit
The fictional character I chose to diagnose is Donkey from Shrek. Donkey is a hyperactive, talkative, funny and sensitive donkey with buckteeth. He enjoys singing, senseless chatter and usually speaks Ebonics. He also proves to be rather annoying to those around him. Donkey has a sweet tooth as well. He enjoys parfait, cake and other pastries of the sort. Some of Donkey’s quirks include acrophobia, which is a fear of heights. He is also colorblind and suffers from hypochondria; this is a fear of illness. Donkey is impatient and has a short attention span too.

In my opinion, Donkey has bipolar disorder. Often through out the movie he shows multiple signs of hyperactivity, elation, irritability, flights of ideas, rapid thinking and speaking, and moderate reckless behavior. Donkey showed signs of hyperactivity from the moment he was able to speak. When he was hit with some of that pixie dust, he attained the ability of speech and flight. Even though the ability for him to fly did not last very long, he still retained the talking part. Once he realized he was able to talk permanently, that was his way out of every situation he got into.

Donkey’s hyperactivity comes from the fact that he was always locked up in a cage and was taken care of by an old woman who treated him very poorly. Since he got his freedom he showed his true colors and abused the fact that he was able to talk or do as he pleases. Throughout the movie, Shrek would get very aggravated with him because he just would not shut up or stop moving. He could not hold still for five seconds.

Donkey shows signs of elation and euphoria as well. No matter what you do to him or how bad you do it, Donkey always looks at the bright side of things and pretends as if nothing ever happened. Either that or he is just an oblivious animal. This sense of euphoria adds on to his hyperactivity. Since he is always happy and hyperactive, it is hard to get his attention therefore making it an ordeal for others to talk to him because he would
just dose off into his own little world mid conversation and act as if he just won the mega-millions.

Donkey does not get irritated very often, but when he does, he actually becomes quite persistent. After Shrek and Donkey deliver Fiona to Lord Farquaad, Donkey follows Shrek to his fairy tale character free swamp and attempts to live there. Shrek then mentions that he will build a fort around his swamp and Donkey becomes more and more irritated as Shrek wants to be left alone. While Donkey is outside he takes the initiative to build his own fort therefore dividing Shrek’s land. When Shrek comes back out he questions Donkey’s decision and they start arguing. As the conversation persists, Donkey becomes more and more aggressive with Shrek leading them to become physical to start shoving each other. In my opinion, Donkey is showing signs of irritability because it seems to me that nothing ever went his way. Furthermore, he was always told what to do and was treated insignificantly and undermined.

Since Donkey is always so hyperactive and on the move, he does not allow himself or for his brain to process his thoughts or actions. You can pretty much compare Donkey to a puppy with new chew toy or a cat with a ball of yarn. Since he feels this euphoria and hyperactivity, he is happy. When you are happy you tend to be more relaxed and your sense of awareness goes down a level, therefore causing Donkey to have rapid thinking and speaking.

Aside from euphoria, hyperactivity, irritability, and rapid thinking and speaking Donkey also has flights of ideas. Sometimes he would become so happy and coiled up from one event that he does not think about the future. This leads him to come up with ideas that seem rational and foolproof in his mind but in reality it is very dangerous, stupid and nearly impossible. Because of the fact that he is so happy and looks mostly on the bright side of things, he does not consider the consequences, therefore putting himself and others in danger.

Through out the movie, Donkey does not show much sign of reckless behavior either. The most reckless thing he has done is speak to a dragon while Shrek tried to infiltrate the castle and save the princess. If this situation was looked upon by professionals they would say that Donkey has to be admitted into a mental institution. If you were to ask Donkey how he felt about his actions, I believe he would see it completely normal and would not find any problems.

I believe this reckless behavior also generates from his symptoms of hyperactivity, rapid thinking and speaking and euphoria. Additionally, after Shrek attempts to stop the marriage of Fiona and Farquaad, Donkey comes flying in with the same dragon he was talking to earlier in the movie. It just so happens to be that the dragon is a female dragon. At the end of the movie, when all the antagonists are defeated, Shrek and Fiona go off to the swamp and get married with all their fairy tail creature friends. Again, Donkey comes flying in with his girlfriend dragon, but this time they come in with little baby fire breathing flying Donkeys. To me this would be a reckless thing to do because; well for one he is a donkey and she is a dragon. I would imagine the difficulty to conceive children.

Overall, I believe Donkey’s most vital symptoms are hyperactivity, euphoria, and rapid speaking and thinking. In my opinion, these major symptoms trigger Donkey’s minor symptoms that are flights of ideas, reckless behavior, and irritability. If the major symptoms were treated or worked upon then Donkey would have an easier time controlling his minor symptoms.

I think that if there was a way to develop some sort physical program for Donkey to take part in, it would help him with his hyperactivity and rapid thinking and speaking but would most likely increase his sense of euphoria. The physical program would be meant for Donkey to spend his energy. Therefore, this would make him tired and he would no longer be hyperactive to the degree he was before he did any physical activity. Furthermore, it would lessen the intensity of his rapid thinking and speaking because when you have no energy or are tired then you seem to be slowed down and more calm. This would essentially lead Donkey to learn how to control his urges of hyperactivity and make him think of what he is actually going to do.

History of Social Psychology

As a scientific discipline, social psychology is only a bit older than one hundred years, with most of the growth occurring during the past five decades (McGarty & Haslam, 1997). By most standards, social psychology is a relatively young science.

In discussing the discipline’s history, it should be noted that there are two social psychologies, one in psychology and the other in sociology, with the larger of the two being the psychological branch (Jones, 1998). The central focus of psychological social psychology is how the individual responds to social stimuli, whereas sociological social psychology focuses on larger group or societal variables, such as people’s socioeconomic status, their social roles, and cultural norms (Stryker, 1997). Although there have been calls to merge the two social psychologies into a single field (Backman, 1983)-—and even a joint psychology-sociology doctoral program at the University of Michigan from 1946 to 1967–their different orientations make it doubtful that this will transpire in the foreseeable future. In this historical overview, the psychological branch of the discipline will be highlighted.

Wundt and The Dawning of a Scientific Discipline: 1862-1894

German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1921), who is widely regarded as the founder of psychology, had a hand in the early development of what would become social psychology. In 1862, Wundt proposed that there should be two branches of psychology: physiological psychology and social or folk psychology (Völkerpsychologie). Largely due to his influential writings, by 1900 Germany’s annual bibliography of the psychological literature listed over 200 articles per year under the heading “social psychology.” Despite his influence in shaping social psychology in Europe, Wundt’s ideas had little impact on American social scientists because his writings were not translated into English and his conception of psychology as the “science of the mind” was incompatible with the new behaviorist perspective in the United States that emerged during the early years of the 20th century.

Underlying behaviorism was a philosophy known as logical positivism, which contended that knowledge should be expressed in terms that could be verified empirically or through direct observation. This new “science of behavior” had little use for Wundt’s conception of social psychology. This was especially true for the social psychology developing in psychology in America, but less so for sociological social psychology. Thus, psychological social psychology in America, which would become the intellectual core of the discipline, developed largely outside the realm of Wundtian influence.

The Early Years: 1895–1935

An American psychologist at Indiana University, Norman Triplett, is generally credited with having conducted the first empirical social psychological study. In 1895 Triplett asked the following question: “How does a person’s performance of a task change when other people are present?” The question was prompted by Triplett noticing that a bicycle racer’s speed was faster when he was paced by other cyclists than when he raced alone. Being a racing enthusiast and desiring to learn what caused these different race times, he devised the first social scientific experiment.

In this study, he asked children to quickly wind line on a fishing reel either alone or in the presence of other children performing the same task. As he had predicted, the children wound the line faster when in the presence of other children. Published in 1897, this study is credited with introducing the experimental method into the social sciences. Despite the significance of this study, it took a full generation for researchers to understand the social psychological dynamics underlying Triplett’s findings (see the chapter 10 discussion of social facilitation). Despite this accomplishment, Triplett did nothing to establish social psychology as a distinct subfield of psychology.

Credit for this achievement goes to the first authors of textbooks bearing that title, namely, English psychologist William McDougall and American sociologist Edward Ross, who each published separate texts in 1908. Consistent with the contemporary perspective in psychological social psychology, McDougall considered the individual to be the principal unit of analysis in this new science, while Ross, true to the contemporary sociological social psychology perspective, highlighted groups.

Despite the inauguration of this new subfield within psychology and sociology, social psychology still lacked a distinct identity. How was it different from the other subdisciplines within the two larger disciplines? What were its methods of inquiry? In 1924 a third social psychology text, published by Floyd Allport (older brother of Gordon Allport), went a long way in answering these questions for psychological social psychology. Reading his words today, you can see the emerging perspective that would one day permeate the psychological branch of the field:

I believe that only within the individual can we find the behavior mechanisms and consciousness which are fundamental in the interactions between individuals…. There is no psychology of groups which is not essentially and entirely a psychology of individuals…. Psychology in all its branches is a science of the individual. (Allport, 1924, p. 4)

Allport’s conception of social psychology was proposed eleven years after John Watson ushered in the behaviorist era in American psychology. Allport’s brand of social psychology emphasized how the person responds to stimuli in the social environment, with the group merely being one of many such stimuli. Beyond this emerging individualist and behaviorist stamp, Allport further shaped the identity of American social psychology by extolling the virtues of the experimental method in studying such topics as conformity, nonverbal communication, and social facilitation. The pursuit of social psychological knowledge through carefully controlled experimental procedures would increasingly characterize the field in the coming years.

As Allport’s conception of social psychology gained American adherents, German social psychology was being shaped by the Gestalt perspective, which rejected both the existing European-inspired notion of a group mind and the American individualist stand that groups were not real in themselves. Instead, Gestalt social psychologists contended that the social environment is made up not only of individuals, but of relations between individuals, and these relationships have important psychological implications. Thus, Gestalt social psychologists promoted an understanding of groups as real social entities, which directly led to the tradition of group processes and group dynamics that still exists today. These two schools of thought within psychological social psychology, one in America and the other in Germany, which were developing independent of one another, would soon be thrust together due to events on the world scene.

The Coming of Age: 1936–1945

During the first three decades of the twentieth century, Allport’s conception of social psychology emphasized basic research, with little consideration given to addressing specific social problems or broader issues bearing on reform. However, by the mid-1930s, the discipline was poised for further growth and expansion. The events that had the greatest impact on social psychology at this critical juncture in its history were the Great Depression in the United States and the social and political upheavals in Europe generated by the First and Second World Wars.

Following the stock market crash of 1929, many young psychologists were unable to find or hold jobs. Experiencing firsthand the impact of societal forces, many of them adopted the liberal ideals of the Roosevelt “New Dealers” or the more radical left-wing political views of the socialist and communist parties. In 1936 these social scientists formed an organization dedicated to the scientific study of important social issues and the support for progressive social action (Stagner, 1986).

This organization, known as the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), contained many social psychologists who were interested in applying their newly developed theories and political activism to real-world problems. One of the important contributions of SPSSI to social psychology was, and continues to be, the infusion of ethics and values into the discussion of social life. Its immediate impact on social psychology in the 1930s was to infuse a more applied character to research. New areas of research spawned during this decade were intergroup relations, leadership, propaganda, organizational behavior, voting behavior, and consumer behavior.

In other countries, world events triggered changes that further distinguished American social psychology from its scientific cousins abroad. For example, the communist revolution in Russia at the end of the First World War led to a purging of individualist-oriented research and theorizing, a development that stood in stark contrast to the increasing focus on the individual within American social psychology. In 1936, the Soviet Union’s Communist Party forbids the use of psychological tests in various applied settings, which effectively prohibited the study of individual differences. At the same time, the rise of fascism in Germany, Spain, and Italy created a strong anti-intellectual and anti-Semitic atmosphere in these countries.

To escape this persecution, a number of Europe’s leading social scientists, such as Fritz Heider, Gustav Ichheiser, Kurt Lewin, and Theodor Adorno, immigrated to America. When the United States entered the war, many social psychologists—both American and European— applied their knowledge of human behavior in a wide variety of wartime programs, including the selection of officers for the Office of Strategic Services (the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency) and the undermining of enemy morale (Hoffman, 1992). The constructive work resulting from this collaboration demonstrated the practical usefulness of social psychology.

During this time of global strife, one of the most influential social psychologists was Kurt Lewin, a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany. Lewin was instrumental in founding SPSSI and served as its president in 1941. He firmly believed that social psychology did not have to make a choice between being either a pure science or an applied science. His oft-repeated maxim, “No research without action, and no action without research” continues to influence social psychologists interested in applying their knowledge to current social problems (Ash, 1992). By the time of his death in 1947 at the age of 57, Lewin had provided many of social psychology’s defining characteristics (Lewin, 1936; Lewin et al., 1939).

With the end of the war, prospects were bright for social psychology in North America. Based on their heightened stature in the scientific community, social psychologists established new research facilities, secured government grants, and, most important, trained graduate students. These future social psychologists were predominantly white, male, and middle class. Many of their mentors were the European scholars who had fled their native countries and then remained in America following the war. Yet, while social psychology was flourishing in this country, the devastating effects of the world war virtually destroyed the discipline overseas. In this postwar period, the United States emerged as the unchallenged world power, and just as it exported its material goods to other countries, it exported its social psychology as well. This brand of social psychology reflected the political ideology of American society and the social problems encountered within its boundaries (Farr, 1996).

Rapid Expansion: 1946–1969

With its infusion of European intellectuals and the recently trained young American social psychologists, the maturing science of social psychology expanded its theoretical and research base. To understand how a civilized society like Germany could fall under the influence of a ruthless demagogue like Adolf Hitler, Theodor Adorno and his colleagues (Adorno et al., 1950) studied the psychological parameters of the authoritarian personality. Some years later, Stanley Milgram (1963) extended this line of research in his now famous obedience experiments, which examined the conditions that make people more likely to obey destructive authority figures.

Social psychologists also focused their attention on the influence that the group had on the individual (Asch, 1956) and of the power of persuasive communication (Hovland et al., 1949). Arguably the most significant line of research and theorizing during this period was Leon Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957). This theory asserted that people’s thoughts and actions were motivated by a desire to maintain cognitive consistency. The simplicity of the theory and its often surprising findings generated interest and enthusiasm both inside and outside of social psychology for many years.

Social psychology’s concern with societal prejudice continued to assert itself during the 1950s. For example, the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision to end the practice of racially segregated education was partly based on Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark’s research indicating that segregation negatively affected the self-concept of Black children. In that same year, Gordon Allport (brother of Floyd Allport) provided a theoretical outline for how desegregation might reduce racial prejudice. What came to be known as the contact hypothesis was a social psychological blueprint for reducing hostility between groups by manipulating situational variables. This perspective toward understanding and “fixing” prejudice better fit the behaviorist social psychology practiced in America than the earlier developed authoritarian personality approach.

The decade of the 1960s was a time of turmoil in the United States, with the country caught in the grip of political assassinations, urban violence, social protests, and the Vietnam War. People were searching for constructive ways to change society for the better. Following this lead, social psychologists devoted more research time to such topics as aggression, helping, attraction, and love. The groundbreaking research of Elaine Hatfield and Ellen Berscheid (Berscheid & Hatfield, 1969; Hatfield et al., 1966) on interpersonal and romantic attraction, for example, was not only important in widening the scope of social psychological inquiry, but it also generated considerable controversy outside the field. A number of public officials and ordinary citizens thought social scientists should not try to understand the mysteries of romance. Less controversial was the bystander intervention research conducted by Bibb Latané and John Darley (1968), which was inspired by the 1984 murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City.

Despite the wariness of some, during the 1960s the federal government expanded its attempts to cure societal ills with the guidance of social scientists. Within this cultural context, the number of social psychologists rose dramatically. Among these new social scientists were an increasing number of women and, to a lesser degree, minority members. Whole new lines of inquiry into social behavior commenced, with an increasing interest in the interaction of the social situation with personality factors. The multitude and diversity of these lines of research would continue into the following decades (Pion et al., 1996).

Crisis and Reassesesment: 1970–1984

When social psychology first emerged from World War II and embarked on its rapid expansion, one of the pioneers in the field, Theodore Newcomb (1951), expressed concern that expectations were greater than anything that could be delivered in the near future. By the 1970s, when solutions to societal problems were no closer to being solved, and as the usefulness and ethics of experimental research came under increased scrutiny, a “crisis of confidence” emerged (Elms, 1975). When this disappointment and criticism was followed by accusations from women and minorities that past research and theory reflected the biases of a white, male-dominated view of reality, many began to reassess the field’s basic premises.

Fortunately, out of this crisis emerged a more vital and inclusive field of social psychology. More rigorous ethical standards were established, and although experiments remained the method of choice, researchers began conducting more correlational studies, as well as employing other methods. Regarding accusations of racial and gender bias, social psychology began moving toward more responsible positions, but such biases have yet to be eliminated from the discipline (Graham, 1992; Tesser & Bau, 2002). Another important development during this time period was the importing of ideas from cognitive psychology in explaining social behavior.

This “cognitive revolution” (see p. 00) greatly enhanced theory and research in all areas of social psychology, and its impact persists today. Accompanying the social cognitive emphasis was renewed interest in the concept of the self, which previously had been the focus of only sociological social psychologists. However, with the waning influence of behaviorism, psychological social psychologists rediscovered the insights of founding social scientists such as William James, John Dewey, Charles Horton Cooley, and George Herbert Mead. Soon the self became a central concept within psychological social psychology.

An Expanding Global and Interdisciplinary View of Social Psychology: 1985–present

By the 1970s, both European and Latin American social psychological associations had been founded, and in 1995, the Asian Association of Social Psychology was formed. The social psychology that developed overseas placed more emphasis on intergroup and societal variables in explaining social behavior than did its American cousin. In the mid-1980s, this overseas influence began to reshape the discipline, as social psychologists throughout the world actively exchanged ideas and collaborated on multinational studies (Fiske et al., 1998; Vala et al., 1996). Many of the new ideas about social behavior were generated by scholars from collectivist cultures who were raised within societies that have a very different perspective on the relationship between the individual and the group than that within the societies of traditional social psychologists.

Subsequent cross-cultural research found that certain social beliefs and behaviors that were previously considered universal were in actuality specific to the socialization practices of individualist cultures. Based on these findings, considerable research attention was devoted to determining which aspects of human behavior are culture specific–due to conditions existing within a particular culture–and which ones are due to human’s shared evolutionary heritage. Although social psychology’s “professional center of gravity” still resides in the United States, European and Third World social psychology offers the entire field opportunities to escape what some consider the limitations of this “gravitational pull” to perceive new worlds of social reality (Shinha, 2003; Tam et al., 2003). This multicultural perspective will continue to guide research in the coming years.

Contemporary social psychologists have also continued the legacy of Kurt Lewin and SPSSI by applying their knowledge to a wide arena of everyday life, such as law, health, education, politics, sports, and business (Ellsworth & Mauro, 1998; Kinder, 1998; Salovey et al., 1998). This interest in applying the principles and findings of social psychology is a natural outgrowth of the search for understanding.

Despite the dominance of social cognition in the 1980s, some social psychologists raised concerns about the relative lack of focus on emotions and motives in explaining social thinking. These critics of existing social cognitive theories argued that to think of motives and affect as merely end products in a central processing system was to dehumanize social psychology. In the early 1990s, a number of social psychologists sought to establish a more balanced view by blending the traditional hot and cold perspectives into what some have termed the Warm Look. These revised social-cognitive theories proposed that people employ multiple cognitive strategies based on their current goals, motives, and needs. Theorists typically developed dual-process models, meaning that social thinking and behavior is determined by two different ways of understanding and responding to social stimuli.

One mode of information processing—related to the cold perspective legacy–is based on effortful, reflective thinking, in which no action is taken until its potential consequences are properly weighed and evaluated. The alternative mode of processing information–related to the hot perspective legacy—is based on minimal cognitive effort, in which behavior is impulsively and unintentionally activated by emotions, habits, or biological drives, often below the “radar” of consciousness. Which of the two avenues of information processing people take at any given time is the subject of ongoing research.

This attention to both explicit and implicit cognition has recently prompted social psychologists to explore how neural activity in the brain is associated with various social psychological processes, including self-awareness, self-regulation, attitude formation and change, group interaction, and prejudice. Although the numbers of social psychologists who pursue such research is still relatively small, the knowledge they acquire concerning the biology of social behavior will undoubtedly play a role in reshaping existing theories. Indeed, the U.S. federal government’s National Institute of Mental Health—which has an annual budget of 1.3 billion dollars–has recently given priority to research grants that combine social psychology and neuroscience.

In concluding this historical overview, if the life of a scientific discipline is analogous to a person’s life, then contemporary social psychology is best thought of as a “young adult” in the social sciences. Compared with some of the more established sciences, social psychology is “barely dry behind the ears” and still subject to growing pains (Abrams & Hogg, 2004; Brewer, 2004; Rozin, 2001). Yet it is a discipline where new and innovative ideas are unusually welcome, where new theoretical approaches and scientific methods from other scientific disciplines are regularly incorporated into the study of social thinking and behavior, and where members of the discipline regularly question the social significance of their findings. In this ongoing critical self-assessment, most social psychologists are confident that their still-young science will continue revealing important insights into how we function as social creatures. Some of the milestones of the field are listed in table 1.

Table 1
Some Milestones in the Field of Social Psychology

The Dawning of a New Discipline and Early Years

1862: Wilhelm Wundt proposes that psychology establish human or social sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) to study the higher mental processes involving language, social practices and customs, religion, and art.

1897: Norman Triplett publishes the first scientific study of social behavior, on a topic that was later called social facilitation.

1900: Wundt publishes the first volume of what would become a classic 10-volume set of Völkerpsychologie (folk or social psychology) which analyzed a wide variety of social thought and behavior.

1908: Psychologist William McDougall and sociologist Edward Ross separately publish social psychology textbooks.

1920: Willy Hellpach founds the first Institute for Social Psychology in
Germany. Hitler’s rise to power leads to the institute’s demise in 1933.

1924: Floyd Allport publishes the third social psychology text, clearly identifying the focus for the psychological branch of the discipline and covering many topics that are still studied today.

1925: Edward Bogardus develops the social distance scale to measure attitudes toward ethnic groups. Shortly, Louis Thurstone (1928) and Rensis Likert (1932) further advance attitude scale development.

1934: George Herbert Mead’s book Mind, Self, and Society is published, stressing the interaction between the self and others.

The Coming-of-Age Years

1936: The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is founded. Muzafir Sherif publishes The Psychology of Social Norms, describing research on norm formation.

1939: John Dollard and his colleagues introduce the frustration-aggression hypothesis.

1941–1945: Social psychologists are recruited by the U.S. government for the war effort.

Rapid Expansion Years

1949: Carl Hovland and his colleagues publish their first experiments on attitude change and persuasion.

1950: Theodor Adorno and his colleagues publish The Authoritarian Personality, which examines how extreme prejudice can be shaped by personality conflicts in childhood.

1951: Solomon Asch demonstrates conformity to false majority judgments.

1954: Gordon Allport publishes The Nature of Prejudice, which provides the framework for much of the future research on prejudice. Social psychologists provide key testimony in the U.S. Supreme Court desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education.

1957: Leon Festinger publishes A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, emphasizing the need for consistency between cognition and behavior.

1958: Fritz Heider publishes The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, laying the groundwork for attribution theory.

1963: Stanley Milgram publishes his obedience research, demonstrating under what conditions people are likely to obey destructive authority figures.

1965: The Society of Experimental Social Psychology is founded. Edward Jones and Kenneth Davis publish their ideas on social perception, stimulating attribution and social cognition research.

Rapid Expansion Years

1966: The European Association of Experimental Social Psychology is founded. Elaine (Walster) Hatfield and her colleagues publish the first studies of romantic attraction.

1968: John Darley and Bibb Latané present the bystander intervention model, explaining why people often do not help in emergencies.

Crisis and Reassessment Years

1972: Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior, written by six influential attribution theorists, is published. Robert Wicklund and Shelley Duval publish Objective Self-Awareness Theory, describing how self-awareness influences cognition and behavior.

1974: The Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) is founded. Sandra Bem develops the Bem Sex Role Inventory and Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich develop the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, both of which measure gender roles.

1981: Alice Eagly and her colleagues begin conducting meta-analyses of gender comparisons in social behavior, reopening the debate on gender differences.

1984: Susan Fiske and Shelly Taylor publish Social Cognition, summarizing theory and research on the social cognitive perspective in social psychology.

The Expanding Global and Interdisciplinary View Years

1986: Richard Petty and John Cacioppo publish Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes, describing a dual-process model of persuasion.

1989: Jennifer Crocker and Brenda Major publish their Psychological Review article on “Social Stigma and Self-Esteem,” examining how people respond to being the targets of discrimination.

1991: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama publish their Psychological Review article on how culture shapes the self.

1995: Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson publish “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans” in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, presenting their research on how negative stereotypes can shape intellectual identity and performance.

1996: David Buss and Neal Malamuth publish Sex, Power, Conflict, an edited text offering evolutionary and feminist perspectives on sex and gender interactions. A growing number of social psychologists attempt to integrate these previously divergent perspectives.

(Because the passage of time ultimately determines what events significantly shape a field, I will wait a few years before adding any more milestones to this list.)

Developmental psychology

Within the characteristics of effective learning there are seven areas of learning and development made up of three prime areas and four specific areas. The areas describe what children learn through play and exploration, active learning and creating and by thinking critically.

Prime areas – If a child is not secure in the prime areas between the ages of 3 and 5 years, the absence of these may make other areas of their learning more difficult to achieve. This makes the prime and specific areas so interdependent. The prime areas occur in all cultures and communities and are not dependent on the specific areas.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Making relationships
Self-confidence and self-awareness
Managing feelings and behaviour

Communication and Language
Listening and attention
Understanding
Speaking

Physical Development
Moving and handling
Health and self-care

Specific areas – These are less time-sensitive. The specific areas reflect what children have understood and their cultural knowledges which can develop during various stages through life. The specific areas of learning will not take place easily without the prime areas. Literacy

Reading
Writing

Mathematics
Numbers
Shape, space and measure

Understanding the World
People and communities
The world
Technology

Expressive Arts and Design
Exploring using media and materials
Being imaginative

The documented expected outcomes are the early learning goals within the EYFS. The early learning goals are the 17 learning and development requirements covered in the characteristics of effective learning – the three prime and the four specific areas. The early learning goals summarise the knowledge, skills and understanding that all young child should have gained by the end of their reception year. However, not all children will reach the early learning goals by this stage and as all children are unique, their learning will be supported by practitioners to help them progress at their pace. The ‘Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage’ document provides, in detail, guidance for observing what children are learning. It also provides examples of what early years practitioners can do to enable environments and support positive relationships across all of each area.

The documented outcomes are assessed and recorded in a variety of ways and come together to help finalise the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile which is completed at the end of a childs reception year. Leading up to this point, the development of children will have been observed and their progress tracked. Some of the methods used to record progression towards the early learning goals are: Daily observations when children are in session – At nursery all staff observe all children, not just their keychildren.

The observations are linked to the EYFS and recorded in the children’s folders 2 year check – this consists of a short written summary of a child’s development when they are between 24 and 36 months Learning and Development Summary – observations are used to complete this document on a termly basis for each child. These are shared at parent consultation appointments. Contributions from parents – very useful as parents information is essential and helps support early learning in the home environment.

Abnormal Psychology in the Media

The film “A Beautiful Mind” (Grazer, 2001) tells of the true life of John Nash, a Nobel Prize winner who has struggled the majority of his life with paranoid schizophrenia. This essay will evaluate John Nash’s exhibited behaviors, and how therapists from the 5 perspectives of abnormal psychology would have treated his illness.

At the beginning of the movie “A beautiful Mind” (Grazer, 2001), John Nash is moving into a dorm room at Princeton University in 1947. John Nash appears slightly strange by exhibiting social withdrawal by avoiding people, along with a drop in school performance as he does not attend his classes. Soon visual hallucinations become apparent as Charles; his roommate makes appearances with his niece Marcie throughout the movie, along with Parcher, the head of the Department of Defense, who appears later in the movie as John Nash’s hallucinations become worse. John Nash begins to believe that he is employed by the Department of Defense, deciphering secret codes from the Soviets. As John’s hallucinations peak, he is admitted to a mental hospital under the care of Dr. Rosen, who diagnoses him with advanced schizophrenia. During the hospital stay, John received Thorazine injections, rendering him unconscious.

John is seen during his stay at the hospital restrained to a chair, as well as a bed. During the time that he is restrained to a bed, Doctor Rosen is seen administering insulin injections, resulting in seizure activity as John’s wife is viewing the procedure through a window. Doctor Rosen tells Johns wife, Alicia that John must have insulin therapy several times a week in order to get well. Once John has returned home, he is seen taking two pink tablets several times a day. John appears to be keeping to himself while trying to deal with the effects of his medication; he decides to stop taking it without anyone knowing. Soon Alicia discovers that John is again having hallucinations of working for the department of defense requiring John to return to Doctor Rosen.

After John resumes his medications, he begins to realize that Charles, Marcie and Parcher are not real. John goes to his friend Martin, who is in charge of the math department at Princeton University, asking for permission to sit in classes in order for him to get back into society which results in John gaining a teaching position after learning to deal with his illness by ignoring his hallucinations. The five perspectives of abnormal psychology are: biological, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, and sociocultural. The biological model of abnormal psychology “focuses on genetics, neurotransmitters, brain changes, and other physical factors” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012 Pg. 23). Treatment through this model would begin with a “diagnostic interview along with images of the brain structure from an MRI” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25).

After these evaluations, a therapist would decide on the treatment necessary to treat the disorder such as therapy, social training skills, vocational rehabilitation, and medications. John Nash would possibly be given dopamine which “generally has antipsychotic effects easing the symptoms of schizophrenia” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25) and therapy. According to Saul McLeod (2007) the biological approach believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive function. Biological factors such as hormones, chromosomes, and the brain have significant influence on behavior, in the case of John Hall having schizophrenia; biological psychologists believe that levels of dopamine are the cause (Pg. 6).

The psychodynamic model of abnormal psychology “focuses on internal personality characteristics” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25). Treatments from this perspective would begin with a “therapist exploring the patients past for unresolved conflicts” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 30). “Other treatments would be the use of free association, or dream analysis” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 31). In John Nash’s circumstance, the psychodynamic model therapist would be looking into his past for the answer to his hallucinations. According to Laura Saunders (2011) the goal of the psychodynamic model therapist is to enable the patient to gain access to their repressed ideas and conflicts encouraging them to face up to whatever emerges from their unconscious (Pg. 1).

The humanistic model of abnormal psychology “focuses on personal growth, choice, and responsibility” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23), that “Assumes the person’s behavior is determined by perceptions of themselves and others” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 33). The humanistic models treatment begins with “qualitative assessments to find out the unique characteristics of the client, and their perceptions of the world. The therapist will then engage the client in conversations so that the client can develop solutions to their problems” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 34).

Treating John Nash with this type of therapy would include conversations about his hallucinations in order for him to develop his own solutions. According to Kendra Cherry (2013) therapists from the humanistic model of abnormal psychology are focused on the individual’s potential and stress the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of the humanistic model is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from natural tendency (Pg. 1).

The cognitive-behavioral model of abnormal psychology “focuses on specific thoughts and learning experiences” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Treatment from the cognitive-behavioral model would include a “functional analysis, evaluating antecedents and consequences of behavior, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy to change patterns of thinking and behaviors that are contributing to the patients problems” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 38), and “exposure treatment, which involves directly confronting the patients problem, or token economy, which reinforces certain behaviors with rewards” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 39), which John Nash, would possible be involved in, earning points for positive behaviors, and attending therapy.

According to Jean Galica (2013), the cognitive behavioral model is an approach designed to change mental images, thoughts and thought patterns in order to help the patient overcome emotional and behavioral problems. This model is based upon a theory that behaviors and emotions are caused in part by cognitions and cognitive processes that the patient can learn to change (Pg. 3). The sociocultural model of abnormal psychology focuses on “external environmental events and includes the family systems perspective” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Therapy within this model would consist of an “assessment of the patient’s culture, family structure, dynamics, and environment in order to understand the person’s mental health” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 44).

As therapists from this model focus on addressing the patients problems in order to decrease or prevent stress, along with having family and couples therapy in order to include multiple family members into the therapy” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 44). Within this model, John Hall would have attended both individual therapy as well as couples therapy with his wife. According to Sheila Grant (N.D.) therapists from the sociocultural model believe that abnormal behavior may be found in the failures of society rather than from within the person, and that psychological problems can be rooted in requiring the therapist to look deep within the person’s relationships and social life (Pg. 7).

This writer feels that the biological method of abnormal psychology is the best to treat John Nash’s schizophrenia since it “focuses on genetics, neurotransmitters, brain changes, and other physical factors” (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 23). Along with the fact that treatment begins with a diagnostic interview containing MRI brain images (Kearney, C., & Trull, T., 2012, Pg. 25) before a treatment plan for schizophrenia would begin. According to NIMA.Gov (2013) it has been long known that schizophrenia can be inherited, that there are several genes associated with the disease (Pg. 1) resulting in treatments being based upon eliminating the patients symptoms by using medications such as: “antipsychotic medications to help normalize the biochemical imbalances, controlling hallucinations, delusions and confusion, along with supportive therapies” (Grohol, J., 2011, Pg. 1). References

Cherry, K. (2013). Humanistic Psychology. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/hist_humanistic.htm?p=1 Galica, J. (2013). Behavioral/Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.theravive.com/research/Cognitive-Behavioral_Therapy Grant, S. (n.d.). Introduction and Methods of Research. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.csun.edu/~hcpsy002/psy310_Nevid_cho1_Lecture_Handout.pdf Grazer, B. (Producer) & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A Beautiful Mind [Motion picture]. United States: Universal. Grohol, J. (2011). Psych Central: schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from
http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm Kearney, C., & Trull, T. (2012). Abnormal Psychology and Life A Dimensional Approach. Belmont, California: Wadsworth. McLeod, S. (2007). Psychology Perspectives. Retrieved 2/18/2013, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html Saunders, L. (2011). The Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://alevelpsychology.co.uk/as-psychology-aqa-a/psychology/the-psychodynamic nimh.gov (2013). What Causes Schizophrenia?. Retrieved 2/19/2013, from http://www.nimh.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/what-causes-schizophrenia.sht

Physiological Psychology and Ocd

Physiological Psychology is as described by Kalat (1998) as the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behaviour and experience. It is devoted to the study of brain functioning, how Neurons and Glia convey messages to one another and other parts of the body for it to function and work accordingly. Future studies of physiological psychology will help predict behavioural patterns in society and how brain functions can be “rewritten” through cognitive therapies .e.g. alcoholism, drug addictions.

Kalat (1998) further goes onto explain that a Biological psychologist (physiological psychologist) try to answer four types of questions about any given behaviour, how it relates to the physiology of the brain (what parts of the brain are active) and other organs, how it develops within the individual, how did the capacity for this behaviour evolve and why did this behaviour evolve.

Without the physiological understanding of how brain process work in relation to behaviour it is difficult to correctly diagnose a behaviour pattern and its cause.

Kalat (1998) describes that “having a little anxiety can be useful”, however OCD is a condition in which there is excessive anxiety.

OCD can be explained to a patient in simple physiological terms explaining the behaviour of the brain, for example:

OCD patients often have a broken mechanism (being a synapse interaction) in their brain that would usually stop a thought once you have it. In an OCD patient it does not (stop the thought) – so the thought is allowed to revolve. This seems in description that it would sound more like a broken record than OCD really does, but that isn’t what really happens.

OCD can be genetic but is most certainly physiological in nature. Without an understanding of brain functioning and how these neurons interact, how can psychologists work to alleviate the symptoms of the disorder?

Research into the biological causes and effects of OCD has revealed a link between OCD and insufficient levels of the brain chemical, serotonin. Serotonin is one of the brain’s chemical messengers that transmit signals between brain cells. Serotonin plays a role in the regulation of mood, aggression, impulse control, sleep, appetite, body temperature and pain. For example persons with unregulated serotonin lead to destructive antisocial behaviour patterns, which society commonly experiences on a growing scale.

All of the medicines used to treat OCD raise the levels of serotonin available to transmit messages. Without physiological psychological research into the effects that these medicines have on the brain society would lack the knowledge and understanding of how to diagnose and appropriately treat disorders such as OCD.

Modern brain imaging techniques have allowed researchers to study the activity of specific areas of the brain. Such studies have shown that people with OCD have more than usual activity in three areas of the brain. These are:

The caudate nucleus, specific brain cells in the basal ganglia, located deep in the centre of the brain this area of the brain acts as a filter for thoughts coming in from other areas. The caudate nucleus is also considered to be important in managing habitual and repetitive behaviours.

When OCD is successfully treated with drugs or therapy, the activity in this area of the brain usually decreases. This shows that both drugs and a change in “thinking” can alter the physical functioning of the brain.

The prefrontal orbital cortex, located in the front area of the brain the level of activity in the prefrontal orbital cortex is believed to affect appropriate social behaviour. Lowered activity or damage in this region is linked to feeling uninhibited, making bad judgments and feeling a lack of
guilt. More activity may therefore cause more worry about social concerns. Such concerns include: being meticulous, neat and preoccupied with cleanliness, and being afraid of acting inappropriately. All of these concerns are symptoms of OCD.

The cingulate gyrus, in the centre of the brain
the cingulate gyrus is believed to contribute the emotional response to obsessive thoughts. This area of the brain tells you to perform compulsions to relieve anxiety. This region is highly interconnected to the prefrontal orbital cortex and the basal ganglia via a number of brain cell pathways. The basal ganglia, the prefrontal orbital cortex and the cingulate gyrus all have many brain cells affected by serotonin. Researchers believe that medicines that raise the levels of serotonin available to transmit messages may change the level of activity in these areas of the brain. Kalat (1998) offers the idea that drugs intended to control anxiety alter activity at amygdale synapses. “One of the amygdala’s main excitatory neuromodulators is CCK (cholecystokinin), which increases anxiety, and the main inhibitory transmitter is GABA, which inhibits anxiety.”

Without physiological research into the how and why of brain function, people with disorders such as OCD would not be able to function “normally” within society. However this type of research and study is not limited just too diagnosing disorders in those with suspected behavioural problems but also allows insight into society as a whole and its interaction socially, emotionally and habitually. New and innovative studies through physiological research have shown that cognitive behavioural therapy can change activity in certain areas of the brain. The discovery could have important clinical implications on how talk therapies improve brain function and advance mental health.

Researchers discovered significant changes in activity in certain regions of the brain can be produced with as little as four weeks of daily therapy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder as published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. “The study is exciting because it tells us more about how cognitive-behavioural therapy works for OCD and shows that both robust clinical improvements and changes in brain activity occur after only four weeks of intensive treatment,” said Saxena.

Past studies using functional brain imaging studies of patients with OCD have demonstrated that elevated activity along the frontal-sub cortical circuits of the brain decreases in response to treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medications or cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, clinical improvement of OCD symptoms was expected to require up to 12 weeks of behavioural therapy or medication treatment, the standard treatments for OCD. Only a handful of studies have looked at how therapy affects brain function, and all previous studies had examined changes over several months of treatment. Continual studies into physiological psychology will enhance clinical practises and provide a platform for more effective treatment of the symptoms related to this disorder.

Saxena and colleagues at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA made two novel discoveries in their study of 10 OCD patients and 12 control subjects. “First of all, we discovered significant changes in brain activity solely as the result of four weeks of intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy,” said Saxena. “Secondly, these changes were different than those seen in past studies after a standard 12-week therapeutic approach using SRI medications or weekly behavioural therapy.” The researchers obtained positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the ten OCD patients both before and after they received four weeks of a therapy known as “exposure and response prevention,” which gradually desensitizes patients to things that provoke obsession fears or worries. However, the PET scans in this study also showed a significant increase in activity in an area of the brain called the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a region involved in reappraisal and suppression of negative emotions. Increasing activity in this region corresponded to the OCD patients’ improvement in clinical symptoms after the four-week course of intensive therapy. It is possible to see the huge amount of information that physiological research has bought forth to society through just these examples alone.

Physiological psychology is the study of the physiological basis of how we think, connecting the physical operation of the brain with what we actually say and do. It is thus concerned with brain cells, brain structures and components, brain chemistry, and how all this leads to speech and action. Further research as to how growing debilitating disorders such as OCD could be eliminated or drastically reduced in severity has weight in its importance. The research however does not stop with OCD diagnosis but has relevant importance to understand how we take in information in general from our five senses.

Future studies based on OCD research could be more relevant than we think to other major issues facing society such as depression, drug addiction and mental health.

It is imperative for governing bodies to fund education and research into the study of physiological psychology for this very reason.

References:

Kalat 1998 Biological Psychology

Molecular Psychiatry Molecular Psychiatry 14, 197-205 (February 2009) | doi:10.1038/sj.mp.400213

Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity

In David Entwistle’s (2010) Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity based on my reading this book appears to be geared toward an audience that is primarily of pastors and Christian leaders because of the way the book has been worded. The authors main subject and based on the idea of putting the perspectives of psychology and Christian theology together, this was done to give us a better understanding of Christianity really means. Entwistles view is that if you faithfully read the book of god’s work and the book of god’s word you would get a complete understanding of what this book really means (p.3). Based on my reading of this book it is leaning more toward putting psychology and theology together which most people think it’s the same thing but its not. But they are put together in that some of them share some of the same ideas.

The person who wrote this book had he idea that when a person is in treatment for something, they have to be taken care of completely mind, body and soul. Many Christians have a understanding of how human life should be and in order to have a successful life god has to be included. When learning about faith and going to church it’s very important to learn and understand about faith. Entwistle argues “are integral to psychology, not mere parallel to it. (p.199). This statement means that Theology cannot be compared to psychology.

They both are the same in some ways but in a lot of ways they are different. Enwistle does a good job in that he makes his position on the subject of integrating theology and psychology very clear which is a good thing for the readers so the readers can get a full understanding of how this works. Enwistle also gives examples of what he is trying to explain in the book. Many people need examples of what they are reading, that way they can visualize what is going on which in turn gives them a better understanding of how to interpret the information. Another main idea and focus of this 4-MAT REVIEW

book is “integrative approaches in a well-conceived Christian worldview” (p.63) This statement means introducing new ideas into what is already a view of how Christianity and theology are supposed to be. But this can also be a hard thing to do, once people get a certain idea of have things are supposed to be they are afraid to introduce any new ideas. Many people get stubborn in the way that they think about things, once their mind is set its no way in changing it. Another large them in this reading is world views. A definition of a world view is a set of presuppositions which we hold about the basic make up of how the world should go. Many people have a certain view in the way that the world should be, but that’s not a good view to have of the world because this is a new day and age and things change from day to day.

Entwistle in his book identifies 5 models of integration enemies, spies, colonialists, neutral, parties and allies. In using these models they provide a way for people to understand how to integrate these things within psychology and theology (Enwistle, 2010). Enemies are those people that believe integration is not possible, they believe that the two should remain separate. Spies come from both sides of integration they seek out to find information. Colonialists seek out to make psychology more important than theology. Neutral are more isolate but they are also more open to other ideas. The Allies model goes to integrate both psychology and theology by using both gods works and god’s word. Concrete Response

In my reading this book it takes me back to when I was a child I always remembered going to church with my mom, grandma and cousins. I never really understood why we went, so one day I asked my mom and she really didn’t know how to explain it to me. So you got my 4-MAT REVIEW

grandmother to explain it to me since she was a pastor. My grandmother explained to me about the lord and faith, she stated that there was a higher power that we pray to whenever we have problems and issues going on in our lives. She also stated to me that the lord and Jesus Christ was the reason why we were alive and that he created us in his image of how we should. As she was telling me this I was starting to get a better understanding but I was still somewhat confused. So I asked my grandmother when we have a problem or issue why don’t we just go and talk to a psychologists. She explained to me that you could do that but the lord was still needed in order to get what you needed. From that day forward my mom and grandmother always made me go to bible study so that I could still get a better understanding of the bible and how things should go.

It wasn’t until I was middle school that I really understood the whole psychology and theology concept. I considered myself to be a popular person in middle school, but there were quite a few people that didn’t like me and they would always bully me and pick on me. I would go home crying every day I never told my parents what was wrong I would pray to the lord and wonder why people would want to be so hurtful to me, I was a good person and I was always kind to everyone that I met. Then one night I prayed before I went to sleep like I always do. And I was having a dream in the middle of the night and the lord spoke to me. He said Romeo you will never understand people, they will talk about you and hurt your feelings for no reason.

The lord also said Romeo continue being yourself and don’t change for anyone, just continue to pray for people. From that night on I really understood everything about faith. That night I learned that if you pray sincerely to the lord he will answer your prayers. Once I went back to school everyone that was being mean to me started to be nice to me all of a sudden, and I said to myself I was nothing but the lord. That also showed me that people aren’t going to change unless they have 4-MAT REVIEW help from a higher power. But that could go both ways because there are some people who don’t believe in god or have faith. There are also many other faiths in the world.

Reflection
After reading over this book I found that it has some positives and some negatives. Enwistle clearly states how world views affect the way people approach integration. Meaning some people won’t be open to integration due to the fact that they don’t want to change their ways of thinking. Many people have an old school way of thinking and refuse to form a new way of thinking in order to incorporate new ideas. Along with this idea we will never be able to come to a consensus because people will never be able to come to a consensus about how the world is supposed to go. One issue that I found with this book is that Enwistle seems to think that we can approach psychology and theology neutrally as long as we have a central idea of how things are supposed to. That’s an issue in that people are never going to come to a central agreement regarding psychology and theology.

Some people think that psychology is just psychology that nothing else should be incorporated with it. And some people think that theology is just theology that it should only be releated to god and faith. Another issue that I found with this book is that it’s a hard read, Enwistle should have written this book in a simpler form. Many people who read this will have a hard time understanding whats going on. There are simpler ways to understand and explain psychology and theology in a way that people will be able to understand. One good thing about the book is that Enwistle gives a lot of background and history information about psychology and theology. That’s good in that people will get a full understand of those two

4-MAT REVIEW
Subjects. Overall it was a pretty good read and I did learn a lot about how to integrate psychology and theology. Action
After my reading of this book and works, it makes me want to examine my world view more about how things should go. In taking more of a worldview perspective that means I have to take other peoples points of view into consideration. Just because people have different points of views doesn’t mean that they are wrong. It’s a good thing to listen to other people’s point of view. When you do that you gain valuable information about things that you didn’t even know. By me reading Enwistle book it has made me want to set a personal goal to better understand psychology and theology and how they can be integrated.

Reference Page
Enwistle, David (2010) Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianty: an introduction to Worldview issus, philosophical foundations, and models of integration 2nd ed.

Child Psychology Services (Part 3)

Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people. Bullying and the fear of bullying are major worries for many children and young people.

The victims of bullying are usually different in some way from the bully; the differences may be as simple as a different physical characteristic or being seen as a ‘swot’. Bullying can be specific. The basis for the bullying can be one or more of the following forms:

– Physical (pushing, kicking hitting, pinching and other forms of violence or threats).
– Verbal (name-calling, insults, sarcasm, spreading rumours, persistent teasing).
– Emotional (including not speaking to and excluding someone, tormenting ridicule, humiliation).
– Cyber-bullying (the use of information and communications technology particularly mobile phones and the internet, deliberately to upset someone else). Bullying can be carried out by one person against another, or by groups of people ‘ganging up’ on a person. Bullying is not always delivered as a personal face -to- face attack, but can also be delivered through technology.

Potential effects of bullying can be;
– Threatened or attempted suicide.
– Depression.
– Running away.
– Low self esteem.
– Isolation.
– Shyness.
– Poor academic achievement.

There are many reasons and possibilities as to why people bully, most of the time it’s because the victim is different in some way. Below are some of the differences why someone might be bullied: – appearance (e.g. hair colour or style, height).

– Race.
– Religion.
– Nationality.
– Sexual orientation.
– Being jealous.
Both males and females are capable of carrying out a vicious attack such as bullying on others. Some bullies only do it to uphold their reputation and look ‘hard’. Many bullies only bully others out of jealousy and many of the people who have been bullied go on to do great things with their life, like some famous people who have been bullied.

Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place.

All schools are required by law to have anti-bulling policies in place but these vary in how they are worded and the subsequent actions that need to be taken. Schools must also have policies to encourage good behaviour and respect for others on the part for others on the part of pupils. The Department for Education is clear that no form of bullying should be tolerated. Bullying should be taken very seriously; it is not a normal part of growing up and it can ruin lives. The current anti-bulling guidance for schools, Safe to learn: embedding anti-bulling work in schools, was launched in September 2007.

Explain how to support a child or young person and/or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged.

When dealing with someone who is being bullied it is important to remember that they will be very upset although they may not show it on the outside. If they have managed to get up the courage to talk to you then they need to know you will take the problem seriously. In the case of an older child, it is a good idea to ask them to write down exactly what happened and who was there so that you can speak to other people. The more information you have, the better you will be able to deal with the problem and the faster you can sort out exactly what happened. Reassure the victim that you will be back in touch with them as soon as you have completed your investigation and that if there are any more problems in the meantime they must let you know immediately.

Supporting the family
Parents can find it very hard to know how to help their child if they are being bullied. Some parents will have to cope with the news that it is their child who is a bully. You need to know how to support parents in both these cases. Listen to parents; let them explain how they are feeling. Direct them to useful information so that they can start to think how to support their child.

Explain how to support children and young people’s self-confidence and self-esteem.

Children and young people who are:
– Assertive.
– Self-confident.
– Self-aware.
– Have high self-esteem.
Are less likely to be vulnerable to abuse. A child who has high self-esteem will do better in many aspects of development. Self esteem can be supported by:
– Giving lots of praise and encouragement.
– Encouraging independence and choice, with many opportunities to try things out.
– Teaching children how to be assertive (this means having their own needs met but still respecting those of others).
– Encouraging cooperation, respect and tolerance between children, and giving a positive example yourself.

Analyse the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people

Resilience is the ability to deal with the ups and down of life and is based on self-esteem. The more resilient a child is the more they will be able to deal with life as they grow and develop into adulthood. Many factors can positively affect a child’s resilience:

– Secure early attachment.
– Confidence of being loved by family and friends.
– Good sense of self-identity.
– Ability to act independently.
– Confidence to try new things.

Explain why it is important to work with the child or young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety.

The important thing for all children to remember is that they should never feel uncomfortable about someone they are with or something being done to them. Children and young people need support to be able to keep them safe. It is important to be available to talk with children about any concerns they may have. If they are upset by a reported case of abuse, then you should be as reassuring as possible. You should stress that almost all children lead safe and happy lives and only very few adults want to hurt children in any way. Using correct anatomical language, at a level appropriate to the child, is important when you are talking about bodies. Simple, age-appropriate sessions, linked to other activities, on how the human body works help children to understand what their bodies can do and raise awareness of what is normal and what is not. Sessions on ‘body maintenance’ should be an integral part of children’s education, not just to warn them of the danger of misuse. The Keep safe Code produced by Kidscape is an effective way of getting across the message about personal safety to young children. Older children need more detailed information such as:

– Lessons on normal sexual function, related to adult behaviour (relevant to your setting’s policy.
– Information about misuse of their bodies, through smoking, alcohol and illegal drugs.
– The risks of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (Chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhoea, etc.).

Help from other organisations
Organisations such as Kidscape, Childeline and the NSPCC can help with information and guidance on these topics. It is important to use them properly and be sure that information is accurate and used to their best effect.

Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well being and safety.

Children and young people need to be empowered to keep themselves safe. Children will always push boundaries and take risks – that is how we all learn. Your role is to manage those risks without taking away their independence. When they are empowered, and can make their own choices, they are able to do things alone and without supervision.

Child Psychology Services (Part 2)

Explain why it is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm within the work setting.

It is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm within the setting, as the parents are leaving their children in your care with the expectation that they can trust you and your colleagues to keep their children from harm. It is difficult for parents to leave their children in an education or care setting and then go to work; they need to be confident that their children will be in safe supportive hands with people that will help them develop.

Explain policies and procedures that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them.

Any professional working with children or young people is responsible for the care and well being of those children. Making sure that a child is safe on or out of a school setting is of paramount importance. Not only does it make a child or young person feel safe in a learning environment but it also gives the child the security to develop and achieve from an early age. As well as having policies to ensure that only suitable people work in their setting, managers need to promote very clear practices and ways of working to protect both the children and adults work with. Everyone in a setting has a responsibility to work hard to promote the welfare of the children in their care.

– Working in an open and transparent way
– Open-plan rooms, this ensures that no member of staff is totally alone and out of view with a child. Sharing plans and talking about different ways of working also helps to make sure that staff work in the most appropriate ways.

– Listening to children and young people
– Whenever possible avoid agreeing to keep something a secret. Always tell a child if you feel you need to share information, especially if you feel a safeguarding issue is involved. It is important that you record and report any concern you have about a child’s welfare; make sure you know who to go in your setting.

– Power and positions of trust
– If you are involved in the care of children or young people, you are working in a position of trust. You have authority over the children and parents have placed their trust in you to look after them; this brings responsibilities. People who want to occupy position of trust with children and young people and vulnerable adults have to have enhanced CRB checks.

– Propriety and behaviour
– Children and young people tend to respect and look up to people in position of trust. You must think carefully about your own behaviour and the example you set to children and young people in your care.

– Physical contact
– Young children need physical contact; in they have fallen over, a cuddle can help them to recover and get back to playing. However, too much physical contact can be easily misunderstood. Make sure you are familiar with what is acceptable. Taking a child to the toilet, changing a nappy or helping a child change out of soiled clothes are all normal everyday tasks; but never do any of these in a room with the door closed or out of sight of other member of staff. Remembering this protects not only the child but yourself as well.

– Photographs and video recordings
– Photographing or videoing activities in any setting are great ways to let parents see what their children have been doing. Photos and videos are not available to anyone other than parents and carers; always make sure that parents have given permission for photos to be taken.

Evaluate ways in which concerns about poor practice can be reported whilst ensuring that whistleblowers and those whose practice or behaviour is
being questioned are protected.

At some stage whilst working with children you may be faced with the problem of what to do about someone whose practice is unacceptable. You must not ignore poor practice, no matter who it is being carried out by. (It can be very difficult to report someone you work with, or even your manager)

How to whistle blow:
– think about exactly what is worrying you and why.
– approach your supervisor, manager or safeguarding named person.
– tell someone about your concerns as soon as you feel you can.
– put your concerns in writing, outlining the background and history, giving names, dates and places where you can.
– make sure something happens.

Whistle blowing does take courage. There is the risk of being bullied or harassed as a result, but anyone who whistle blows has the right to protection from the person they have raised concerns about. If you suffer as a result of a whistle blowing incident the UK Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 offers legal protection.

Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off site visits.  A significant element of a practitioner’s role in protecting themselves would be to read policies and procedures that are put in place to safeguard them and children or young people in their care. In a care setting a professional can protect themselves by:

– Avoid being alone in a closed room with a child.
– Two members of staff must be present if a child needs to be undressed in the event of an accident.
– If a child is collected late by a parent/carer then two staff members must stay until the child is collected.
– Always be seen to be working in an open and transparent way where there is either visual access or an open door, especially in one to one situations.
– Avoid meetings with children or young people in an isolated or private area of a care setting.

It would be unrealistic to recommend that a member of staff should touch children or young people only in emergencies as very few people would agree with that, especially when young children can become so distressed in certain situations and a cuddle or close contact is needed by the child. Physical contact, guides and support are necessary in a range of settings appropriate to the age of the child and the circumstances at that time. Settings should provide a clear guidance about when and how the physical contact should be used in order to protect both staff and children. Effective management of risk should become automatic as you become more experienced. For every activity you plan, you should think about the hazards, the likelihood of the hazard occurring and the control measures.

– Risk, the outcome or likely impact of the hazard associated with the activity to be undertaken.
– Hazard, something that has the potential to cause harm.
– Likelihood, the probability of any harm from the hazard actually happening.
– Control measure, any activity or measures put in place to control or minimise identified risks. In the case of educational visits, professionals should always carry out a full risk assessment of that visit, under the Health and Safety at work regulations Act 1999 it requires employers to assess the risks of activities, introduce measures to control these risks and inform employees of these measures. Before a trip can be arranged employers must follow the necessary policies and procedures as follows:

– Age, competence, fitness and the standard behaviour of the children and young people.
– Any special educational or medical needs of the children.
– Adult to children ratio.
– The competence and qualifications of the accompanying adults.
– Modes of transport and location of visit.
– Emergency procedures.
– Permission from parents.
– Relevant medical or dietary needs of children.

Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding

It is important that you are aware of the indications of child abuse. Not every sign means a child is being abused. Sometimes the first signs that you observe are not physical but a change in behaviour. It is important that you record your concerns and monitor any unexplained changes in a child’s behaviour. Sometimes a child may be experiencing more than one type of abuse.

Physical abuse
Physical abuse is when a child is physically hurt or injured (hitting, kicking, beating with objects, throwing and shaking are all physical abuse, and cause pain, cuts bruising, broken bones and sometimes even death)

Signs and symptoms of physical abuse can include:
– Unexplained recurrent injuries of burns.
– Wearing heavy clothes to cover injuries, even in hot weather.
– Refusal to undress.
– Bald patches of hair.
– Repeated running away from home.
– Fear of medical examination.
– Aggression towards self and others.
– Fear of physical contact, shrinking back if approached or touched.

Many signs of physical abuse can be confused with genuine accidental injuries, but they are often not in the places or distributed as you would expect. Sometimes the explanation does not fit the injury, or you may see the outline of a belt buckle or cigarette burn. Suspicion should be aroused if the parents have not sought medical advice soon after the injury occurred.

Emotional abuse
Emotional abuse occurs when children are not given love, approval or acceptance. They may be constantly criticised, blamed, sworn and shouted at, told that other people are better than they are. Emotional abuse also
involves withholding love and affection. It is often linked with neglect

Signs and symptoms of emotional abuse can include:
– Delayed development.
– Sudden speech problems such as stammering.
– Low self-esteem.
– Fear of any new situations.
– Neurotic behaviour.
– Extremes of withdrawal or aggression.

Neglect
Neglect, which can result in failure to thrive, is when parents or others looking after children do not provide them with proper food, warmth, shelter, clothing, care or protection

Signs and symptoms of neglect can include:
– Constant hunger.
– Poor personal hygiene.
– Constant tiredness.
– Poor state of clothing.
– Unusual thinness or lack of normal body weight.
– Untreated medical problems.
– No social relationships.
– Stealing food.
– Destructive tendencies.
Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse is when a child is forced or persuaded into sexual acts or situations by others. Children may be encouraged to look at pornography, be harassed by sexual suggestions or comments, be touched sexually or forced to have sex.

Signs and symptoms of sexual abuse can include:
– Sexual knowledge of behaviour that is inappropriate to the child’s age.
– Medical problems such as chronic itching, pain in the genitals, venereal disease.
– Depression, self-mutilation, suicide attempts, running away, overdoses or anorexia.
– Personality changes (becoming insecure or clinging).
– Regressing to younger behaviour patterns (thumb-sucking, cuddly toys).
– Sudden loss of appetite or compulsive eating.
– Being isolated or withdrawn.
– Inability to concentrate.
– Lack of trust or fear of someone they know well, (wanting to be alone with babysitter, child minder).
– Starting to wet or soil again, day or night.
– Becoming worried about clothing being removed.
– Drawing sexually explicit pictures.
– Trying to be ‘ultra-good or perfect, overreacting to criticism.

Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting. All settings that have contact with children and young people must have clear policies and procedures to follow in all cases of abuse. Staff must have training in these and organisation for dealing with the situation. Disclosure of abuse by a child can occur at any time and it can be a shock to hear details. The way an allegation is received can be very important in the outcome to a child, even many years later. There have been many examples in the past of children not being believed at the time they declared their experience often resulting in serious problems later in life. At my nursery setting if a child was to disclose any information we would get onto the child’s level and ask three questions, we would ask;

– What Happened?
– Where did it happen?
– When did it happen?
We would take note of exactly what the child said and take this straight to our safeguarding officer on the premises.

Explain the rights that children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged.

Children and their parents or carers have important rights even in cases of suspected abuse. Most children feel loyal towards those who care for them even when they have been responsible for the abuse, and have difficulty saying anything against them. In situation where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged, it is important to remember the following guidelines.

– Children and young people should receive help so they can express themselves fully, understand what is happening and the decisions that have to be made.
– A child or young person has a right not to be subjected to repeated medical examinations or questioning following any allegation of abuse, whether of a physical or sexual nature
– Family members normally have the right to know what is being said about them and to contribute to important decisions about their lives and those of their children
– Children should be kept fully informed of processes involving them, should be consulted sensitively and decisions about their future should take account of their views.

Child Psychology Services (Part 1)

Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people

Safeguarding children and young people is a key for all professionals who work in all settings where they have contact with children, more so children who could be more vulnerable than others i.e. a child who struggles with a physical or mental disability. All children need to feel safe and secure and are being taught or mentored by adults they can trust. It is of the upmost importance that the correct people, whether they are full time employees or volunteers are given CRB checks. All agencies involved with children (more so, vulnerable children and young people) must take practical measures to make certain that the risk of harm to children/young people’s wellbeing is minimised. If there are concerns about a child/young person’s welfare then all agencies must take appropriate action to deal with these concerns, i.e. working to the agreed local policies and procedures for safeguarding children, keeping records of all reports made about the child is essential as a source to safeguarding children.

Explain the importance of a child or young person centred approach

Essential to safeguarding and encouraging the welfare of a child or young person is having a child’s centred approach. This could include seeing and keeping a child focused through difficulties they could be experiencing. Listening and ascertaining a child’s wishes and feelings will be important for the child, especially if they have formed a strong bond with the professional they are opening up to. It will also be imperative to a child if that professional close to them understands their daily lives and what they might be experiencing, no matter how hard it could be for the adult to hear. Crucially the child or young person will know there are people out there to help and support them when they need advice or guidance. It is important for a child centred approach because every child is different and a unique individual. A child’s wishes should always be taken into account. The national framework for Every Child Matters (Children’s Act 2004) was set up to support children or young people to ensure the joining up of services
to ensure that each individual achieves the five Every child Matters Outcomes which offer support to children to enable them to be;

• Healthy.
• Stay safe.
• Enjoy and achieve.
• Make a positive contribution.
• Achieve economic well-being.

Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding.

When it comes to safeguarding, children are best protected when professionals know what is required of them and how they work together. This means that everyone who works with children has a responsibility for keeping them safe which involves identifying concerns, sharing information and taking prompt action. To carry this out effectively professionals need to work in partnership with each other. Unfortunately, the importance of doing this has come about from professionals failing to protect Victoria Climbie who died in 2000. Her death was preventable as doctors, police and social workers all came into contact with her and had concerns. However, the doctors who treated her discharged her to her abusers care and admitted they assumed the social services would investigate. The social workers were described as incompetent and Victoria’s social worker felt unsupported by her supervisor and described her colleagues as conflicted and chaotic. The police too failed to fully investigate Victoria’s home (for fear of catching scabies) although close family members and Victoria’s child-minder raised their concerns.

Following this case lessons were learnt and recommendations put into place to try and prevent another tragedy where successful partnership working for safeguarding should have stepped in earlier to avoid this abuse. To provide adequate safeguarding measures it helps to have a complete ‘picture’ of the child. Partnership working means each professional, (whether it’s the police, NHS, educations departments, NSPCC or social workers), if they have concerns to do with safeguarding, welfare child protection, they should work with the other agencies in contact with that child. Each of these professionals may have one snapshot and a concern that may, on its own, not necessary need intervention.

By working in partnership and sharing information the bigger picture evolves and, if each profession has a different concern, together the dots can be joined and a clearer decision can be made on any intervention measures. To help co-ordinate partnership working professionals use the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) to assess a child’s needs and use the outcomes to provide access to services to provide necessary support. CAF is a voluntary process which is used with informed consent so families do not have to engage and if they do they choose what information that they want to share. The CAF process is aimed to be used when a teacher, the child concerned or their parent raises concerns about that child’s health, development, welfare, behaviour or progress in learning/wellbeing.

The information gathered enables an assessment to be made of what help is required and how it will be delivered and by whom. A Team around the Child (TAC) is then created to implement the requirements. The professionals that make a TAC vary from child to child depending on their needs and within the TAC a lead professional will have the responsibility to coordinate the work.

Describe the roles and responsibilities of the different organisations that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed.

When a child has been abused or harmed the first line response will be at the point of the allegation or discovery. This could happen in any number of settings, for example at school, in a medical setting or by a child calling child line. All of the agencies or organisations will need to work together but have their own roles in helping the child.

– Social Services have statutory responsibilities to provide support to vulnerable children and families in need. This may be after a death or when families are finding day to day life difficult. Most social workers are employed by social services.

– Health Visitors have a responsibility for the health of babies and young children under the age of five. They provide support and guidance to the
parents of young children and carry out assessments of the child’s development.

– General Practitioners (GPs) work in the community, usually from health centres, and are the gateway to other health services. GPs are often the first people to identify possible abuse when a child attends the surgery.

– Probation Services support people convicted of some offences to be rehabilitated into the community. They have a key role in monitoring people convicted of offences against children and should ensure that those people do not pose a threat to any local children.

– Police are involved in the criminal proceedings that may result from safeguarding issues.
– Schools and Training Organisations are key to identifying and supporting children between the ages of 5
– 18 years when they are in need of help. All staff working with children and young people should be trained in safeguarding and protection.

– Child Psychology Services will often be needed to support children who have experienced harm or abuse.

Psychology Project

Final Output: The Person in Me (An Autobiography that uses Psychological Concepts)

Objective: The purpose of this final output for all General Psychology classes is for you, our students, to be able to identify the role of psychology and various psychological concepts in your lives using a lifespan approach. This activity aims to help you understand that psychology can be applied on a daily basis and that the field can:

help explain who you are as a unique individual and as part of the social environment help you internalize how building good relationships are essential in life assist you in handling your challenges and choosing your direction in life

How to go about writing your story:

1. Think about your audience and try to see things from their perspectives. Aside from the person who will evaluate the quality of your autobiography, who else will you be sharing it with? Is it your friends, family members? What type of readers are they? Do they prefer stories with humor? Do they like reading facts and itty-bitty details?

2. Think about your capacity – can you easily express yourself in prose or in poetry? Do you need to include pictures so that you can tell your story?

3. Think of the direction of your story. Will you be doing Flashbacks? Will you be writing in Chronological order?

4. After deciding on the above, start writing your story. Let the words flow since your first work will most likely be your draft.

5. When you have written your story, read it again. This time analyze which
parts of your story can be connected to psychological concepts.

6. Once you have identified these parts, insert the psychological concepts into the story.

E.g. “I can remember that when I was 7 years old, I lied to my mother about not getting money from her wallet. Although this was deliberate deception and although I regret the day that I did it, I do understand now that what had transpired was actually part of my cognitive development. You see, the Theory of Cognitive Development of Jean Piaget states that a child who is becoming less egocentric comes to understand the perspective of other people. I lied to my mom because I knew she would be annoyed and that she would punish me. I understood that she would have gone berserk over my behavior and I, being the mischievous child that I was, had no intention of allowing my buns to get spanked.”

7. Underline all psychological concepts that you use in your story. You are to use at least 25 and this should span all l of the chapters.

8. Your autobiography should be exactly 10 pages with 1.5 spacing and the default font size of 11 and font type of Times New Roman.

9. The last day of the submission of your autobiography is the first day of the Final Exams Week.

We, at the Psychology Department, hope that you have enjoyed the journey of learning more about yourselves, your peers, others and life in general. Good luck in your endeavors and and we’ll see you around.

Psychology and common sense

Psychology is a scientific and research based study of human mind-set and behaviours. The field of study focuses on emotions, characteristics and behaviours of individuals in their daily lives and their behaviours when interacting with other people. Wilhelm Wundt is the father of psychology, whom set up his first laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. His main contribution to the field of psychology was his idea of structuralism; the use of introspection to study individual’s experiences comprising of sensations, images and feelings. Throughout his course of research, he insisted on using systematic observation and measurement, which serve as a strong foundation for psychology studies in the future. Whereas, common sense basically refers to the common knowledge shared by the majority human population. Such knowledge usually arise from daily observation and interaction one another, past experiences, beliefs that are being passed down for generations and scenarios commonly portrayed in television shows. Much of psychology is not based on common sense, but on research, testing, and applications of theory. As such, psychologists are heavily trained in research methods and statistics.

Psychology is a real science as It uses scientific methods such as the experimental research and analysis to support a hypothesis and that psychology is not just things we see everyday. Psychology has a wide variety of aspects; from the social side of understanding why people behave in a specific way, to the neuroscience side of understanding what goes wrong in the brain of people with mental health disorders. As psychologists attempt to explain the mind and brain in the context of real life, it is definitely not common sense. One common sense belief states that if someone recalls something vividly and confidently, that memory is true and accurate. In another words, an individual will not false memories. Even if there is, the individual will have the ability to differentiate real from false memories. However, psychological research have proven this common sense belief to be wrong.

False memories, also known as pseudomemories, can usually be formed when individual try to fill up the gaps in their memory by logic guesses combining with their actual memory (Koutstaal, Norman & Schacter, 1998, p. 289-318). This action is otherwise called constructive processing. A study by Braun, Ellis and Loftus (2002) shows that sixteen percent of the people who were shown with a fake advertisement of Bugs Bunny in Disney resort actually insisted that they met Bugs in Disney. However, it was not possible since Bugs is a character from Warner Brothers and not Disney (p. 1-23). This study reflected that some subjects experience constructive processing after seeing the fake advertisement. Hence, the false memory formed seems rather logical to them. In another research carried out by Loftus (1997), together with her research associate, Jacqueline Pickrell, they told a group of subjects, ranging from 18 to 53 years old, a series of their childhood incidents recounted by their family members or close relatives.

Out of all the incidents told, they included one whereby the subjects had been lost in a shopping mall when they were still children. In the next two interview sessions, the subjects were asked to recall the incident of being lost in the mall. Surprising, about a quarter of them said they could remember it and even supplied extra details about what happened even though the incident was actually made up. This shows a way of inducing a completely false memory into someone simply by providing external evidence that prompt the happening of such incident (p.71). Similar situation of implanting false memories into someone would be under therapy or hypnosis. The ‘misinformation effect’ is also theory accounted for the formation of pseudomemories. This refers to the distortion of memory as a result of the presence of misleading and suggestive information as well as source confusion (Porter et. Al., 2010, p. 55-61).

The above mentioned studies and psychological theories such as constructive processing, hypnosis, misinformation effect, memory construction and schemas, have proven the common sense belief to be wrong. It is possible for an individual to take pseudomemories as their true and accurate memories. In conclusion, common sense beliefs are knowledge that everybody are exposed to whereas psychology comprises of careful and scientific researches and analysis. Though common sense beliefs may be widely used and agreed to, that do not necessary mean that they are correct. In fact, they are generally false explanations of thought process and behaviour. Psychologists are hence able to come up with psychological explanation to prove the direct opposite of the common sense. Nonetheless, psychological explanation can also be used to prove certain common sense beliefs which are true. As such, people can view psychology as a tool employed to prove the credibility of common sense. Therefore, psychology is not just common sense.

Different Perspectives of Psychology

What is psychology and how can people understand it better? Psychology is a scientific term used to understand how the mind and body works together. It is also the studying of human behavior and the understanding of other people’s thoughts and behaviors as well. To comprehend psychology and how it has evolved since its beginning, people need to know and comprehend some perspectives or theories that have been used in the past. Some examples of the different theories are: behaviorism, cognitive, humanistic, structuralism and psychodynamic. By having a basic knowledge of the different perspectives, it will help us have a better understanding of how psychology works today. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

Throughout history, people have been curious about the mind and how it works. It all started around the fifth century B.C., when there was a great debate over the mind-body concept. There were many questions on whether or not the body was connected with the mind, and if they were connected, how was it possible. Plato and Aristotle, who were Greek philosophers, had two different views of this concept. Plato claimed that the mind and body were
two separate parts and it would remain the same even after death. He also believed that when people are born they will possess all the knowledge they will ever have in their lifetime, and during their life the education they receive will be based on what they already knew. Aristotle, on the other hand, had the total opposite view compared to Plato. He felt that the body and mind were interlinked together and were made of the same matter. He also thought that the knowledge was not inborn, but instead it was due to the lack of experience or understanding in the world (Editorial Board, 2011).

Aristotle believed that all matter which includes the human body was made up by four key components. These components were called: earth, air, water, and fire; they were known as the pillars of science. Through the use of scientific technology, which started around late 19th century, psychology spread to the studies of understanding the mind and how it works. By 1879, a doctor named Wilhelm Wundt started the very first scientific research laboratory in dealing with psychology in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt used a method known as introspection to help better understand why a person would do a certain action, and he was also known to be the founder of structuralism which is one of the theories used in psychology (Editorial Board, 2011). PERSPECTIVES OF PSYCHOLOGY

BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a perspective that was discovered by a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. It shows that learning can be taught through rewards or punishments which are related with a certain behavior. His studies showed that dogs would be salivating because they heard the ringing of the bell which was associated with their food. He thought it was a definition of learning and so the behaviorist approach was born. Other psychologists, such as John Watson and B.F. Skinner, had a strong hand in developing the behaviorism perspective (Editorial Board, 2011). Skinner believed that behaviorism had changed dramatically since it was first introduced by Pavlov. Skinner introduced the behavior analysis concept into the psychology field. He also established himself in the contribution of behaviorism by introducing his concept of operant behavior by publishing an article called The Behavior of Organisms in 1938. Skinner was known as the main
representative for behavior analysis, and behaviorism was shaped from the works of Skinner. From the 1950s to the 1980s, American psychology was believed to be shaped by Skinner’s work more than any other psychologists during this period (Watrin & Darwich, 2012). PSYCHODYNAMIC

Psychodynamic is a perspective in psychology that was discovered by a medical doctor named Sigmund Freud. It shows that hidden or unconscious thoughts could be the cause of present traumas or aliments, and by remembering them it would usually more often than not relieve their troubles and cure them. Freud also used psychoanalysis on his patients to help figure out what was going on with them. Psychoanalysis is a process where the patients would talk about their problems and try to figure out what was going on with them. There were a couple of other psychologists who made some contributions to the psychodynamic theory who were known as Neo-Freudians. Neo-Freudians are people that are psychologists who will give a lower profile to Freud’s work about the sexuality part of the psychodynamic theory, but still help to further the cause of the theory (Editorial Board, 2011). Karen Horney was one of those people. She believed that to have a healthy relationship, you need to be raised with trusting relationships with dependable parents that would meet the needs of security for their children. She is known to be the first women to study the field of psychology through a women’s point of view (Editorial Board, 2011). An example would be if someone was afraid of a long-term commitment and they did not understand why, you could use the psychoanalysis approach which is part of the psychodynamic perspective and figure out why. By using the psychodynamic theory, a person could find out that because of a the person’s father leaving them at a young age it could cause them to be afraid of a long-term commitment and by addressing this problem they could resolve their issues and move on with their new life. Even though many people have contributed to the development of psychodynamic theory, it has been popular because of Sigmund Freud who had made the most noteworthy influence to the theory and also to psychology itself (Editorial Board, 2011). HUMANISTIC

The humanistic theory was introduced about two centuries ago through the writings of J.C.L. Simonde de Sismondi. It deals with how the person has
basic needs that need to be met and those needs are: material, social, and moral. These needs deal with the physical aspect rather than the mind. The works of Sismondi were more basic than the works of Abraham Maslow, who developed the hierarchy of basic needs. The Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs is elaborated more than the works of Sismondi and it is considered to be a facilitator for the humanistic perspective and a role for security for human development (Humanistic Perspective, 1999). He also felt that if the person did not satisfy all of their basic needs, then they cannot recognize their gifts to their fullest (Editorial Board, 2011).

Carl Rogers was an innovator in the field of humanistic psychology and he advocated a medicinal technique called client-centered therapy. He believed that all people have an interior core, or true self, and that it can be unclear if a person is absentminded with increasing the approval of other people. He also believed in using unconditional empathy or approval and understanding which is known today as active listening (Editorial Board, 2011). Making sure a person has the basic necessities like food, water, air, shelter, and sleep, then a person is on the right path for self-discovery and using the humanistic theory could help with it as well. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE PERSPECTIVES
1. They are each a force in psychology
2. They each have a relationship between the patient and the therapist 3. They each had a specific person that contributed to each of the perspectives DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PERSPECTIVES
1. They each deal with a different part of the body or mind 2. They each had a different contribution to psychology
3. The therapists uses different types of theory for each of the perspectives CONCLUSION
Psychology is a fascinating field that studies the mind and how it works. It is important to have a basic knowledge about psychology, no matter what profession a person has. Everybody works with people, and having the understanding and knowledge about people and what they think will come to be valuable. Understanding the history of psychology and the perspectives that
have contributed in developing the field of psychology today is important to any person who will be working with other people.

References
Editorial Board. (2011). Introduction to Psychology. Words of Wisdom, LLC. Retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com/9781934920565/id0002#. Humanistic Perspective. (1999). In The Elgar Companion to Consumer Research and Economic Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/ entry/elgarcrep/humanistic_ perspective Watrin, J., & Darwich, R. (2012). On behaviorism in the cognitive revolution: Myth and reactions. Review Of General Psychology, 16(3), 269-282. doi:10.1037/a0026766 Retrieved from: http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.cecybrary.com/login.aspx?direct= true&db=pdh&AN=gpr-16-3-269&site=ehost-live

Developmental Psychology

There are many different family structures in today’s society. The differing types of family structures can be beneficial for children as it is important for children to have families who they can depend on. Here is an image mentioning a few of these:

Within these family structures, there are different types of parenting; authoritarian, permissive, authoritative and uninvolved parenting (neglectful parenting).

The authoritarian parenting style would consist of strict rules with harsh punishments for breaking these rules. Children may not be given a choice or an explanation for the strict rules and if asked to explain, the parent may simply say “because I said so”. Parents have very high demands and expectations so children would associate obedience and success with love. In this type, the child is getting cared for but the parents are not lenient with the child, this could cause the child to become aggressive outside of the home.

Another type of parenting is permissive parenting. This involves the adult giving the child anything they want, when they want. This would not be very good for the child as it will have no sense of disobedience and the parent will not discipline their child. There would be no rules or boundaries set for the child meaning there would be very low expectations, this would not encourage the child to work hard. Permissive parents would be very loving and nurturing towards their children but may often take on the role of a friend rather than a parent. Children need discipline as much as they need nurturing so the child would have no consistency in their life.

The authoritative parent would reason with the child, they would have high expectations of the child but they would discipline in a fair and consistent manner. Children then know their boundaries and know what to expect from the rules that they have been given. Children who have an authoritative parent would be more independent and self assured than any other type of parenting. Children in this type of family would have good emotional control, social skills and will often be very confident in all aspects of life.

Another style of parenting is uninvolved/neglected parenting. The parents would make no demands towards their children which could probably result in children having to learn to provide for themselves at a very young age. Children may become emotionally withdrawn from the parents meaning that they will not be cared for in a way that will fulfil all their emotional, social, or physical needs.

There are many different organisations that can provide care for children. These can be in statutory, voluntary, private or independent setting. Statutory services are free of charge and the government is legally obliged to provide these services, for example, schools and the NHS. The school will help children by giving children the education that they need to grow and develop and be the best possible person that they can be. All children have the right to an education according to article 28 of the UNCRC.

Teeth cleaning:
When a child brushes their teeth it helps them practice their hand-eye co-ordination by putting their brush onto their teeth and helps to improve their fine motor skills. Talking about the importance of brushing your teeth needs to be backed up by regular visits to the dentist, having a professionals opinion will make the child more eager to keep their teeth in good condition. When a child brushes their teeth themselves, it will promote independence and make the child feel proud that they are doing something for themselves. In my setting, the children would brush their teeth at break time together, this encourages them to take turns and share the toothpaste. Before the children brush their teeth they sing a song. The lyrics of the song are “Brush, brush, brush your teeth. Brush them every day. The front, the sides, the back, the top, to keep decay germs away!”

Cutting up food:
Encouraging children to cut their own food would develop their fine manipulative skills by handling the knife and fork. Talking to the child about the importance of cutting their food into Bitesize pieces could be useful to them as they may choke on the food if it is not cut into an appropriate size for their age. Also encourage children to wash and dry their own cutlery and dishes as this promotes independence.

References

http://www.sccyp.org.uk/rights/uncrcarticles (accessed 14/1/14)

http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=369940 (accessed 14/1/14)

http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting-style.htm (accessed 14/1/14)

http://www.sch.edu.au/health/factsheets/joint/?safchokj.htm (access 27/1/14)

Foundations of Psychology Paper

Abstract
The miscellaneous condition of psychology is a scientific investigation of humankind mind, body, and behavior. Psychology includes different departments of psychology to apprehend and supervise observations on the mental technique of a person mind and behavior. Psychology is regularly used to establish the secrecy of the human behavior. Observation was the way to study a person mind to become aware of the mental conscious and unconscious states. As time went by psychology was established, alone with some major schools of thoughts.

The paper below will discuss the six major schools of thought in psychology, examine the foundation of psychology, and examine their major underlying assumptions, behaviorism, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, humanistic, and cognitive. In addition, it will show how the primary biological foundations of psychology are linked to behavior such as, brain, central nervous system, peripheral nervous System, and genetics/evolution. Behavioral Theory

Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a learning theory established on the notion that behaviors are gathered by conditioning. Conditioning develops from influenced of the environment. Operant and classical are the two major types of conditioning. A natural stimulus is paired with a response, when a procedure known as classical conditioning is the procedure used in behavioral training. When someone receives rewards and punishments for behavior that is what we call Operant conditioning. Behaviorists speculate that a person acknowledgement to environmental stimuli shapes a person behavior. Behaviorism made psychology more scientific by concentrating totally on observable behavior. This school of thought suggests that observable only behaviors should be studied.

Structuralism and Functionalism|
A German scientist, Wilhelm Wundt decided to take a structuralist approach to psychology after he founded his laboratory in Leipzig. An American, William James took the functionalist approach in his lab at Harvard. They both decided that since psychology was not being approached as a discipline of human behavior, they both decided to take their knowledge of the principles of scientific research and apply their study to human behavior. Psychology’s foundation as a science needs to be thoroughly understood, so let us take a look at both men’s foundation as scientists. Wundt’s approach to the structuralist approach sought to identify the building blocks, or the structure, of psychological experience, in the same way other sciences had been broken down in this way before.

Physics had its fundamental laws, just as chemistry had its periodic table of elements, and Wundt wanted to do the same for psychology, which would establish a series of fundamental relations or structures that could be used to explain all behavior.However, William James, over at Harvard, working on his functionalist approach, did not agree with Wundt’s scientific approach of structuralism. James thought that Wundt’s mental processes were to complex.

Psychologists believe the method of measuring would always change what was always trying to be measured. Influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, James preferred instead to question why we behave the way we do. James wanted to understand the functions of behavior in our lives; in terms of either how it helped us or hurt us and why certain behaviors were more common than others, such as why do humans feel jealousy. | |

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theory
Various kinds of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies have been established. In the twentieth century, Freud was an important scientific thinker and his theories have influenced cultures and counseling and psychotherapy practices. Freud believed that personality is shaped by biological drives expressed early in life through preoccupation with specific parts of the body, and that each stage involves gratification associated with the function of that part of the body and the child’s developmental stage. The psychodynamic theory consists of rests on three elements.

First, a person feelings and thoughts is part of his or her minds. Second, the awareness of the conscious has various mental issues that happen outside. Third, these mental issues may interfere with each other, causing jeopardize motives. Psychoanalysis and other analytic approaches have been criticized on several fronts related to multicultural issues length and lack of affordability, and overemphasis on individual dynamics versus social issues and influences.

Cognitive Theory
Cognitive theories focused on the way a person is motivated, solve problems, make decision, and thinking. Cognitive psychology studies mental understandings that consist of how people think, comprehend, and learn. The focus is how people collect, understand, and accumulate information. There are many administrations for cognitive research, such as, improving a person memory, building making decision correctly, and building educational to increase learning. Starting in the late 70s behaviorism was the main controller in the school of thought in psychology, but the focus to move away from behavioral psychology to subjects such as attention, memory and problem-solving.

Behavioral
The brain is a sophisticated, functional, and manageable structure that controls a person behaviors and mental performances. Psychologists study the brain many ways. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors are tested by neuropsychologist to measure the affected by brain damage. The activity of the brain is studied using an electroencephalogram (EEG), (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brain consists of three parts: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.

The hindbrain consists of the brain stem and the cerebellum that controls a person, movement, posture, and balance. The midbrain is located in the middle of the brain that helps control vision, sleep, and sound. The forebrain’s holds the thalamus and hypothalamus sensors that control a person motivation and emotion behavior. The motivation urges a person have come from the limbic system that also synchronizes memory and emotion. The brain has a right and a left side known as hemispheres. The two hemispheres correspond and work together with the aid of the corpus callosum. When one hemisphere does a main job, this is known as lateralization.

Genetics/Evolution
Evolutionary psychology central point is biologically functions established as solutions to same kind of difficulties of adjustments. Evolution means a change over time which the rhythm with certain genes happens within a crossbreeding society. Darwin’s theory foundation of evolution is the fundamental of uncontrolled collection, which shows that biologically based features that reinforce the survival and reproductive in the population because people who lack the features are less likely to pass on their genes. Many features are impelling by the cooperation of many genes. Behavior geneticists investigate the addition of genetic and environmental ingredients psychological characteristics and behaviors. These investigations suggest that psychological characteristics have genetic contributions. Genetic structure allows researchers to copy and transform genetic.

Central Nervous System
The central nervous system transports signals back and forth within the brain, the spinal cord, and glands and muscles. Nerve endings sends signal to the brain, which causes neurons within the brain to be used. This signal may cause a muscle to contract or relax. The nervous system consists of connected nerve chambers that send instruction throughout the body. There are four distinguish features of the nervous system. The intelligence of the brain to adjust is termed plasticity. Cells that transport information to the brain is called afferent neurons and those that transport information out of the brain are called efferent neurons. The communication of the nervous system consist of networking, which the cells combine sensory input and motor output. Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system joins the brain and spinal cord and connects to other body parts. The peripheral nervous system is split into the somatic nervous system, which includes sensory, motor nerves, and the autonomic nervous system, which monitors the bodily organs located inside the body. Peripheral nervous system can be damage easily and exposed to toxins and injuries because it is not protected by the bone of spine, skull, or by the blood–brain restriction. Conclusion

The miscellaneous condition of psychology is a scientific investigation of humankind mind, body, and behavior. Psychology includes different departments of psychology to apprehend and supervise observations on the mental technique of a person mind and behavior. Behaviorism made psychology more scientific by concentrating totally on observable behavior. Humanist thinkers believe that both psychoanalysis and behaviorism were too depressing focusing on the tragic of emotions.

Cognitive psychology studies mental understandings that consist of how people think, comprehend, and learn. Foundations of biopsychology are the foundation that every thought, emotion, and behavior that a person has starts in the brain. In the past, foundations of biopsychology were thought of as physiological psychology or behavioral neuroscience. Evolutionary psychology central point is biologically functions established as solutions to same kind of difficulties of adjustments.

References
Wickens, A. (2005). Foundations of Biopsychology Harlow, England: Prentice Hall. Retrieved electronically November 26, 2007 from:
http://www.psypress.com/common/supplementary/184169360X/part1.pdf James, W. (1904) The Chicago school. Psychological Bulletin. 1, 1-5. Retrieved electronically February 6, 2013 from:
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/two-early-approaches-functionalism-and-structuralism.html