Artificially Created Female Secret Agent

Artificial individuals might sound to behave and appear like us in just about all aspects, but it is onerous for them to be as actual human beings. They will at all times have issues adjusting to regular human social interactions, face resentments, and if they are profitable, find belonging in the incorrect engagements like sex and in wrong social set ups.In Robert Heinlein’s novel, Friday set in a Balkanized world and which is about an artificially created feminine undercover agent who finds herself in harmful intrigues in the trigger of her responsibility until she quits to pursue where she belongs before ending up in a curious situation of getting married to the same one that had earlier raped her, the author uses a number of formal elements like symbols and plot construction to develop the main character and also to deliver out numerous themes similar to feminism, clash between science and faith, moral decadence and international re-ordering of nation states.

The dangers and women exploitation

As the story opens, Friday Baldwin is on certainly one of her secret service duties in a far off land, Kenya.

She is being stalked by a person who follows her right into the “Customs, Health and Immigration” (Heinlein1), however she finally ends up killing him at the immediate of her subconscious. It is obvious she just isn’t fairly comfy in her role and journey mode as advised by her own assertion, “I have by no means liked using the Beanstalk. My distaste was full blown even earlier than the catastrophe to the Quito Skyhook” (Heinlein 1).

This factors to risks in her preoccupation as a secret service agent who trotters the globe and even past. The dangers and dangers of demise are in reality manifest the place upon reaching her employer’s base from obligation, Friday will get abducted and he or she suffers horrible rape ordeal and torture. Her “inhumanness” and lack of human feelings could be seen the place she is raped by her captors and he or she manages to withstand violation from the 4 of them, till they abandon the act upon realizing they are not breaking her will. In reality, they rightly guess she is enjoying it. One of them shoots: “Mac, we’re losing our time. This slut enjoys it” (Heinlein 7).

Through this episode, the creator raises the theme of feminism and women exploitation. In society, those ladies who get raped are accused of actually ‘enjoying’ therefore its not taken critically. The failure to be vanquished by the mass rape depicts Friday as a stoic character. She talks in regards to the gory episode in a fashion devoid of human emotions prompting one to see like she is having fun with it as claimed by the rapists: “I labored on all of them-method acting, of course-reluctant, need to be pressured, then gradually your ardour overcomes you”(Heinlein 7).

American Dream: Finding the Secret to Success

If the American Dream is an concept, then what is the American reality? Allow me to start out with how I perceive the American Dream. I view the American Dream as an emblem of opportunity, an idea that facilitates people to realize their full potential, achieve success, and uplift their present socioeconomic status (SES).

The major factor that shapes a person’s American actuality is SES. Many individuals myself included are born into impoverished households. Some call living in dearth the “American Nightmare” from which there is no escaping.

Although there’s nothing lovely about poverty, I don’t adopt this viewpoint, just because American laws, for essentially the most half, present equality of alternative for his or her residents, permitting the American Dream to be attainable.

The same steadiness of opportunity isn’t afforded to residents of different nations. I imagine for this reason the American Dream is exclusive and highly wanted by immigrants from other counties, my household included not long ago.

Everyone beneath the American Dream begins at totally different ranges of SES, creating extra or fewer obstacles in the way in which of achieving success. Therefore, within the face of barriers how would one take advantage of the opportunity to manifest their potential and attain success within the U.S.?

One possible reply could presumably be taking a stroll through your local Barnes & Noble in the self-help part. You will discover plenty of profitable authors who offer their recommendation on tips on how to unlock your potential and achieve success. Three of those authors are Psychologist Carol Dweck along with her “Growth Mindset,” Anders Ericsson along with his “Deliberate Practice,” and Angela Duckworth with “GRIT.

All three psychologists are certain their prescription for success is sound. Dweck’s answer lies in the psychology behind motivation more specifically self-perception and how it influences efficiency. Ericsson’s resolution is how to apply that motivation into high-level performance.

Duckworth’s revelation comes within the form of perseverance. I suppose all three psychologists have good intentions, but they counsel one variable equation for success. I contemplate life to be a multi-variable equation. I consider in achieving your full potential and succeeding in the U.S you want good common intelligence and motivation. Lastly, in case you are fortunate enough, a powerful household structure doesn’t damage your possibilities for success.

I talked about two traits needed to navigate your approach to the American Dream. I indicated one circumstance that might improve or lower obstacles on the path to the dream. I will define intelligence first, and then I will explain why it’s wanted to realize success. Intelligence is a controversial matter. I consider that is mainly because of IQ testing and the misappropriation of the test results.

Examples of this I consider appalling catastrophes are the Eugenics Movement formulated by Francis Galton to the 1994 publication of “The Bell Curve” by psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein. The overwhelming misuses of IQ test outcomes have a profound influence on every facet of American life from authorities insurance policies to teachers. These areas are important obstacles on the trail to achievement of success.

Nonetheless, IQ remains to be is probably the most extensively researched, dependable indicator of common intelligence and potential future performance. Several theories propose multiple intelligences, however there is a lot overlapping in the functions of these intelligences’ that one is lead back to the query; are these functions just one intelligence.

Therefore, what is common intelligence and what’s its served purpose? My definition of intelligence is one supplied by Educational Psychologist Linda Gottfredson describes:

“[Intelligence] includes the power to cause, plan, remedy issues, assume abstractly, comprehend complicated ideas, study shortly and be taught from expertise. It is not merely guide learning, a slim educational talent, or test-taking smarts. Instead, it reflects a broader and deeper functionality for comprehending our environment “catching on,” “making sense” of things, or “figuring out” what to do.” (Gottredson)

This simplicity of this explanation struck a deep chord within me. Whether you’re SpaceX CEO Elon Musk or a single father or mother working to assist your children, Linda is describing essential psychological features we use daily in every facet of our lives.

I challenged myself to think about any state of affairs where the above describe qualities had been neither current nor needed. I couldn’t discover one example. I encourage you to try to discover one example. I believe the deadly flaw in the work of the previously mentioned psychologists Dweck, Ericsson, and Duckworth is in the truth they decrease or ignore basic intelligence and put motivation at the forefront of their thought.

Factually, it is the other method round; intrinsic and extrinsic motivations reveal and guide your intelligence. This is the rationale having a good basic intelligence is an important factor within the formula of success.

Motivation is the second trait I point out wanted to realize success. Motivation may be damaged into two sorts, intrinsic and extrinsic; each are very important for acquiring and maintaining success. Allow me to give a short definition of the two sorts of motivation. Intrinsic is engaging in an internally rewarding habits.

Extrinsic is engaging in behavior driven by exterior rewards. Dweck, Ericsson, and Duckworth philosophies are rooted in the area of motivation. I will explain how each psychologist promotes motivation and level out potential flaws in every.

Carol Dweck promotes Two Mindsets. Growth and repair mindsets are how Dweck categorizes the motivation of people into two teams. Growth mindset “is the belief that intelligence can be developed.”(Dweck) Fixed mindsets are individuals who consider “intelligence is fixed.”(Dweck) Dweck explains the conclusion of her mindset analysis:

“In collaboration with my graduate college students, we have proven that what college students believe about their brains-whether they see their intelligence as one thing that’s fastened or something that can grow and change- has profound results on their motivation, learning, and college achievement.”(Dweck)

Notice the wordplay Dweck uses to blend several distinctively different traits; belief, intelligence, and motivation into a seductive and deceptive practice known as Growth mindset. Is she suggesting that we train people to imagine their basic intelligence can develop and change, that believing is enough to raise one’s IQ? Countless analysis has concluded, “IQ tends to stay comparatively steady over the lifespan.”( Kaufman)

The necessary phrase right here is comparatively steady. Carol exploits “relatively stable” to impose her Growth Mindset onto the ongoing educational psychology conversation. The significance behind the IQ staying “relatively stable” is “Developmentally talking; an individual’s intelligence isn’t fastened at birth.”( Kaufman)

The truth is that intelligence development isn’t a product of a development mindset; it has to do with the cortical maturation. In the closing of the study-Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow-up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey Ian Deary and Lawrence Whalley released this statement:

“Brainy kids are not cleverer solely by advantage of getting roughly grey matter at any one age. Rather, intelligence is related to the dynamic properties of cortical maturation.”( Deary and Whalley)

I imagine this raises suspicions as to the misleading nature of Dweck’s Two Mindsets philosophy. The development mindset is an excessively difficult try and instill intrinsic motivation into younger college students. I ask myself why educational psychologists like Dweck do not direct their motivation to how teachers can unlock particular person students’ intrinsic motivation as opposed to prescribing a placebo pill of motivation.

Our next Psychologist’s work is the centerpiece of Colvin article “What It Takes to Be Great’. The article is about Anders Ericsson Deliberate Practice. In which Ericsson describes how motivation can be harness into targeted high repetition follow, which in flip can allow someone to attain high-level performance and success. It is important to notice that deliberate apply is a form of extrinsic motivation because the practice objective set is an external reward.

As against portray, the intrinsic value is within the course of of creating the work not necessarily in the completed artwork. Colvin uses many examples of well-known individuals to strengthen the argument in favor of deliberate follow. Examples used range from Tiger Woods to Warren Buffet. Despite all the name-dropping to encourage a wide range of audiences, Ericsson’s work leads to success in limited fields. Brooke Macnamara tested the effectiveness of deliberate apply; listed right here are the outcomes:

“We [have] carried out a meta-analysis masking all main domains in which deliberate apply has been investigated. We found that deliberate follow defined 26% of the variance in performance for video games, 21% for music, 18% for sports activities, 4% for training, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate apply is necessary, but not as necessary as has been argued”.(Macnamara)

Therefore, what this implies for succeeding by way of deliberate practice is, if your aim is to become a successful athlete this might help. If you aspire to graduate college or turn into a profitable CEO, deliberate follow does little to gauge your probabilities of achieving your aim.

Our final psychologist, Angela Duckworth’s GRIT, it’s more of a philosophical idea than having to do with the psychology behind motivation. Duckworth defines GRIT as “perseverance and passion for long-term objectives.”(Duckworth)  Valerie Straus, a author for The Washington Post interprets as Duckworth saying “Life is tough, grit tells us, but good things come to those who robust it out.”(Straus)

Duckworth believes that GRIT is more necessary than intelligence. I discover her work lacking in any serious scientific analysis. In addition to this, I find her work very harmful and personally insulting for families and individuals on the decrease end of SES. I am not alone in this view, once once more Straus states:

“My investigation led me to two conclusions. The first is that the widespread assumption that grit is a salient idea for low-income college students is a stark false impression. The second is that while grit theory provides little of value to those disadvantaged students, it can definitely hurt them, by romanticizing hardship.”(Straus)

What Straus is expressing is that children of low SES families already have GRIT because of hardship often related to poverty. Duckworth is doing these children no favor in glorifying, repacking and promoting these youngsters their survival expertise back to them. GRIT is a philosophy

that acts under-exploiting low SES families and promotes ignoring the issues that usually come along with low SES. Duckworth’s mishandling of motivation compels me to talk about the actuality of the children she takes advantage of to make a financial profit in my personal opinion, youngsters who share my childhood in not having a powerful household structure and the method it will increase the challenges, they face in achieving success.

Allow me to explain; my mother had me at the age of 15. My dad deserted her and selected medicine and the nightlife over being a father. Luckily, I had great grandparents who helped increase me so my mom may finish school and work. Many kids are not that blessed, and the above scenario turns into the next statistics. Let me start with a press release by former President Barack Obama:

“children who develop up with no father are five occasions more prone to reside in poverty and commit crime; nine instances more more likely to drop out of schools and twenty instances more likely to end up in prison. They usually have a tendency to have behavioral issues, run away from house, or turn out to be teenage dad and mom themselves. And the foundations of our community are weaker due to it”. (Obama)

Since 1965 to 2015, single mother births have risen dramatically. “Blacks went from 25% to 73%, Whites 5% to 25%, Hispanics 24% to 53%”. (CDC, National Vital Statistics Report) “This rise in single-parent delivery coincides with Presidents Johnson war on poverty.”(Elder)

In turn, successfully incentivized girls like my mother the option to marry the government “welfare state” and men like my father to abandon their obligations. Based on the statistics given above I think it is protected to say that a powerful family structure has taken a hit over the years.

What do these statistics imply for children of low SES families? The statistics imply these kids are more weak to dwelling in poverty, extra likely exposed to crime and violence, habits problems and extra in danger for not finishing school. Despite my blessings, I even have experienced each one of these items earlier than turning 18.

Allow me to explain how these statistics can affect a child’s intelligence and motivation to achieve let alone visualize success. The stressor of poverty is enough to cripple an adult. So think about the stress on children, who not solely deals with poverty themselves but also deals with the effects poverty has on their father or mother. Under this type of pressure, a hormone referred to as cortisol is launched and is understood to:

“[Cortisol] curbs capabilities that might be nonessential or detrimental in a fight-or-flight situation. It alters immune system responses and suppresses the digestive system, the reproductive system, and development processes. This complicated natural alarm system also communicates with areas of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear”. (Mayo)

Constant publicity to this hormone causes anxiousness, depression, and memory and concentration problems. This can have an effect on the functions and efficiency of general intelligence, which is closely linked to memory and focus. Another challenge is healthy vitamin for low SES kids.

For these children “inadequate nutritional assist, a minimum of partially, [can] delay cortical maturation” (Keunen) talked about earlier, is significant within the early improvement of intelligence. Lastly, let me communicate on the results of dealing with melancholy in connection to cortisol. At the age of 21, I was identified with continual melancholy.

Chronic depression never goes away; it may simply lay dormant for various lengths of time. Any melancholy will strip motivation right out of you. I was fortunate enough to hunt and afford help as an grownup on tips on how to deal with melancholy and panic attacks. Many low SES kids won’t receive this privilege.

Low SES kids are at high threat for all of the circumstances as talked about above. The influence on their training not to mention success is catastrophic. Based on my empirical evidence, a powerful family structure could not stop the consequences of poverty on youngsters and their future, however it could possibly assist their possibilities to navigate via it to have a future not ending in the above statistics.

After reading all the required texts for this essay, I notice an undertone of academic reform authorities with their philosophies and the way they can be applied to educational success resulting in lifetime achievement. On the floor, this feels like a blueprint to the normal American Dream.

Graduate from faculty, get a job, get married, and purchase a house. However, upon nearer examination, I take away from individuals like Dweck, Ericsson, and especially Duckworth. That tendencies and concepts shifting via instructional reform seem to focus on underprivileged youngsters as experiments for his or her views.

The only people who endure from the failure of the concept are the children. I ask the reader to look at and query any plan or policy that does not clearly and immediately state its support in nurturing healthy intelligence and help kids find their intrinsic motivation. Which I consider are two qualities that will maintain one on their journey to success and their model of the American Dream.

Work Cited

  • CDC, National Vital Statistics Report CDC. “National Center for Health Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 26 July 2018, www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/nvsr.htm.
  • Colvin, Geoffrey. Archive.Fortune.com, Fortune Media Group Holdings, 17 Oct. 2006, archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/10/30/8391794/index.htm.
  • Deary, Ian J, and Lawrence J Whalley. “The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow-up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.” NeuroImage, Academic Press, 9 Mar. 2000, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289699000318.
  • Duckworth, Angela Lee. “Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance.” Ted, TEDx, Apr. 2013, www.ted.com/talks/angela_lee_duckworth_grit_the_power_of_passion_and_perseverance.
  • Dweck, Carol S. “Brainology.” NAIS – Brainology, National Association of Independent Schools, 2008, Winter, www.nais.org/magazine/independent-school/winter-2008/brainology/.
  • Elder, Larry. “Black Fathers Matter.” PragerU, Dennis Prager, thirteen June 2016, www.prageru.com/video/black-fathers-matter/.
  • Gottfredson, Linda S. “Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With fifty two Signatories, History, and Bibliography .” Udel.edu, University of Delaware , 17 Dec. 1994, www1.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1997mainstream.pdf.
  • Kaufman, Scott Barry. “Intelligence Is Still Not Fixed at Birth.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 21 Oct. 2011 www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/beautiful-minds/201110/intelligence-is-still-not-fixed-birth.
  • Keunen, Kristin. “Impact of Nutrition on Brain Development and Its Neuroprotective Implications Following Preterm Birth.” NCBI, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health , 14 Oct. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4291511/.
  • Macnamara, Brooke N, et al. “Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions: A Meta-Analysis.” Sage Journals, APS, Association of Psychological Science, 1 July 2014, journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956797614535810.
  • Mayo. “Chronic Stress Puts Your Health at Risk.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 21 Apr. 2016, www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037.
  • Obama, Barrack H. “Obama’s Father’s Day Remarks.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 15 June 2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/06/15/us/politics/15text-obama.html. Transcript of remarks on the Apostolic Church of God in Chicago
  • Strauss, Valerie. “The Problem with Teaching ‘Grit’ to Poor Kids? They Already Have It. Here’s What They Really Need.”
  • The Washington Post, WP Company, 10 May 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2016/05/10/the-problem-with-teaching-grit-to-poor-kids-they-already-have-it-heres-what-they-really-need/?utm_term=.5402b88cadfe.

Amber”s Secret

Amber is an 18 yr old woman who has discovered she is feeling sick and unusual. She comes to search out out that she is pregnant and consults her physician. Being involved of her scholar status and what her mother and father might suppose are her largest fears. The fetus growing inside her is almost 11 weeks and has her personal story from the within. Mentioning all of the growth that has occurred and the event milestones she has reached, the fetus is concerned of her own well being.

The physician provides Amber the options of abortion and adoption, and then the heart beat will be heard. It is unclear what Amber’s choice is in the long run.

1. What are the hormonal and bodily adjustments that occurred in Amber’s normal menstrual cycle before she turned pregnant? Prior to Amber’s pregnancy she went by way of a standard ovarian cycle. It is stated throughout her story that she could be very irregular with her cycle, most ladies wouldn’t have regular cycles until after three years since their first cycle (Marieb & Hoehn 2013) .

During the ovarian cycle which she went by way of to provide an egg, hormones are released by way of each stage of interaction to manage the cycle. Gonadotropins are released via the anterior pituitary gland and luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are secreted. These affect the release of estrogen which by way of constant suggestions with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, a follicle matures ready to be fertilized. During this process bursts of different hormones during the ovarian cycle can cause stomach ache known as mittelschmerz, German for “middle pain” (Marieb & Hoehn 2013).

If it is notfertilized it continues into the menstrual cycle, however since Amber became pregnant the fertilized embryo implanted itself into the uterine wall.

2. Apparently Amber did not use a birth control methodology. If she had, what options did she have and the way do the assorted methods work. Amber had many choices of birth control. There is just one preventative measure with 100% fail proof rankings and this is abstinence. If two consenting individuals resolve to have interaction in sexual actions, there are numerous options to prevent pregnancy. Barrier strategies, similar to feminine condoms and male condoms are in all probability the most price effective for contraception (Women’s Health 2011). The fee of effectiveness relies on many situations, whether the condom remains to be good because they do have an expiration date, if they have been damaged, if the right lubricant is used or not. Oil based mostly lubricants breakdown the supplies causing damage to the condom (WebMD 2013).

There can be hormonal contraception offered in the form of tablets, patches, injections, and vaginal rings. These are hormone releasing agents that forestall the egg from releasing within the ovaries. Implantation devices can be utilized as well, but are extra of a everlasting fixture for about 2-5 years. Depending on the device depends on the way it prevents being pregnant. Some or hormonal, making the mucus lining thicker in the cervix to forestall sperm from getting into. There is a copper system that releases copper into the uterus and kills sperm. Those are both intrauterine units, but there is another that’s implanted under the pores and skin in the arm. It is hormone releasing and prevents sperm from reaching the egg and likewise thickens the mucus in the cervix preventing sperm to enter. There are different options, but they embody sterilization and are extra of an invasive surgery (Women’s Health 2011).

3. What are the traditional levels of development in a fetus through the first weeks after conception? The first weeks after conception are very busy for the embryo. It travels down the fallopian tubes and may be very rapidly dividing mitotically. It implants into the uterine wall for additional development. The embry goes via gastrulation, which is the forming of three layers that turn into the higher makeup of the fetus via improvement. A coronary heart, neural tube which turns into the spinal wire, and the yolk sac have fashioned to the embryo which later forms the digestive organs. It becomes a fetus just after week 7 (Marieb & Hoehn 2013).

4. What are the hormonal and physical modifications happening in Amber throughout her pregnancy? What is preserving her from menstruating as normal? Physiological adjustments occurring in Amber’s physique are taking place in her gastrointestinal, urinary, respiratory and cardiovascular system. She is feeling sick due to the increased hCG, progesterone and estrogen levels. Her story is only until her 11th week of her being pregnant, however she may feel many symptoms throughout the relaxation of her being pregnant if it isn’t aborted. Those symptoms might be increased urination as a outcome of the kidneys are disposing of fetal metabolic waste as nicely as her own. Blood volume additionally rises to assist accommodate the fetus’ needs (Marieb & Hoehn 2013). An over manufacturing of the hormone progesterone is created which stops the follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Those are the hormones needed for an egg to be launched and travel down into the uterus for a menstruation cycle. If that does not happen, there’s not menstruation (Marieb & Hoehn 2013)

5. How does a being pregnant test work? At home pregnancy checks can be bought over the counter or a blood test can be performed at the doctor’s workplace. They each check for the human Chorionic Gonadotropin, hCG, hormone that is produced during pregnancy. The house being pregnant test uses urine, and the doctor’s workplace checks blood (Women’s Health 2006).

6. How can we account for Amber’s symptoms? It feels like Amber is having signs of morning illness, bloat, and head ache can be explained by the fetus rising inside her which is causing an increase in progesterone and hCG and making her really feel sick. Her headache could presumably be caused by the rise in blood quantity which she wants to supply sufficient vitamins to herself and the fetus. The bloat could presumably be caused by the growth of her uterus. It expands from the scale of a fist to filling the entire pelvic cavity by sixteen weeks (Marieb & Hoehn 2013).

7. Can we think about the embryo a parasite in Amber’s body, if sure why? What prevents Amber’s physique from rejecting the model new tissue developing in her body that is genetically completely different from her tissues? I assume we are ready to think about the embryo a parasite in Amber’s physique. It is feeding off of her nutrient consumption and her blood to outlive. A parasite does simply that, feeds off the nutrients of the host and advantages from it (Tortora, Funke & Case 2013). Now despite the very fact that that the embryo advantages from the mother’s vitamins, I additionally believe that it’s helpful for the mom as well. People procreate to hold on their genetic code, and despite the fact that that during her being pregnant Amber does not have as many advantages, I imagine the outcome may be very useful of getting a baby.

8. How much management does the embryo/fetus have over its personal development? The embryo has no control over how shortly it develops. There are only certain times during which vital components of it are produced, and if something affects this it might be a teratogen by which the mother had come into contact with. Gestation is during a few 9 month period, and it occurs in the moms body so it may be protected and nourished throughout this critical time of development earlier than the fetus is introduced to the world (Berger2010).

9. How is the intercourse of the embryo determined, and what occurs through the developmental process when the intercourse organs lastly turn into apparent? During the ninth week of growth there are two different duct techniques that change into feminine and male reproductive organs. The ducts are the mesonephrenic and paramesonephrenic duct. Depending on the activating hormone is what the sexual organs develop into. The mesonephric duct turns into the male intercourse organ, and the paramesonephrenic duct turns into the female intercourse organ (Sajjad 2010) . The gonads then differentiate into the ovaries or the testes (Marieb & Hoehn 2013).

10. What is the diploma of fetal development that has occurred by the tip of the first trimester? Almost all organs have completed improvement, although they aren’t absolutely working but. In the primary trimester the fetus went from a zygote, to an embryo after which turned into a fetus. Within the first trimester can be when the fetus doesn’t but have its sexual organs but, but the sex is predetermined genetically by its chromosomes (Cort & Erickson 2001).

11. What are the regulations regarding abortion in your state and what are the medical, religious and political causes behind the legislation? The state of Colorado is pro-choice in regards to abortion. It permits any lady over the age of 18 to get an abortion, and those that are minors need consent from one father or mother or have a judge waiver the consent. Medicaid will even cover the abortion if the being pregnant was because of rape, it causes the mother psychiatric or concern for her well being, or if it’s a life or demise situation. I don’t consider the state of Colorado has much of a religious reasoning for it, but extra of a large non-religious affiliation with the excessive Democratic and Liberal rights activists within the bigger metropolitan areas. I consider that is the political reasoning as properly. The state of Colorado bigger cities have carry a excessive proportion of population, and are Democratic. I imagine that that is the principle purpose that Colorado is a pro-choice state (Pro-Choice Colorado 2013).

12. Is it appropriate for the doctor to boost the issue of abortion? I don’t assume it’s applicable for the doctor to raise the problem of abortion because it is not their place to position a place of their very own personal agenda on a affected person. The doctor is there to deal with the affected person, and that cut-off date he’s treating the mom as a patient and the fetus as nicely. I assume it is going to be applicable to wait and listen to the questions of the mom to ask what her options are by way of her being pregnant. If termination comes up from the patient, it simply should simply be said what the method is, when it could happen during pregnancy legally and that since Amber is a minor that her dad and mom would need to be concerned in the process. If her well being was in danger or if it was a life or demise matter, is after I assume it is acceptable to deliver up abortion.

13. Should the daddy have any say in the query of abortion? Yes he should have a say on whether or not a baby is aborted. There are many situations where just because the mom and father are not in a relationship, but are each fully succesful and answerable for the creation of the kid. Just because the mother does not want the kid doesn’t imply that the father does not. In the state of Colorado, the mom has the rights to her abortion and does not give any question to what the daddy would need (Pro-Choice Colorado 2013). In conclusion, it is not recognized if Amber goes via with the abortion or not. There are many questions raised in path of the well being of the fetus and mom as well as the moral and ethical aspects.

Since the being pregnant does not show past the eleventh week of gestation, it is not identified if it is continued or not. Abortion seems to be the final resort answer, and almost a type of contraception to some, but the fetus itself is a affected person and should have the rights to be cared for whether or not it is totally developed. In today’s society it appears to be supplied after hormonal and other direct forms of contraception. Instead of the choice of ending a life that was begun because of actions from two dad and mom that must be held accountable, it must be a life that is cherished Although opinions could differ, a beating heart is an unforgettable organ that’s supporting life.

“A Secret Sorrow” by Karen van der Zee and “A Sorrowful Woman” Gail Godwin

In both the excerpts from Karen van der Zee’s novel “A Secret Sorrow” and in Gail Godwin’s quick story “A Sorrowful Woman,” the plots center on ideas of marriage and household. Conversely, marriage and family are presented in very different lights within the two tales. Karen van der Zee presents marriage with youngsters as good and fully fulfilling; it is what Faye, the protagonist of “A Secret Sorrow”, desires and what’s essential to her happiness. For Godwin’s unnamed protagonist, marriage and household are nearly the antithesis of happiness; her residence life seems to suffocate hear and eventually leads her to dying.

“A Secret Sorrow” immediately endorses and encourages marriage, whereas “A Sorrowful Woman” not directly questions and discourages it.

Both of the feminine protagonists in the two tales experience a conflict. In “A Secret Sorrow” Faye’s battle comes earlier than the marriage. She is struck with distress and torment as a result of she can not have children and fears that it will stop her from marrying the person she loves.

Both she and her beloved, Kai, need marriage with kids, and van der Zee suggests that solely with these things will they really be pleased. Faye feels that her lack of ability to have children is a deadly flaw that cuts her off from Kai’s love. “Every time we see some pregnant girl, each time we’re with somebody else’s children I’ll feel I’ve failed you!” (Zee 35).

Faye’s anxiousness and worry are based on the considered shedding her beloved Kai, accompanied by never having children.

In “A Sorrowful Woman,” nevertheless, the conflict comes after the marriage, when the girl has already secured her husband and child. Unlike Faye, who could be ecstatic in this woman’s scenario, the protagonist of Godwin’s story is not. Oddly enough, her husband and son deliver her such sorrow that eventually she is unable to see them at all, speaking only by way of notes stuck underneath her bed room door. Godwin’s character has a loving husband and child, yet in spite of this, she remains to be full of grief. This sense of defeat is unimaginable when compared to a Harlequin romance because it goes towards the assumption that the remaining is fortunately ever after.

In “A Secret Sorrow”, marriage is portrayed because the decision. Van der Zee works to present the reader with the concept that solely with this aspect will Faye be fulfilled and happy; it’s what the complete story, with all the plot twists and romantic interludes, works towards. Marriage can be the tip in “A Sorrowful Woman” however not as anticipated: it is quite literally the end of the woman’s life. Though one doesn’t see what her life was like earlier than her emotional disaster, there are hints of it. When she strikes into a model new bedroom, away from her husband, she mentions seeing the streets from a whole new perspective, which suggests the previous monotony of her day by day life. In addition, when the girl bakes pies and bread and washes and folds the laundry, her son says, “She’s drained from doing all our issues again,” (Godwin 42). This gives the reader the idea of what “our things” was and what the lady did with her time before her crisis.

The monotony of marriage is absent in “A Secret Sorrow.” Faye’s inability to have youngsters doesn’t end Kai’s love for her, instead, the two go on to marry and undertake youngsters. Faye’s married life is described in a very idyllic means: she raises her son and two daughters in a “white ranch house underneath the blue skies of Texas” (Zee 37). Once she is married and has children, there is not any more anxiousness as a outcome of the plot leads one to the conclusion that marriage solves all problems and is a supply of never-ending happiness. This significantly differs from Godwin’s tale, which takes place in winter and maintains a sense of chilly.

Whenever Godwin describes the household, it’s in terms that recommend weight, guilt, or failure. The child’s trusting gaze makes the protagonist start “yelping with out tears” (Godwin 39). Any signal of life or love will increase her sorrow and makes her want solitary. One living proof is when the employed girl brings her son to visit her with a grasshopper he’s found–something both alive and from the skin world; she will get very upset and forces her husband to fireplace the lady. It would appear that the woman is an excessive quantity of of an infringement on her space, too much of a reminder of what she will be ready to no longer be.

The discrepancy between the two authors’ illustrations of marriage is most apparent when both women are viewing their families. Faye, sitting along with her husband and watching her children play, feels that “life was good and filled with love” (Zee 37). Godwin’s protagonist, on the opposite hand, articulates, “The sight of them made her so sad and sick she did not wish to see them ever again” (Godwin 38).When Kai, now her husband, embraces Faye, she feels, “There was love in his embrace and love in his phrases and in her coronary heart there was no room for doubt, no room for sorrow” (Zee 37). When Godwin’s heroine feels the loving contact of her husband’s arm and the kiss of her child, she cannot bear it any longer and cuts off all direct contact with them. The situation of her marriage forces her right into a self-imposed imprisonment and indolence.

She feels agonizingly poignant as a end result of she will no longer be who they need and want her to be. She avoids them not as a outcome of she does not love them but quite as a outcome of she loves them so much that it’s too painful to see them and too troublesome for them to feel her failure. The axiom to Godwin’s story tells us that “Once upon a time there was a wife and a mom one too many times” (Godwin 38). The addition of “one too many times” to this traditional story opening forces the concept of repetition and monotony; it means that it’s not the state of being a wife and mom that’s innately dreadful however rather the truth that that’s all Godwin’s character is. Day in and day trip, too many times over, the girl is just a spouse and a mother, and it isn’t sufficient for her.

In van der Zee’s story there could probably be no such thing as too much motherhood or an extreme quantity of of being a spouse. When Faye’s fears of dropping Kai are assuaged, and she is happily married, it’s as if an excellent weight has been lifted off her. Alternatively, Godwin’s character feels her marriage as an excellent weight urgent on her which finally ends up in her immobilization. When she leaves her room for a day and puts out freshly baked bread for her husband and son, they express their happiness in the notes they write to her that evening, and “the drive of the two joyful notes…pressed her into the nook of the little room; she hardly had area to breathe” (Godwin 42). Faye is normally a traditional spouse and mother, so her family is a supply of joy. However, in Godwin’s character’s case, she can now not be the normal spouse and mom, the illustration of her own failure, which inevitably draws her guilt to push her additional and additional into herself till she shall be ready to retreat no additional and ends her life.

The closing stages of the two stories are powerful illustrations of the variations between them. In the top of “A Secret Sorrow” the writer reveals the reader Faye’s emotions “beautiful, full, whole” (Zee 38) in her role as a spouse and mother. Godwin, then again, leaves the audience with the protagonist lifeless on her mattress. Godwin seems to provide the reader hope by displaying all that the woman has carried out when she says, “the home smelled redolently of renewal and spring” (Godwin 42). This makes the misfortune even more durable when one discovers, along with the husband and child, the woman’s death. The ambiguous means the demise of Godwin’s unnamed protagonist is handled reinforces the author’s unfavorable tone in the course of marriage. It isn’t explicitly written as suicide; nonetheless, Godwin seems to encourage her readers to see it because the inevitable consequence of her marriage.

Van der Zee creates a story filled with emotional highs and lows, however one that leads up to and ends with marriage. After the wedding the entire plot twists and traumas come to a halt, changed with peace and happiness. Faye is delivered to new life by her marriage and kids; she finds fulfillment of all of her wishes in them. Godwin’s story, nonetheless, is crammed with submit marital anguish and confusion. The character she creates is stifled and unquestionably unfulfilled by her marriage.

A burst of creative energy right before her death produces, among other issues, “a sheath of marvelous watercolor beasts accompanied by mad and fanciful tales nobody may ever make up once more, and a pill full of love sonnets addressed to the man” (Godwin 42). It is clear that the woman had skills and needs not met by the routine duties of her marital life. For Faye, the protagonist of “A Secret Sorrow”, marriage is the happily-ever-after ending she has wished all of her life; for Godwin’s protagonist, marriage is only a monotonous and interminable ever after. In any case, people can not bear too much reality.

Works Cited:

Godwin, Gail. “A Sorrowful Woman.” 38-42.

Van der Zee, Karen. “A Secret Sorrow.” 30-38.

A Secret Lost In the Water

The theme of the brief story A Secret Lost In The Water by Roch Carrier on page 127 is that the data handed on to the new generations by older generations may be lost over time unless it’s valued. An example of this is when the son realizes he had lost the gift that his father had taught him as a end result of he had no worth for it. “Somewhere alongside the roads I’d taken because the village of my childhood I had forgotten my father’s knowledge,” (p127, carrier).

Another instance is when the farmer says “Nowadays fathers can’t pass on something to the subsequent generations,” (p127, carrier). He says this as a result of his personal son didn’t want to inherit his farm because of the shortage of water. The theme of this story signifies the dear information that was gathered over time and handed on to the subsequent generations however has been misplaced as a outcome of its lack of significance to the brand new generations.

“A Secret Lost within the Water” by Roch Carrier

The story “A Secret Lost in the Water” by Roch Carrier, is about the significance of valuing one thing before it is lost. I would suggest this story to others because it conveys a powerful reverence for nature on a religious level, it teaches the reader to value their elders and respect the wisdom and knowledge they pass down, and it treasures the connection between a father and his son.

“A Secret Lost within the Water” ought to definitely be read by others because it conveys a powerful non secular veneration for nature.

The words “Piety” and “Religious” are mentioned every time the creator talks about nature: “My father opened his pocket and reduce the department he selected with pious care.” This quote expresses the appreciation the father has for dwelling things, and reveals the spirituality in his gift by using the word “pious”. Later on within the story, the daddy says, “I’ve just taught you how to find a spring…It isn’t something you learn from school.

” Through this, I can perceive that practicality is more necessary to the father than complexity.

This story must be read and studied by others because it teaches the reader to value our elders and appreciate the knowledge and data passed down. At the end of story, when the narrator is given a chance to remember the expertise passed down by his father in his early childhood, he struggles to carry out the gift. As the narrator fails to hear the gushing water and feel the writhing branch, a fellow farmer says, “Nowadays fathers can’t pass on anything to the following technology.

” This quote could be very highly effective, since it points directly to a message in the story, “Nowadays, youngsters aren’t as willing to just accept data from their parents.”

Also, in Roch’s childhood, the daddy says, “A man can get along with out arithmetic, but he can by no means get alongside with out water.” The water is a metaphor describing the talents and classes his father taught him, and the way the gift is vital to their relationship. Soon after, the daddy mentions that it was one thing that his father handed on to him, however now it is misplaced as a end result of the narrator claims that “Somewhere alongside the roads I had taken from my childhood, I had forgotten my father’s information.” This citation represents the journey mankind is taking today, in the kind of a metaphor.

“A Secret Lost in the Water” illustrates and compares the connection between a father and his baby. Roch’s father taught him a gift “you can’t learn from school”; and one thing that his own father taught him. Roch inherited the reward from his father, however misplaced it as life went on, as talked about earlier within the essay. In addition, the farmer too experiences this ethical, for he has the “finest farm within the area”, and his youngsters don’t want to inherit the farm, during which their father spends his whole life preparing for them. This portrays the social issue in the story, inheritance, and exemplifies the significance of valuing one thing before it is lost.

“A person without the information of their past historical past, origin, and tradition is kind of a tree with out roots”. “A Secret Lost in the Water”, by Roch Carrier, is a deep and insightful story that must be used to educate mankind. It delivers a robust admiration for nature, it teaches the reader to respect our elders, recognize the wisdom and information that’s passed all the method down to us, and it illustrates the significance of a relationship between father and son.

The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Literary Analysis

The story “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” is a form of a short story genre selection. This story was written by James Thurber, and revealed in The New Yorker in 1939 (Clugston, 2010). This is an intriguing story of a daydreaming husband, Walter Mitty, and his domineering spouse as they run a couple of errands to town. I will make use of literary criticism by explaining my connection to the story, analyzing the meaning of the story, and taking the formalistic approach in discussing James Thurber’s story.

My connection to this story is strongly held by the truth that I am also a daydreamer. I will admit this is a irritating characteristic for others, however for one’s self as nicely; eventhough, the situations discussed within the story appear fairly humorous to the reader. Mr. Thurber presents the tone, or temper, of frustration all through this story. As Walter is daydreaming and driving faster than Mrs. Mitty likes, she abruptly interrupts him. Although the daydream breaks for an occasion, he quickly returns to his daydream.

Mrs. Mitty is quick to interrupt again, “It’s considered one of your days. I want you’d let Dr. Renshaw look you over.” Her frustration is clear as a end result of she thinks that one thing must be incorrect with him. Later when Walter isn’t wearing his gloves, Mrs. Mitty is certain he has misplaced them. James Thurber has reinforced her frustration.

Walter’s frustration is expressed in the story several occasions as nicely. An occasion when a parking attendant awakens Walter from another daydream, the story reads “Mitty turns into somewhat testy.

” When Walter makes several errors attempting to park the car, the pissed off attendant tells him to “leave her sit there, I’ll put her away.” When the attendant parks the car with some expertise, Walter replies “they’re so damn cocky, they think they know every little thing.” Probably the sharpest picture portrayed in the story is when Mrs. Mitty is hassling Walter for not having the sense to put on his overshoes. Walter’s response is certainly one of self-defense stating “Does it ever occur to you that I am typically pondering.” This set the tone that Walter is letting his spouse know that just because he could appear misplaced, doesn’t make him mindless, or that she must keep after him the best way she does. As a daydreamer myself, I have experienced some of the identical frustrations depicted in this story, so I connected with the story immediately.

Now moving on to the evaluation of this story, there are several meanings illustrated. According to Koger, there are four themes or meanings conveyed through this story which are “the contrast between a human being’s hopes for all times and its actuality, the facility of the mind or imagination, the conflict between the individual and authority, and the ascendancy of technology and materialism within the twentieth century” (Koger, 2004). I agree that every one of these themes are displayed all through the story; however, I consider one has been overlooked. I really feel that Walter Mitty might have self-esteem points that he’s capable of overcome in his daydreams or, even higher, they do not exist.

Many examples are apparent contrasting one’s hopes and actuality. Walter’s “heroic ability” in his daydreams versus his inadequacies in the reality of the story is one instance (Koger, 2004). Another fantastic example is Mitty’s ability to grasp know-how in his daydreams versus his lack of ability to maneuver his automobile, or appropriately unwind tire chains (Koger, 2004). Another instance, of my very own accord, is the arrogance that is portrayed within the fantasies that don’t exist in the reality. For instance, within the first daydream he is a commander taking charge of a ship and traveling through a storm versus being informed to attend in entrance of the drug store, in the rain, for his spouse as though he had been a toddler.

The power of the thoughts and creativeness one other theme to the story is exemplified via Mitty’s daydreams. Mitty is prepared to overcome every dilemma he faces in actuality by way of his daydreams. He becomes an professional of machinery, and he no longer fears authority figures, however as an alternative becomes an authority determine. He even boosts his shallowness by allowing the phrase “the old man ain’t afraid of hell.”

Self-esteem is an important attribute of the story. The persona or narrator may or could not mirror the author’s perspective (Clugston, 2010). However; Thurber lost an eye as a toddler (Clugston, 2010). I discover it very symbolic that in Walter Mitty’s first daydream; the narrator describes the commander “with the closely braided white cap pulled down rakishly over one chilly gray eye.” I am inclined to assume that James Thurber may be the Walter Mitty within the story. That being said, I additionally understand the place the lack of confidence has played into the story. Mr. Thurber is prepared to cover his dangerous eye through the phrases that he writes. Thompson describes Mitty as a “docile no one muffled in layers of winter clothes with a loquacious and overprotective spouse beside him” (Thompson, 2008). This is yet extra evidence of the poor vanity portrayed characteristically through Walter Mitty.

The formalistic approach is “the most generally used in literary criticism; it focuses on the shape and growth of the literary work itself” (Clugston, 2010). The setting of the story is memorable as a outcome of it’s chilly, and the characters should drive into town to run errands giving clues that the Mitty’s reside within the country or a very small city. James Thurber also creatively interrupts the daydreams at their climax, adding to the jolt back to reality. This provides the readers a chance to get misplaced in the daydreams, and be jolted back to reality as nicely. Walter is described as a middle aged man unhappy with his life. The evidence of his unhappiness is portrayed by way of his daydreams the place his life is almost good.

Mrs. Mitty is described as a nagging old woman who is constantly annoyed with her husband’s absentmindedness. She is continually telling him what to do and how to act. When he does not, she assumes he has fallen unwell. Thurber additionally makes use of the identical simple phrases corresponding to “pocketa-pocketa-pocketa” for every machine giving the reader the sense that in reality, all machines have the identical amount of worth in Walter’s mind. Using the simple fountain pen to fix an expensive piece of equipment also offers clues to Walters’s lack of intelligence when it comes to expertise. The writer additionally uses very specific daydreams permitting the reader to understand how far Walter Mitty had escaped from reality.

In conclusion, I actually have mentioned my connection, analyzed the which means, and taken a formalistic strategy to critic this wonderful piece of literature. The connection to the story is straightforward to return by as every individual daydreams often. The story consists of 5 totally different meanings or themes as I have mentioned. I even have additionally mentioned the several completely different literary actions and the artistic capacity used to create an amazingly humorous piece of art.

References

  • Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUENG125.10.2/sections/ Koger, G. (2004).
  • Masterplots ii: Short story sequence, revised edition. (2nd ed. ed., Vol. 1). United Kingdom; England: Salem Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
  • Thompson, T. (2008). “he sprang to the machine” : “the secret [technological] lifetime of walter mitty. (1 ed., Vol. forty one, pp. 110-115). Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/lrc/detail?vid=5&hid=19&[email protected]&bdata=JnNpdGU9bHJjLXBsdXM=

Summary of The Secret Seven Short Story

The story begins with the group of kids. They are seven members in the story and with few characters. The secret seven members are : Jack, Peter, Pam, Barbara, Collin, Janet, George and together with them scramper referred to as spaniel. Which is a small canine. And along with them Jack’s sister Susie and her pal rabbit faced Binkie. Also there on this story. Their first meeting was a their place with blocked letters within the name board talked about as S. S. They chosen the place a get prepared themselves for his or her secret seven assembly.

Everyone was too excited.

The main thing is that everyone in the S. S should have their password. The first password set by them was WUFF-WUFF and this was made by the canine scramper the spaniel. Their first meeting was began however that was interrupted by the susie. She step of their place and everyone grew to become anger against her and her brother too. She mentioned that she was not there to spoil their S.

S assembly but to provide some interesting thing to them. That was the Telescope. Everyone was little bit thinking about seeing that. And the anger on her was not decreased. By after sending her off they determined to look through the telescope. Janet modify that to some place there they saw the gulls.

George was thinking about seeing gulls and he determined to put in writing an essay about the Gulls in the winter time and he obtained ten out of ten in that essay. One day when Peter set the telescope and see something on the hills.

There was a house there and the jackdaws and began admiring it. But on that time he saw that they had been afraid of something. That was they began flying and making sound. It insisted the presence of a stranger. When Peter was about to see that individual spaniel licked house in his paw and after that he jumped and the telescope’s angle was various. And Peter grew to become offended. And the S. S organised the meeting and was planning to go there to high of the hill and to see what was actually happening. And they insisted Jack to not leak any secret to her sister. And the following day they all arrived there.

They took bicycle, snacks and coco and so on. When they entered on the castle they felt something unusual was taking place inside it. There was a board which says that DANGER. The S. S was willing to see the place which was in downstairs. Everyone went down and the pathway appeared dungeons. And they noticed few portray was there without body. After that the big bang sound arises so the complete group got here our with the high sound. And took their cycles rashly and ran away from their. When the reached residence they share concerning the issues which happened in the strange Castle. But susie and her friend was not interrupted on this assembly. But when Jack arrived home. He saw susie cycle was still there in residence so he realise that she was within the residence the entire day. But what was actually occurred is susie and her pal Binkie went to the castle before the s. S reached there. And she stated that the large bang sound was made by Binkie.

But she mentioned that a woman was portray for her residing and due to heavy winter she goes to move to the second again half portion of the castle. Like that susie stated to the key seven group. Everyone got angry with her and Binkie. Next evening secretly susie reached the S. S place and take up the telescope and began looking by way of that and he or she saw the strange particular person coming to the citadel. When she noticed that she went to Peter room and noticed about that. But Peter laughed at her. With anger susie depart the place and went to her house. And the following day the S. S found the telescope was missing. They searcher in all places however it was not found. Them on behalf of susie Jack apologised for her. Then subsequent day peter room the binoculars to see what was happening within the citadel. Then at night time after dinner they began to go up to the fort. But solely boys. Scramper too was not taken with him. After the signal gave from the Peter they girls will go there. But Janet was willing to take scramper along with her. So reaching close to Castle the boys even not makes use of the light.

They noticed the old lady was sleeping in the fort. They remembered that Susie stated. And without disturbing her they went below the downstairs, that dungeons and looking for their telescope. They four see an alarm ringing and was feared. But they hidden within the fort down in dungeon. But the were caught up by the three thieves and pit in the darkness of dungeons. At final like a good friend in need is a friend in deed, scramper helped them to get out of this trouble. And Peter’s father too helped him to reach residence safely. But they didn’t discover the telescope but they reached house safety. Like the story ends and it was with adventures and it has a cheerful ending.

The secret society – illuminati

This article is about the secret society. For the film, see Illuminata (film). For the Muslim esoteric school, see Illuminationism. For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). Adam Weishaupt (1748–1830), founder of the Bavarian Illuminati.

The Illuminati (plural of Latin illuminatus, “enlightened”) is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776 to oppose superstition, prejudice, religious influence over public life, abuses of state power, and to support women’s education and gender equality.

The Illuminati were outlawed along with other secret societies by the Bavarian government leadership with the encouragement of the Roman Catholic Church, and permanently disbanded in 1785.[1] In the several years following, the group was vilified by conservative and religious critics who claimed they had regrouped and were responsible for the French Revolution.

In subsequent use, “Illuminati” refers to various organizations claiming or purported to have unsubstantiated links to the original Bavarian Illuminati or similar secret societies, and often alleged to conspire to control world affairs by masterminding events and planting agents in government and corporations to establish a New World Order and gain further political power and influence. Central to some of the most widely known and elaborate conspiracy theories, the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking in the shadows and pulling the strings and levers of power in dozens of novels, movies, television shows, comics, video games, and music videos.

The movement was founded on May 1, 1776, in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria) as the Order of the Illuminati, with an initial membership of five,[2] by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830),[3] who was the first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt.[1] It was made up of freethinkers as an offshoot of the Enlightenment and seems to have been modeled on the Freemasons.[4] The Illuminati’s members took a vow of secrecy and pledged obedience to their superiors. Members were divided into three main classes, each with several degrees, and many Illuminati chapters drew membership from existing Masonic lodges.

The goals of the organization included trying to eliminate superstition, prejudice, and the Roman Catholic Church’s domination over government, philosophy, and science; trying to reduce oppressive state abuses of power, and trying to support the education and treatment of women as intellectual equals.[1] Originally Weishaupt had planned the order to be named the “Perfectibilists”.[2] The group has also been called the Bavarian Illuminati and its ideology has been called “Illuminism”.

Many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted themselves as members, including Ferdinand of Brunswick and the diplomat Xavier von Zwack, the second-in-command of the order.[5] The order had branches in most European countries: it reportedly had around 2,000 members over the span of ten years.[1] It attracted literary men such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder and the reigning dukes of Gotha and Weimar.

In 1777, Karl Theodor became ruler of Bavaria. He was a proponent of Enlightened Despotism and his government banned all secret societies including the Illuminati. Internal rupture and panic over succession preceded its downfall.[1] A March 2, 1785 government edict “seems to have been deathblow to the Illuminati in Bavaria.” Weishaupt had fled and documents and internal correspondences, seized in 1786 and 1787, were subsequently published by the government in 1787.[6] Von Zwack’s home was searched to disclose much of the group’s literature.[5] Barruel and Robison

Between 1797 and 1798 Augustin Barruel’s Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism and John Robison’s Proofs of a Conspiracy both publicized the theory that the Illuminati had survived and represented an ongoing international conspiracy, including the claim that it was behind the French Revolution.

Both books proved to be very popular, spurring reprints and paraphrases by others[7] (a prime example is Proofs of the Real Existence, and Dangerous Tendency, Of Illuminism by Reverend Seth Payson, published in 1802).[8] Some response was critical, such as Jean-Joseph Mounier’s On the Influence Attributed to Philosophers, Free-Masons, and to the Illuminati on the Revolution of France.[citation needed]

Robison and Barruel’s works made their way to the United States. Across New
England, Reverend Jedidiah Morse and others sermonized against the Illuminati, their sermons were printed, and the matter followed in newspapers. The concern died down in the first decade of the 1800s, though had some revival during the Anti-Masonic movement of the 1820s and 30s.[2] Modern Illuminati

Several recent and present-day fraternal organizations claim to be descended from the original Bavarian Illuminati and openly use the name “Illuminati.” Some such groups use a variation on “The Illuminati Order” in the name of their organization,[9][10] while others such as the Ordo Templi Orientis use “Illuminati” as a level within their organization’s hierarchy. However, there is no evidence that these present-day groups have amassed significant political power or influence, and they promote unsubstantiated links to the Bavarian Illuminati as a means of attracting membership instead of trying to remain secret.[1]

Victoria’s Secret Is Not So Secret

Victoria’s Secret, one of the biggest brand names in retail, has been around for many years, known for selling lingerie. Victoria’s Secret has branched out from exclusively selling lingerie to now carrying make-up, fragrances, purses, shoes, clothing, and bathing suits. Within the past few years, the company has expanded to the global markets. They now have stores in major cities including London, Dubai, and Munich. Being one of the top grossing retail stores, Victoria’s Secret, uses foreign sweatshops to irresponsibly manufacture their products. The lingerie store was harshly criticized for their sweatshops’ working conditions and unfair wages. The utilization of sweatshops puts the company’s name to shame and gives them a negative reputation. Victoria’s Secret should not be allowed to run sweatshops because it is morally and ethically wrong.

Victoria’s Secret was publicly attacked for their working conditions being unacceptable. On “The O’Reilly Factor,” Bill O’Reilly interviewed the national labor committee director, Charles Kernaghan. He specifically questioned Kernaghan about Victoria’s Secret sweatshops’ working conditions. Kernaghan begins by saying, “The workers are working from 7 a.m. in the morning until 9 p.m. or 10 p.m. at night. So they’re going 14 to 15 hours a day, seven days a week. They get one day off every three or four months” (Kernaghan). The amount of time the workers put in are more than an average full time person puts in which is unfair. He not only points out their long, unfair hours but goes to say that the “sweatshop that houses miserable conditions.

Where right now in Jordan it’s freezing. There is no heat or hot water in the dormitories…there’s no water about two or threes days a week” (Kernaghan). It is also unfair for them to be living in such poor conditions where having no heat or water could affect their health conditions and in turn affect their working production. Such conditions have them “work under the shadow of death, and experience struggle and frustration in work” (Genesis 3:17-19). The working conditions are so horrible that it begins to affect the workers mentally. Workers that are negatively affected mentally is considered mental abuse and “in practice, sweatshops promulgate mental…abuse” (Arnold and Hartman 2003). The people are treated horrible and are not treated in the way that should be. They do not have the essential survival needs for living conditions, which makes it seem that the workers are not even treated as human beings. “The Oxford Declaration on Christian Faith and Economics” suggests, “people should never be treated in their work as mere means.

We must resist the tendency to treat workers merely as costs or labour inputs” (The Oxford Declaration 4). The workers should have better working and living conditions considering that they are working long hours for the company. Working in such poor conditions points to the conclusion that they are “treated in their wok as mere means.” They are not treated as means to ends. It is morally wrong and unethical the way the company treats their workers mentally and physically by providing poor living and working conditions and having them work long hours.

It is unethical and morally wrong for the employees in sweatshops to be working such long hours and not get paid enough. On “The O’Reilly Factor,” Kernaghan continued on to point out that even though the workers are working a lot of hours, “they are cheated of about 40 percent of their wages. They get three-and-a-half minutes to make a pair of underwear, for which they’re paid 4.5 cents” (Kernaghan). They should not be paid depending on the limited time they have to make one pair of underwear but they should be paid by either how many pairs of underwear they make or by an hourly rate. They are paid so little for the amount of the effort and production it takes to make products like that.

It is wrong that “people are often pushed into a narrow range of occupations which are often underpaid, offer little status or security, and provide few promotional opportunities and fringe benefits” (The Oxford Declaration 4). It is not acceptable for people to be working long, hard hours and get paid poorly while receiving poor living conditions such as no water or heat. They should be getting better working and living conditions as benefits for being employed in these factories. It goes to say that the company’s choice of under paying their employees “fail[s] to reward work fairly” making it unjust and wrong (The Oxford Declaration 4). Having been being attacked for poor living and working conditions and the workers being underpaid, it gives Victoria’s secret a poor reputation and bad name.

Victoria’s Secret being exposed to the world for their sweatshops had others look further into their company to expose them even more in an unfavorable manner. Victoria’s Secret was being investigated even more and a department called Venture 47 found that the company was faking time and wage accounts for the sweatshop employees (Batchelor). Fraudulence and deceitfulness is morally wrong and unethical in business and shall not be done.

Steven Greenhouse from The New York Times, wrote an article about it stating that “wage violations were so widespread…that the factory…cheated its workers $5.3 million” (Greenhouse). The company could have paid them their fair wages but decided to falsify their records and eventually get publicly humiliated even more. In Fighting Sweatshops by Richard Appelbaum, he talks about how “there is always the danger that manufacturers, fearful of bad publicity or even sanctions, will shift production away from problematic factories rather than work with them to improve conditions” (Appelbaum 10). This supports the idea that once there is problems in these factories having to do with conditions or wages; it leads to the giving the company a bad reputation.

There are multiple reasons as to why sweatshops are unethical and morally wrong but there are some people who argue that sweatshops are ethical and morally right. Some might argue that even though working in a sweatshop with underpaid wages, it still provides a job for someone rather than no job. In “Stitching Lingerie Improves Women’s Lives in South India” by Charukesi Ramadurai, she discusses how she went to one of the sweatshops for Victoria’s Secret and saw the benefits for the worker’s of working in a sweatshop. She even talked to someone about how they feel working in the sweatshop and the woman positively replied that she was “very happy to have found a job and a purpose in life” (Ramadurai).

She argues that it is better to have a job rather than no job and to have to wake up every day knowing she has something to do. Those supporting sweatshops propose, “sweatshops are attractive to people in places with few employment options, a lack of social services, and impoverished living conditions” (Calkins and Radin 265). Supporters also add on to say that working for sweatshops is not mandatory and that it is voluntary. Supporters also ask the question as to what is considered a sweatshop.

Although there is supporting ideas of sweatshops being okay and that Victoria’s Secret should still have them, there is still the counter argument that they are not okay and that Victoria’s Secret should not have them. The definition of “sweatshops are places of employment with low pay, poor working conditions, and long hours,” which argues with the supporters’ argument of what is considered a sweatshop (Powell and Skarbek 1). These underpaid, unfairly treated sweatshop employees’ are violated “of basic human rights as people are exploited for their labor” (Calkins and Radin 261). There are so many health and safety hazards, fear, and physical and mental abuse which is part of basic human rights (Calkins and Radin 262). Sweatshops being unethical and morally wrong are strongly supported by “The Oxford Declaration on Christian Faith and Economics” stating, “Many workers suffer greatly under the burden of work.

In some situations people work long hour for low pay, working conditions are appalling…health and safety regulations are flouted” (The Oxford Declaration 4). It proves to show that Calkins’ and Radin’s argument is even more supported. In “Improving the Conditions of Workers, Harrison and Scorse believe that sweatshops are morally wrong and unethical and that the sweatshops can be fixed to become no long sweatshops and/or become ethical and moral. Their rationalization of this idea is “if we could pressure multinational corporations to significantly improve the working conditions and wages…companies…would no longer be…unlimited pools of cheap labor” (Harrison and Scorse 2). An anonymous person of The New York Times also further attests by adding, “until it treats its workers better, it has no chance of becoming a just and stable society” (China, the Sweatshop).

When it comes down to being morally and ethically wrong in business, Victoria’s Secret needs to get rid of their sweatshops. The company is unethical in terms of their working conditions and hours, wages, and working environment. The criticism of their unmoral and unethical actions led to giving Victoria’s Secret a bad reputation and name. Their choice of utilizing sweatshops has led to further exploitation and investigation of unmoral and unethical actions in their company.

Works Cited
Appelbaum, Richard P. and UCSB. “Fighting Sweatshops: Problems of Enforcing Global Labor Standards.” Institute for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research, 16 Aug. 2000. Print. 3 Mar. 2014.
Arnold, D. G. and L. P. Hartman. “Moral Imagination and the Future of Sweatshops.” Business and Society Review 108 (2003): 425-461. Print 3 Mar. 2014. Calkins, Martin and Tara J. Radin. “The Struggle Against Sweatshops: Moving Toward Responsible Global Business.” Journal of Business Ethics 66 (2006): 261-272. Print. 3 Mar. 2014.

“China, the Sweatshop.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 5 Jul. 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.
“Director of the National Labor Committee on Investigation Into the Lingerie Giant’s Manufacturing Standards.” The O’Reilly Factor. Fox News. 4 Dec. 2007. TV transcript.
Greenhouse, Steven. “Apparel Factory Workers Were Cheated State Says.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 24 Jul. 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2014. Harrison, Anne and Jason Scorse. “Minimum Wage Legislation and Anti-Sweatshop Activism.” Improving the Conditions of Workers? 2006. Print. 3 Mar. 2014. “N.Y. Officials: Factory for Big Retailers ‘Paid Sweatshop Wages’.” CNN. CNN, 23 Jul. 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.

Powell, Benjamin and David Skarbek. “Sweatshops and Third World Living Standards: Are the Jobs Worth the Sweat?” Journal of Labor Research 27.2 (2006): 263-274. Print. 3 Mar. 2014.
Ramadurai, Charukesi. “Stitching Lingerie Improves Women’s Lives In South India.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 21 May 2012. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.

Secret To Love

I’ve been told that waiting for something or someone that you love is the best thing that someone could do. Well hearing that I took it to heart and kept it true, after losing the love of my life Alyssa Bara I knew that I had made a huge mistake and I would regret it for the rest of my life… June 10th 2010 was probably one of the best dates that I can remember; it was the first time that I talked to the most amazing girl ever. Around 8:00pm I had gotten on Facebook to update my status because I was so amazed that at the end of summer I would be going to Dallas for a basketball tournament with my team the “San Antonio Jayhawks.” But soon after I had logged on I received a message from a girl that I normally didn’t talk to but I gave high fives to everyday in middle school. The message read “Hey, we never talk but I think we should start here is my number 210-xxx-xxxx” I was shocked I wasn’t expecting that to happen because I had noticed her but never had those feelings toward her like I do now but I took the opportunity to meet and get to know a new person. Fast forward like 5 weeks and now its June 19th, her birthday.

By this time I was having feelings for her like none stop and I couldn’t stop thinking about her I was literally falling head over heels for her, but she was leaving me well not for good but she was going on a cruise for like a week and that meant that she would not be able to use her phone at all. So I was going to be miserable but by the grace of god she still had some service out there so I still talked to her and thought about her cute laugh and sweet voice. a week went by quick so I could finally hear the voice of the girl that I just now started crushing on, and oh boy did I take advantage of talking to her lol. I’m pretty sure that I was on the phone for at least 4 hours with her, but only for that one day because well I had to take flight for Dallas that next morning so I was sad again. But I was still able message her since I had my phone at the time. So over the duration of my trip I tried to figure out a way to tell her I liked her but couldn’t figure anything out till about the third day in Dallas.

On that third day I had just got back from a basketball game and I was exhausted but I knew that my crush had been waiting for me to get back so I texted her, but this text wasn’t any regular text, today was going to be the day that I told her how I feel about her. I waited till about 8:00 when it was starting to get dark and I started the text that would change my life forever. “Just send it Brandon it’s just a message” is what I told myself as I sat there with a nervous look. After like 15 mins of debating whether I should send it or not, I finally got the courage… Bing the phone went notifying me that the message has been sent and the message I sent reading “I’m scared of the dark can I sleep with you.”

“Panopticism” and “Our Secret”

In Michael Foucault’s reading on “Panopticism” he breaks down the social/economical systems and explains that society’s mentality on the law system. He answers the “why question” in a way certain individuals act and think as they do. Many times his explanation is much branched off into a different level of thinking. In one paragraph in “Panopticism”, a disciplinary mechanism is described, which is considered the best way for one person to be punished, in the new knowledge and learning is gained by every individual. But in “Our Secret” by Susan Griffins she carefully constructs and describes history, particularly WWII through the lives of several different people. Such as David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky who had a difficult time grasping her concepts that says, “Griffin writes about the past on how we can know it, what its relation to the present, why we should care. In the way she writes, she is also making an argument about how we can know and understand the past.” Griffin strikes all of these aspects in her essay. What is most compelling about the essay is how she incorporated personal, family, and world history into a good story of narrative, without ever losing the factual evidence the story provides.

In the paragraph on page 182 in Ways of Reading, Foucault explains how he feels a person should be disciplined and he looks at it from different angle to really understand. “This enclosed, segmented space, observed at every point, in which the person inserted a fixed place, in which the slightest movements are supervised, which all events are recorded in an uninterrupted work of writing links the center and periphery, in which the power is exercised without the division, according to a continuous hierarchical figure, that a person is constantly located, examined, and distributed among the living beings, sick, and the dead that constitutes a compact model of the disciplinary mechanism.” In the first sentence of the paragraph a description of how closely watched and evaluated the individuals are. All movement, all actions, everything would be analyzed. This is how he feels a disciplinary mechanism should be and is a key model to follow. Disciplining that way would make the individual a better person, which I believe; “exercising power without division” is an example.

In her essay, Griffin incorporates stories of people from totally different backgrounds, upbringings, including herself, all to describe the accounts of one time period. Each person history is somehow connected with the next, and each story contributes equally to the bigger picture of history. Griffin puts three types of histories in her text; personal, family, and world history. In her personal history, she describes her life, and childhood, which is intertwine with her family history. However, she not only talks about her histories, she talks about the histories of the other characters in the essay to bring across the world. One of the technique’s that Griffin uses to help the audience understand her concepts, is explaining two other story lines while telling her main story. The first on is description of a cell. Throughout the essay italicized sentences explaining the complex of a cell being placed randomly between passages. The description beings with a nucleus, and as the story progresses, so does the nucleus. She tells what happens to the nucleus, and how the inner cells work on developing a nucleus, which gave rise to many of other cells, that will eventually become an embryo. The other story line, were also italicize sentences, goes through the making and beginning of missiles.

“The plague is met by order; its function is to sort out every possible confusion that is of the disease, which is transmitted when bodies are mixed together, that the evil is increased when fear and death overcome prohibitions.” Disease definitely confuses the society when two or more people come together and embrace there disease. Evil becomes very overwhelming when it cannot be controlled or prevented; with the help of the plague everything becomes more controlled. “It lays down for each individual his place, his body, his disease, and his death, his wellbeing, by means of an omnipresent and omniscient power that subdivides itself in a regular, uninterrupted way even to the ultimo determination of the individual, of what characterize him, of what belongs to him, of what happen to him.” The plague served as some sort of god to most of the people.

It breaks everything down and describes “omnipresent and omniscient power.” Act as keeping an eye on the person that sort the test, show how an individual would react knowing that they are being watched regardless if they believe it or not. Just how they would adapt to their own surroundings. What are the most compelling aspects about Griffin essay is the way she combine personal, family, and world, and etc. The reading is a novel, which helps the audience to understand the concepts with a clear and complete overall view of her world. Two other authors, Richard Rodriguez, and Ralph Ellison, who wrote about their life experience that’s better understood as an historical text that is view through the eyes of Griffin. Rodriguez explores his own educational history that called “The Achievement of Desire” and Ellison depicts his own journey and personal growth which is called “An Extravagance of Laughter”. Both their writing are seen through Griffin’s perspective, can be opened and examined from a different view, helping the people understand with more of a lucid view of history and what it is really about.

“The mixture of the plague brings into play its power, which is on the analysis.” In this sentence it describes the strength that is considered power. Learning can only make you more intelligent and the more you know the broader you understand would be which in your mental state would make you stronger. “A whole literary fiction of the festival grew up around the plague: suspended laws, lifted prospect, individuals unmarked, abandoning their statutory identity and the figure which they had recognized, allowing some different truth to appear”. When the individuals were changing their personalities to fit into the containment, as I said earlier in the essay, their trying to adapt to their environment. But their also political dream of the plague, that got reverse.

Not the collective festival, but strict divisions; not laws transgressed, but the penetration of regulation into even the smallest details of everyday life through the thoughts of complete hierarchy that assured the function of power; the masks were put on and off, but the assignment for each person was their “true” name, “true” place, “true” body, and “true disease”. This sentence talks about a different side of the plague, the “political side”. Instead of analyzing the people was forcing out the power to handle certain individual. This was the dream of many that instead of interaction and strict regulation of everything done.

The separated story lines are placed in the story to explain the background and the past of everyone. The background and past are factors in developing the present and future, and the characters in the story and tendency to try and forget their past, but not realizing that there are no escapes. Griffin illustrates the technique with Heinrich Himmler, a prominent Nazi figure during WWII. In every detail, she describes Himmler’s childhood, and the harsh ways of his father. She also trace his life, and evident there’s always a maker; base from his childhood that affect the decision made later on in his life. Griffins merely do this to help provide understanding on such behavior develops. The art of this technique being effective, however, that Griffin interconnects all three stories so the audience to understand other authors and texts. Richard Rodrigues is one author that already go through history, from an educational standpoint. He discusses his childhood, and how coming from a working class family improved his learning process. He examines a bit about his family history and personal history as well.

Rodriguez traces his family back to Mexico, their move to America, and the struggle of keep up with the America living lifestyle. He examine what was it like growing up in a Mexican American household. As he gets older he began to not like his background and roots at an early age. He was working on many ways to discard the Mexican persona and develop a stronger American one. Rodriguez hides himself behind an image of what he thinks he should be, but not who he really is. The aspect of his family and personal history into his world history. Both family and personal history with his family’s migrating to America. While the war was not in America, they had to endure racism and hardships in the comings to the United States. Another author that was looked at in the eyes of Griffin was Ralph Ellison’s “Extravagance of Laughter’s”. What was interesting about these two essays were not only that the histories, but a lot of the major themes were implied in the essays. Ellison has a vast personal history that surrounds by world history; however there is not too much evidence of his family history.

His personal history begins in the south to the north in the early nineteenth century. He talks about accounts of racism that occur in both places, which fall into a larger picture in world history. He remembers racism happening throughout the country at the time. Ellison combines so much personal history and world that became so difficult to distinguish that his personal history effected world history. One of the themes that stayed incorporated throughout both essay was constant effort to hide the truth. Ellison had difficult time admitting and realizing his true place in society. He wore “marks” to cover how he felt in certain situation that he was in. When Griffins talks about her family, she also speaks of a mask as well. She says, “I think of it now as a mask, not an animated mask that expresses the essence of the inner truth, but a mask that falls like dead weight over the human face, make face, making flesh a stationary object”. Both Ellison and Griffin felt trapped in there mark, and it took there self-dignity in freeing themselves of the mask. It hit Ellison during a play and it hit Griffin after learning about her family history.

All three authors are in a sense of historians. They write events that are in the past, which make it about history. The work they do are very good work, others use their writings as guideline of writing events in an historian context. The themes about finding the truth within one’s self are throughout working, and different types of histories are explored, making these text much more than just history. Ralph Ellison once said, “The way a person expresses both the agony of life and the possibility of conquering it through is the sheer toughness of the spirit. They fall short of tragedy only in that they provide no solution; offer no scapegoat but the self”.

“The plague as a form at once real and imaginary, of disorder had as its medical correlative disciple. Behind the disciplinary mechanisms can be read the haunting memory of “contagious” of the plague can be used as effective way disorder”. The plague can be used as an effective way to discipline; it is how they would use it to effect even if it would be possible. Each author demonstrates the toughness of theirs spirit, and it is up to the person to decide whether history will repeat itself or not. They all did the part in providing solutions for history.

Work Cited

Foucault, Michel. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison Ways of Reading/(New York: Vintage Books 1995) Tenth edition. pp. 195-228

Griffin, Susan. “Our Secret”. Way of Reading Eds: David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Tenth edition. Boston. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s 2002.

Compare and Contrast of “From a Secret Sorrow” and “A Sorrowful Woman”

In the short story “From a Secret Sorrow” by Karen Van Der Zee a woman who struggles to tell her fiancé a truth that is killing her inside. The story focuses on two main characters, Faye and Kai. Faye is a woman who thought that the world was over for her after finding out she was infertile. Faye had no idea on how to communicate such horrendous news to Kai, her fiancé. She was afraid that her Kai was going to leave her and find someone else. She then started acting weird, nervous, and distanced herself from him. Her fiancé questioned her about a note he found, Faye immediately recognized that it was the note the doctor gave her and with a terrified voice asked “How did you get that?” (31). Finding out that she was infertile made her felt sorrow and like she was the only one who had the right to be upset. She thought that Kai was not going to love her anymore but it was the other way around. Kai seemed like he was really in love with her and cared about her. He wanted to let her know that whatever the problem was she was not alone, that it was not only her problem and that they will work together, then eventually get married. But Faye would not listen, she also loved him so much that she would have rather let him go instead of ruining his life with her knowing she is infertile. She knew he would be extremely disappointed and she told Kai that he had the choice to leave her and marry someone else. Kai continuously kept repeating Faye how much he loves her. Kai then asked “why should I be disappointed, Faye? Why?”(Van Der Zee 33). She felt like her heart thundering in her ears, she seemed like she was going to drown like if she could not breathe. Then she said “Because… because I can’t give you children! Because I can’t get pregnant! I can’t have babies! That’s why!”(Van Der Zee 33). Kai after the shocking secret that was been kept from him “He stared at her as if he had never seen her before” (Van Der Zee 33). Faye with her legs shaking, shortness of breathing and all these things on her head just ran away. Faye seems to struggle with some type of insecurity issues with her husband. After she ran away, Kai calls her house extremely worried about where she was just to make sure she got there safe. Chuck, someone who lived at home answers the phone and said that she was home fine. No matter how upset he was about what he just found out, he called to make sure she was safe.

A few minutes after she got home, Kai showed up to her room quietly, without knocking the door, and sat next to her. “He put his arms around her and drew her against him” and in a quietly voice said “Faye, please marry me” (Van Der Zee 34). Kai was obviously surprised for what Faye had told him, but he seemed to still care more about her than the fact that she cannot have children. However, Faye said “No” she stands up from the bed and got away from him. Faye felt like she was not enough for him because of the fact that she could not get pregnant. After moments of discussions Kai made her understand that it was not just her problem, that it was their problem as a couple. Faye still doubtfully said “how… can I ever believe it?” and Kai replay “Look at me, Faye. No other woman can give me what you can- yourself, your love, your warmth, your sense of humor….” (36). After Faye explained him word for word what the doctor said to her she said “So you see… we don’t have to hope for any miracles” Kai smiled and said “we’ll make our own miracles (36).” He then grabs her and kissed her. All of a sudden Kai went to her closet, opened the suitcases and began to pile all her clothes, he also opened the drawers, and took out all her things. Faye confused asks “What are you doing?” Kai ignore her for a min and then said “get dressed. We’re going home” Faye “Home…?” “Yes home- where you belong. With me in my house, in my bed in my arms (37)”. Kai had enough frustration with everything that had happened that he does not want to risk having any more problems. “You’re coming with me now. And I’m not letting you out my sight until we’re safely married (37).” Kai prose that if they can’t have children, there are a bunch of orphanages all over the world with children in need of a family. “Faye” he said “Your my first and only choice (38).”

Kai and Faye adopted 3 children, a boy a two girls. I seems like they were from Vietnam because she say they had small faces and large dark eyes full of fear. It was noticeable the tragedies of war, death and poverty in their eyes. Time passed and everything seem to be working out, the kid’s faces are full of joy as well as Kai’s eyes. Faye deeply inside knew that she was everything to Kai, “To hi, she was the only woman, beautiful, complete, whole (38).” The story “A Sorrowful Women” by Gail Godwin describes a woman that seems to be exhausted of her family and life. Unlike the first story, this is about a married couple who already have a child. The narrator does not give names to the characters and he/she engages on a third person role to tell the story. This story carries a depressing, sad and dark mood. The wife, one night tells her husband if he could “put the boy to bed and read him the story about the monkey who ate too many bananas(39)” since she was already tired of doing all the work at home. The husband thought she just needed a break, and he assume that there’s nothing wrong with the idea of taking care of the child, therefore he happily agreed to take care of the kid. Since that evening the husband noticed that his wife was being very distant from him his child. He notices that the reason of why she was so depressed was probably because of the child. The child was the one who brought her to this stage of sadness, to the point where she began to show aggressiveness in her and the people around her. The sight of her husband made her sad. One night as she looked at the child, she began “…yelping without tears, retching in between” (Godwin 41). Her husband takes her into his arms and he shows he had complete control over the situation. Her husband wants to find out what is wrong with her, and what he could do to make her feel better. In this story the husband portrays a different type of control that was showed in the first story “From a Secret Sorrow”. In a sorrowful woman the husband showed an understanding control, while Kai’s control is that he solves the problems. As the story goes on the Husband tries to assure his wife that he understand what she’s going through. While in the other story Kai tells Faye that his that he would never know how she really feels but he could try and help her.

In A Sorrow Woman the man behaves as if he is the protector of the woman, as if she is his queen I and he did anything that he could to keep her happy. The husband takes over her roles of the wife in the house, but he man soon got tired of all the thing he was doing at home and he decided to hired a girl to help out. The wife after seeing how the maid was doing everything for them and giving her child the love and attention he deserved she decided to fire her because she felt jealous. She did not want anyone to be affectionate with the child; it seems as if she even wanted the kid to suffer for something unexplained. She wanted the baby to feel alone, to not have anyone care for him or to show love towards him. Firing the maid is so selfish on the wife’s part because according to the book “the girls upsets me” (41), but really what made her upset was the love and care the girl was providing to her child and husband. Something she originally said she could not handle anymore. The wife was tired of seeing someone else do what she could not do herself. The girl who cried and said “I loved the little boy, what will become of him now?” (41). in this quote one could suggest that the boy was left alone, without love and attention. As if the girl knew the baby was going to suffer. The maid knew the mother did not want him or cared for him anymore, therefore she wanted her to think it over, to make sure if she really wanted the maid to leave. After the maid left the husband was the one to replace her, to go grocery shopping, to clean the house, to take care of his son and overall to do the things the maid was in charge of. The woman depression kept on getting bigger and bigger as time pass. She decided to move to the white room downstairs where the girl used to stay. She pretty much isolated herself from her family and everyone. The white room symbolizes emptiness, been unloved and voided by others. The woman as time passed did not even went out of the room anymore and everything had to be brought to her. Few weeks after been in the room, she woke up and decided to go and check her kitchen and realized that everything look different “New dish towels. The canisters seemed closer to the sink, a new brand of butter (Godwin, 43).”

The woman cooked, clean the house and did the laundry all in that same day, two weeks’ worth of work in just a couple of hours. After all the work the woman did she felt how her “veins pumped and her forehead sparkled.” Then she opens the cupboard and “took what was hers” (Godwin, 43). When the man and the boy came home and found cooked food, the house clean and all the laundry washed they were extremely surprise. The husband excited ran to the little white room and found her, the little boy said “Look, Mommy is sleeping”, the father right away notice that was not really sleeping. The father lay down on the bed and “his face into her fresh-washed hair” (Godwin, 43) In this story the mother was obviously tired of the role of a housewife. She became so distant with her family up to the point that she isolated herself in a little room downstairs. She blame the children for feeling the way she feels. She did not wanted anyone to give the child love because for her he basically ruined her life. She loved her husband but at time she felt like she was not part of the family. At the end she decided to cook and clean the house for the last time and then took her own life. In Both stories “A Sorrowful Woman” and “A Secret Sorrow” the narrator talks about a woman who struggle to fit in their family environment. They portray unhappiness in their lives and how this is affecting them. The tittle of the two stories fix perfectly since the theme of both deals around sorrowful emotions. Even both narrators have the same idea of sorrow they express it in different ways. For example in A Sorrowful Woman the woman The stories have the titles that deals with sorrow to show the main theme of the stories that revolve around sorrowful feelings (Godwin). In “A Sorrowful Woman,” the woman appears not to be identified. She experiences sorrowful emotions in her family, whereby she does not even speak with the family members. Contrary to the first story, in “A Secret Sorrow”, Faye, the main character of the story, appears to be unhappy because of the fact that she could not conceive any children.

Thus, the main difference in the both stories is the fact that Faye dreams about a family, which the unidentified woman in the Gail’s story already has. They both experience sorrow for various reasons in the family set up (Zee). It is very important to clearly see the differences between these two stories. One might judge the stories by the title, by the fact that they both have to do with sorrow. That cannot be done because these two stories acquaint us with totally different types of sorrowful situations. The women from the two stories have very different reason for their fear and sorrow. Faye, from the first story mourns over the fact that she will not be able to have her own kids and if she marries Kai then she will be a disappointment to him for her inability. In the second story the woman fears of her role as a wife, she decides that she has had enough of raising a child. She wants to abandon her duties as a wife and become carefree person as she once was. She wants to start loving herself over anyone else, to live a self-centered life doing things that she wants to do. The reason she killed herself was because of the lonesomeness and worthlessness she felt living her life for herself. The men supported their women in very different ways. Had the man from the second story supported his wife same as Kai supported Faye, his wife might have gotten better and returned to her family. Kai supported Faye in two very important ways, physically, and emotionally. Physically, Kai supported her with his strong bronze hands that represent strength and endurance. Kai supported her emotionally by repetition of the fact that he loves her and that no matter what they will go through this together. In the second story, the man supports his wife only physically as he carries her, undresses her, brings her drought. If only the man in the second story tried to connect with her emotionally, try to talk with her about how she feels, and try to find ways how to solve this problem without going public, he might have made her feel needed.

Comparing and Contrasting Country Lovers and The Secret Life of Walter Mitty

These elements contribute to the short story’s effectiveness as author uses different literary forms and styles to connect the reader to the story. Style has many characteristics that help the author engage the reader such as; punctuation, the use of connotations, and culture. This is what helps the reader’s imagination take over, paint the picture, and get emotionally connected to the author’s story.

In comparing and contrasting the two short stories of “the Secret Life of Walter Mitty” by James Thurber and “Country Lovers” by Nadine Gordimer you see the differences and similarities in style between the two authors. The culture, which is the common characteristics of a group or a region (Clugston 2010), is very similar in both stories since they are close to real life with the setting in the 1900’s. Both stories revolve around relationships and love. Thurber style is more imaginative then Gordimer which is defined by his use of connotations and punctuation, although both stories are very detailed when it comes to the characters and settings within the stories.

In the short story “Country Lovers” Gordimer does a great job illustrating the setting, which is the time or place in which the action occurs (Clugston 2010). Gordimer provides details about the South African culture that allow the reader to understand the separatism and segregation the characters are living. The reader gets to feel what it’s like to be black in South Africa through the detailed descriptions of the loving conditions and treatment of blacks. The main characters in the story are Paulus and Thebedi. Paulus is the son of a farmer who was raised with the children of the black families that worked on his father’s farm. He falls in love with a black childhood playmate as a teenager but he understands that a relationship with her is forbidden. Thebedi is Paulus black childhood playmate who becomes his lover. The two begin a sexual relationship which results in a child being born. The theme, which is a representation of the idea behind the story (Clugston 2010), is interracial love or forbidden love. The laws and culture of South Africa forbid interracial couples. Thebedi & Paulus are aware of the dangers of being together but choose to get involved anyway.

As the story unfolds, Gordimer brings out the imagination of the reader through the use of metaphors, which is an implied comparison between one object and another that is different from it (Clugston 2010). An example of this is when Goridmer writes, “hidden by the mesh of old, ant–eaten trees held in place by vigorous ones, wild asparagus bushing up between the trunks, and here and there prickly–pear cactus sunken–skinned and bristly, like an old man’s face” (Clugston 2010). This allows the reader to visually paint the picture of where Thebedi and Paulus are at and what the scenery is. A common symbolism, which is something that has a literal identity but also stands for something else (Clugston 2010), that is used in “Country Lovers” is a tree. A tree can be a symbol for life, death, or immortality. This is a good match with the theme and plot of the story.

The plot, which is a dynamic element in fiction, a sequence of interrelated, conflicting actions and events that typically build to a climax and bring about a resolution (Clugston 2010), thickens as both Thebedi and Paulus continue their love affair. Thebedi goes on to marry Njabulo, who is also black, and fails to tell Paulus of her marriage. At the same time Thebedi also finds out she is pregnant with Paulus baby. When Thebedi gives birth to her daughter it’s obvious the baby isn’t Njabulo’s but he accepts her as it was his own. When Paulus finds out about the marriage and the child he becomes upset, why does he get upset, I believe it’s a sign of his love for Thebedi which ties back to the theme of forbidden love. The story takes an interesting twist, although the author never clearly states that Paulus killed the baby, it’s evident he did by the flow of the story. It’s up to the reader to understand the “why”, why would Paulus kill the baby? Again, I believe the “why” ties back to the theme of forbidden love.

Paulus has accepted that Thebedi will never be his wife due to society and the racial customs of South Africa. Understanding this he doesn’t want anyone to find out about the baby because interracial relationships are forbidden so he takes the extreme measure of killing the baby. One could also argue that he killed the baby out of jealousy and not wanting another man to raise his child. The story ends with Thebedi refusing to testify against Paulus in the killing of her baby. This shows that Thebedi has accepted her role in society as a black woman giving up any hope if a relationship with Paulus. Throughout the whole story Thebedi character is submissive to Paulus but the ending shows that Thebedi is also submissive to society by giving into social traditions and discriminatory behavior of South Africa.

The short story of “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” by James Thurber is written in a third person point of view, which occurs when the speaker is not a participant in the story (Clugston 2010). The form is limited omniscient, which is when the thoughts and feelings of only one of the characters are related through the narrator (Clugston 2010) that character is Walter Mitty. The setting of this story occurs in a city called Waterbury but the state is never mentioned or disclosed, one can assume its Waterbury, Connecticut. The main characters are Walter Mitty and Mrs. Mitty. Walter Mitty is someone who gets bossed around by his wife so he creates a secret life for himself. In his secret life he see’s himself as a powerful man who is admired by all, something he is not in real life. Mrs. Mitty is the bossy, nagging, overbearing wife of Walter Mitty. Thurber does a great job illustrating the relationship between Walter and his wife which many people can relate too, I found it very humorous. That takes me to the theme of the story, which I believe is marriage. Thurber portrays a marriage where the husband is submissive to his bossy, nagging, and overbearing wife. A second theme could be masculinity since all of Walter’s dreams portray him as a powerful man who’s admired by all.

The story is about Walter taking his wife into town to visit her hair dresser. Along the way Walter begins to fantasize to escape the reality of his real like. Thurber does an excellent job of engaging the reader’s imagination through each of Walter’s fantasy’s allowing the reader to vividly picture what Walter is fantasizing about. An example of this is during Walter’s first fantasies where he is commanding a hydroplane through a storm, “Rev her up to 8500! We’re going through!” The pounding of the cylinders increased: ta-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa-pocketa” (Clugston 2010). The sound of “ta-packeta-pocketa” is just the cylinders of the car Walter is driving. Each one of Walter’s fantasies is tied to something that is specific to what’s going on in the story. As Walter drives past the hospital he starts to fantasize about being a surgeon. As the newsboy shouts about the Waterbury trial Walters fantasizes about being in a courtroom. The Liberty magazine leads Walter into a fantasy about military dugout. Thurber does a great job of interweaving Walter’s fantasies with the surroundings of the story.

The uses of symbolisms in “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” were not used in the traditional literary forms. Instead Thurber ties in the symbolism of control and power in each of Walter’s fantasies by Walter showing bravery, no fear, power, fame, and a man with high ranking titles. Thurber does a great job of connecting and supporting the symbolism with the theme of marriage and masculinity. The use of this symbolism is to show how Walter feels about marriage, since Walter feels powerless throughout the story as his wife talks down to him.

There are many differences and similarities in “Country Lovers” and “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”. The first and most recognizable difference is “Country Lovers” is a tragic story with a plot that builds up along with way with romance, physical relationship, racial discrimination, pregnancy, arranged marriage, murder, deception, secrecy, and acceptance of normalcy. While “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” is a comedy with not much of a plot. Where they are similar, both are written in a third person limited omniscient point of view. Both had themes of love and marriage but were very different in how each played out. “Country Lovers” was forbidden love and arranged marriage while “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” was love and marriage between a husband and wife. These literary elements contribute to the short story’s effectiveness as author’s uses different literary forms and styles to connect the reader to the story.

References:
Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay

Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique and individual. A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to capture their audience in the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the essay, Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively uses the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion to successfully elicit an opinion on graffiti to its readers.

Bailey Kung, introduces the topic with a hook and background that foreshadows the essay’s content as well as pulls in readers. The opening sentence reads, “ A name or image spray-painted on a wall can elicit smiles, stares, or scowls” (par1). This pulls readers in but it also foreshadows the content of the essay before the thesis is stated. “Smiles,” refers to the population who consider graffiti art. “Stares, or scowls” then refers to the population that deems it either fascinating or as vandalism (par1). The introduction continues on to talk about where graffiti is painted, and what it is affiliated with. The author also gives background information such as, “The creators of graffiti, called “writers”, have a variety of motivations, all of which produce forms of self-expression” (par1). Background information adds to the essay when necessary and in this case, Kung needs to insert background knowledge to keep readers from being lost.

The quote introduced above is an example of that. Basing an essay off common knowledge, most would not affiliate the name “writers” to a graffiti artist. Adding frequently used terms and background information that correlate with the topic into the introduction gives those with no knowledge of the subject a basis to follow along with. An effective essay uses an introduction to setup structure and paint a picture to readers. Kung achieves that in the introduction.

The body paragraphs in this essay have fluid transitions and these structural elements bring success to the paper. All fourteen-body paragraphs flow one into the next in a fluid thought procession. Kung starts by using the first body paragraph as background and introduction to the thesis and then continues on to forms of graffiti, examples and so on. Without a transitional thought process, readers become confused and the author’s point does not get made. Upon reading the paper Kung starts general and becomes more specific throughout the body paragraphs. For example, as stated above Kung defines the term of “writer” and in the second body paragraph continues on to explain specifically how you become a “writer”. This piece is meant to evoke an opinion out of its readers. Kung does not reveal any personal opinions on the subject matter in the body paragraphs as to let the facts steer the reader to their own conclusions.

This is evident by the compare and contrast format that starts around paragraph five. She states, “The underlying motivation for all graffiti, however is self-expression, the exercise of the right to free speech” (par5). After this transition into the fifth paragraph, Kung continues on to explain the “art” side of graffiti. Using resources from individuals claiming graffiti is a source of expression and “local color”(par5). She then contrasts in the eighth paragraph the vandalism aspect of graffiti opening with, “Arguments about semantics aside, creating graffiti is vandalism: the destruction or damaging of property without the consent of the owner” (par8). Kung illustrates both sides to the argument within the body paragraphs equally. She properly distributes the material, has a fluid thought process and uses background information to strengthen her paper’s argument.

Coinciding with the structure of body paragraphs is the conclusion where Kung makes use of the “so what?” to illustrate the importance of her topic. She says,” If graffiti artists truly believe in their “art” enough to break the law to create it, they commit a sort of civil disobedience” (par14). While keeping a neutral tone, Kung reveals her own opinion with the above quotation. Her statement subtly demonstrates her belief that graffiti is a form of art rather than a heinous crime. This “so what?” elicits more emotion in readers to think about the deeper meaning behind graffiti. Kung instills a single thought to bring the paper to an end, using this aspect of structural element to keep readers thinking about the subject: If graffiti artists are demonstrating expressions of art why does the public reprimand them? Just as any good conclusion she restates her thesis that illustrates whether graffiti is art versus vandalism. This structural format gives the paper more depth. Without the call to a “so what?” the essay is just facts written down not analyzed in any way.

Without structural elements to guide writers, readers would become uninterested or lost in the writing. Kung uses structural tools such as an informative attention-grabbing introduction, fluid body paragraphs, and a strong conclusion to successfully strengthen her paper’s argument. The hook in the introduction foreshadows what is to come in the essay. By transitioning from more general topics at the start of the essay to more specific topics as the essay progresses, this technique educates readers while allowing them to form their own opinions. Kung demonstrates to readers why her essay is significant and reestablishes the idea if readers have a passion they should pursue it while realizing the consequences of their actions. Analyzing how writers use certain techniques to strengthen their essay is useful because it allows us to explore the author’s deeper meaning throughout the essay.