Role of government in the society

The role of government in our society cannot be overemphasized and the government as a seat of authority where rules and laws are established adjusted and executed has been in existence since time immemorial. In various sectors of the society, the government has an important role to play starting from the law making, education, industrialization, technology, transportation, social amenities development, job creation, health sector, etc.

Every day when we turn on the news, we discover that what it contains consists of what governments around the world are doing. It seems that if we didn’t have governments to amuse us, there would be no news at all. In fact, without the beneficence of government, life might become so boring as to not be worth living at all. Even with all this talk about government, it is amazing that the population in general does not have a clear idea of what government is and what they do. When people are asked what the purpose of government is, or what the essence of government enterprise is, they frequently shrug their shoulders.

The term government, like so many other terms we use daily, is taken for granted and is poorly defined at best. In the modern world, we can see that society is government itself and the society governs itself. The democracy form of governance which has been accepted by almost the entire world in the modern times. The first accepted form of leadership and governance was that of tribal leaders, followed by monarchy and democracy. The term society is quite a heavy, important and is almost synonymous to the terms mankind and human existence.

RELEVANCE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIETY.
Agriculture is a major branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for 70% of the population. The sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large-scale enterprise levels. According to the Indian Constitution, agriculture is a state subject. However, over the years, the Central Government has started playing an important role in agricultural planning and development. Major policies,
that is, those pertaining to prices, trade and credit, are decided by the Centre.

There are a large number of Central and Centrally sponsored schemes for agricultural development. But this does not minimize the role of the state government. The policies pursued and programs sponsored by the state government can make a major difference to the income and well-being of the farmers. In small farm agriculture, as in Bihar, the role of the state is all the more important. For effectively addressing the issues of low productivity and low incomes, the state government has to play an important part in the following areas: Formulating relevant policies; Enhancing investment in agriculture; Strengthening supportive institutions; Ensuring the supply of the quality inputs; Partnering the private sector and civil society institutions. Nigeria faces serious poverty changes.

To support its agricultural development goals the federal government introduced control of food imports and continued its substantial subsidies on farm inputs, particularly fertilizers. To get the project implemented efficiently, special agencies were created. Each of the state wide and enclave projects was run by a professionally managed semi autonomous agencies, linked to a state ministry through a coordination committee representing the state governor, the major ministries and the project management.

Government help in the following ways: mechanization of agriculture1, provision of agricultural extension services2, lending loans to farmer3, providing; seedlings, fertilizers, farm implement and incentives at reduced and subsided price4, training service at reduced rate4. More so, Education is a very important tool for governments seeking to maintain the very high standard in the society. The proper role of government in education is the provision of education. Every society needs knowledge to think and food for thought is derived from this knowledge.

An essential function that is to be fulfilled by the government is providing all levels of education to the people, right from small kindergarten schools to universities. Education is a profound need of any human society as it makes mankind rational, intellectually enriched and thoughtful. Hence to complete all the elements of society, one of the most important role of government in society is providing adequate education. Also, it is generally accepted that government should control the education system. Education is today largely paid for and almost entirely administered by governmental bodies or non-profit institutions.

This situation has developed gradually and is now taken so much for granted that little explicit attention is any longer directed to the reasons for the special treatment of education even in countries that are predominantly free enterprise in organization and philosophy. The result has been an indiscriminate extension of governmental responsibility. Government can help the poor and the less privileged by reduction of school fees so that they can be able to pay at a low and subsidized rate.

Also, government can help in the adequate distribution of educational amenities and donation of text book to student to provoke the curiousity of student and reduce failure rate in the society.ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is not left out, it fosters education and learning processes. Government can help in the Employment of qualified and experienced teacher to provide quality and sound education to student.

They can also develop local library to encourage student to study well. Furthermore, Civic Amenities: The second most important role of government in society is the provision of civic amenities. Human habitation of a particular area or land requires some basic amenities such as sanitation, hygiene and a secure environment to live in. Let’s take sanitation for example, to the best of my knowledge, in some of the states in eastern region of Nigeria, where the government will bring a day out as the sanitation day and will even go to the media to put it in air and this motion if followed by the citizens of that state of that geographical area will always keep the environment clean.

These would reduce the rate at which people get ill and the rate at which diseases are spread. Health care provision in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country. However, because Nigeria operates a mixed economy, private providers of health care have a visible role to play in health care delivery.

The federal government role is mostly limited to coordinating the affairs of the university teaching hospital, federal medical center ( tertiary health care) and the local government focus on dispensary(primary health care),(which are regulated by the federal government through NPHCDA) .Government play various roles such as : free health care services, free health education, immunization, use of advance technology in the hospital (ICT), provision on so safety materials (like mosquito net, help conduct free health test).

The Administrative for Children and Families (ACF): is a federal agency funding state, territory, local, and tribal organizations to provide family assistance (welfare), child support, child care, head start, child welfare, and other programs relating to children and families1. Agency for Health Care Research And Quality (AGRQ):the mission of the Agency for Health care Research and Quality(AGRQ): is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease registry serves the public by using the best sign, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposure and diseases related to toxic substances3.

Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury and disability4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – the mission is to protect human health and the environment. Regulation and enforcement in public health-A good system of regulation is fundamental to successful public health outcomes. It reduces exposure to disease through enforcement of sanitary codes, e.g., water quality monitoring, slaughterhouse hygiene and food safety. Wide gaps exist in the enforcement, monitoring and evaluation, resulting in a weak public health system.

This is partly due to poor financing for public health, lack of leadership and commitment of public health functionaries and lack of community involvement. Revival of public health regulation through concerted efforts by the government is possible through updating and implementation of public health laws, consulting stakeholders and increasing public awareness of existing laws and their enforcement procedures. Health promotion-Stopping the spread of STDs and HIV/AIDS, helping youth recognize the dangers of tobacco smoking and promoting physical activity. These are a few examples of behavior change communication that focus on ways that encourage people to make healthy choices.

Development of community-wide education programs and other health promotion activities need to be strengthened. Much can be done to improve the effectiveness of health promotion by extending it to rural areas as well; observing days like “Diabetes day” and “Heart day” even in villages will help create awareness at the grass root level. Industrial relations-The topic description provided by the organizers wishes the discussions to be “centered on how the government can assist in providing more efficient welfare for labor which will essentially reduce the possible sources of friction between labor and management.”

The “new” approach suggests to achieve industrial peace through social protection and promotion of social welfare of labor. It means that, aside from acting as the arbiter of social conflict, the government should take a proactive role in reducing social and industrial conflicts by acting on its source, that is, by improving the institutional arrangements to welfare of labor and its share in the wealth of the nation, The FFW has a list of proposals in this respect contained in its most recent Policy and Program of Action, which it offers as a basis for entering into a social dialogue with the social partners. Two concepts may be useful in discussing this objective.

The first refers to the framework of “decent work”; the other to the principle of subsidiary. The framework of decent work defines what should be done to promote the welfare of labor. The principle of subsidiary shows how and what can be done by the social partners for the same purpose. The concept of decent work is now adopted by the ILO (International Labor Organization) as the main guiding principle of its action. According to the ILO (international labor organization), decent work has four main pillars.

These are promoting respect core international labor standards; generating decent and productive employment; improving social protection and encouraging social dialogue. In the Philippines, the ILO in cooperation with the social partners is set to launch a country program that will attempt to demonstrate how to address the country’s deficit in decent work. MTPDP (Medium Term Philippine Development Plan.) elevated employment as a chapter, ensconced decent work as a framework and defines it as a condition where “rights of work are protected, adequate income is generated, social protection is provided and democratic processes are guaranteed through tripartism and social dialogue.

Decent employment also entails the continuous improvement of workers’ personal capabilities through a build-up in competitive skills and positive work ethics.” Principle of subsidiary-This is where the principle of subsidiary becomes a useful concept. This principle states that each or a combination of the social partners should be doing what best they do. For example, determining what firms and industries can afford in terms of labor welfare and social protection can best be left to collective bargaining between employers and trade unions.

The role of government is to see to it that the two social partners do not destroy the common good or go out of bounds of commonly agreed policies or, even more precisely, to promote an environment where free collective bargaining can operate. However, what government desires as expressed in policies are not often what it can do or what it should do.

Government play has important role to play in law making. Legislatures all over the world have the power to make statutes. This is their main role in the process of government. They examine and discuss in details bills on various subjects that are brought before them. They can repeal, alter or add to the provisions of existing laws and make them applicable to changing conditions. Justice and Administration- In order to prevent haywire and chaotic functioning in the society, it is essential to have some simple mechanisms and laws. Such laws may include, small unspoken norms such as standing in a line for the bus or can be of complex nature and may include complex tax laws.

This function which is also known as judicial function, basically helps the society to function smoothly. This judicial function also includes the role of government in business as in the modern era, as the growing volume of economic activity needs good mercantile laws for governance. The economic activities also need some infrastructure and support such as banks and foreign trade, which further increases the importance of the role of government in economy.

The principle of the rule of law was propounded by Prof. A .V. Dicey in 1885 in his book, “The Law of the Constitution”. He is of the idea or view that the law of a state is supreme. It entails that everybody is a subject to ordinary law of the land, no exception. What is done to an official whether police, army, prisons etc. will be extended to ordinary civilian. Also, the term, “rule of law” means that the law is supreme, superior and generally acceptable as the only mode of determining and dispensing justice in a given state.

Again, the rule of law entails the recognition of the supremacy of the law of the land, legal equality, impartiality and individual liberty. It also includes the right or equal opportunities given to individuals to satisfy their socio-economic needs. Transportation-Government plays a very important and crucial role in the transportation business or system. They provide basic infrastructure to the nation like roads, railway tracks, ports, container yards, cranes at ports, public warehouses etc. Government is conducting an inspection, verification of goods and other storage by establishing customs authority.

However government can also charge a tax on the goods and services provided by distributer, They charged various taxes like road tax, other duties such as customs, export trade, excise tax, sales tax whether it is state or central, then VAT that is value added tax, service tax etc. If someone is shirking or avoiding their taxes then the government would take decision to frame a procedure for the payment of that taxes and duties with the penalties for that person.

Government can give restriction or prohibitions regarding the carrying of goods and services in specific modes of transport like Inflammable products such as petrol, diesel etc. Government is licensing the transporters and provides a commission. That is they permit the transporters to make trade on a law basis. Government can fix or charge the freight rates for the government vehicle or carrier like trains, buses etc.

CONCLUSION
From the above areas in which government have important role to play for the development of the society, we can find out that the relevance of the government in the society cannot be over emphasized. In various sectors of the society, the government have an important role to play starting from the law making, education, industrialization, technology, transportation, social amenities development, job creation, health sector, etc, all these are necessary for the development and the advancement of the society.

References
1. Dewey, John (1916/1944). Democracy and Education. The Free Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-684-83631-9. 2. educate. Etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
3. “Examples of subjects”. Curriculumonline.gov.uk. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 4. Eric A. Hanushek (2005). Economic outcomes and school quality. International Institute for Educational Planning. ISBN 978-92-803-1279-9. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 5. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson (2001). “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation”. American Economic Review 91 (5):
1369–1401. doi:10.2139/ssrn.244582. JSTOR 2677930 6. 6.Samuel Bowles; Herbert Gintis (18 October 2011). Schooling In Capitalist America: Educational Reform and the Contradictions of Economic Life. Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1-60846-131-8. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 7. www.buzzle.com/articles

The role and meaning of Dunkin’ Donuts

Background of the study

The role and meaning of Dunkin’ Donuts in New England eclipses its local origin story. After successfully operating the Industrial Luncheon Service, serving factory workers during World War II from mobile carts, William Rosenberg opened the first Dunkin’ Donuts store ten miles outside Boston in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1950 (Rosenberg & Keener 2001). [If you’re not from New England, you might be as surprised as I was that this town is pronounced Quin-zzee.] Dunkin’ Donuts’ origin story is also relevant in comparison to other large coffee chains, particularly Starbucks. While Starbucks emulates a European coffee experience, Dunkin’ Donuts proudly promotes itself as American coffee, emphasizing the value of hard work.

Furthermore, Starbucks is framed as a product of “posthippie capitalism” (Sanders quoted in Simon 2009: 29) and often critiqued in an elevated way as a “cultural institution” akin to higher art located within a “historical trajectory” of long standing tradition (Dickinson 2002: 17-18). Conversely, Dunkin’ Donuts is a franchised chain built upon the American Dream story of William Rosenberg, a hardworking New Englander with an eighth-grade education who successfully built a coffee empire (Rosenberg & Keener 2001). From the start, Dunkin’ Donuts tells a specifically New England story, but the chain’s role as both a site and source of Bostonian and New England identity cannot be simply explained by the location of its first store.

Throughout decades of expansion, franchising, marketing, and repositioning, Dunkin’ Donuts emerged and remains a regional power brand, operating one store for every 5,000 to 6,000 people across New England (Rosenwald & Kirkham 2006) and outnumbering Starbucks ten to one (Carroll 2010). Not only in New England but across the nation, Dunkin’ Donuts experiences strong customer loyalty, sweeping the coffee category in the Brand Keys Customer Loyalty Engagement Index for the past six years (Dunkin’ Donuts Press Release 2012). Despite the donuts in its name, the chain does 63 percent of its business in coffee (Hoy 2006), which embodies a specific identity for Dunkin’ Donuts coffee drinkers in Boston. For more coffee chatter, join me next week when I’ll conduct a cultural coffee analysis, comparing Starbucks’ aspirational consumption to Dunkin’ Donuts’ functional fuel.

Role of Logictics

1.2 What specific role does logistics play in supply chain operations? Logistics is the primary conduit of product and service flow within a supply chain arrangement. It is the work required to move and to position inventory throughout a supply chain. It is a combination of order management, inventory, transportation, warehousing, material handling and packaging as integrated throughout a facility network. Logistics is essential for effective supply chain connectivity.

1.4 Compare and contrast anticipatory and responsive business models. Why has responsiveness become popular in supply chain strategy and collaboration?

1.5 Compare and contrast manufacturing and geographic postponement. The vision of manufacturing is one of products being manufactured one order at a time with no preparatory work or component procurement until exact customer specifications are fully known and purchase confirmation is received. Geographic postponement is the exact opposite of manufacturing postponement. The basic notion of geographic postponement is to build and stock a full line inventory at one or a limited number of strategic locations.

2.1 Illustrate a common trade-off that occurs between the functional areas of logistics. Price, costs, product, place/customer service levels, inventory carrying costs, lot quantity costs, warehousing costs, transportation costs, etc…

2.4 Describe the logistics value proposition. Be specific regarding specific customer relationships and cost. The key to achieving logistical leadership is to master the art of matching operating competency and commitment to key customer expectations and requirements. This customer commitment, in an exacting cost framework, is the logistics value proposition. Logistics is all about providing the essential customer service attributes at the lowest possible total cost. Such customer relationship management, in an exacting cost framework is the logistics value proposition.

2.6 Discuss uncertainty as it relates to the overall logistical performance cycle. Discuss and illustrate how performance cycle variance can be controlled.

The role of energy in the body

In our bodies we need energy so that we could do things that are possible such as; move our muscles, talk and all the other things that we do. Without energy all people would be useless not being able to do anything. Energy is needed to extract the oxygen from the areas in our bodies and diffuse it into our bloodstream. As warm blooded people we can only digest food and function if our bodies are at a certain temperature and have enough energy, and energy is required for this. We need energy to be able to move and use our muscles which also only operate when they are warm. Energy is the ability to do work in our bodies. That means doing everything that a body needs to do to stay alive and to grow: pumping ions across membranes, making new proteins, making new lipids, making hormones, making new cells, neural function, contracting muscles, replacing damaged components, absorbing nutrients, excreting wastes and pumping blood. -Supplying enough energy to support the many functions of the body at work and play is one of the main functions of food.

This energy comes from the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the food you eat. Of the three, fat is the most concentrated source of energy because it furnishes more than twice as much energy for a given weight as protein or carbohydrate. The energy requirement for a person is divided into two parts: basal metabolic requirements and energy required for activity. Basal metabolic rate is the heat eliminated from the body at rest when temperature is normal. An average person requires 2000-2400 Calories per day while a large man doing heavy work may require up to 6000 Calories per day. To release the energy from glucose, oxygen is added (oxidise glucose) by breathing continuously to supply to the millions of cells that undertake cell respiration, this is also known as internal respiration.

The rate that glucose is used at depends on the individuals’ metabolism (B.M.R). The basal metabolic rate depends on the amount of thyroid hormone that is produced. A person that has a fast metabolism then it is less likely that they will put on weight whereas if a person has a slow metabolism then they may tend to put weight on. A factor that can influence metabolism rate is age. This is because as you get older your metabolism will be likely to slow down. Cell respiration:

The word equation for cell respiration is:
‘Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water’
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/food_chains/revision/4/

Waste products of carbon dioxide and water can be excreted through the lungs and kidneys as expired sweat and urine; otherwise the chemical atoms can be recycled to reform glucose. Cell respiration happens in the mitochondria in cells and tissues, e.g. the skeletal muscle, which has millions of mitochondria for increased energy demand. Muscles use a lot of energy in order for movement to happen. When the muscle tissues contract they will need a good supply of glucose and oxygen. ‘http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_happens_to_the_waste_products_in_respiration#slide=2&article=What_happens_to_the_waste_products_in_respiration’

References:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/food_chains/revision/4/

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_happens_to_the_waste_products_in_respiration#slide=2&article=What_happens_to_the_waste_products_in_respiratio

Laws of energy

Energy can be well-defined as the ability to make things happen. Energy doesn’t just appear it comes from the different sources of energy and how they are structured to make energy. The first laws of thermodynamics also known as the conservation of energy states that energy can’t be created but also can’t be destroyed but it is can be transformed into different things for different uses. The first section of the energy law talk about the transformation of energy and how it can change to another form. The second form what has been made may not be able to be used.

Types of energy

There are many different types of energy such as heat, sound, light, nuclear, electrical and chemical. The main type of energy within our body is chemical energy. When a chemical bond takes place this is due to energy doing the work making atoms or molecules form together. Once a new bond has successfully happened between two atoms, energy is needed within this process to make it able to happen. This process normally uses heat but it can be done with other forms of energy as well such as light and electrical. Once a bond is broken it releases its atoms, the form of energy to make the bond is also released with the atoms.

Anabolism

Anabolism make things bigger and consumes up energy. This is done by making bigger units out of smaller units by using up energy in the process. Anabolism, allows the body to reform new cells and maintain all of the same tissues.

Catabolism

Catabolism breaks things down and gives out energy allowing the rest of the body to have access to energy. Catabolism breaks down larger molecules into smaller bits to allow energy to be released. ‘Catabolism provides the energy our bodies need for physical activity, from a cellular level right up to whole body movements.’ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8871.php large molecules such as fatty acids and proteins are broken down in this process to make smaller amounts such as amino acid, fatty acid and nucleotides. This happens in such systems as the respiration and digestive system.

ATP/ADP

ATP within the body is made up from broken down carbohydrates, fats and proteins this is done so that energy can be broken down. Every cell inside us is made up of about 1000 mitochondria, sells such as muscles and the liver may need a lot more than 1000 due to them needing a lot of energy to work. Energy is released from glucose and then its stored until it is needed it is trapped and only released by ATP. Once ATP is broken down it then forms something new which is called ADP, when it is needed to form complex molecules or making your muscles contract. ADP can be recycled and the4n it turns back into ATP. D1 analyses how two body systems interrelate to perform a named function/ functions The process of the air passage from oxygen being inhaled. The air is taken in and travels through the nose or mouth and then goes through the pharynx, which then goes to the larynx. After this has happened the air goes through the trachea into the bronchioles and bronchi, which then later goes through the alveoli which collects air.

Then this is diffused and then enters the capillaries which is then pushed around our body though our blood. The blood then enters the pulmonary vein and goes through the left atrium of the heart. The left and right atrium then contract to push the blood down to the bottom ventricle to build up pressure. The bottom left ventricle then contracts and pushes oxygenated blood through the aorta out to the rest of the body. Once the oxygenated blood is transported around the body it lets out the oxygen to the parts of your body what need it, once it has got rid of all the oxygen it then goes round and collects co2 from inside you and brings it through the interior vena cava and into the right atrium, this then contracts and forces the blood with carbon dioxide into the right ventricle. This then gets pushes the blood full of co2 through the pulmonary artery, which is transported to the lungs which is then breathed out. And this process then carried out over and over again. Arteries always have to have oxygenated blood in if not we would die.

How does oxygen go to the muscles?

The cardiac cycle is a sequence of events which starts at the lungs where oxygen is breathed in. oxygen is transported to the heart where it is transported around the body by oxygenated blood. All arteries are full of oxygen around the body, it then branches of like a tree into smaller arteries (branches) named arterioles. From the arterioles the blood it then moved around to the capillaries, which touches the muscles and organs. Capillaries are always connected to muscles. Our blood gives oxygen to our muscles and organ. Once the muscles have used the oxygen it then gives out unwanted co2. Our blood then collects any spare co2 which has been release by our muscles and organs. This is then scooped up through our blood and our blood transports the co2 through our veins and then to the heart up to our lungs and it then breathed our, so we breathe our co2. The heart very important muscle that pumps blood around our body to allow us to live. Our heart is found in between our lungs but is also protected by our ribs. ‘When the heart muscle contracts or beats it pumps blood out of the heart.

The heart contracts in two stages. In the first stage, the right and left atria contract at the same time, pumping blood to the right and left ventricles. Then the ventricles contract together to propel blood out of the heart. Then the heart muscle relaxes before the next heartbeat. This allows blood to fill up the heart again. The right and left sides of the heart have separate functions. The right side of the heart collects oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The left side of the heart then collects oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body so that the cells throughout your body have the oxygen they need to function properly.’

http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/circulatory/heart2.htm

Fire’s Role in the Ecosystem

Scientists have studied forests and fires to determine the secret of Nature’s success in attaining this necessary balance. They have learned that a “natural” fire results from a certain fuel condition. Some forest types produce and accumulate fuels faster than others; some decompose fuels more readily than others. However, at some point in time, every forest type has fuel of the right quantity and quality for that forest to be “ready” to burn. In the past, forest fires would benefit the whole forest ecosystem because their frequency and intensity was determined by the system’s natural readiness to burn. When there is a departure from the natural fire point, the ultimate, inevitable fire will be more severe. Fed by extraordinary amounts of fuel, a fire’s intensity may increase beyond the beneficial point for some parts of the ecosystem. Soils can be overheated and root systems damaged. Living tree crowns, as well as dead needles and branches, may be reduced to ashes. The Dilemma

Scientists are studying things other than forests and fires – things like population increases, wildlife needs, recreation needs and demands, increased hunting pressures, and a diminishing natural resource base. Obviously, all forest fires cannot be permitted to burn uncontrolled according to the whimsical dictates of lightning strikes or the carelessness of humans. Yet, in attempting to protect these forest values, the powerful role of fire has almost disappeared from the ecosystem it once shaped and created. The inevitable release of natural energy is only postponed-the probability of a devastating wildfire is increased. How, then, can the powerful force of fire be used in a way that cooperates, not conflicts, with nature? No Simple Solution

Periodic natural fires prevent the heavy buildup of fuel which, when ignited, can harm our forests and ecosystems. Controlling fires in accordance with Nature’s scheme must be based on fuel management. There is no general prescription or formula for controlling fuels. Forested sites differ, and objectives range from essentially unmanaged wilderness to intensively managed recreation areas. However, in areas where the forest management objectives require maintaining or reproducing forest or other natural communities nature’s method – fire – is a valuable and effective fuel management tool.

Fire’s natural role in reducing fuels is partly replaced in timber-producing areas by the harvest and removal of wood products. However, slash, resulting from these activities, creates another fuel problem. Better use of harvested wood is one answer – fire is another. Controlled burning of non useable slash further reduces the fuel load and provides nutrients for the plants and animals that inhabit the area. The technical and scientific refinement of ways to use fire as a management tool has been a major subject of forest research. Scientists are focusing on forest fuel chemistry, fire behavior, meteorology, and other fields to best determine when, where, and how excess fuels are to be burned. Only in the last century has fire in the forest been viewed as a monster. We are now beginning to realize that fire is a natural agent essential for maintaining the natural ecosystems of Florida.

Fire is neither all good nor all bad. It is natural. It is powerful. In the proper places, in the right hands, at the right times, fire can be an asset and an ally. To employ fire as a useful friend is much more logical than confronting it as an enemy. Fire is a significant force in the forest environment. Depending upon specific land management objective, plus a host of environmental variables, fire will sometimes be an enemy, at times a friend, and frequently its effects will be mixed between the two extremes. To extend knowledge of fire’s role in Florida forests, this publication has been developed from scientific literature review and observations by experienced personnel. To be most useful, the general principles that follow must be localized to specific environments or management units in that way, in-depth knowledge of fire can be used to enhance productivity of the earth’s ecosystems in all their infinite variety.

One great truth of this environmental age is that it is far better to complement natural systems than to manipulate them for single-purpose gain. It is through recognition of ecological interrelationships that we can best manage natural resources for the public good. Ignorance of ecological interrelationships is no excuse for land management errors. To meet future environmental demands, land managers must build uncommon strength in all three fire activities: prevention, protection, and fire prescribed for ecological benefits. Fire management, in full partnership with other environmental factors, is necessary for quality land management. The Two Faces of Fire

The Monster
Uncontrolled wildfire raging through a forest can have disastrous effects. Healthy trees are reduced to blackened snags; shrubs that provided food and cover for wildfire become ashes; under the intense heat some soil nutrients are vaporized and become airborne in clouds of choking smoke. Ash falls on rooftops, window sills, and darkens clothes drying outdoors in nearby towns. Where people once enjoyed a green, scenic landscape, they see a stark, gray landscape. A forest has been grossly changed; the web of life it encompassed and nurtured has been broken. Here, fire has shown its mastery over the land and has behaved as a monster. The Friend

Think about fire for a moment. If you have warmed your hands in its welcomed heat and enjoyed its friendly light, you know that all fire is not the raging holocaust. Fire, along with air, water, and earth, is a basic environmental factor. We do not judge air as “bad” because of periodic, destructive hurricanes. We are drawn to water rather than avoiding it despite its potential to cause devastating floods. We do not fear the earth though we know that forces beyond our control can cause it to quake and slide.

Fire, no less than air and water, has been a natural directing force in human evolution and the earth we inhabit. History indicates that humans learned to use and control fire. Fire was, perhaps, our first tool. Yet today the acceptance of fire in the forest seems basically contrary to our beliefs in “modern” times. Perhaps we feel we have progressed beyond the need for direct dependence on this natural force. Or maybe we simply do not know and understand it any longer. Lightning

In the Making
“Continued sunny and warm except for isolated afternoon or evening thunderstorms. Thirty percent chance of rain.” This is a familiar midsummer weather forecast in Florida. From over the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, air  masses directly affect Florida’s weather. Warm air is lifted high into cool, upper air layers. The cooling of this rising air causes its moisture to condense and clouds to form. Moisture droplets form in the upper; cold parts of the clouds. When they reach a certain size, the droplets begin to fall earthward, away from the influence of the cold air back into warm, uplifting currents. The droplets may again vaporize and be lifted even higher into the upper air layers. A repeated cycle of warming, lifting, and cooling causes the buildup of tall columns of billowy clouds. The bases of the clouds may be 3,000 feet above sea level – the tops of the cloud columns develop upward to levels of 60,000 feet. The Ignition Source

Inside the clouds electrical charges build up and separate into positive and negative centers. The upper portion of the cloud becomes positively charged and the lower portion becomes negatively charged. The negative charge near the cloud base induces a positive charge on the ground – a reversal of the fair weather pattern when the ground charge is negative. Potential gradients between positive and negative centers, with some assistance from friction caused by falling water droplets, lead to those large sparks known as lightning discharges. Cloud-to-ground lightning is usually a discharge between the negative lower portion of the cloud and the positive charge on the ground. Most thunderstorms in Florida are accompanied by rain. Lightning fires occur when the lightning bolt strikes outside the area of rainfall or it ignites dry fuels that smolder through the rain shower and begin to burn as the area dries out following the shower.

Energy to Use – or Burn
From a distance, pines and other vegetation look fresh and green. Close inspection reveals that the greenness is a shell enveloping a core of dry needles, twigs, and branches. In the needled or leafy part of the tree, known as the crown, growth occurs at the branch tips, so the youngest, greenest parts are always around the outside edges. Here, photosynthesis occurs. Photosynthesis is the major function of every green plant. It is the process by which light energy from the sun is converted to a form of energy that can be stored and used by the plant. Generally, the conversion is to chemical energy and involves the formation of a series of complex organic compounds. Some of the compounds impart the “piney” odors we enjoy in forests. What we cannot tell from their pleasant aroma is that these compounds are very flammable.

Once stored, the energy can be used in different ways. For example, it can be used by the plant to produce wood or grow more needles in which more energy conversion will take place. It can be used as a source of food by animals that browse the leaves and twigs where the compounds are stored. The energy can also be used to produce seed to germinate and produce another plant. This energy storing process takes place with shrubs and grasses as well as trees; photosynthesis and the energy conversions and transfers that occur are complex, but the result is clear enough: during one growing season in one acre of forest, enough sun energy is converted and stored in plant material to equal the energy reservoir in 300 gallons of gasoline.

Fire and the Forest
We often regard fire as an agent of destruction, but to Nature, it is an agent of necessary change. Fire changes one form of energy to another. Green plants change light energy to chemical energy, fire changes chemical energy to heat energy. Fire breaks down complex organic molecules to smaller ones – the same thing that occurs when we digest food. The protein in a piece of meat cannot be used directly by the human body to build cells and tissues. We must eat the meat before large protein molecules can be broken down to smaller amino acid molecules, recycled through our bodies, and rebuilt into human tissue. When a fire changes a log to ash, nutrients bound in chemical compounds are released and changed to a form that is more water soluble. In this soluble form, nutrients percolating into the soil are again usable in the growth of other plants. Fire also effects a more visible change.

Ash and nutrients occupy less space than trees and shrubs. By creating openings in forests, fire changes space relationships. Species that remain in these openings may be fire tolerant. Other species that cannot withstand fire are eliminated. Thus, fire changes both the composition and the density of the forest. This change will remain for several years and affect the fuels available during the next burning cycle. Scientists who study plant and animal relationships tell us that forests in this part of the country owe their existence and continued presence to a long history of periodic fires. This association of some tree and shrub species with fire is an example of adaptation. Forests in Florida have existed here for at least 12,000 years.

During that time, thousands of fires occurred annually. Plant species that survived these fires did so because of special features or characteristics they possessed. Plant species lacking these features were eliminated from frequently burned areas; their distribution has been confined to areas where fires are less likely to occur, moist areas such as bays, swamps, and creek bottoms. Fires, like many natural events, are somewhat cyclic. The cycle is governed by conditions such as general climate, topography, soil type, existing vegetation, and other factors. Accordingly, the repeatability of the cycle varies. Before 1900, fire-susceptible areas probably had fires every 3 to 10 years. In areas less likely to burn, the cycle may repeat every 10 to 100 years. Cyclic, recurrent fires of the past 12,000 years were important agents of selection in determining plant species and distribution in Florida. Trees Born of Fire

Special adaptive features have allowed some plants to survive naturally occurring fire. Adult southern pines have a thick bark that insulates the inner, living tissues from fire’s heat. Longleaf pine is so fire resistant that some trees almost always escape fire’s injurious effects. These trees become seed trees for the reforestation of a burned area. Sand pine exhibits yet another adaptation for coping with fire. Sand pine cones remain closed until a fire’s intense heat opens the cone and allows the seeds to fall out.

Seeds of cone-bearing trees that persist in fire-susceptible areas sprout and grow best under conditions created by fire: soil free from litter, an increased nutrient reserve, plus open areas with plenty of sunlight. In contrast, species less adapted to fire, such as oaks, gums, cypress, and cedar do not usually reseed a burned area directly. Seedlings of these species prefer partial shade and plenty of moisture. Generally, they will reestablish only after some other type vegetation is present. The Changing

Natural fires keep Florida’s forests dynamic, diverse, and beautiful. Florida was named by the early explorers because of the abundance of wildflowers in areas kept open by frequent fires. Historically, timber stands were replaced by young trees; sometimes one type of forest was replaced by another. Changes in tree cover occur together with even more encompassing changes – because a forest is more than just trees. A forest displays interdependence, interrelationships, and competition among trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses, big and little animals, soils, microbes, minerals and nutrients in soils, and the air pervading and surrounding all of these. A forest is a complex life system. Each part has a place and a function in its organization – an organization called the forest ecosystem.

Because all parts of the system are interrelated, no one part can change without a widespread effect throughout the entire system. Forest fires affect more than trees. Fire-caused changes in ecosystems result in both stress and relief to plant and animal life – both to individuals and to whole plant and animal communities. Thousands of years of natural fires achieved a dynamic balance between the stresses and relief. The fire-adapted pine forests thrived over vast areas. They provided habitat for hundreds of species of grasses and wildflowers, as well as dozens of animal species. All these species would quickly begin to decline in number and health and eventually disappear completely if fire is excluded. Fire’s Role in the Ecosystem

A Balancing Act
Scientists have studied forests and fires to determine the secret of Nature’s success in attaining this necessary balance. They have learned that a “natural” fire results from a certain fuel condition. Some forest types produce and accumulate fuels faster than others; some decompose fuels more readily than others. However, at some point in time, every forest type has fuel of the right quantity and quality for that forest to be “ready” to burn. In the past, forest fires would benefit the whole forest ecosystem because their frequency and intensity was determined by the system’s natural readiness to burn. When there is a departure from the natural fire point, the ultimate, inevitable fire will be more severe. Fed by extraordinary amounts of fuel, a fire’s intensity may increase beyond the beneficial point for some parts of the ecosystem. Soils can be overheated and root systems damaged. Living tree crowns, as well as dead needles and branches, may be reduced to ashes. The Dilemma

Scientists are studying things other than forests and fires – things like population increases, wildlife needs, recreation needs and demands, increased hunting pressures, and a diminishing natural resource base. Obviously, all forest fires cannot be permitted to burn uncontrolled according to the whimsical dictates of lightning strikes or the carelessness of humans. Yet, in attempting to protect these forest values, the powerful role of fire has almost disappeared from the ecosystem it once shaped and created. The inevitable release of natural energy is only postponed-the probability of a devastating wildfire is increased. How, then, can the powerful force of fire be used in a way that cooperates, not conflicts, with nature? No Simple Solution

Periodic natural fires prevent the heavy buildup of fuel which, when ignited, can harm our forests and ecosystems. Controlling fires in accordance with Nature’s scheme must be based on fuel management. There is no general prescription or formula for controlling fuels. Forested sites differ, and objectives range from essentially unmanaged wilderness to intensively managed recreation areas. However, in areas where the forest management objectives require maintaining or reproducing forest or other natural communities nature’s method – fire – is a valuable and effective fuel management tool.

Fire’s natural role in reducing fuels is partly replaced in timber-producing areas by the harvest and removal of wood products. However, slash, resulting from these activities, creates another fuel problem. Better use of harvested wood is one answer – fire is another. Controlled burning of non useable slash further reduces the fuel load and provides nutrients for the plants and animals that inhabit the area. The technical and scientific refinement of ways to use fire as a management tool has been a major subject of forest research.

Scientists are focusing on forest fuel chemistry, fire behavior, meteorology, and other fields to best determine when, where, and how excess fuels are to be burned. Only in the last century has fire in the forest been viewed as a monster. We are now beginning to realize that fire is a natural agent essential for maintaining the natural ecosystems of Florida. Fire is neither all good nor all bad. It is natural. It is powerful. In the proper places, in the right hands, at the right times, fire can be an asset and an ally. To employ fire as a useful friend is much more logical than confronting it as an enemy.

Role for bioremediation

Chapter 1

– Which one of the following is not a role for bioremediation? Curing infectious diseases

– All of the following are examples of new emerging infectious diseases except Chickenpox

– Normal microbiota: Beneficial microbial inhabitants of the body

– Golden Age of Microbiology: Rapid discovery of basic microbiology principles

– Re-emerging diseases: Once controlled by preventative public health measures they are now on the rise

– Prions: Resistant to the usual sterilization procedures for pathogens

– Spontaneous generation: The converse of biogenesis

– Acellular infectious agent: Chemical composition includes RNA or DNA

– In the scientific name Bacillus anthracis, the term Bacillus is the genus name

– include the agents responsible for stomach ulcers and plague: Bacteria – are prokaryotes: Bacteria

– impart distinctive flavors in foods such as yogurt and cheese: Bacteria – are obligate intracellular parasites: Viruses

– have a protein coat that surrounds the genetic information: Viruses – include molds and yeasts: Fungi

– contain the protozoa and algae: Protists

– derive their energy from degrading organic materials: Fungi – are the most metabolically diverse group: Bacteria

– Which one of the following sequences exhibits increasing size? Viruses to bacteria to protozoa

– Which one of the following would be consistent with the idea of spontaneous generation? Sick people give rise to microorganisms in their body

Chapter 3

– The gram stain technique is valuable in distinguishing: different types of bacteria One of the below is wrong
– permit eukaryotic motility: Flagella
– are involved in group translocation: Chromosomes
– Contain components of the electron transport chain for ATP generation: Plasma Membranes – may have peritrichous or polar arrangements: Flagella
– are linear rods contained within a nucleus: Chromosomes
– replication is followed by binary fission: Chromosomes
– are closed circular single molecues: Chromosomes
– are used for chemotaxis: Flagella
– involved with signal sequences in secretion: Plasma Membranes – Nucleoid: Stores essential genetic information
– Glycocalyx: Prevents phagocytosis; attachment
– Plasmid: Contains a few genes; not essential for cell
-Metachromatic granules: Site of nutrient accumulation in cell – Fimbriae: Short straight hair-like fibers
-Gram (-) cell wall: Rigid outer boundary
– A bacterial arrangement called a sarcina has which of the following morphological shapes? Spheres in packets of eight
– All of the following characteristics apply to the prokaryotes except they reproduce by mitosis

Chapter 4

– A differential medium is one that distinguishes colonies of one type of bacterium from those of another type

– Which of the following conditions are most likely to affect the growth of bacteria? temperature, oxygen, and pH
– At what point in the bacterial growth curve are bacteria the most vulnerable to antibiotics log phase
– Which of the following methods of measuring population growth is a direct count standard plate count using a dilution series
– Faculative bacteria are those that grow in the presence of absence of oxygen
– Most of the human pathogens are: mesophiles 10.0001 out of 11 points
– Mesophiles: this group has most of the the pathogens as they grow at body temperature

– Halophile: would grow on selective media containing relatively high levels of salt

– Alkaphile: they can tolerate a pH above 8.5

– Psychrotroph: can be found growing in the human stomach

– Anaerobe: they do not or cannot use oxygen

– Hyperthermophile: these have been found in seawater from hot water volcanic vents

– Microaerophile: they survive in environments where O2 concentration is relatively low but are inhibited by high O2 levels

– Obligate aerobe: this group requires oxygen for metabolism, just like humans

– Acidophile: can be found growing in the human stomach

– Facultative Anaerobe: they grow best in the presence of oxygen but can grow in the absence of oxygen

– Barophile: they are able to live at the bottom of the ocean

-The interval of time between successive binary fissions of a cell or population of cells is known as the: generation time -Psychrophiles and thermophiles differ with respect to their best temperature for growth

– A soil sample is added to a culture medium that has been designed to promote the growth of the genus Pseudomonas while inhibiting the growth of fungi. This test uses a: selective medium

Chapter 5
– Low temperature is: bacteriostatic
– Heavy metals generally kill microorganisms by reacting with protein sulfhydryl groups to disrupt function
– Chlorhexidine is a biguanide used to wash hands and clean wounds superficially
– The chemical counterpart of the autoclave uses ethylene oxide with an inert gas
– HEPA filters are used to filter which one of the following? Air
– Ultraviolet light is valuable for reducing the microbial population in the air of a hospital room
– Of the following, the most efficient method for sterilization of a bacteriological transfer loop is the direct flame
– Triclosan destroys bacteria by disrupting cell membranes
– Which one of the following elements would be classified as a halogen Chlorine
– Moist heat kills microorganisms by denaturation
– A substance that has been pasteurized is not considered sterile
5 out of 8 points

Autoclave: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores
Direct Flame: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores
Boiling water for 10 minutes: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores Hot air oven for 2 hours at 160 degrees

Celcius: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores Pasteurization: Pathogenic microorganisms, not endospores

Gamma radiation: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores
Filtration: Pathogenic microorganisms, not endospores
Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores

When food has been salted water diffuses out of microorganisms causing them to shrivel

Chapter 6

– The Krebs cycle accounts for all the following except production of pyruvate from glucose
– Heat is useful in the destruction of bacteria because heat denatures enzymes by altering their tertiary structures
– 10.99956 out of 13 points
– yields pyruvate for use in the TCA cycle: Glycolysis
– requires cytochromes for electron transport: Oxidative phosphorylation – requires electrons eventually be passed to NADPH: Photosynthesis – Requires energy from light to take place: Photosynthesis

– ends with acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms: Oxidative phosphorylation – starts with the oxidation of NADH: TCA Cycle
– requires an “investment” of 2 ATP’s: Glycolysis
– uses chlorophyll as the pigment in the cyanobacteria: Photosynthesis – results in the formation of water: Photosynthesis
– is essentially the opposite of aerobic respiration: Photosynthesis – begins with a glucose molecule: Glycolysis
– results in the net gain of 2 ATP’s: Glycolysis
– generates two carbon dioxide molecules per turn: TCA Cycle

– Which one of the following does not involve a phosphorylation reaction? The hydrolysis of ATP
– Which of the following states is the most correct for enzyme reactions Enzymes are specific for only one reaction, generally in one direction – All of the following apply to the process of anabolism except the process is exergonic

– You are studying an obligate anaerobe. Which one of the following pathways can you be assured is occurring? Glycolysis
– A bacterium that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated from an anaerobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic. When analyzed, the medium is found to have a high concentration of lactic acid. This bacterium is most likely metabolizing by a process known as fermentation

The Role of the Youth in Establishing Unity in a Diversified Multicultural Society

The Role of the Youth in Establishing Unity in a Diversified Multicultural Society Years passed, adults have tried to control youth because they represent the future. Young people often fight back, trying to create their own world that is separate from their parents. At the end of World War II they were finally given a name: “teen-agers,” an ideal of young people as consumers. That model for youth spread around the world, and still exists today. Throughout history, young people have played an active role in shaping major social and political advancements.

Today’s growing globalization and cross-border movements create an environment, which is increasingly diverse in terms of culture and religion. Young people’s contribution to understanding the impact of this diversity on everyday life as well as politics is now more crucial than ever. Moreover, as they constitute the largest segment of population in many regions, the role of youth in shaping their country’s response to cultural and religious diversity is vital. We clearly see youth as an essential asset – a crucial pool of talent, ideas and energy – that plays a critical role in addressing the challenges related to global and local instability. We must get control of this. We must motivate our youth. We must teach responsibility and goal setting. I fear if we do not we will soon be supporting an entire generation of homeless and needlessly on welfare families. Things have to change, with our schools, with the older generation being good role models, with the older generation being mentors, and with the youth who are right now doing nothing.

We believe that it is important to recognize young people’s own contribution to promoting respect and understanding and fostering dialogue among people of different backgrounds. With teenage unemployment soaring, young people can no longer influence the world with their wallets. As student protests began exploding across the globe this fall, we felt compelled to connect our work to these burgeoning movements. Similar generational conflict and disparate youth movements were born out of the Great Depression. These movements share a common goal: to re-imagine the future. It’s an exciting premise that is perhaps the hallmark of adolescence, and a vision typical of history’s most influential youth cultures. Many adults discredit youthful rebellion simply as an emotional rite of passage. However, it is our belief that this style of unrest can bring about real change.

The role of the health and social care worker

1.1 Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship: Working relations: Working relations are based on formal policies and procedures and also by contract of employment. I have to work to care standards on daily basis and support everyday living of my residents, for example dressing, eating , bathing, activities and personal hygiene. All residents have different needs and I work to meet their needs. Personal relationship: Personal relationship are outside the work place with family, friends, neighbours, etc. Personal must not influence my work with residents.

1.2 The care assistant role is to give assistance and support to residents , as the individual care plan states. When I work with residents I make sure that they are safe nad able to make decisions about their wishes, preferences in day to day activities. When working I have contact with doctors, district nurses, social workers, family and friends of residents. This is to make sure that the individual residents needs are met fully. All my contacts and observations I write record.

2.1 Describe why it is importand to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role. As a care assistant my rolr is to get to know my residents their history, interests, and what kind of support they need to ensure their well being. I am responsible for delivery of service according to care standard, policies and procedures. It is my duty to communicate with my seniors to make sure that all the individual residents needs are met.

2.2 Access full and up to date details of agreed ways of working. In the care plan I can read what are the needs of my residents and what support is needed everyday. I record everything about my work with residents, any changes in their physical state, behavior, who came to see them professionally or privately. This is to make sure that all the carers have access to the information and act accordingly.

2.3 Implement agreed ways of working.
The care plan sets my duties. Policies and procedures are there to be observed and followed. My role is to communicate with my seniors about anything which can ensure the well being of the resident.

3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others. To ensure continuality of good care team work is very important. Members of the team must communicate to each other any revelant information about residents. This is to be recorded in the care plan, risk assessment, daily and night written reports, verbal handovers from shift to shift.

3.3 Idntify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts. In my opinion it is very important, undestanding and patience. When trying to resolve conflict we must listen to both sides. That should be done when the sides are separated. By listening we help them resolve their problems. Experience, relevant training and assistance of fellow care workers gives us the tools to deal with conflict.

Role and Functions of Law Paper

Law plays an important role in how societies and businesses function. There are rules and laws for just about everything. If there were no rules or laws in place, society as we know it would not exist. Businesses would be much different than the ones we see today. The Laws intent is to provide fairness, equality, and justice. It provides protection, settles disputes, and enforces consequences for breaking the law. Everyone is subject to the law, which means it does not matter if a person is rich or poor, young or old. Every person has equal rights. Laws regulate acceptable social behaviors in society and acceptable practices within businesses. According to “Law and The Rule of Law” (2012), “Laws protect our general safety, and ensure our rights as citizens against abuses by other people, by organizations, and by the government itself” (3). A society is made up of many different kinds of people, such as different cultures, backgrounds, religions, beliefs, and so on.

The laws functions are to create an even playing field, so that all individuals are considered equal despite their differences. Laws protect our rights as citizens. Laws allow citizens to have freedom of speech and freedom of expression as long as those beliefs do not infringe on another person’s rights. Laws allow people to engage in their religious belief and cultural backgrounds without fear of persecution. Also, there are laws that help protect a citizen’s general safety, like food safety laws, traffic safety laws, and laws that require certain occupations, such as a doctor or a nurse, to have a license to practice. Without these laws in place, life and society would be a very dangerous and unsafe place. Laws play a large role in how businesses function. They are the basis for what are acceptable practices and guidelines that all businesses must follow.

The law establishes what is allowed and not allowed and what they must do in order to remain compliant. From the beginning, the law establishes the available types of corporations and the law dictates how to tax the business accordingly. There are laws that deter price fixing and monopolization so that businesses remain competitive. There are various laws to protect employees, such as the requirement for businesses to pay employees no less than minimum wage and to pay the required amount for overtime hours. The law also determines how employees and employers interact with each other. Such laws deal with issues such as sexual harassment in the workplace. Without any rules, regulations, or laws, businesses would essentially be able to do whatever they wanted without any consequences. With constant advances in technology and the world around us societies and businesses must evolve and adjust to these changes.

At the turn of the century, child labor laws were just being implemented, prior to that, children were being exploited to deplorable working conditions. What was considered acceptable at a point in time was no longer considered acceptable and child labor laws were created and enforced. The laws that societies and businesses follow change and evolve. Laws that were appropriate 20 or 30 years ago are not always pertinent in changing times. Laws are constantly being changed, added to, or thrown out completely. My very first job was working as a cashier at grocery store. I had just turned 16 and I remember my starting pay was just a little more than the current minimum wage at the time. This job gave me my first insight to how laws function in businesses. As an employee, I was entitled to a 30 minute lunch. As required by law after a four hour shift, I was entitled to a 15 minute break. Although, I was 16, I was allowed to work full time because I had obtained my diploma early.

By law, if I did not have my diploma and was still going to high school, I would only have been able to work 25 hours or less, which is considered part-time. A few years after working at the grocery store, I took a job as a receptionist for a company that manufactured disposable linens for hospitals and ambulances. I was working there for about six months, when one day there seemed to be a lot of panic and hysteria, and I did not quite understand why. I kept hearing INS is coming send the workers home. I admit I had no idea what INS was. I watched as everyone was scrambling to the parking lot to leave before INS got there. When the commotion died down I asked my co-worker what was happening and that’s when she explained to me what INS is and how 95% of the factory employees are illegal citizens.

Whenever I think about this story, I shudder at the risk the owner took with his million dollar company. I remember being told how he is fair and treats everyone great, which may have been true, but that does not negate the fact that he was doing illegal business. In my opinion, he would not have taken such a risk if there was not some kind of incentive for him. However, it is businesses owners like this one who create the need for certain laws and business regulations. It is safe to say that laws are at the very core of societies and businesses. Both behaviors in society and businesses alike are maintained through laws that set the precedent. Without laws, there would be no structure, no consequences, and no way of protecting the rights of every citizen. Thankfully that is not the case. Bushman (2007), “The United States legal system is intricate and complex. It recognizes the importance of law in day-to-day individual and business life”(12).

References
Bushman, M. (2007). Role of Law in Business. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/the-role-functions-law-business-society-191823.html?cat=3 Law and the Rule of Law. (2012). Retrieved from http://judiciallearningcenter.org/law-and-the-rule-of-law/

Role of the youth in social transformation

Before we go out in the big world we start learning in our home. Our parents teach us values and good attitude. Our parents wants us to be a good and responsible citizen in the society while we are growing. They teach us how to be independent and to fight for our rights. Home is the first school where we learn different things. When we go out and start to see the real world where we meet different kinds of people and different kinds of environment that’s the start of our transformation being a person. At the young age we have lot of responsibilities and role in our society. Youth plays a big role in social transformation. Where social transformation is the process by which an individual alters the socially ascribed social status of their parents into a socially achieved status for themselves. That’s why youth needs to be educated, because education is one of the most important thing to a youth.

To finish school and to have a profession and a job, to be a responsible and effective citizen in the society and make their own and start involving themselves in the society. According to our national hero Dr. Jose P. Rizal “The youth is the hope of our nation” (Ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng bayan) When we look at this quotation, it simply means that our future solely depends on our younger generations in the upcoming years. The youth of today really plays a vital and influential role in our society and in social transformation. Another role of the youth in social transformation is to be the peace builders or peace educators. Youth should be educated for humane purposes and social justice, where youth are involved in the transformation of society and the construction of peaceful futures.

Youth should know how to fight for their rights and be aware of what happening in their environment. Like for example in the government, they have a big role. Youth are considered to be the VIP’s in our society. The government give much attention, funds and other programs to help the youth, but sometimes the government also uses the youth for corruption. That’s why sometimes youth do become active and involved in different kind of activities. I believe that the main factor that drives them is they are being used for government crimes and the desire of having a say in the way their future will look like and believing that their actions will have an influence on how this future will look like. This, in turn, stems from youth being more and more exposed to multiple pieces of information.

My role in globalized society

Globalization is defined as the process of integration of philosophies, beliefs and other properties between different cultures (Albrow and King 1990, Giddens 1991). In modern society globalization plays an important role, whether it be on social, economic or cultural levels (Held et al. 1999). One of the key contributors to globalization is the mass media, in recent times this has occurred through cultural integration and the flow of information between different countries through mediums such as television, newspapers, film, music and newer technologies (Curran and Park 2000, Tomlinson 1999). With the development of new technologies, international cultural exchange will become easier, as has already been seen with Internet platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. Significant theories in media and communications have arisen through globalization these include modernity, developmental theories such as the network society and cultural imperialism (Held et al. 1999, Herman and McChesney 2004).

This essay will be exploring these theories and concepts in international communications and globalization to better understand media and the media industries in the twenty-first century. It will also critically engage these theories with my personal views and understanding as a media and communications student as well as a global citizen. Early communication theories were based around modernization and development. Daniel Lerner’s early works on modernization focused on the dispersion of Western culture, technological improvements and innovation (Albrow and King 1990, Lerner 1958). In the 1960’s Wilbur Schramm furthered modernization theory, he explained that communication could be used to benefit developing nations both politically and economically (Curran and Park 2000, Schramm 1964). Since earlier modernization and developmental theories, the focus has been switched away from Western influences and diffusion, rather gaining a more neutral interpretation. Anthony Gidden’s attempts to discredit the original ‘media dependency theory’ by differentiating traditional and modern societies, explaining that although influences have played a role in globalization, over time people have ‘stretch[ed] further and further across space and time using mass media and interactive media (Giddens 1991).’

Historically Western influence has played a large role in everyday society, from politics to economics, in media this is seen through television, film and news. One of the major influences over the past few decades is Hollywood and it’s byproducts (Miller 2001, Mingant 2012). Traditional Hollywood films, although focused for an American only target, were broadcasted throughout the world, where it was well received. These films consisted of American values and cultures, additionally the ‘cast and spectacular quality’ are the reasons behind strong popularity around the world for these Hollywood films (Mingant 2012). As a global citizen it is easy to recognize this influence since the local film industry isn’t as large and the majority of the ‘popular’ films are from Hollywood. But this trend is on the decline as we are seeing more and more international films from India and France as well as Eastern and European influences in Hollywood films. This has lead to an increasing significance of other ‘foreign markets in [this] globalized world’ which has to change is the global market (Miller 2001, Mingant 2012).

Similar to modernization and developmental theories, cultural imperialism theories were based on US influence and impact on developing countries. Herbert Schiller, one of the main contributors to cultural imperialism in 1969, explained that the US gaining imperialistic control of developing countries through the media (Schiller 1969, Sparks 2007). This view was influential and opened the door for others to critique and further cultural imperialism theories. Oliver Boyd-Barred advanced cultural imperialism theory by suggesting that it was more than just ‘gaining control’ and more so a matter of inequality between different nations and this lead to ‘political and economic dependency’ (Boyd-Barrett 1977).

Through local news media we can see the inequality of news reporting. The news is often Western dominated and shows hints of modern imperialism, whereas when developing countries are show in the news it is mainly related to corruption or tragedy. Over time this has lead to a bias image of these countries, which places the viewer with an inadequate understanding of the issue. Additionally, the developing nations are unable to produce their own mass media, and if they are they copy the formats of the Western world. As a global citizen it is easy to see the inequality between different nations and with such a large influence from countries like the US and UK, we are beginning to see the same stories covered over and over again. A perfect example is when an even occurs US, for example the shooting of a black teenager; this news is spread throughout the world even though there is very little interest from other countries (Reuters 2014).

Where as when killing occurs in other parts of the world, for example recently in Gaza when thousands had died, it was barely covered in Western media (AAP 2014). This shows a heavy political influence on the media. Nonetheless, although not predominant in the Western world, I believe Al-Jazeera is becoming a news platform for developing and Eastern countries. These are ‘real worldwide’ news stories, which have an equal balance of news stories from all over the world. Additionally, these news stories are more informative and let the audience make their own view on the topic at hand. In this modern age we are going through a technological revolution, new media platforms are being produced every day and content creation is easier then ever. Social media is slowly taking over as the predominant medium and sites such as Facebook and Twitter are booming through more and more people joining as well as advertisement revenue. Through this boom we are seeing increased globalization across these platforms. Many worldwide issues are discussed on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, from the FIFA World Cup, to the recent events in Ferguson, USA (Frier 2014, Reuters 2014).

It is also important recognize that when going though these stories on social media, everyone is given an opportunity to present their own view. Outside of these social media platforms, users are able to access more worldwide news as well as create their own content. As a global citizen, I often see myself researching topics in much more detail to gain a better understanding of news and issues. I feel this is the best way to gain an accurate view. I have a Facebook, Twitter and Instagram and through these media platforms I see many issues being discussed. Social media and the Internet will slowly take over as the dominant form of information flow. Globalisation can be seen to have many benefits as well has having a negative side. Traditionally globalization meant influencing other global nations with respect to media, politics and economics.

This was a global view during early media theory works. Only through the 1970’s did the globalization theories become questioned with claims of inequality and bias (Boyd-Barrett 1977, Schiller 1969). From these findings through to modern media we are seeing a slight move away from Western dominance of media. The concentration of media agencies is owned by a few people and although the US is no longer considered culturally imperialistic; the global media system is still yet to hit the developing nations. As a global citizen, the media is complex system and without looking further into issues of media we are given a one sided story with bias.

Outline and assess the role of the police in the social construction of crime (50 marks)

Social construction refers to the way in which crime and deviance in society might be created and shaped by society and social institutions. This can occur in a number of different ways. For example, they can influence public perception and definitions of what establishes crime and deviance, deviants or non-deviants. They can also influence the amount of crime in society by amplifying it therefore clamping down on it. They can add pressure for changes in legislation which can then alter definitions of crime and can criminalise activities previously regarded as legal. They can also influence the extent, trends and patterns of recorded crime in how they operate.

Interactionism is an action approach which views society in a micro perspective. It argues that the definitions of deviance and normality are social constructions and are relative, meaning it will depend on a range of factors such as the time, place and social context in which the act takes place whether the behaviour is defined as a crime or deviant.

Marxism is an example of the conflicting view as they argue that the law and social rules reflect the interests of the rich and powerful groups in society who have managed to impose their ideas and way of thinking on the wider population through coercion and ideological control. Therefore they are able to get their assumptions of crime to stick as opposed to the opinions of an ordinary person on the street.

Functionalism however argues the consensus view that law and norms about acceptable behaviour in any society are simply a reflection of the wider collective conscience and these laws and social rules are created and enforced to the benefit of everyone. Therefore deviance is behaviour that breaks these agreements on what is acceptable. Functionalists view this defining process as straightforward and objective.

The police are an institution that is assigned the duty to enforce the law and take action to those breaking these rules, in order to achieve order and safety in society. They are therefore considered as having a key role in the social construction of crime. The main way the police display this is through the use of discretion in the enforcement of the law. This refers to when police officers have to apply their own judgement to decide which laws are suited for the given circumstance. The choices individual police officers make would be greatly influenced by their own concerns and interests. Colman and German found evidence in their study which showed that there were individual racist police offers who apply the law more harshly to certain ethnic minorities.

Reiner also suggested an explanation on the basis of police discretion which refers to culture. It is noted that the police force are overwhelmingly white males. Officers work long hours in each other’s company, being largely isolated from the public. This therefore results in the development of a very specific occupational culture. This is referred to as ‘canteen culture’. Skolnick suggested three of its components. The first being suspiciousness. This talks about the fact that officers, whilst carrying out their training, are taught to discriminate between ‘decent people’ and ‘potential troublemakers’. According to Reiner, they categorise and stereotype certain people as ‘police property’. For example, they regard young males, particularly youths from ethnic minorities as potential troublemakers. A second component is internal solidarity and social isolation.

This causes police officers to rely on one another in terms of support when physically threatened and when denying accusations made by the public. Lastly, conservatism refers to those who join the police in the first place are rarely politically radical. However while the job of policing emphasises a non-political attitude, police officers must uphold the law; it also upholds the traditional values and nature of the state. There is a strong sense of conservative values evident in the police. A final component of masculinity was suggested by Graef. He noted how most police officers are male and drawn from the working class. Their culture therefore ultimately reflects traditional working class values of heavy drinking, physical prowess and heterosexuality. Racial stereotyping is also heavily emphasised and linked with assuming the role of the police officer.

Cicourel attempted to discover what deviance is by examining the way in which some acts and individuals become defined or labelled as deviant. Cicourel therefore looked how a young person is defined as delinquent. The first stage is a police officer deciding to stop and interrogate the individual based on meaning held by the policy about what is ‘suspicious’ or ‘unusual’. These can be related to particular geographical areas for example. If the individual portray themselves as the ‘typical delinquent’ in ways they speak and in their demeanour, they are more likely to be arrested. The second stage applies if the young person has been arrested, resulting in being referred to a juvenile (probation) officer. The suspect’s background is then looked at. Coming from a ‘broken home’ and showing bad attitude towards authority are factors that would increase the likeliness of them being charged with an offence.

Cicourel identifies how social classes can alter the way the juvenile probation officer would consider their choice of action. When a middle class juvenile is arrested they are less likely to be charged with an offence due to their background not fitting the typical criteria of a delinquent. Moreover, middle class parents are better able to negotiate successfully on their child’s behalf.

Due to this, middle class juvenile is often defines as ‘ill’ or accidently straying from the path of righteousness, allowing them the chance to reform. Middle class juvenile are more likely to be released with just a warning. Cicourel concluded that justice is negotiable and his theories reveal the power and control both the police and the juvenile probation officer have over a young individual’s life. This therefore implies that it is these two agents who contribute towards the social construction of crime as they are given the authority to select certain individuals and undergo the process of labelling them as deviant.

Taylor, Walton and Young however criticise Cicourel’s conclusion as he fails to explain how subjective meanings held by the police and juvenile probation officers of the ‘typical delinquent’ originate in the first place.

Marxists agree with considering the police as a key agent in social construction of crime and deviance but they believe it reflects the ideology of ruling class. Gordon argues that crime is rational and individuals must fend for themselves in order to survive. This is particularly true of the American poor as America has minimal welfare services compared to many other advanced societies. Gordon stated that most crimes in the USA share the similarity of representing rational responses to the competitiveness and inequality of life in capitalist societies.

Gordon argues the law enforcers in the USA support the capitalist system in three ways. Firstly they select members of the subject class and punish them as individuals – they are viewed as ‘social failures’ and responsible for their criminal activities. By placing this focus on an individual, it draws away from capitalism which is primarily responsible for their criminal deviance. Secondly the imprisonment of members of the subject class is a way of eliminating those who may have shown opposition to the capitalist society – reducing the opposition of the system.

Finally by imprisoning the criminals who are ‘enemies of the state’, they are sweeping away an embarrassing extreme outcome of capitalist society. If something was done to help these people, if their difficult situations were made public then it would throw doubt on the capitalist society – as it produced them initially. This reflects the idea that enforcers of the law serves to maintain ruling-class power and ideology. Therefore suggesting that the police and courts exert their power and control to further strengthen the ruling class and continue to force submission of the subject class. The laws and the ideas of crime and punishment are argued to have been constructed based on the ruling class’ preferences.

It is also argued that the police are not a significant factor of the social construction of crime and the informal agent of social control which is media has a greater influence. The media shape wider social definitions of what is criminal and deviant. They can also configure the public’s perceptions and fears in terms of what they choose to report and how they choose to represent this. This therefore implies that what is considered as deviant is linked to the influence that the media has on the public, causing them to react in a certain way. The police can therefore be argued as just victims of the media as it pressures them to act against these negative social groups which have been categorised as public enemies, and if they don’t choose to take action, the reputation of the police could be threatened.

‘Moral panics’ is a concept used to describe the media’s reactions to particular social groups or acts that threaten societal values. Their reaction is often out of proportion to the real threat and puts pressure on authorities to control the problem. Marxists believe that moral panics serve an ideological purpose. Stuart Hall studied the media coverage of black muggers in the 1970s and concluded that it served the purpose of dividing the working class, diverting attention away from the mismanagement of capitalism by the ruling class and justified severely restrictive laws and policing that could be used against other problem groups. Stuart Hall’s theory however is criticised for being too deterministic and ignoring the centre of activity.

Functionalists would argue the influence of the role of police in the social construction of crime is wrongly exaggerated. They would describe the police as having a close relationship with the local area being policed. Therefore the role of the police force is being to represent the shared interests of the majority of law abiding people to defend them against the minority of offenders. They would disagree that the enforcements made by the police are revolved around the interests of the ruling class as they argue that police officers are drawn up from the community therefore ultimately reflecting its characteristics. They also believe that individual offenders are caught as a result of complaints made by the community not due to the individual police officer’s view and attitudes affecting the decision.

Childhood as key role in our life

Childhood plays a key role in our life, actually our character and personality builds up in childhood. Besides, we as adults have a lot of concern and we should face many stressful situations like finding jobs, getting married and so on, On the other hand, children are free of all them. I do agree with the statement which childhood is the happiest time in person’s life, I explain more about as follows. First, adults, they have a lot of responsibility. For instance I as mother and wife not only do I have to take care of my children and house but also I have to work as a teacher. Therefore, I am so busy but ,when I was a child my most concern was game. I just play with my friends all the time. I do not have any responsibility. I believe that childhood is the happiest time because you are care free, so children enjoy their life without any stress. They are not worry about the future. Second, as an adult I am happy in some especial events.

For example when I get promotion in my carrier or when I get high salary I feel happy, but children do not have big expectations they satisfy with toys and friends. I can remember when I was a child everything were new for me I ask about anything which I saw. child finds out what a beautiful, amazing world. I was just curious I wanted to discover new things, I can remember what a amazing time was when I saw sheep for the first time. Everything which seems usual and rotin but that time everything were new and wonderful. Taking everything into consideration, childhood is happiest time because children are care free and they do not have any responsibility besides everything are new and strange to children . their most concern is play and find out and understand new things.

Role of housekeeping department in hospitality

The house keeping department in a hotel essentially deals with the cleanliness in a hotel. Accommodation in hotels tend to be the largest part of the hotel, it is the most revenue generating department, the housekeeping department takes care of all rooms is often largest department hotels. The guests feel comfortable in a environment which is clean and well ordered. duty of housekeeping department and the satisfied customer visits the hotel again, by this way housekeeping department helps to increase the revenue of the hotel. Housekeeping is an important and integral part of the guest experience and satisfaction. Other things such as security are important, but what guests really want is to feel at home, to feel comfortable.

Although the staff providing this service do not necessarily interact directly with the public, the quality of their work is critical in shaping guests’ pleasant memories of their stay. The impact of the housekeeping function on the success of a hotel’s operations cannot be underestimated, since large revenue for hotel industry is generated mainly from the sale of rooms. Good housekeeping is the foundation of good infection prevention. The general cleanliness and hygiene of a facility are vital to the health and safety of guests, staff, and visitors. Pleasant work environment contributes to staff members’ satisfaction, making them to be more productive. A more pleasant environment improves guest . IMPORTANCE OF HOUSEKEEPING

1. Comfort: Achieve the maximum efficiency possible in the care and comfort of the guests and in providing support services for the smooth running of the hotel. Every hotel spends a lot of effort in ensuring the quality of beds, mattresses, channel music, TV, air conditioner if applicable, attached bar etc. The comforts must be regularly maintained and should be properly functioning. It is the duty of the housekeeping department to ensure comfort and a welcoming atmosphere to the guests as well as strive to extend courteous, reliable and satisfactory service from staffs of all departments.

2. Cleanliness and Hygiene: Ensure a high standard of cleanliness and general upkeep in all areas. the wash rooms, toilets, pool changing room, health club, etc.

3. Privacy: The prime concern of any guest, irrespective of whether rich or poor, common man or celebrity, is privacy. Housekeeping staffs ensure the privacy of the guests and they should be trained with proper procedures to enter the room.

4. Safety and Security: Security is one of the prime concerns of a hotel guest. The housekeeping department staffs should ensure the safety and security of the guests with the help of security services. They should also make sure that fire fighting equipments and emergency alarms are functional at all times. They should also ensure peace, quiet and noise free atmosphere in the area.

5. Décor: Creating a pleasant and classy ambience is also one of the major concerns for a guest. This is not easy and requires a good eye for detail. This work is an art and the housekeeping, florist. Staff is mainly responsible for creating a pleasant atmosphere.

FUNCTIONS OF HOUSEKEEPING
Housekeeping department holds the responsibility of cleaning, maintenance and admirable upkeep of the hotel. The main functions of housekeeping are overall cleanliness, bed making, ensuring maintenance of the building and its infrastructure, laundry, linen management, key control, pest control, safety and security of the guests as well as the infrastructure and interior decoration. All this ensure the ambience and promotes a congenial environment. S.O.P

bed making, cleaning bathroom tiles and mirror ,cleaning shower curtain and bath tub, cleaning the sink and vanity area, control desk activities, corridor cleaning and minibar maintenance ,dusting the gust room, entering the room greet the guest, floor pantry maintenance and cleaning, key control procedures, lost and found procedures, packing for out of order rooms, preparing the guest room for cleaning, restocking the bath room supplies ,taking the message and complaint handling ,trolley setting ,turn down service /evening service, vacuuming and dusting the fabrics ,cleaning the wc, loading the washers, sorting the uniforms and linens.

Role of Chemistry in Our Society

INTRODUCTION

Common people may not have the actual knowledge of chemistry and it’s contribution. But they aware of the comforts which science has provided to the society. The modern technology, advances in medicines, fastest means of transport, durable and beautiful clothes, good fertilisers etc. are a few common things will which every one is familiar. It should not be taken as any surprise if one finds that chemistry plays leading role in serving all aspects of life. As a matter of fact everything we look around is made with which chemistry is concerned. All the substances have their chemical structure, which determine their utility for the society. Chemistry is defined as the science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.

It has played a major role in pharmaceutical advances, forensic science, and modern agriculture. The simple fact is that chemistry plays an important role in human’s life from the moment we’re born. It usually begins from the first thing each morning. Most people wake up to an alarm or radio. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. These batteries contain positive and negative electrodes which is also all about chemistry. It also plays an important role in the discovery and understanding of materials contained in these and many other common household items.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion chemistry is a very important science in our lives that helps most of the other sciences by the making of the products those sciences use. Its a subject which is necessary for living in this world. Today chemistry has become a daily use in our life. Without chemistry, living on this earth is not possible. And even chemistry has even used years ago, we still use it as a important science.

Your Role, Responsibilities and Boundaries as a Teacher

The word “teacher” to mean any of the following: teacher, lecturer, trainer, instructor or facilitator” within the preface. This helps in define the role of the teacher; they facilitate learning. It is said that the teaching cycle comprises of five key elements; to identify needs, plan and design, deliver, assess and evaluate the program which has been delivered. This cycle is continuous in that it is ever evolving, with linkages throughout. It indicates the importance of an initial assessment of the learner, but does not define this as permanent. In the same way that the cycle progresses through stages, its design enables the learner to progress through stages.

The role of the teacher can become blurred by expectations from the learner. Fundamentally, it can be viewed in terms of wants and needs. The specification of the teacher from an employer’s point of view would request a teacher to be a competent coach, support learners, able to confidently design a program of study which can be reflected upon, assessed and evaluated. The learner may want skills and attributes that are found more within some characters than others, such as patience and diligence. The teaching cycle not only creates the better program for the learner, but also causes the teacher to become more self aware. The constant reviews within the learning environment are central to the cycle and create an assessment tool in their own right. The style of delivery depends on the personal preference of the teacher, but may include such examples as short interludes with questions, or more formal testing.

The role of a teacher constantly evolves, not only do you have to assess your pupils, but also the effectiveness of your own teaching. Not all students are equal and it is key to teach with no preconceptions, Atherton thought this would greatly effect how they will learn as you will treat them differently without actually intending to do so; this can also create a ‘self fulfilling prophecy’ by ‘labelling’ students. (Atherton, 2009)

Carl Rodgers believed it is one of the responsibilities of a teacher to treat each pupil as an equal and be non-judgemental in order for us to evaluate their individual needs; like Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Rodgers felt that each person has the desire for self actualisation and it is our responsibility as a teacher to facilitate this. (Rodgers, 1983)

With the latter we must be careful not to get too involved in the students personal problems. It is important to know when to escalate the issue to the right person.

Our job is as an educator and not as a social worker and we need to be careful that our students are clear on this point, good teacher/student boundaries are important for both sides and above all we must be observant & professional at all times.

Finding the right motivation and identifying our student’s needs is important within the teaching cycle. So responsibilities for within roles and it shouldn’t be too hard to figure out what the boundaries are.

A few things to tick off or role would be;

Creating /facilitating opportunities for learning Plan lessons, find and prepare materials, do research, assess learners and yourself Keep records: lesson plans, attendance, assessment.

Keeping yourself up to date in both teaching and your field Maintaining high standards in your work and conduct Complying with the rules of the organisation you are part of as well as legislation and codes of practice.

The boundaries part would be;

Maintaining professional relationships Taking care with communication methods(and increasingly social media use)

The teaching / training cycle;

The “teaching/training cycle” is the stuff you should have covered about identifying needs, planning and designing, delivering and facilitating, assessing and finally evaluating before it all starts again. If you can expand a little on each of those you’ll show your grasp of the concepts.

Role of Statistics

Define Statistics
Statistics is the practice of gathering, sorting, and categorizing numerical information in an organized format that can be used to acquire results to specific problems. According to McClave, Benson, and Sincich (2011), “Statistics is the science of data. It involves collecting, classifying, summarizing, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting numerical information” (p. 3). Different Types and Levels of Statistics

There are two types of statistics. One is descriptive which defines the variable being studies by using graphics to display and measure results. The other is inferential which tries to get results beyond the data collected and a probability measurement is needed to justify the outcome. McClave, Benson and Sincich (2011), emphasis that descriptive statistics use numerical and graphical methods to look for patterns in data set and summarize the results. Inferential statistics uses sample data to make estimates and predictions (p. 3). Levels of Statistics

All data are not created equal, some are qualitative and quantitative. Nominal and Ordinal fall under quantitative level and Interval and Ratio comes under qualitative level. The Nominal level is the lowest and data can only be counted or categorized. Ordinal data at this level can be put in order but there is no difference between the data collected. Interval is similar to ordinal except that the order attached to the data collected is important. Ratio is the highest level of measurements. This is similar to the interval level but with a zero value which is essential to making comparisons. Role of Statistics in Business Decision Making

Statistics is used in business decision making to help companies keep their competitive edge and build longevity. Statistical Examples

Statistics can be used to calculate the ratio of Alzheimer patients between men and women of a certain age. HUD uses zip codes to provide special programs for families that will enable them to purchase a home. Businesses use statistics to depict demographics to market their products.

References
McClave, J. T., Benson, P. G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

What is the role of Ethics in the Management

Ethical management refers to corporate management that not only fulfills economic goals and legal responsibilities, but also meets the ethical expectations imposed by social norms in conducting business.

There are 5 specific functional areas of management which is covered by business ethics : 1) Ethical management in the workplace. Ethical management is the foundation of CSR (voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner) in the workplace, which covers those ethical issues of the employer-employee relationship. Ethical management assures all policies in the workplace are legal. This will prevent moral issues and discriminating practices such as harassment, child labor, discriminating practices based on age, gender, race and physical attractiveness.

2) Ethical management regarding intellectual property rights. This may take account on issues regarding bio prospecting and bio piracy, copyright, patent, trademark infringement, business intelligence, employee trading & industrial espionage.

Bioprospecting
– the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources. Biopiracy
– the commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advancedcountry or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nationsin whose territory the materials were originally discovered.

3) Ethical management in sales, advertising and marketing.
These are business ethics and ethical management that deals with issues on pricing, anti-trust and anti-cartel law, bait and switch, viral marketing, pyramid scandal and sex in advertising.

Anti-Trust and Anti-Cartel Law
laws that are designed to keep free competition in the marketplace. Competition encourages corporations to have lower pricing and better products for consumers. Without these laws in place, businesses could merge to create monopolies or engage in exclusivity contracts that can drive market prices. Bait and Switch

a sales tactic in which a customer is attracted by the advertisement of a low-priced item but is then encouraged to buy a higher-priced one. Viral Marketing (marketing buzz) referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking services and other technologies to try to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives.

Pyramid Scandal
which involves promising participants payment or services, primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, rather than supplying any real investment or sale of products or services to the public

Benneton Case
Benetton Group S.p.A (Benetton), a leading Italian clothing company, is famous, or rather, infamous for its outrageous promotional campaigns.

4) Ethical management production.
This deals with duties of companies to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm. Most discussions includes moral relations between business and environment. Ethical programs between the organization and the environment that are concerned with practices that may lead to pollution, global warming, increase in water toxicity and diminishing natural resources. (example: waste management, ford pinto case)

Ford Pinto Case
The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car produced by the Ford Motor Company, that is offered as a two-door sedan, then the Pinto added hatchback and wagon models the following year. With over 3 million sold over a 10-year production run, the Pinto competed in the U.S. market. But in 1972, reports of explosions in low-speed collisions involving Pintos struck from the rear started to come in to the National Highway Safety and Trans­portation Admin­istration. Accident investigations in many of the cases revealed that victims had few, if any, trauma injuries as a result of the impacts, but had burned to death when the cars exploded into flames. Some had been trapped inside the cars due to the body buckling and doors becoming jammed shut.

5) Ethical management in finance, accounting and auditing.
Issues within these areas comprise executive compensation, manipulation of financial markets, bribery, fraud (wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain) and false reporting.

Role of legislature in pakistan

ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT
There are three organs of the government.
a. Legislature.
b. Executive.
c. Judiciary.

LEGISLATURE.
Legislature is the organ of the state that makes laws. Laws regulate the conduct of the people. Pakistan is an Islamic Republic and will of the people is expressed through their elected representatives who perform the function of law making. Main thing is the welfare of the people and development in all spheres of life in ademocratic manner where rule of law is observed. legislature in pakistan.

In Pakistan we have our own Constitution called the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Principles under consideration while formulating laws.

The Constitution assures that inthe Pakistani Order five principles asenunciated by Islam shall be observed: (i) Principle of democracy.
(ii) Principle of freedom.
(iii) Principle of equality.
(iv) Principle of tolerance.
(v) Principle of social justice.

Principle of democracy.
The principle of democracy in Islam means the principle where there is mutual counsel-ship in the affairs of the State. If there is consensus on any matter well and good otherwise the opinion of the majority shall prevail. Dissenting opinion will also be kept on record so that later on further research could be conducted.

Principle of freedom.
The principle of freedom means that Allah has created mankind free and it is the human injustice and cruelties due to which man has exploited the freedom of other persons by various modes and methods. Islam has come to bring out mankind from the clutches of all yokes. A careful study of Islamic way of life will reveal that charitable occasions apart, on everymatter freedom of slave was made an expiation or kind of recompense or punishment.Further, when therewas not yet any such occasion thetreatment with them was ordained tobe that of equality, in food, drink,clothes and shelter. Even in thematter of labour the Master wasordained to help him by all possiblemeans. Many modes of freedomhave been told. Legal effect of marriage, death, divorce have beenlinked with it. Laws for law and peacehave also dealt with this problem.

Principle of equality.
The principle of equality meansequality before law. No one is abovelaw. Every person is liable for hisown individual act of violation of law.No soul shall bear the burden of other. No one will be doubly jeopardized. All are accountable for their deeds.

The principle of tolerence.
The principle of tolerance means the respect for the rights of others in all walks of life. It also includes healthy criticism of all state activities.

The principle of social justice.
The principle of social justice meansthe administration of justice in amanner that society gets its due. Theinstitutions are respected andallowed to work independently andfreely. In all matters collective goodwill have preference over individualinterest? Every one shall havechance to earn his livelihood byadopting any lawful business,profession or service. Each will getaccording to his performance. Stateshall take care of education, health,of the citizens and will provide themfree education and free health facilities.

All these principles shall be observedas enunciated by Islam. This means in their observance the requirements of “La’ ilaha’ illallahu Muhammadur Rasulullah”
shall be fulfilled.

My role model

To me a role model is someone in my life that has influenced me in a positive way. They help shape the way I am in the present and what I am going to be in the future. They are some one that I can look forward for advice in a tough situation and I know that they will give me advices with wisdom. They will never judge me on my past but only look to help because they really do care about me. Some one who I never feel awkward talking to about my problems because I know that it will not change their view of me and they will not reveal any information about me to other unrelated person or someone who are nosey. A role model should be sincere and not out for there own good but the good of others. I think that they should be older then I am because they need to have more experience then I do and need to have a deeper insight. It would be pointless to have a role model who knows less then me.

But apart from my parents, , teachers or very best friends like Brian Lee really do care about me a lot, there is nobody should be deserved to have a talk about, or can drag my attraction, or makes me change my personality and reach more achievements. I don’t have a real one honestly, but I would be searching for him or her!

( You must feel surprised that why do I write such a short paragraph this time)

Role of media in education

The education of our children has always been emotive and when the mass media is added to the mix, volatility is inevitable. Hardly a country in the world is spared controversy in education, but when one looks behind the sometimes anarchic scenes, there is a lot about which to be optimistic and hopeful.

Traditionally, the mass media and education have enjoyed a love-hate relationship. On one hand television and newspapers particularly, have provided extensive and extremely useful education content. On the other, however, their newsrooms never seem to hesitate when controversy rears is ugly head.

In theory, it is absolutely vital for the mass media to keep an eye on the way in which governments administer and develop education, but it has to be said that in this day and age of a battle for survival within the mass media industry, the watchdog does tend to become somewhat rabid at times.

Like most businesses the mass media often takes a line of least resistance when problems occur and a first step always seems to blame the trades union movements.

In South Africa the South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) inevitably faces tremendous criticism from the mass media when its members protest the enormous challenges and deprivations they face in the classrooms. Many of those challenges having very little to do with actual teaching.

Regrettably, the relationship between the mass media and education involves a lot of indulgence in blame-games and reaction by both sides to superficial symptoms.

There is undeniably an urgent need for the education authorities and the mass media to join together in improving the lot of our youngsters and young adults. The media cannot just be a watchdog and nothing else and the national and provincial education departments cannot work in isolation or
out of the public eye.

It is no good the mass media simply reporting on “delinquent learners burning classrooms” without delving into the underlying causes. Understanding perhaps, that after years of promises for proper school buildings to replace dilapidated, unhealthy, decades-old temporary structures, the only option left was to destroy the old building so that a new one would have to built.

There is no question that the only way in which the mass media can continue to perform its role as an education watchdog but at the same time become involved in helping build an efficient education system, is through improved communication.

This probably sounds extremely glib, but when you think about it, bad or non-existent communication has been the cause of everything from wars between countries to divorces between married couples.

In simple terms, this communication would mean the mass media and the education departments talking to each other a lot more. I have to say, though, that this is a wild hope and probably entirely over-optimistic.

However, I believe that two innovations will force this essential communication to take place.

The first is the involvement by private sector companies in the education environment and the second is new media.

Argo, for example, is a good example of a private sector media company that is successfully creating bridges between education authorities, unions and affiliated and non-affiliated teachers. Companies such as these are becoming vital links in improved communications among stakeholders.

The private sector is pioneering the use of new media, specifically social media in the education environment with for example, websites such as ed.org.za and increasing activity on interactive social media platforms such
as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Mxit.

The importance of social media among education authorities, educators, unions, private sector stakeholders as well as schools, pupils and parents, cannot be emphasised enough.

Communication is one thing, it is a vitally important thing, but it is not enough.

Conversation is what is going to ensure increased collaboration by all players in education and the beauty of the social media conversation is its endemic role as watchdog. Not a one-sided watchdog but one that has sufficient information at hand to ensure an even-handed approach.

It would be a grave mistake for anyone in the education sector to assume that things like FaceBook, Twitter and Mxit were strictly for children or young adults. They are extremely efficient creators of conversations among all parties, providing not only information and advice but most importantly able to address misconceptions and wrong perceptions almost immediately.

As technology makes farther inroads into education, as the iPad has already done in private school classrooms, the ability for pupils, teachers, parents along with education authorities to communicate instantly will be an absolute boon in terms of increasing the efficiency and efficacy of education.

There are those that might feel that all this might be a little too transparent and instant.

But, when you think about it, the future of education rests on being as transparent as humanly possible.

And it will be the private sector that leads the way – Twitter, YouTube, FaceBook, Mxit, online forums and pioneers such as Argo.

Role of NCC in Nation Building

The word “culture” is rather difficult to define accurately and is as elusive as the term civilisation. Culture to the anthropologist refers to the sum total of the possessions of an identifiable group of people. The concept covers material as well as non-material things, the latter including language, rituals, beliefs, values, norms, practices, wisdom, knowledge, and also economic relations.

What really binds people together is their culture, the ideas, beliefs and standards they have in common. In any case, culture implies restraint over oneself, control of emotions, polished manners, refinement and consideration for others. The cultivation of good tastes, acceptable patterns of external behavior, deep moral sensibilities; all these are indications of culture. The cultured mind has its doors and windows open; a closed, narrow and prejudiced mind betrays lack of culture. It is culture that distinguishes man from other organic creatures. Culture is the product of human society. Each distinctive culture corresponds necessarily to a particular society.

Throughout history, India has been culturally united, even though politically it has been split up into quarrelling States and territories. India’s past, with its variety of cultures, traditions, customs, language and religious beliefs, is in effect the common heritage of all Indians, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others. There are diversities of course; these are bound to be in such a vast country of continental dimensions. But there is an essential unity of outlook, which one can notice from north to south and east to west. Indian society has progressed by a synthesis of the emerging contradictions. This incorporates several Indian traditions; Our culture is the cumulative result of centuries of evolution and continuous synthesis. There have been no sudden breaks in this process. Every individual is moulded by his native country’s culture to an enormous degree. We may not recognise the shaping process, because it is gradual. It is satisfying, at least as often as it appears burdensome. Values, attitudes, and institutions are inextricably interwoven. This underlines the inter-relationship between culture and politics.

Language is the instrument through which culture may be said to be transmitted from one generation to the next. In fact, language makes the “storage” of culture possible. A national culture has emerged in recent decades, as a result of the selection of discrete items from various sections and groups in the country, and elaborating them and reinterpreting them for display on various occasions, including Independence Day and Republic Day. The national culture performs both aesthetic and political functions.

The latter functions include accommodation of various regional cultures. The literatures of various regions conform broadly to the same themes; there is sympathy, patience and understanding. The language of expression is often different, but even the root of most Indian languages is the same Sanskrit. Several new factors have emerged in post-independent India, such as adult franchise and constitutional safeguards for the weaker sections of society. All these have sharpened the politicisation of social and cultural life.

But even the intrusion of politics into this sphere has not retarded the stream of Indian culture. Indian society has not been rigid; on the contrary, it has displayed a remarkable degree of flexibility. Over the centuries, India has absorbed waves of foreign cultures. The youth of India ventured abroad and brought in fresh ideas. The joint family and the caste system have virtually crumbled, but the cultural strains have not been snapped. There is conflict between man and nature, but Indian culture has not disintegrated. Nor has the spread of education weakened it. Consequently, Indian culture is composite in character; the traditional tolerance of Indian society has been a vital factor.

Undeniably, there are differences of rigidity attained by traditions in different countries. China and India have a long history and ancient civilisations; the traditions in these two countries have been handed down, not by centuries but by the millennium. Among the systems India has inherited over the centuries is that of caste. Generally, the caste system is quoted as an example of rigid traditions that prevent reconstruction of society on modern lines, so as to conform to the needs of a technologically advanced industrial society. But sociologists affirm that even the hoary caste system is merely a manifestation of class structure, a widely recognised arrangement of productive forces in the feudal society existing at that time. Inevitably, the changing social and economic structure has modified the caste system.

The new conditions, the new social structure, the gradually changing set-up and the general enlightenment brought about by education have made the system somewhat obsolete. With the spread of knowledge, countless people have questioned the validity of the caste set-up. A few examples of protestant traditions and the work of social reformers would clarify the position. Their activities have gradually but surely brought about a cultural renaissance. Buddhism was a great movement against casteism and ritualism. Later came, the teachings of Guru Nanak, with their stress on a casteless society. Raja Rammohan Roy worked for the eradication of caste, rituals and social evils. Swami Vivekananda, the de facto founder of the Hindu monastic order, the Ramakrishna Mission, also denied the validity of the caste system. In the 20th century Mahatma Gandhi campaigned against the caste system. Though most of these social reform movements had a limited impact, they were never repudiated by the Indian people, as some movements were in the West. India has absorbed all the protestant traditions in her composite culture.

The feudal left-over have been gradually eroded, especially in urban areas where a new industrial society, with its own cultural practices, has emerged. But the talk of Indian cultural unity, though well-founded, must be tempered with certain harsh realities and strange contradictions that are becoming increasingly noticeable in society. These often create doubts in the minds of many people, whether there is such a thing as India’s cultural unity. The endless conflicts, struggles, armed riots and clashes between the various communities cannot be brushed aside as mere aberrations occurring only once in a while. They are quite frequent, and result in violent clashes because of the basic differences in approach and the countless vested interests in certain lopsided set-up.

It is often contended that the differences and diversities which result in recurring clashes do not detract from the claim of India’s cultural unit. But this contention lose all meaning when we find that people are at each other’s throats, and indulge in unethical, uncultured, violent behavior far too often. Culture, it is said, has permeated every section of Indian society. But how can this be true of the illiterate, poverty-stricken masses that lack the basic characteristics of cultured people? Nor can it be argued that the Indians are essentially spiritual, far more so than other people, and can, therefore, claim to be cultured. How many people are truly spiritual, truthful, charitable, tolerant and considerate to others? Have we not become selfish, self-seeking, greedy, corrupt, and irreligious and do we not flout with a vengeance the teachings of our saints and sages? Again, Indian culture is said to be based on the Hindu philosophy o: life and conduct.

But lakhs of people now question the basis of Hindu philosophy and regard it as irrelevant and obsolete. Do our people have a universal outlook which is so essential for real culture? There is more and more of individualism and less and less of the spirit of service to society: both these indicate the lack of culture. Culture implies striving towards perfection and discarding all evil in the process. It also means that people have high social values. In today’s India, all social and moral values are on the decline. Can we truly claim that we try to absorb what is best in other people and in other cultures? India’s tragedy is that as the years pass we tend to imbibe the social malpractices and immoral habits that are associated with the West. True Indian culture has been eroded as a result of this trend.

If we closely study the harsh realities, the glaring contrasts and contradictions, the numerous oddities and irreconcilable factors that abound in the social and economic structure, many of us will come to the conclusion that Charles Dickens’ famous dichotomy is applicable to our country. In his famous work, “A Tale of Two Cities”, while describing a tell-tale situation, he wrote: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything light, it was the season of darkness; the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going direct Heaven, we are all going direct the other way.” India is described as a rich country, but it is a country of poor masses.

The prosperity is confined to a few pockets, rural as well as urban. But the vast countryside and countless people in urban slums and shelters similar to these dirty dwellings are living in abysmal poverty. Besides poverty, there is mass illiteracy. It is pointless and even insulting, to talk of culture and cultural activity to people stricken with the specter of hunger. In many areas the soul stirring overshadows everything else. Creativity does not find a place in a country traditionally associated with the begging bowl, and with torn, tattered clothes covering famished bodies of continually exploited people. How many of us can claim to be proud of our people’s moral character, standards of honesty and general behavior? Albert Schweitzer, the well-known philosopher, described Indians as “self-negating people”.

Many impartial observers have noticed among Indians an obsessive concern with their self-interest, which indicates lack of interest in, or responsibility for, anyone else. In most of our working relationships there is indeed a negative, even destructive attitude. To the non-violent policies, for which we were once known around the world, has lately been added strains of violence, which may be described as public aggression and are violative of what the country stood for. Have these become an integral part of our national culture, ethos and character? The anti-national tendencies persist despite all the efforts of the official agencies of law and order to suppress them.

Even appeasement has not brought the requisite dividends. The country’s unity and culture are anything but safe. Countless people would agree that our unity in diversity is probably a myth. Undeniably, there is a fantastic diversity, but there is less of unity now. Our traditional tolerance, our spiritual values, our peace-loving, conciliatory nature and cultural traits seem to be disappearing. There are sections of society in certain parts of the country, in the eastern region for instance, to who all talk of an Indian nation and a distinct Indian culture and unity are anathema. The cultural unity of India is, thus, not as complete, all- pervasive and durable as our predecessors supposed.

Evaluate own role in life long learning

Evaluating My own Role and Responsibilities in Lifelong Learning To evaluate my own role and responsibilities as an assessor I need to be honest with myself as well as brave. I have a good understanding of my role and responsibilities, but to improve I need to become a reflective practitioner which can only be achieved if I am prepared to evaluate my own performance [ Petty.G pg 527]. By using Kolb’s learning style model, I realise it’s useful concepts can help me understand how my learning behaviour can help others to learn. My role is to communicate effectively with the learners, but do I? Recently I was helping a learner prepare for his functional skills writing assessment. I explained to him how to layout a letter, which side your address goes on which side the recipient’s goes on etc. After the assessment I was informed he had put his address on the wrong side at the top of the page. Did he not hear what I said?

Did he forget?
Easy to blame the learner, but did I explain well enough and what did I do to confirm his understanding? Poor performance is sensitive subject, but if I’m not prepared to face up to my failures then I can’t expect my successes to be acknowledged either.[Petty.G Pg518] So I have concrete experience of contributing to a learner loosing marks on his assessment. Now I need to reflect on the experience and think how effective was my teaching, obviously not good in some areas but his greetings, layout, structure and ending were good so I was effective in other areas. At this stage of abstract conceptualisation, I ask myself why was I good and effective in some areas, and not in others. Here I think about the methods I used, and do I need more question to confirm understanding, maybe some fun activities. This is when the final stage of the cycle kicks in, it’s when I plan active experimentation.

Here I decide how I can do things differently, what new methods shall I try that will produce improved results, and maybe take that brave step into the unknown with new material. Being self critical is not enough though, it’s my responsibility to get direct and indirect feedback when I can, learner questionnaires, college observations also indirect feedback can be just as effective, this can be collected during training or assessment through observation. Maybe learners are not engaged, making no eye contact, separate conversations carrying on the classroom, all good feedback. I use my CPD records to detail my development.

Today I was observed and my folders were quality checked by our Internal Quality Assurer, who also spoke with learners and gave me verbal and written feedback. IQA records I keep a long with minutes and details from our standardisation meetings, where we have the opportunity to liaise with other trainers, teachers and lean practitioners. I keep all Individual Learner Plan where records of initial assessment are recorded, where any needed support has been identified and details of planned and actual reviews are written.

Reference List
Petty.G. (2009) Teaching Today Fourth Edition, Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes LTD www.cardiff.ac.uk/isru/educationalandtraining/infolit/hilt/section8.1.doc 23/03/14

Role of a Social Service Agency

A Social Service Agency is responsible for planning, implementing, and operating social service programs in the community. The Social Service Agency provides human welfare and social work. Our team researched The Department of Human Services role of social services and used of mediation. The Department of Human Services is a large agency that helps millions of individuals daily. The mission of the Department of Human Services is to assist low-income individuals and families to maximize their potential for economic security and self-sufficiency (Department of Human Services, 2012).

Under the Department of Human Services, is Family Services? This department has numerous agencies that provide protection, intervention, and social services to meet individual needs (Department of Human Services, 2012). As a team, we will compare and contrast the roles of mediator and advocate by describing the power limitations of each role, discuss under what circumstances an advocate is used during mediation, and which role is most critical to problem solving. The team will discuss the mediator bias, limitations of the mediator, scope of power, conflict of interest, confidentiality, mediator neutrality and impartially. ~”The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”~(Mahatma Ghandi, 1869-1948). Power Limitations of Each Role

There are limits to everything, mediators and advocates are no exception to the rule. In the Family Services, the power limitations for both roles differ from one another. A mediator’s limitations are: only facilitating communication during a negotiation, possessing no final say in the ultimate decision of a dispute, no control over the content that will be discussed during a negotiation, not dictating any of the terms of the final settlement, and remaining impartial during the entire negotiation procedure.

The advocate’s power limitations consist of; having to negotiate with other advocates (e.g., the other parties divorce lawyer), having to face off powerful (experienced, wealthy, influential, knowledgeable) advocates, or if working with clients advocate are limited to how much and how rapidly an individual can intake new information before he or she can be able to stand for him or herself. Circumstances an advocate uses during mediation

In “Conflict resolution for the helping professions,” Barsky tells us that advocates can also participate during mediations (Barsky, 2007, p. 1). The mediator’s role is to facilitate a negotiation and to help facilitate the discussion among two parties, without becoming biased. However, an advocate is used during mediation when; two parties are facing one another during a negotiation and one is more powerful than the other, often times the disadvantaged party brings an advocate in the picture to represent them. A good example of this is; a custody battle where one parent has more money to afford a powerful high-profile attorney. The parent who is less fortune would most likely seek family services to assist in locating a pro bono counselor to aid him or her in the negotiation process. Which role is most critical to problem solving?

Both roles are very important during problem solving. However, in the Department of Human Services (family service), one role can become more critical than the other depending on the nature of the conflict or negotiation. If during a negotiation both parties are experiencing a hard time communicating, because of constant arguments that prevent the flow of a discussion, or if a deadlock is reached, the involvement of a mediator would be vital. Otherwise, there would be no progress in the negotiation because of the lack of structured communication between both parties. The role of advocate can also be very critical during problem solving because the advocate would represent a client during a dispute (or if time permits) work with a client beforehand and teach the individual how to develop valuable negotiation skills. Regarding which role is more critical, advocate or mediator? Well that will depend on the circumstances surrounding the negotiation. Mediator Bias

A mediator is a difficult job that has many challenges and duties. In Family Service, it can be difficult for a person, especially a mediator to be unbiased when being in a mediation session. Some difficult situations a mediator may encounter might be; different values among the participants, and also cultural differences that might be developed while creating connections with other ethnicity beliefs. The code of ethics suggests mediators should be independent, neutral, or impartial when assisting their client (Barsky, 2007). A mediator who is independence illustrates that he or she cannot have any involvement or connection with his or her party because the other party may conclude that the mediator can be biased. Others suggest that mediators be neutral, indicating that he or she is not biased toward any party by having no control and power in the outcome of the situation.

Mediators must let each side tell their side of the story by giving each party an equal opportunity by having an equal balance of bargaining power. Others suggest that mediators should be impartial implying not to have favoritism toward any party (Barsky, 2007). This permits all parties to have the opportunity to express him or herself by having the mediator assist all parties. At the same time it is difficult not to bias, because the job of the mediator is to help resolve a conflict indicating that he or she will have pre-existing biases. It is the mediator’s obligation to dismiss all sorts of biases when helping others in resolving their problems. Limitations of the Mediator

Mediators try to help their clients in resolving their disagreements by helping and assisting in speaking to other parties. The Family Service can act as a mediator but cannot make decisions for either party unless to help them find ideas, solutions, explain the problem, and to assist their clients in resolving his or her disputes. The Family Service (mediator) has limitations on what they can or cannot say to the other party. The agency cannot reveal private information about their client to the other parties unless the client indicates that they can. Also the mediator’s records cannot be shared with anyone else and must stay confidential. Scope of Power

Scope of power gives full understanding of power in mediation. Knowledge is power, and having numerous influences in the related field can help significantly throughout the process. There are several types of scope of power. Expert power is someone who has years of experience in the area and has become more skilled by it. Associational power is to have good relationships with other professionals who sustain power authority in legal methods. This gains a notable benefit because it provides second opinion when it is needed.

An additional form of power is, resource power gives a professional the power to resolve the conflict in exchange in value propositions; meaning monetary exchange. Procedural power gives power in managing decisions that have been final. In accordance with Barsky, having authority to change policies a mediator must have legitimate power to legislate policies of an organization (Barsky, 2007). Sanction power provides the authority to resolve and manage when there is threat to harm, giving satisfaction to choosing best interest. The best advice that an agency of advocacy is teaching others is the Personal power. Personal power gives others the knowledge of how he or she can advocate for him or herself. Conflict of Interest

Conflict of interest can arise when several opinions are placed in the table. Group advocacy can result in conflict of interest. Is very important to know how to manage a group discussion and know when to speak at appropriate time. Obtaining a facilitator during group discussion is important; this allows the discussions to be more control. Conflict of interest can result in negotiations in which parties or groups have the opposite point of view of the concept. According to Leviton and Greenstone, conflict of interest should always be revealed during negotiation (Leviton & Greenstone, 1997). Mediator Neutrality and Impartiality

It is imperative for an agency to remain neutral and impartial during a case as getting emotionally, physically, or personally involved with any case can cause the balance of power to shift as well as produce an unfair outcome for one or more parties involved. To be neutral means to not take a side or assist either party involved in a dispute; along the same lines, impartiality also means to remain unbiased and unprejudiced. This is the only way a fair and just resolution can be made during mediation, and both parties can be sure that they have not been influenced or swayed one way or another because of how a mediator may feel about a certain person or topic. Confidentiality

Keeping the details of a case private is essential to the success of mediation and to all parties involved, including the attorneys, clients, mediators, and the judicial system itself is important to the Department of Human Services. If people believe that their private information will not be kept secret by going through a mediator, people will stop using this process. There can be severe repercussions if personal information is made public, including backlash, media attention, revenge, and lack of cooperation from the community. Just as with the attorney-client privilege premise, people expect the same respect and confidentiality from the Department of Human Services (family service agencies) to disclose certain concerns, fears, and expectations of resolution.

As mentioned above, the Department of Human Services (family service agencies) sometimes act as mediators or advocates. The agency is set in place to provide services to vulnerable individuals who have no other means of surviving. The agency mission is to plan, implement, protect, intervene, and promote self-sufficiency. The agency has numerous of limitations as a mediator or advocate but still provides the best interest of the individual. The advocate uses mediation in circumstances in which individuals cannot come to a neutral agreement. Mediation and advocacy is very important to an individual. Mediation and advocacy provides individual with a voice that can be heard. As stated, both roles are critical because someone life depends on it. Yes, sometimes mediator bias, scope of power, conflict of interest, confidentially, mediator neutrality and impartially comes into play and plays a vital role. The agency tries its best to make sure these issues are not common used.

References
Barsky, A. E. (2007). Conflict resolution for the helping proffessions, second edition (2nd ed.). Retrievedfromhttps://ecamus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx?assetMetaId=c. Department of Human Services (Family Services).
(2012). Retrieved from:

http://dhs.dc.gov/dhs/site/default.asp?dhsNav_GID=
Leviton , S. C., & Greenstone, J. L. (1997). Elements of Mediation. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole

Managing Role Stress as a nurse

Role Stress is the number one reason nurses leave the nursing field (Chang, Hancock, Johnson, Daly, & Jackson, 2005). Role Stress happens when you find yourself experiencing things that you did not expect to happen to you as a nurse. It is the difference your perception of a role versus the reality of your role. You might first experience this as a new grad Nurse without confidence, facing unrealistic expectations, and value conflicts. You could also experience Role Stress due to a lack of job control, high demands, and work overload. We are now being faced with shorter and shorter hospital stays equaling more work to be done in less time. (Blais & Hayes, 2011, pg. 27 )

A nurse experiencing Role Stress might end up with Role Strain. “An emotional reaction accompanied by psychological responses, such as anxiety, tension, irritation, resentment, depression, and job dissatisfaction” (Blais & Hayes 2011, pg. 27). A stressor that one might experience as a substitute school nurse is the lack of consistency on policy from one school to another. A good way to manage the stress caused by the inconsistency is to research school nurse policies in the state you are in, and work under those regulations. Also, voicing your concerns to those involved can help if done politely.

This was shown to be effective, thus eliminating stress. In another example; one may not realize the emotional stress of a job. Death in the ED can take a toll on both staff and family. It can produce feelings of guilt, anger, failure. One might become numb and develop emotional defenses to cope with the way they feel. To help with this special education or training can be given to the nurse, which can help improve wellness and performance (http://emedicine. medscape.com/article/806280-overview).

In every different nursing environment we will eventually run into stressors, that can cause role strain. There are fortunately some strategies that can help manage stress. A plan of care to manage stress might be helpful to all working in the health care field. The following interventions might help reduce stress: Learn how to identify problems and solve them, have good time management skills, delegate well, and learn to not procrastinate. It is also helpful to not assume too many roles, to arrive early, and prepare ahead of time to eliminate any work overload stress.

(Blais & Hayes, 2011, pg. 29). A short term goal could be to arrive early to work everyday which in return could prevent some additional stress.. A long term goal would be the reduction of stress through applying the above strategies, as well as doing something healthy for yourself, such as a walk, exercise, alone time, or perhaps a good book. Using community resources and help available through specialist and friends can also be beneficial. In summary, it is first necessary to take care of yourself, then you will be in a position to apply the many other helpful techniques enabling you to care for others.

References
Blais, K.K. & Hayes, J.S. (2011). Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Chang, E.J., Hancock, K.M., Johnson, A., Daly, J., & Jackson, D. (2005). Role stress in nurses: Review of related factors and strategies for moving forward. Nursing and Health Sciences, 7, 57-65.

Medscape. (2009). Grief Support in the ED. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://emedicine,medscape.com/article/806280-overview)

Team role

Good teamwork is essential to creating a successful practice. This is because good teamwork creates synergy – where the combined effect of the team is greater than the sum of individual efforts.

According Meredith Belbin, who is a British researcher and management theorist best known for his work on management teams, there were nine team roles and he categorized them into three groups: Action Oriented, People Oriented, and Thought Oriented. Each team role is associated with typical behavioral and interpersonal strengths and it brings its own perspective on what action shoud be taken.

Belbin also defined characteristic weaknesses that tend to accompany each team role.
Action Oriented Roles include shaper (SH), implementer (IMP) and completer-finisher (CF). For instance, a shaper is people who challenge the team to improve, while a implementer is people who get things done and a completer-finisher is people who see that projects are completed thoroughly. On the other hand, People Oriented Roles admit coordinator (CO), team worker (TW) and resource investigator (RI).

For exemple, a coordinator is the one who take on the traditional team-leader role and have also been referred to as the chairmen, while a TW is the people who provide support and make sure that people within the team are working together effectively and a RI is innovative and curious. And Thought Oriented Roles let in plant (PL), monitor-evaluator (ME) and specialist (SP). The plant is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches, while a monitor-evaluators is best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with and a specialist is people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done.

Diversity of roles is an essential element of successful teamwork because everyone has a clear understanding of aims and objectives and there is a
good balance of skills, abilities and aspirations, team members have a clear understanding of each individual’s role in achieving overall team objectives.

Role of a youth against corruption

As a teenager Bala Balchandran argued with his father over why he did not want to become an IAS officer and why he wanted to go to the US to pursue a career in academics.

“While IAS was a good alternative, a politician, who may not be as smart as you are, would always be your boss and you will have to do whatever he wants you to do,” he would counter-argue. Bala, now J L Kellogg Distinguished Professor of Accounting and Information Management Northwestern University, told rediff.com over the phone from Chennai recently.

Bala — his students fondly address him as Uncle Bala — finally reached American shores in 1967 on a scholarship to the University of Dayton to do his engineering masters in industrial operations. From there it had been a fruitful and satisfying journey as he went on to teach at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, where he also did his doctorate and to Kellogg School of Management.

Earlier, after completing honours in statistics Bala began his teaching career with Annamalai University from where he had graduated earlier. A bright student throughout his academic career, he completed his PhD from Carnegie Mellon University in two years instead of four. He won a gold medal for his thesis –“Nobody got (a gold medal) in Carnegie Mellon before me or after me and until today,” he told rediff.com.

Bala strongly believes that what India today needs is a youthful leadership as older people don’t fit into scheme of things. “India’s youth between 25 to 45 years of age should take charge of the country’s destiny,” he says.

Bala discussed his life’s challenges, achievements, ambitions, inspirations, success mantras, what he thinks about India’s youth and why top-rung foreign schools and universities will never come to India with Prasanna D Zore.

“Harvard will not establish a school here (in India) no matter what,” he said.

Were you always interested in academics?

Yes. Actually, my father wanted me to go for IAS. I wanted to be totally independent and the job of a professor allowed me to remain independent.

But in between I was a second lieutenant of the National Cadet Corps because I am a very patriotic Indian. When the Chinese attacked India in 1962 I had decided to join the Indian Army without telling my family. So I worked full time as a Captain for two years managing a battalion from 1965 to 1967.

Then in 1967 I got my scholarship to go to the US to do an engineering course in industrial operations. I took advantage of this opportunity and went to the US.

What challenges did you face when you first landed in America as a student at the University of Dayton?

Fortunately or unfortunately I was married. I had a one-year-old child when I reached there at 28. The money I received from my scholarship was good only for one person so I had to leave my child and wife behind in India. I wanted to establish myself before I could bring them to stay with me.

Later I got a job as an assistant professor in industrial and systems engineering, after finishing my masters in engineering at Dayton. This additional income allowed me to bring my wife there. But as she wanted to do her MS in Biology in US we decided to keep our son back in Chennai at his grandparents’ house for some more time.

After I went to do my PhD at Pittsburgh and by when my wife finished her MS, we decided to bring back our child to US when he was 5. At least one parent was in a position to look after the child then.

The Role of the Health Professional in Public Health

Teenage Pregnancy is defined as conceptions which include those that lead onto a live birth and terminations in the under 18 age group. Teenage pregnancy generally creates inequalities in health, and usually leads to poor long term outcomes for both parents and their children according to the Department of Health (DH, 2013). Teenage Pregnancy falls into the category of a vulnerable group. A vulnerable group can be defined as those that experience a higher risk of poverty and social exclusion than the general population (European Commission, 2009). In 2001, the government as part of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy launched the Surestart Plus pilot programme which would provide funding in 20 areas that had the highest rate of teenage pregnancy.

The aim of the pilot scheme was to work with this vulnerable group to tackle the reasons why they have poorer health and social outcomes, and to offer better antenatal and postnatal care to these mothers, and to offer opportunities in education and training so as to increase their chances of a better outcome in life. The aim of this piece of work is to focus on what makes teenage pregnancy fall into the category of a vulnerable group, how social and economic factors determine a vulnerable group, and examine the impact that Sure Start Plus has had on teenage pregnancy. As midwifes have been heavily involved with the scheme, it is important to delve into the role that the midwife has played in the project in order to assess whether or not the project was successful as a public health initiative which incorporates the principles of participation, collaboration and equity.

The United Kingdom has one of the highest number of births per 1,000 women aged 15-17 in the European Union, being five times that of the Netherlands, double those in France and more than twice those in Germany (family planning association 2010). The teenage pregnancy rate has dropped in recent years, with the estimated number of conceptions to women aged under 18 in England and Wales in 2011 at its lowest since records began in 1969. The number of conceptions to women aged under 18 in 2011 was 31,051 in comparison with 45,495 conceptions in 1969, a decrease of 32% (Office for National Statistics (2013). This may be due to increased awareness of contraception through education in schools and in the home. Nonetheless, there is still much work to be done to bring the rate further down in relation to the rest of Europe (DH 2013).

CMACE (2011) assert that the most vulnerable mothers in society are at higher risk of maternal death. Therefore, teenage pregnancy can affect a young woman’s health and wellbeing as well as limit her opportunities for continued education, therefore limiting career opportunities and socio-economic stability. Although some teenage mothers are very good parents, evidence does suggest that children born to teenage parents have more chance of poorer outcomes in life than those born to older mothers and that children of teenage mothers tend to continue the trend, and end up teenage mothers themselves (HM Government 2006). Berrington et al (2005) claims that a mother’s age, disadvantaged background and low attendance of available antenatal care all contribute to poorer outcomes.

The outcomes for both mother and child associated with teenage pregnancy include; late booking for maternity services, smoking in pregnancy, poor diet and maternal health, premature birth and low birth weight, infant mortality, hospitalisation of the infant, low breastfeeding rates, postnatal depression, broken relationships either with a partner or family leading to feelings of isolation and repeat unplanned pregnancies. These young women tend to leave school with no qualifications, and not return to education, therefore have no training and are less likely to have employment. These mothers tend to end up in poverty and poor housing even into the later years of their life. This is further backed up by Lewis & Drife (2004), who claim that mortality and morbidity of babies born to teenage mothers tend to have higher risks of complications. Therefore, reducing teenage pregnancy is of great significance in tackling the problem of health inequalities and child poverty within this vulnerable group in our society.

The government’s Social Exclusion Report (1999) on teenage pregnancy aimed to tackle the issue of teenage pregnancy. The Report highlighted two major areas that were to be targeted; firstly, through the National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, which aimed to decrease the pregnancy rate amongst the under 18 age group by half by 2010, and secondly, with the aim to achieve that teenage parents and their children are better supported in health and education in order to avoid the risk of long term exclusion. One of the ways that this was to be achieved was through the Sure Start Plus pilot scheme. Prior to this, services for pregnant teenagers were not coordinated and there was no specific remit for agencies to engage with teenage parents, which led to disengagement from the services available.

The Introduction of the Children’s Act (2004) provided the legislative framework that was set out in Every Child Matters document (2003) which highlighted 5/ outcomes which every child and young person should have, being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution to society and economic well being. This act meant that local authorities had a duty of care to put provisions in practice to help teenage mothers. The Department for Education and Skills (DFES 2000) issued a guidance document( Surestart Unit 2000) which defined the aims, objectives and related targets for the Sure Start Plus pilot programme.

The core aims set out at the beginning of the programme were to improve the social and emotional wellbeing of pregnant young women, young parents and their children, strengthen the families and communities of pregnant young women and young parents. Improve the learning of pregnant young women, young parents and their children, and improve the health of pregnant young women, young parents and their children. Funding was made available for the top 20 Local Authorities with the highest rate of teenage pregnancy.

The rates of late antenatal care and smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight babies was significantly high in the 20 areas that received funding prior to the Sure Start Plus pilot scheme. Mackeith and Phillipson writing in (1997) claimed that teenagers that were given the correct support could potentially become good parents and learn good life skills that could prevent them from entering a life of poverty and poor health. The Surestart pilot scheme’s aim was to engage with teenage parents and examine and fulfil the needs of this vulnerable group so that they would have a brighter future than what statistics of young women in their situation pointed to. One piloted area was Rochdale, where in 2001, one full time manager, 1 and a half full time midwives and one half time support worker was employed to work specifically with pregnant teenagers, through home working, meeting in community venues and schools.

Midwives were particularly important in this scheme as they should be seen as the lead professional in normal, uncomplicated pregnancies and should have a strong place in the community where women can easily access them as their first point of access into maternity services. Midwives are in a unique position to give health education to parents of any age, but in particular teenage mothers where they can be seen as someone they know and trust. Midwives should have a good knowledge and understanding of the health and social needs of the local community in which they work, and be able to identify vulnerable groups within society and give the appropriate support required. The RCM currently recommends that midwives understand their role as a public health practitioner and should aim to give good quality care to all. The Sure Start Plus midwives were specialist teenage pregnancy midwives who were trained to work outside the normal health remit of midwifery, and were able to provide information on housing, benefits, relationship problems, assist in helping with educational needs, introduce support networks that were available and assist in childcare needs.

They were to work specifically with teenage mothers and their partners if they had one in more accessible ways that would be more acceptable to teenage mothers in a place that the young mother would feel comfortable. This sometimes meant that midwives would have to meet young mothers in their homes, a friend’s home, a coffee shop or community venues and schools. Each teenage mother would receive an overall assessment of their individual needs, a holistic view of the teenage mother. This enabled the midwife to build up a rapport with the pregnant teenager, so that the teenager could confide and trust the midwife, which would lead to mutual respect. At times, it may be difficult for midwives to understand and deal with the issues involved with these vulnerable groups and to accept decisions and actions of the women involved. However, the midwife must remember that they are there in an advisory role to help and not there to make the decisions for these women.(Bowden 2006)

Mackeith and Phillipson (1997) in writing about young mothers claims that being judgemental against young mothers achieves only lowered self -esteem in the woman, resentment and breaks down the relationship between mother and midwife, this in turn leaves it more difficult for the midwife to encourage the young women as she is less inclined to take the information she has given her on board as there is no mutual respect. A review conducted in 2009, found that 10.5% of pregnant teenagers seen in 2007 quit smoking due to the support of specialist midwives and smoking cessation services. This has increased to 12.5% in 2008. Women breastfeeding on the labour ward increased from 32.6% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2008. Those receiving support from their families and the local community had risen from 77.7% in 2007 to 84.8% in 2008. The Connexions in Rochdale reports that a figure of 50% of young parents aged 16-19 in Rochdale in Education, Employment and Training (2011) compared with the national average of 32%.

These findings make it clear that the midwife has had a very positive and far reaching role in improving the services obtained and the overall wellbeing of this vulnerable group. The midwife also has an important role midwife in referring patients within a multidisciplinary team eg Social Services if needed, either for additional support or child protection. Pregnancy can be a golden opportunity for vulnerable young people to be in contact with services for the first time and get additional health and sex education. This may be an opportunity for them to turn their life around knowing that they have a baby to take care of. For some it may be their first opportunity to give and/or receive love and the support of trained professionals can drive this. It should be noted that not all teenage pregnancies are accidents and unwanted, and some may be accidents but still wanted. Those involved just require the necessary support available to them. Also, not all teenage mothers are lacking skills to become a parent and some are very good with the appropriate support.

A lot of this support coming from a midwife. A midwife is also trained in providing the vulnerable group with advice on healthy eating, breastfeeding support, parent craft, sexual health, and contraceptive advice with the intention of preventing any further unwanted pregnancies. The Sure Start Plus National Evaluation Report (2005), found that the contexts within which Sure Start Plus programmes worked differ in relation to population demographics, relationship with local authority boundaries; level of other specialist service provision, and programme funding. The Report also found that a lack of clear identity for the program has created confusion which may have lessened its influence on mainstream services. The name ‘Sure Start Plus’ was considered inappropriate because the similarity to Sure Start creates confusion and because it is not easily identified with teenage pregnancy or parenting. However, the Report found that the programmes worked successfully in partnership with NHS antenatal services; Connexions; the education service; Sure Start and the Teenage Pregnancy Co-ordinator.

Today the scheme is known as the Young Parents Support Service, and a specialist Teenager Parent Midwife work only with pregnant teenagers and trained with the complexities of young parents, as well as providing contraceptive advice and fitting contraceptive implants to reduce repeat teenage pregnancies. Advice and counselling on whether or not the young woman wants to keep her baby or have an abortion or put it up for adoption, the midwife plays the role of counsellor in this capacity for these women to talk through their options. Furthermore, the Midwifery 2020 initiative aims to strengthen the role of the midwife in public health. In conclusion, it is clear that teenage pregnancy is an issue in the UK today and the high rates need to be combated to reduce social exclusion and deprivation in these vulnerable young people and ultimately their children. One way that has been initiated to address this issue has been the Sure Start Plus scheme, which can be seen from the evidence above, has been successful in the areas that it has been piloted.

However, issues of finance remain an issue but it must remain that help remains for the most vulnerable of these young people. The role of the midwife in ensuring the success of the scheme has been vital, as they are the person that the pregnant teen deals with the most and is specially trained to address all of the teens social, personal and in some cases economic problems. The statistics clearly show that a midwives involvement has improved the health and social mobility of the pregnant teen. This should have far reaching implications for all midwives as they are trained to deal with women from all ages and walks of life, but highlights to all that special empathy and care should be given when dealing with this vulnerable group. The scheme has raised awareness for all midwives and not just those that are specially trained to deal with pregnant teens. However, maybe further training could be given to all new midwives, due to the high rate of pregnant teens in the UK.

Role of WTO in India

world Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The work of WTO moves around WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

Why Do We Need WTO?
1. The main benefits of World Trade Organization are as follows:

– 2. The system helps to contribute towards international peace, by helping the trade to flow smoothly and dealing with disputes over trade issues.

3. The system allows disputes to be handled constructively. With Global boundaries evading, more and more trade is taking place, and hence, leading to more chances for disputes. To put forth to the claim, around 300 cases have been filed since inception of WTO, and without peaceful and harmonious way to resolve them, they could have led to a political crisis.

4. It’s a system, which is based on rules and has nothing to do with power of the nation.

5. It gives consumers more choice and a broader range of qualities to choose from.

6. The fact that there exists a forum to handle crisis, gives confidence to nations to do more and more trade, thereby increasing the income, and stimulating economic growth.

Role of India in WTO
India is a founder member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into effect on 1.1.95 after the conclusion of the Uruguay Round (UR) of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. India’s participation in an increasingly rule based system in the governance of international trade is to ensure more stability and predictability, which ultimately would lead to more trade and prosperity for itself and the 149 other nations which now comprise the WTO. India also automatically avails of MFN and national treatment for its exports to all WTO members.

According to the WTO Secretariat Report, along with the policy statement by the Government of India, India is expected to snatch most of the business deals that are presently catering the developed nations which includes major service based industries like telecom, financial services, infrastructure services such as transport and power. The increase in availability and reduction in tariffs has prompted many developed nations to go for business with India especially in IT and ITeS industry. If the trend continues then by 2025, India is expected to cater to the software and services demands of major giants of the business world. Analyzing the present relationship with the promising economic growth of India, one can be sure that India is going to enjoy a very candid and bright relationship with WTO and associated member nations by 2025.

Gender role

“Bros before hos, The guy code”, is a piece by Michael Kimmel, published on the Anthology portable legacies on 2009; On this piece Kimmel explains what The guy code is and how these code defines guys masculinity in today’s society and how society expects guys to behave. Kimmel also explains that young boys are taught these rules by a male figure in their lives at a very young age and they grow up with the pressure of having to follow these rules no matter what. The guy code is a collection of rules, traits and values that make a man. “What is a man?” was the question asked to teenagers in their late teens and early 20’s. Where their answers were things like: “Boy’s don’t cry”, “Don’t get mad – Get even”, “Take it like a man”, and many more.

Kimmel then proceeds and gives the four rules that have been summarized by Robert Brannon, a social psychologist of the 1970s. Some of these rules are: “No sissy stuff!”, “Be a Big Wheel”, “Be a Sturdy Oak”, “Give ’em Hell”. (655) These rules supposedly define masculinity and that one a man disobeys those rules, the risk is being bullied with words like “fagot” and “gay” that are used as an insult to describe a man’s weakness. The guy code also creates competition between most men, from playing the best sports, better jobs, pretties girl, nicer cars, etc. and it has been like this from a long time ago due to men wanting the power, respect, and that image of being better than the other man. Creating the image that all men are supposed to be unemotional, powerful and successful beings. Kimmel also claims that in the future, the guy code causes social and psychological problems for boys and young men.

Renteria 2 Men have been taught this guy code ever since they were young boys; their uncles, grandpas, dad, coaches, peers or any male figure in a mans life are the ones that start tell little boys to “man up” or “don’t cry” and is no longer able to cry or show emotion, leading to their behavior in the future. The little kids learn to always hold in their emotion and to never show weakness. Kimmel then gives an example of how boys are introduced to the guy code: A three year old boy that was crying at the barbershop because he was burnt by hot chemicals. The barber said to the boys dad, he was a wimp for crying and he needed to stay away from his mom and the boys dad decided after that, his child was spending more time with him and less time with his mother because he was scared of his son being a mamas boy. (659) As a child grows up and parents push them to be strong and tough by keeping them away from their mothers nurturing.

Kimmel also talks about the “Gender Police” that is basically other guys around them who watch and judge how they act , what they wear and say even how they walk because with a little natural swing on their hips they could be called a “fag” making homosexuality seems as a weakness. The gender police makes them feel like they are ust waiting for someone else to screw up, for someone to wear something pink or acting a little bit feminine. and just putting standards for each other, forcing themselves and guys around them to create a fake cover where they act rough and manly around each other. This judgments make man feel like they are being watched because of the fear of being ridiculed and humiliated by their peers. Kimmel said that men are more about what other men think about them; however the judgment from girls because as a girl the social media taught us to be attracted to tough guys,for example in any Disney movie where the superhero is the dependable, rich, handsome, muscular guy who takes care and provides everything for the girl, creating an idea that masculinity is success, wealth and power.

Renteria 3 Peers are another big influence and problem of this “guy code”. Another example from the article is about Don,a former Lehigh College football player, who discuses the effects of always having to put up a front and act tough in front of his teammates and his coaches. He says that his coach would always make fun of or humiliate any one of his players for showing any sign of weakness or fatigue. Don says “I’m sure he thought he was building up our strength and ability to play, but it wore me out trying to pretend all the time, to suck it up and just take it.”(656) If a guy doesn’t follow the rules in the guy code he will be criticized by other man, often times bullied, and lose friends which leads to low self-stem. Men are scared of what other men will say or think about them regardless of the situation.

While the Guy Code may have been meant to make men stronger it causes more harm than good turning out more self destructive in the end It causes them to grow up thinking that showing emotion is never an option, which leads them to depression, and emotion issues, aggression towards themselves and the ones around them. Kimmel’s article is really good, since it talks about a topic that need to be discussed more; it gives examples and even talks about of where the problem begins; but it still seems quite limited to me since as Kimmel explains what the guy code is, it still does not apply to all man, for the reasons that for some guys, the guy code is just a challenge or a phase where they learn how to express their emotions, also the question that were being asked only cover white middle class man that live in a certain area, In America there’s a great variety of immigrants coming from places all around the world, also if Kimmel had questioned people from a less homophobic part of the country, then there would be a better chance of getting a more gender equal survey.

Work cited
Kimmel, Michael. “Bros before hos, The guy code.” Anthology Portable Legacies 2nd edition. Ed. Jan Zlotnik Schmidt and Lynne Crockett. Boston, MA, 2009. 654 – 669. Print.