How Do These Authors Create a Sense of Fear and Suspense?

In this essay I will examine the two tales The Whole Town’s Sleeping by Ray Bradbury and A Terribly Strange Bed by Wilkie Collins to see how they create a sense of concern and suspense. I will talk about how the following components contribute to a way of fear and suspense. The primary characters, their behaviour, in the occasion that they have been to blame, setting, language, plot and the ending. I may also be talking about which story is more effective and why.

First I will speak about the two primary characters.

The two main characters are known as Lavinia Nebbs (in the Whole Town’s Sleeping) and Monsieur Faulkner (in a Terribly Strange Bed). To add to the sense of concern and suspense, both Monsieur Faulkner and Lavinia Nebbs exit in search of pleasure. They look for pleasure by

the back streets which we all know is an enormous danger for him as we study at first,

“Shortly after my education at college was finished” he is a properly educated nicely off man.

Lavinia Nebbs still goes out despite advise given to her by her associates and the truth that there is a thriller assassin on the unfastened “won’t catch me out on no evening like this, not with the lonely one strangling ladies lock myself in with my gun” stated Grandma Hanlon.

As nicely as taking risks both Monsieur Faulkner and Lavinia Nebbs are very stubborn, Monsieur Faulkner would not go along with his friend

“For heaven’s sake” I mentioned to my friend “Let us go someplace where we are able to see little genuine blackguard, poverty-stricken gaming”.

Lavinia Nebbs tries to prove her level even after they discover Eliza Ramsell’s lifeless physique. “It’s only eight thirty; we’ll decide up Helen and get on to the show”.

Both Lavinia Nebbs and Monsieur Faulkner are bored and single which for my part spurs them into looking for pleasure. Looking for pleasure by taking risks creates rigidity, which in flip helps to create a way of concern and suspense as a outcome of pressure keeps us ready for what is coming next.

Lavinia Nebbs and Monsieur Faulkner are each partly to blame for their

attacks. In Lavinia Nebbs’ case, if she had gone home straight after they discovered Eliza Ramsell’s physique she in all probability still would have been killed but there were many times she was given the possibility by her pals to not go house and to remain at their houses however she refused. In Monsieur Faulkner’s case his good friend insisted that they don’t go to the tough playing house but Monsieur Faulkner refused and carried on without him and also he was drinking.

In my opinion, Lavinia Nebbs was more responsible than Monsieur Faulkner for her assault, as she was given more escape routes however she didn’t take any of them.

The sentence and paragraph length performs an necessary half in creating a way of worry and suspense in each stories. In The Whole Town Sleeping, the sentences and paragraphs are all very brief all the way in which through which helps create tension with the slight pause created by the total cease which in flip creates a way of fear and suspense. At the very finish when she will get home and we think she is protected, the sentences and paragraphs turn into for a lot longer as there is little worry. In A Terribly Strange Bed the sentence and paragraph length varies throughout. The sentences and paragraphs get shorter at instances of worry and excitement.

In A Terribly Strange Bed the creator, Wilkie Collins uses old, fairly advanced language as this is a nineteenth century short story so the language is totally different to the language we use at present.

In the Whole Town’s Sleeping the author Ray Bradbury uses moderately trendy language with short, incessantly used words. This makes the story easier to grasp and follow.

Both A Terribly Strange Bed and The Whole Town’s Sleeping are crime stories however the Whole Town’s Sleeping can be a thriller as we by no means find out who the ‘Lonely One’ is or when he is next going to strike.

The settings for both stories are darkish dismal places. In a Terribly Strange Bed the setting is a again road gambling house in an unknown metropolis. In The Whole Town’s sleeping the setting is her hometown and a ravine. The difference between the two settings is the place is known to the victim in The Whole Town’s Sleeping which provides extra fear and

Suspense to the story as a end result of it’s her house and she or he should feel protected.

In my opinion The Whole Town’s Sleeping is extra successful in creating a way of worry and suspense as a end result of it releases the strain steadily which is more sensible. The reader thinks Lavinia Nebbs is house and safe however it is fairly the opposite. The Whole Town’s Sleeping additionally has a really effective ending as a result of we nonetheless do not know what has occurred to Lavinia Nebbs – it is left to the imagination, which all the time assumes the worst. Both tales hold us guessing when we suppose they’re within the clear one thing else occurs to them.

Analysis of a Poem — Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney in Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney, How Does the Poet Manage to Convey a Sense of His Grief. Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney Is a Poem in Which the Writer Gives an

ANALYSIS OF A POEM — MID TERM BREAK BY SEAMUS HEANEY

In Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney, how does the poet manage to convey a sense of his grief.

Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney is a poem during which the author gives an account of a household tragedy. In this poem he expresses feelings of dismay on seeing his father crying, feelings of disbelief on seeing older men standing up for him and shocking grief to find that his 4 year old brother had died in an accident.

As well as these emotions, Heaney also feedback on ideas such as the child blissfully oblivious to the tragic occasion unfolding in the family. Through the techniques he makes use of, the poet manages to indicate how both he and his household cope with grief brought on by the event being described.

In the poem Mid Term Break the poet Seamus Heaney is himself the speaker; he recollects the time when he was a toddler away in school and was suddenly recalled residence.

On returning residence he witnesses his father crying and a gathering of folks that came to offer him condolences. Furthermore, he sees his mother in anguish but however his baby sibling in the pram appears to be oblivious to the tragedy he was about to discover. The next morning the ambulance brought the body of his brother who had been knocked down by a car. There was a bruise on his brow and he lay in a coffin four-foot long; his brother was solely 4 years old.

Each person so talked about within the poem reacts very in one other way to the dying of the boy. We are advised that the daddy appeared to be crying though he was a person who may take demise in his stride. This is understandable because it is his very own son who’s now dead. Heaneys mom on the other hand is full of anger and anguish. She is indignant as a outcome of faith had dealt a cruel blow in that her little four-year-old son had died in a automotive accident. The poet himself appears confused; he then was presumably a young teenager not quite able to cope with a tragedy unfolding in his household. His confusion is additional underlined by older men standing up for him. Seeing his father crying should have troubled him. Finally the arrival of his brother’s physique had him understand the state of affairs he was not fairly prepared to just accept.

In this poem, sounds are crucial and powerful. In the primary stanza the school bells are described as knelling. Immediately this suggests an atmosphere of foreboding. However the apprehension advised is hidden from the reader until Seamus Heaney goes home. Later on we are advised the mother “coughed out indignant tearless sighs” Cough is often associated to a well being situation but here it underlines the deep sorrow the mom experiences. This is in distinction to the baby who “cooed and laughed” – these sounds are in distinction to the other sounds of grief within the room. Hence the baby’s response highlights the mother’s grief.

In the primary 5 stanzas the environment is certainly one of subdued and managed grief not withstanding the disposition of the infant. However, in the last few stanzas the ambiance has modified to at least one by which the author seems to have understood the tragic circumstances of his brothers death. The word soothing exhibits the reader the poet is now slowly beginning to simply accept. The point that Heaney is making here is that youngsters are quite adaptable in excessive circumstances. The ultimate line sums up the general feeling of the poem, which is that life is fragile, and also you maybe be referred to as upon to accept it.

Mid Term Break is clearly a poem about a painful and tragic occasion in the poets life. In order to completely specific the grief this expertise triggered to both the poet and his household, he has used phrases such as knelling, crying, funerals, angry tearless sighs, corpse and poppy bruise. He additionally uses symbolic language as in poppy bruise to explain the cause of demise. Finally the final sentence “A four foot field, a foot for every year” utterly sums up the tragedy. He has managed to show the reader that though young in years he had managed to reside previous the tragic expertise in his adolescence.

A Sense of Belonging in Literature

This is reflected via the anthology, “Immigrant chronicle” written by the Australian-Polish poet, Peter Skrzynecki. Through his knowledge but mainly his own experiences, Skrzynecki conveys the difficulties of belonging, not belonging and the limitations which forestall belonging. He has shown us how valuable a sense of belonging is to a foreigner, as it could emotionally alienate you from your family as w ell as battling to maintain up with the endlessly altering society, famously remembered in the poem ‘Feliks Skrzynecki’.

Similarly, within the dystopian novel “A clockwork orange” written by the English writer Anthony Burgess, Alex is a criminal who doesn’t belong anywhere inside society.

Moreover, the 2 thousand and three children’s Pixar film “Finding Nemo” directed by the American, Andrew Stanton, shows the emotional discomfort of the protagonist, Nemo when he’s captured and fretful Marlin as he incautiously journeys by way of the unknown waters to find his son. As we’ve noticed the notions of belonging and what it may possibly provide us emotionally, the eulogy ‘Feliks Skrzynecki’ depicts the dissatisfaction of not belonging.

Although the very first line of the poem, “my gentle father” reveals an indication of acceptance and admiration of his father, Skrzynecki’s total statement reveals resentment, dissatisfaction and alienation, “Watched me pegging my tents further and additional south of Hadrians Wall”, Hadrians Wall used as an emblem comparing the variations of his culture and heritage together with his father. Likewise the poem ’Migrant hostel’ was written in Parkes, 1949-51, which occurred to be during the time of ‘White Australia’ coverage.

The truth Skrzynecki wrote this poem in ‘Parkes’ he was only further alienating him from where he’s and it creates a barrier to society which may damage him emotionally. The first stanza Skrzynecki expresses isolation, dehumanisation, uncertainty and curiosity. That was the surroundings Skrzynecki lived in for two years. “Like a homing pigeon” Skrzynecki lived in the chaotic hostel crossing paths with the people he shared a room with. The hostel grew to become a spot for everybody to rest which fashioned a way of belonging as the explanation why they are there together was driven “By memories of starvation and hate”.

To belong is to kind a connection which will permit a way of identification, with out this we inevitably lose our humanity, individuality, and the sense of freedom. This notion is elaborated inside the novel, A Clockwork Orange, where the government makes an attempt to suppress his criminality by physically preventing him from thinking of violence, making him conform to their standards. Equally, this conception is portrayed within the poem, ‘St Patricks College’. St Patricks College known as a microcosm of Alex’s futuristic city of London.

Skrzynecki’s ironic imagery of “Our girl watched with outstretched arms, her face covered with clouds” and later our girl nonetheless “watching above unchanged by 8 years weather” not solely questions the soundness of concrete statues however imitates the same involvements of Alex and the governments tasks. This restricts Skrzyneckis potential to discover a sense of identification as he’s held in by Mother Mary with “outstretched arms”. Similarly, Alex unknowingly received brainwashed and lost his id, resulting with Alex revolving right into a ‘Clockwork Orange’.

The loss of identity and individuality in both the novel and poem reinforces the impact a sense of not belonging can have on any human being. Finding Nemo is a whole portrayal of belonging and the fulfilment of emotional wants. The movie began off with an extended shot, the entire scene capturing a sense of familial belonging between mother and father, very sensitive, whilst wanting lovingly over their eggs. After the incident with the barracuda, Marlin’s been scarred for life and turns into obsessed with protecting his surviving son Nemo from bodily hazard, instantly forming a sense of unity.

Similarly, a darkish and foreboding illustration of a blockage for Marlin, the fish on the rock perhaps an emblem for his fears of what occurred to Nemo. This representation is strengthened by the distant camera shot reflecting on Marlins detached reference to Nemo. A combination of the notion of belonging and the act of over safety could result in main conflicts and disagreements because the connections with whom you belong to continues to progress. This may end in defiance and the consequence could be far more sudden than traditional. Likewise, when Marlin appears and distrustfully will get in Nemos face and even approaching open water, he insults his son by as quickly as again denigrating Nemo’s swimming skills. Nemo defiantly swims out to the “butt” and promptly slaps his fin on the boat after he’s been advised by his father “If you set one fin on that boat…”. Nemo quickly after realises his rebellious act was yet to be paid for as he get scooped up by a scuba diver and positioned in a dentist’s fish tank. When Nemo and Marlin reunited, Marlin is given a second probability at parenthood. He allows more space, freedom, trust and respect, in return Marlin receives Nemo’s trust, forgiveness and love.

We have seen how a way of belonging can fulfil such deep feelings, along with the power of curing a damaged connection. Ultimately, a method to fulfil ones emotional needs could be achieved through a way of belonging. This is proven in the anthology, “Immigrant Chronicle” written by Peter Skrzynecki, which highlights the significance of belonging. Likewise, the textual content “Clockwork Orange” written by Anthony Burgess depicts related aspects of not belonging. Finally, the Pixar movie “Finding Nemo” directed by Andrew Stanton portrays the completely different a potentialities that may include defiance of experience, belief and belonging.

Sixth Sense

The senses are basic: hearing, taste, smell, sight, and touch. These are the given senses that are apart of every living creature on earth. People have always wondered about the existence of the sixth sense. A sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. Many have theorized that the ability of the sixth sense is a skill that can be gained by appreciating nature, similar to the innate senses of an animal. The idea of the existence of a sixth sense has been misguided. The sixth sense we all believe is there, does not exist, there are only abilities or enhancement that have been misunderstood. Animals for along time have seemed to have a sixth sense but in reality it is their already enhanced senses that we are seeing. Animals have been able to detect or even notice things that cannot possibly be known. These are the main instances where animals’ sixth sense is misconceived.

They are from a completely different world than we are. Animals have gained abilities that have helped them survive in nature. These heightened senses are due to the lack of one of their already basic senses. For example a bat with its blindness relies on its ears to detect waves, vibrations in the air in order to see. Animals in turn of needing something to replace the lack of one of their senses gains an ability. Humans have this capability as well. The human body can enhance a sense giving its host an ability that compensates for something lost. Humans are just as diverse as animals. We gain different abilities that are based on different factors like gender, heritage, and even the environment that one has grown up in. These factors are what makes an ability or even an enhancement even possible.

One ability that have still yet to understand is instinct, an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environment, or can be defined as a powerful motivation or impulse. Every living creature has this ability inside them, it is just the matter of how in touch one is with the instinct that is inside them. Animals for some reason are more in touch with their instincts than we are as humans. Some believe it is for the reason that animals are more in touch with nature. Humans only seem to be really in touch with their instinct when they are in serious danger, when their senses are more focused because they know their life is threatened.

Animals have forever been the thought to be the key of understanding what the sixth sense was. The fact that what they were observing was something other than a sixth sense lead their conclusions about the sixth sense to be misguided. There have been multiple events throughout history where animals have been noticed of having odd behaviors. In most cases animals’ behavior was due to a disaster or something strange they sensed. Most people have misunderstood there actions as something odd, different. People began to notice what was causing animals to act like this, when they found out why they wanted to know the how. How could the animals possibly know when there was a disaster?

This is what lead people to believe there was a sixth sense. Their observations were not of a sixth sense but an animals heighted senses working in their favor. Throughout history animals have had weird behavior when it came to disasters occurring or even beforehand. The misconception of these animals is that these actions that they are exhibiting are due to a sixth sense. This is not the case, most scientist state that we are seeing the animals’ heighted senses at work. Animals have senses that are superior to ours as humans.

Depending on the animals determines which of the senses maybe more enhanced. On February 4, 1975, an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 struck the Haicheng County, Liaoning Province. Before the earthquake hit local people saw hibernating snakes coming out from their holes into the snow. Through the period of the first three days in February the activity intensified even more, unusual behavior in larger animals such as cows, horses, dogs, and pigs was reported. (“The Use of Animals in Earthquake Prediction” 1)

Events along this line is what people may misconstrue as a sixth sense that animals have, what people don’t really think about is the abilities or the heightened senses animals have that acts as a warning. Once we identify what abilities or senses that are enhanced, we can gain better understanding as to why these animals reacted the way they did in response to the earthquake. Snakes for instance, it is not surprising that they were the first to respond to this coming threat.

They ‘hear’ by picking up vibrations through their jawbones. The part of body in direct contact with the ground has an incredible sensitive stereo hearing, which enables a snake to sense and detect the position of prey (“Facts about snakes” 1). This ability can logically count as an early warning sign to an Earthquake. Snakes are not native to the environment that surrounds them, they notice the slightest change. By them being able to feel the vibrations in the ground they could feel the slightest tremble in the ground.

Dogs on the other hand can hear higher pitched sounds that humans cannot hear. They often bark at vacuums because they hear a very loud annoying pitch. Dogs detect sounds in the frequency range of approximately 67 – 45,000 Hz (varies from different breeds), compared to humans with the approximate range of 64 – 23,000 Hz. Dogs have 18 or more muscles in their ears allowing them to be mobile, whereas a human has only 6. (“Understanding a Dog’s Senses”1). These extra muscles allow dogs to move their ears specific directions as to better focus their hearing. Dogs with perked ears can usually hear well than dogs with hanging ears, especially if they can move their ears in the direction of the sound.

This ability would also explain why the canine would be able to react to an earthquake or any disaster that affects the sounds waves in the air. By a canine directing and focusing it hearing on certain points, they would be able to determine if there is a threat coming. This is only one instance where animals abilities have save them or acted as an early warning sign from a natural disaster. What people have been seeing was the enhanced senses and abilities that animals have working in their favor. Humans on the other hand may gain an enhanced sense mostly in special cases.

Scientist were working on determining what factors contribute to a blind person’s sense of hearing being enhanced. They know that it is possible;
they did not understand why this was occurring. Some of their theories is that a sixth sense in the body could be acting on a blind persons hearing giving them a new way to see. After much research scientist discovered that it is the brain that is causing the enhancement of the hearing sense. When a human losses a sense a brain has to work harder in order to make up for what your boy has lost. We all know that the brain is a muscle and the more you use a certain area of it the stoner it will become.

By a blind person losing their sense of sight their brain works their muscles in their ear more while makes the hearing capability stronger. This view of a sixth sense was proven wrong by that of science. The scientists determined that there was not a sixth sense that was working but, an enhancement due to that lose of another sense. A factor that people over look is that everyone already has a sixth sense. The only action that every living creature has is instinct. Instinct is the something that scientist have not been fully able to explain.

A person’s, even an animal’s instincts are unpredictable because it depends on how in touch they are with this instinct that lives inside of them. My research has lead me to the conclusion that the closest we as living creatures have to a sixth sense is instinct. Instinct is an inward stimulator that affects our five basic senses. As we know a sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. By following this definition and the proof of the continued misconceptions of the sixth sense, the logical ideal sixth sense would be instinct.

Instinct in some instances can be controlled by sheer will power or even through constant training. Instinct mainly relies on your brains reactions in order to be activated. Think of your brain as a trigger. Scientist have discovered that instinct is more often triggered when one is believe to be in danger (whenever life is threatened). The reason they believe animals are more in touch with their instincts is because since they live in nature their lives are constantly threatened. This in turn always keep them on edge. There sense are being constantly worked like a muscle, which allows them to get stronger.

Humans on the other hand live a more comfortable life style. We have learned to make the environment around us work in our favor. We live a relaxed life, our lives are not constantly threatened, there are the instances where we get to a situation where our life maybe on the line which than beings out our instincts. To better understand the difference between the average human life style, compare it to a person who has been on the battle field for years. Their instincts have been working constantly. We notice the difference the people had n these environments when they return average society and try to return to their normal life style. They can’t turn it off because there body now feels, just like an animals, like there is always a threat that is about to pounce.

There are more ridiculous ideas as to what the sixth sense could possible turn out to be with further study. Most people believe that we will be able to gain super human power like telekinesis. The power to move object without applying physical force. Being able to communicate without the use of talking but through thoughts. Scientist have not found any logical proof that this exist yet, they are continuing to do their research. This is only one of the possibilities that has been widely viewed as a possible sixth sense throughout the 20th and mostly the 21st.

The misconception of the sixth sense are mostly simple. Most of the views on the sixth sense have been only enhancements and/or abilities. The fact that animals are so much different than us make it difficult to compare them to us. We live in completely different world so the sense that we have are different, the abilities we obtain are different, and the instinct we develop is different. Look deeper and you will find a true answer, there is always something under the first sheet that is laid down.

Sixth Sense

The senses are basic: hearing, taste, smell, sight, and touch. These are the given senses that are apart of every living creature on earth. People have always wondered about the existence of the sixth sense. A sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. Many have theorized that the ability of the sixth sense is a skill that can be gained by appreciating nature, similar to the innate senses of an animal. The idea of the existence of a sixth sense has been misguided.

The sixth sense we all believe is there, does not exist, there are only abilities or enhancement that have been misunderstood. Animals for along time have seemed to have a sixth sense but in reality it is their already enhanced senses that we are seeing. Animals have been able to detect or even notice things that cannot possibly be known. These are the main instances where animals’ sixth sense is misconceived. They are from a completely different world than we are.

Animals have gained abilities that have helped them survive in nature. These heightened senses are due to the lack of one of their already basic senses. For example a bat with its blindness relies on its ears to detect waves, vibrations in the air in order to see. Animals in turn of needing something to replace the lack of one of their senses gains an ability. Humans have this capability as well. The human body can enhance a sense giving its host an ability that compensates for something lost.

Humans are just as diverse as animals. We gain different abilities that are based on different factors like gender, heritage, and even the environment that one has grown up in. These factors are what makes an ability or even an enhancement even possible. One ability that have still yet to understand is instinct, an inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environment, or can be defined as a powerful motivation or impulse. Every living creature has this ability inside them, it is just the matter of how in touch one is with the instinct that is inside them.

Animals for some reason are more in touch with their instincts than we are as humans. Some believe it is for the reason that animals are more in touch with nature. Humans only seem to be really in touch with their instinct when they are in serious danger, when their senses are more focused because they know their life is threatened.

Animals have forever been the thought to be the key of understanding what the sixth sense was. The fact that what they were observing was something other than a sixth sense lead their conclusions about the sixth sense to be misguided. There have been multiple events throughout history where animals have been noticed of having odd behaviors. In most cases animals’ behavior was due to a disaster or something strange they sensed.

Most people have misunderstood there actions as something odd, different. People began to notice what was causing animals to act like this, when they found out why they wanted to know the how. How could the animals possibly know when there was a disaster?

This is what lead people to believe there was a sixth sense. Their observations were not of a sixth sense but an animals heighted senses working in their favor. Throughout history animals have had weird behavior when it came to disasters occurring or even beforehand. The misconception of these animals is that these actions that they are exhibiting are due to a sixth sense. This is not the case, most scientist state that we are seeing the animals’ heighted senses at work.

Animals have senses that are superior to ours as humans. Depending on the animals determines which of the senses maybe more enhanced. On February 4, 1975, an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 struck the Haicheng County, Liaoning Province. Before the earthquake hit local people saw hibernating snakes coming out from their holes into the snow. Through the period of the first three days in February the activity intensified even more, unusual behavior in larger animals such as cows, horses, dogs, and pigs was reported. (“The Use of Animals in Earthquake Prediction” 1)

Events along this line is what people may misconstrue as a sixth sense that animals have, what people don’t really think about is the abilities or the heightened senses animals have that acts as a warning. Once we identify what abilities or senses that are enhanced, we can gain better understanding as to why these animals reacted the way they did in response to the earthquake. Snakes for instance, it is not surprising that they were the first to respond to this coming threat. They ‘hear’ by picking up vibrations through their jawbones.

The part of body in direct contact with the ground has an incredible sensitive stereo hearing, which enables a snake to sense and detect the position of prey (“Facts about snakes” 1). This ability can logically count as an early warning sign to an Earthquake. Snakes are not native to the environment that surrounds them, they notice the slightest change. By them being able to feel the vibrations in the ground they could feel the slightest tremble in the ground.

Dogs on the other hand can hear higher pitched sounds that humans cannot hear. They often bark at vacuums because they hear a very loud annoying pitch. Dogs detect sounds in the frequency range of approximately 67 – 45,000 Hz (varies from different breeds), compared to humans with the approximate range of 64 – 23,000 Hz. Dogs have 18 or more muscles in their ears allowing them to be mobile, whereas a human has only 6. (“Understanding a Dog’s Senses”1).

These extra muscles allow dogs to move their ears specific directions as to better focus their hearing. Dogs with perked ears can usually hear well than dogs with hanging ears, especially if they can move their ears in the direction of the sound.

This ability would also explain why the canine would be able to react to an earthquake or any disaster that affects the sounds waves in the air. By a canine directing and focusing it hearing on certain points, they would be able to determine if there is a threat coming.

This is only one instance where animals abilities have save them or acted as an early warning sign from a natural disaster. What people have been seeing was the enhanced senses and abilities that animals have working in their favor. Humans on the other hand may gain an enhanced sense mostly in special cases.

Scientist were working on determining what factors contribute to a blind person’s sense of hearing being enhanced. They know that it is possible; they did not understand why this was occurring. Some of their theories is that a sixth sense in the body could be acting on a blind persons hearing giving them a new way to see.

After much research scientist discovered that it is the brain that is causing the enhancement of the hearing sense. When a human losses a sense a brain has to work harder in order to make up for what your boy has lost. We all know that the brain is a muscle and the more you use a certain area of it the stoner it will become.

By a blind person losing their sense of sight their brain works their muscles in their ear more while makes the hearing capability stronger. This view of a sixth sense was proven wrong by that of science. The scientists determined that there was not a sixth sense that was working but, an enhancement due to that lose of another sense. A factor that people over look is that everyone already has a sixth sense. The only action that every living creature has is instinct. Instinct is the something that scientist have not been fully able to explain.

A person’s, even an animal’s instincts are unpredictable because it depends on how in touch they are with this instinct that lives inside of them. My research has lead me to the conclusion that the closest we as living creatures have to a sixth sense is instinct. Instinct is an inward stimulator that affects our five basic senses. As we know a sixth sense is a power of perception beyond the five senses. By following this definition and the proof of the continued misconceptions of the sixth sense, the logical ideal sixth sense would be instinct.

Instinct in some instances can be controlled by sheer will power or even through constant training. Instinct mainly relies on your brains reactions in order to be activated. Think of your brain as a trigger. Scientist have discovered that instinct is more often triggered when one is believe to be in danger (whenever life is threatened).

The reason they believe animals are more in touch with their instincts is because since they live in nature their lives are constantly threatened. This in turn always keep them on edge. There sense are being constantly worked like a muscle, which allows them to get stronger.

Humans on the other hand live a more comfortable life style. We have learned to make the environment around us work in our favor. We live a relaxed life, our lives are not constantly threatened, there are the instances where we get to a situation where our life maybe on the line which than beings out our instincts. To better understand the difference between the average human life style, compare it to a person who has been on the battle field for years.

Their instincts have been working constantly. We notice the difference the people had n these environments when they return average society and try to return to their normal life style. They can’t turn it off because there body now feels, just like an animals, like there is always a threat that is about to pounce.

There are more ridiculous ideas as to what the sixth sense could possible turn out to be with further study. Most people believe that we will be able to gain super human power like telekinesis. The power to move object without applying physical force. Being able to communicate without the use of talking but through thoughts. Scientist have not found any logical proof that this exist yet, they are continuing to do their research. This is only one of the possibilities that has been widely viewed as a possible sixth sense throughout the 20th and mostly the 21st.

The misconception of the sixth sense are mostly simple. Most of the views on the sixth sense have been only enhancements and/or abilities. The fact that animals are so much different than us make it difficult to compare them to us. We live in completely different world so the sense that we have are different, the abilities we obtain are different, and the instinct we develop is different. Look deeper and you will find a true answer, there is always something under the first sheet that is laid down.

Psychology and common sense

Psychology is a scientific and research based study of human mind-set and behaviours. The field of study focuses on emotions, characteristics and behaviours of individuals in their daily lives and their behaviours when interacting with other people. Wilhelm Wundt is the father of psychology, whom set up his first laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. His main contribution to the field of psychology was his idea of structuralism; the use of introspection to study individual’s experiences comprising of sensations, images and feelings. Throughout his course of research, he insisted on using systematic observation and measurement, which serve as a strong foundation for psychology studies in the future. Whereas, common sense basically refers to the common knowledge shared by the majority human population. Such knowledge usually arise from daily observation and interaction one another, past experiences, beliefs that are being passed down for generations and scenarios commonly portrayed in television shows. Much of psychology is not based on common sense, but on research, testing, and applications of theory. As such, psychologists are heavily trained in research methods and statistics.

Psychology is a real science as It uses scientific methods such as the experimental research and analysis to support a hypothesis and that psychology is not just things we see everyday. Psychology has a wide variety of aspects; from the social side of understanding why people behave in a specific way, to the neuroscience side of understanding what goes wrong in the brain of people with mental health disorders. As psychologists attempt to explain the mind and brain in the context of real life, it is definitely not common sense. One common sense belief states that if someone recalls something vividly and confidently, that memory is true and accurate. In another words, an individual will not false memories. Even if there is, the individual will have the ability to differentiate real from false memories. However, psychological research have proven this common sense belief to be wrong.

False memories, also known as pseudomemories, can usually be formed when individual try to fill up the gaps in their memory by logic guesses combining with their actual memory (Koutstaal, Norman & Schacter, 1998, p. 289-318). This action is otherwise called constructive processing. A study by Braun, Ellis and Loftus (2002) shows that sixteen percent of the people who were shown with a fake advertisement of Bugs Bunny in Disney resort actually insisted that they met Bugs in Disney. However, it was not possible since Bugs is a character from Warner Brothers and not Disney (p. 1-23). This study reflected that some subjects experience constructive processing after seeing the fake advertisement. Hence, the false memory formed seems rather logical to them. In another research carried out by Loftus (1997), together with her research associate, Jacqueline Pickrell, they told a group of subjects, ranging from 18 to 53 years old, a series of their childhood incidents recounted by their family members or close relatives.

Out of all the incidents told, they included one whereby the subjects had been lost in a shopping mall when they were still children. In the next two interview sessions, the subjects were asked to recall the incident of being lost in the mall. Surprising, about a quarter of them said they could remember it and even supplied extra details about what happened even though the incident was actually made up. This shows a way of inducing a completely false memory into someone simply by providing external evidence that prompt the happening of such incident (p.71). Similar situation of implanting false memories into someone would be under therapy or hypnosis. The ‘misinformation effect’ is also theory accounted for the formation of pseudomemories. This refers to the distortion of memory as a result of the presence of misleading and suggestive information as well as source confusion (Porter et. Al., 2010, p. 55-61).

The above mentioned studies and psychological theories such as constructive processing, hypnosis, misinformation effect, memory construction and schemas, have proven the common sense belief to be wrong. It is possible for an individual to take pseudomemories as their true and accurate memories. In conclusion, common sense beliefs are knowledge that everybody are exposed to whereas psychology comprises of careful and scientific researches and analysis. Though common sense beliefs may be widely used and agreed to, that do not necessary mean that they are correct. In fact, they are generally false explanations of thought process and behaviour. Psychologists are hence able to come up with psychological explanation to prove the direct opposite of the common sense. Nonetheless, psychological explanation can also be used to prove certain common sense beliefs which are true. As such, people can view psychology as a tool employed to prove the credibility of common sense. Therefore, psychology is not just common sense.

Rhetorical Analysis on “Here’s Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense”

In ‘Here’s Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense’, Alex Newhouse, a lawyer who resides in the area of Sunnyside, Washington addresses the controversial issue of the legalization of cannabis. The sole purpose of Newhouse’s article is to persuade readers and voters that marijuana should be legalized. Throughout his article, Newhouse focuses on the use of ethos and logos, while also slightly focusing on the use of pathos, to help persuade his audience. The incorporation of such rhetoric strategies allows Newhouse to change the opinions of individuals with views opposing the opinions he, himself, holds. Alex Newhouse starts out his article with a very strong statement: “No one has ever died from simply using marijuana” (1). By opening his work with this statement, Newhouse automatically incorporates pathos, a very powerful rhetorical strategies, into his piece.

Although it is simple, Newhouse’s statement can provoke feelings such as astonishment, disbelief, happiness, and curiosity. Readers may feel a mix of very different emotions from Newhouse’s statement, but the mere provocation of even one emotional response is enough to grab the readers’ interest and to begin persuading them to parallel their views with those of the author. Towards the end of his article, Newhouse again incorporates pathos. He does so by saying, “Regulating marijuana would also protect our children” (1). The use of this sentence allows Newhouse to appeal to the emotions of his audience. It is apparent that the sentence is aimed towards parents.

Hence, when a parent reads such a sentence, his or her instinct to protect his or her children goes off, thus making the parent feel protective, curious, and possibly even reassured and/or calm. As a result of reading the above sentence, many parents would automatically take Newhouse’s opinions into great consideration, since his sentence implies that Newhouse cares about his readers’ children. Also, by using the word “our” in that sentence, Newhouse uses ethos, appeal to credibility, as a rhetorical strategy. The use of the word “our” implies that Newhouse is a parent himself and understands what it’s like to raise children while trying to protect them from dangerous (for youth) substances, such as marijuana.

Not only is Newhouse’s opening statement, “No one has ever died from simply using marijuana” an incorporation of pathos, but it is also an incorporation of logos, another very powerful rhetorical strategy (1). In his statement, he implies that of the many people who have used marijuana, not one person has died. Newhouse’s opening statement is subtle and appears to be numberless, but it is a statistic nonetheless. Throughout his article, Newhouse makes references to many different statistics, all referring to marijuana. Another way in which Newhouse incorporates the use of logos in his article is by making statements such as, “According to the White House’s Office of National Drug Control Policy, over 100 million Americans have tried or use marijuana,” and “…the U.S. has spent approximately a trillion dollars and 100,000 lives on a drug war that could be reined in considerably with marijuana legalization” (1). By using such statistics, Newhouse appeals to the logic of his audience. The use of statistics in any article or editorial appeals to the audience’s logic, which benefits the author by helping persuade his or her readers. Although Newhouse focuses on the incorporation of logos, he also focuses on the incorporation of ethos almost immediately.

In his opening paragraph, Newhouse refers to someone of higher authority, stating, “In 1872, then-President Richard Nixon appointed the Shafer Commission to study the nation’s rising drug problem. It reported the following: ‘Neither the marihuana [sic] user nor the drug itself can be said to constitute a danger to public safety” (1). By making a reference to Richard Nixon and the Shafer Commission, Newhouse appeals to credibility, since they were well-known people of power during the time of that quote. The use of ethos, especially in the beginning of a piece of literature, automatically lets the reader(s) know that the author’s credibility can be trusted. This technique can help open the minds of readers who are in opposition of the author’s argument. In “Here’s Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense”, Alex Newhouse presents a well-supported argument on the legalization of marijuana.

Throughout the piece, Newhouse uses three main rhetorical strategies to persuade his readers: ethos, pathos, and logos. For example, Newhouse makes a reference to his life and a reference to sources that had been written by people who have/had authority on the subject of marijuana legalization. He also used quite a few statistics to persuade his audience. By repeatedly incorporating one rhetorical strategy after another, Newhouse is able to build a strong-standing argument to back up his beliefs on the legalization of cannabis. From his introductory sentence to his closing sentence, the author, Alex Newhouse, used a handful of rhetorical strategies to his advantage.

Work Cited
Newhouse, Alex. “Here’s Why Legalizing Marijuana Makes Sense.” Yakima Herald-Republic. 13 Aug. 2011. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. .

Part 2: Legalization of Marijuana

Over the past few years, the issue of the legalization of marijuana has become a very controversial topic. When confronted with the issue, it feels almost instinctive to feel as though marijuana should forever be illegal. However, when the issue is really dissected and thought about, it becomes apparent that there are more pros than there are cons for the legalization of marijuana. Cannabis should be legalized under strict conditions (concerning who can use the substance, and how much can be used in a certain period of time) because it can increase overall satisfaction of life for cancer patients, there are no recorded deaths caused by marijuana usage, it can be taxed, it can decrease crime rates, increase state revenues, and decrease taxes. Legalizing marijuana would directly benefit cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy often makes patients experience side effects such as pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Many cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy begin to look sick, pale, and frail. Often times, they’re hospitalized for days. During those days, they look as though every ounce of happiness and satisfaction is being drained from their lives. All they can do is hope they’ll make it another day, and that tomorrow will be a better day. Perhaps if they were allowed a small amount of marijuana, their happiness and satisfaction with their lives would increase drastically. The use of marijuana can relieve chemotherapy side effects such as pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, thus allowing a patient to live a higher-quality life. Not only would legalizing marijuana benefit cancer patients, but it would also benefit the population as a whole. There have been no reported deaths caused by the use of marijuana. On the contrary, dronabinol, a synthetic version and isomer of tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary isomer and psychoactive drug in cannabis, has caused a number of deaths. If marijuana were legalized, there would be no need for Marinol, the prescription drug of dronabinol.

Therefore, people would not have to worry as much about losing a loved one because of the use of synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol. Another reason why marijuana should be legalized is that if it is legalized, it would be able to be taxed. Although taxing marijuana would not be a miraculous economy boost that would get the United States out of its debt, it would increase state revenues by billions of dollars per year. California has already made billions of dollars from the partial legalization of the drug; research has shown that complete legalization would earn the state billions of dollars more in revenue per year. Regulating and taxing marijuana would lead to a decrease in crime rates. The regulation and taxing of marijuana would automatically decrease the number of drug dealers in the United States, since the drug dealers selling marijuana would lose all of their customers to stores.

This would lead to a decrease in drug-related crimes. The decrease in drug dealers could also mean less people being sent to jail for nonviolent drug-related crimes. Since portions of peoples’ taxes go towards jails, this could eventually decrease taxes, too. When thought about simply, the legalization of marijuana may seem like a terrible idea. The thought of it spurs a terrifying image of a lazy, munchies-crazed society, merely lying back as the rest of the world moves forward. However, when thought about in more depth, it is obvious that marijuana should be legalized because it would be greatly beneficial in many different ways, for it can increase overall satisfaction of life for cancer patients, there are no recorded deaths caused by marijuana usage, be taxed, decrease crime rates, increase state revenues, and decrease taxes.

Ownership and Sense of Self: Argumentative

Every prosperous thinker of the world has different views on the relationship between ownership and sense of self. Differences arise in the prominent topic, theory, and thought of the sense of self identity. With all kinds of theories, I see ownership of intangible skills as a part of building a self identity. I see it as Jean-Paul Sartre sees ownership as being “proficient in some skill” as it can build a bridge with ownership and sense of self. I believe ownership and knowledge of any certain skill can certainly add to a sense of self identity, character identity, and an understanding the importance of learning a skill.

A sense of “owning” an intangible skill of an endless list is important towards a strong development with creating a sense of self. A lot of people wish for some sort of ownership, like a child wanting a toy or an adult wanting beneficial finances for themselves. Yet, do tangible items create what and who we are for ourselves instead of showing off to others? For me, learning and trying to master a skill, for example painting, is like an anchor because it’s not like an object that I can lose. This “anchor” can be beneficial to our development on learning and creating our identity. What I and others have learned and having an “ownership” over a skill can help develop and discover our sense of self.

Ownership also builds up a character in us as it intertwines with our sense of being development. We build ourselves, our lives, and our nations with having skills, as it’s sufficient for our sense of self. Accomplishing one or many types of skills is an endless journey, almost as if a path builds up for people to cater to their character building. For example, religions, like Buddhism, have such a linkage with our minds and with character buildings and having skills. Skills contribute to this sense people want to have as having skills gives accomplishment to one. Our identity and character are set on our sense of self owning an intangible and growing skill.

The sense of “owning” a skill or a type of knowledge is vital and important as well, as it’s beneficial for anything to get done for ourselves. For example, would having a lawyer without important and vital knowledge would be effective in defending a client in court? The lawyer would be worthless in helping you in this situation. Not only does owning a skill help with identification and a sense of self, it can help us in almost everything we need to accomplish. We need to learn and own skills, basic or difficult, for people to find their sense of self and to cater to our needs that accompany with the ideas of ownership intertwining with our sense of self.

Ownership is a step in the development of a sense of self, almost vital for lives. “Owning” a certain type of skill or knowledge can help finds one’s identity, build character, and understand the importance of having intangible skills. Different views are out there, though they almost connect. Does owing anything, tangible or intangible, really play in our development of sense of self? A sense of ownership and a sense of self can almost determine what we identify with. Our identity intertwines skills with our sense of self.

Ownership and Sense of Self

Ownership can be viewed in many different ways. Some think of ownership as a bad thing, while others think of it as a good thing. Before someone can establish their beliefs on what is good and bad, the true meaning of what they are being ased must be understood. This controversial question of whether ownership is positive or negative brings up a much more important question, “What does it mean to own something?”. Ownership is defined as to have possession of something. I believe ownership and sense of self are integrated together. I think they go hand in hand with each other merely because one can own more than just a physical object, but as well as ideas, thoughts, skills, and knowledge.

Just as the famous twentieth-century philosopher, Jean-Paul Sarte, I too believe that ownership extends much farther than tangible objects, but to intangible things as well. Such intangible things include, thoughts and ideas. Only you can think of an original idea or thought. Nobody can put it into your head. No one can hear your thoughts besides yourself, which make them yours. This sense of ownership extends physical objects, and involves self ownership. One’s self ownership also gives a sense of identity. The thoughts and ideas one “owns”, defines them and is their sense of self. Not only does the ownership of thoughts and ideas provide one with a sense of their self, but as well as skills or knowledge one may obtain. Sarte believed that when one becomes proficient in a skill or knows something thoroughly, it means that they “own” that skill or knowledge. An experience I have faced that helps me to support and believe in this idea, is when I joined the volleyball team at my high school. I spent the entire summer practicing volleyball at open gym, improving my skills and preparing for tryouts that were soon to come. When tryouts finally arrived I was no longer nervous and I trusted myself to do well. This was because I had become much more knowledgeable about the sport and I “owned” the level of skill I had worked for and needed to make it onto the team. I realized that I was no longer trying to become a volleyball player, but I was one. The skill I have to play volleyball often defines me, whether someone is asking about myself or sees me in uniform. The skills and knowledge you obtain become your identity, and this is another example of how the relationship between ownership and sense of self are so intertwined.

I believe ownership of tangible items also determines one’s sense of self. Some argue that ownership of tangible items are bad, while others believe they are good. Whether someone views it as being good or bad, it is still true. In today’s society, image is everything. Social classes are based on how much you own and identity is based on image. I don’t completely agree with the argument made by Plato, stating that owning objects is detrimental to a person’s character, because at the end of the day objects can be taken away. I think that owning objects can only become detrimental to a person’s character if one becomes more interested in what others think and try to keep up an image more than their own personal character. I think people can get caught up in an image and become materialistic and selfish, this exposes what type of person one is, providing insight to one’s sense of self.

On the other hand, owning tangible objects could also help to develop moral character, as Aristotle had said. I immediately supported this idea as I looked down and saw the bracelet I wear on my right wrist everyday. This bracelet is called a kara. I have owned a kara all of my life, and it serves a religious purpose to identify myself as a Sikh. This tangible object has helped me as a constant reminder for my morals, discipline, and religious faith. It is the tangible objects like my kara that help to develop moral character. My kara is an identification piece that shows everyone what religion I follow, which displays how tangible items identify ourselves.

The relationship between ownership and sense of self is a very close one. I believe that both the tangible and intangible things in life define ourselves. I feel that people go to things such as tangible objects and intangible things such as thoughts, ideas, skills, and knowledge to not only identify themselves, but “own” themselves and their identities.

Sense Of Humor Essay

What do you know about sense of humor? Did you know that it helps you control human health and emotions? “Sense of humor is a way to produce and experience pleasure by provoking or being provoked to laugh. It is also a trait of appreciating the humorous, you can’t live without humor it is inexplicable” (McMahon). “Most people have it and are able to laugh at jokes or funny situations that people make. This is developed at a very early age, and it is considered vital part of human development” (McMahon). First of all, what is sense of humor? Where does it appear? Sense of humor is a way to produce good emotions like pleasure; these are provoked by crazy or funny acts, jokes, and the ability to be amused. Sense of Humor appears to be very important in human survival. When you laugh you lose tension or relax your mind. This for example can make people in bad situations take good decisions. “Physiological studies say that by having sense of humor you will make you a happier person, and in almost all cases, you will have a healthier life. There are very few people that don’t have sense of humor. For me this is inexplicable and irrational. People lack senses of humor, often have autism”(Nichol). “They have the ability to develop their disabilities or sometimes lack one. This is very weird because sense of humor plays a very vital role in the world”( 10 Different Types Of Humor). There are people that have sense of humor, but do not understand the funny part of a joke for example. If we compare cultures, sense of humor is very different. For example in the Ancient Greece, sense of humor started with Plato, which contributes Socrates by making the Philebus. “They say that ridiculous was ignorance from the weak people. So the weak cant revenge when ridiculous things happened to them. Later Aristotle suggested that humor is not fundamental by being considered weak or strong.” (McMahon). “ In India, sense of humor was defined as one of the nine “nava rasas”. “Nava” was defined as the imitations of the emotions that the actors perform. Each “Rasas” was associated or joined to the “bhavas” or “navas””( Mahadevan).

There are a lot of types of sense of humor. The most important ones are sarcasm, parodic, burlesque, ironic, bonding in the moment and self deprecating. “Sarcasm is a type of sense of humor was your humor is dark and sharp. This is not necessarily ironic”(Nichol). The important part of this is that it is only present when speaking, and it is manifested by vocal infections. “Parodic humor is a sense of humor were the author who made the funny thing or said the funny thing is imitated comically by others” (Nichol). This is obviously to ridicule the author who made the funny thing. “Burlesque sense of humor is where you imitate the author of the funny act or words” (Nichol). This is just like the parodic sense of humor, but in this one you need to exaggerate the funny thing. Ironic sense of humor is where you try to be the opposite of others, by saying other things or make other things. “Bonding in the moment is a very important part of sense of humor. People who have this type of sense of humor, want to say a funny thing when the place has changed from funny to serious”( The 10 Different Types Of Humor). This is a very good type because it is a very likeable humor to express. But the bad thing of this is that you need to be careful, you don’t want to make someone feel bad about the things you said. Self deprecating is when you make something funny and instead of trying to avoid it, or make something so people stop laughing, you start laughing about your joke, or laughing when you are making fun of yourself.

There are a lot of theories of humor. The ones that I will talk about and are the most important for me are the Relief Theory, Superiority Theory, Incongruity Theory and the Ontic-Epistemic Theory of humor. First of all this theories explain about how and why people laugh and how is the moment in a situation and a concept. “The Relief Theory of humor explains that laughter is being maintained in a homeostasis mechanism. This will reduce tension. It facilitates the relief of the tension that are caused by fears or something you are scared of. Laughter, according to this Theory called the Relief Theory is a result from the release of nervous energy” (Monro). The next theory is called the Superiority Theory; “this explains that people laugh about the bad luck of other people. This misfortunes or bad luck will make other people feel better that the others. In other words, feel superior” (Monro). The next theory is called the Incongruity Theory. “This theory says that humor is shown when something is said at an incorrect moment and will make everyone laugh. This theory is not the incongruity, but it is the resolution and the realization” (Monro). “The Ontic-Epistemic Theory of humor was proposed by P. Marteinson. This theory says that laughter is a reaction of a start without an end. This is when the person appears no longer to be real” (Monro). The evidence is clear; not all people have sense of humor. In my opinion, in a human, it’s irrational and inexplicable not having sense of humor, but there are some people that have it. Having sense of humor will help your body having better emotions by all types of sense of humor. A person, who doesn’t have sense of humor, lives a very boring life. In my opinion they live a life without a meaning, but in this I don’t say that if you don’t have sense of humor you will not be a person with success. You can have success, but without sense of humor it will be very difficult to express and communicate with others. Sense of humor is something that you say or act in a way that people looking at you get or sees it fun, and they are provoked to laugh.

Does EU Enlargement make any sense

European Union enlargement is the process of expanding the Union through incorporation and allowing accession of new members states and sovereign countries. This process took off with the first six members who were the founding powers of the European coal along with the steel community which was the European Union precursor in 1952. Since then, the Union has been expanding to the current twenty seven members with the more recent incorporation including the Romania and Bulgaria in the year 2007. At present there are negotiations underway with many states who wish to start the Union’s joining process. The expansion process is in most cases referred to as the European Union integration. Nevertheless, this term is often used to refer to the increased cooperation levels between the member states as the member states’ government are allowing for cooperation of the more common laws. According to the (European Union online 2010), for a state to be a member of the EU, it has to accomplish a lot of economic and political requirements which are famously referred to as the Copenhagen criteria (which is after the june1993 Copenhagen summit). In addition, any potential country that wishes to join the European Union needs to have not only a stable government but also a democratic government that respects the rule of law of the international law along with its corresponding institutions and freedom. In accordance to the Maastricht Treaty, each and every current member state and also the European government must agree to any expansion (European Union 2010).

Further expansion of the European Union will highly benefit the existing members. With the earlier addition of member states to the European Union, it has emerged stronger, more confident and hence more capable of acting and presenting itself in the world stage. More important, en enlarged European Union will help the union to tackle the prevalent threats that cannot be confined in any manner to their geographical borders. For example the existing climate change problems and also to fight against organized crimes and to the broader perspective, the terrorism menace. Close cooperation with the neighboring states could form a very vital force for dealing with such problems and challenges. While this explains how the existing countries have extensively benefited in this union, it should also address the benefits of further unity that will come with expansion. Also, the potential members would as well benefit in the same way. The prospective member states are: Turkey, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Croatia.

Further expansion will enhance more economic efficiency, create an extended playing level for business, drive more and more innovation and also provide an extra funding to the community. For example, by expanding the union, France will meet the challenges along with the challenges that are being currently presented by globalization. Most of the prospective and newer members have economies which have much lower cost which makes them very attractive production sources for business expansion to the country. The potential members will be at the same position as the older members to reap these benefits. If these prospective members joined this Union, for instance, their workers would go to work in the United Kingdom market where the wages is more likely to me much higher and also the benefits that come with accessing the markets of the other member states. For these countries’ economies membership to the European Union is a means of attaining stability and growth. An expanded European Union also invites a broad cultural discussion and creativity. A very good and an exciting example of this is the “Enlarge your vision” which is the 2010 young Journalist Award that was launched by the EC’s directorate general to see more enlargements.

So, for the European union to attract more and more members, it should address two main factors including; the economics and security.

In conclusion, it can be seen that there are many advantages that accrue to any country that joins the EU. This is further enhanced by the Cecchini report, that shows a rise of evidence to believe there is a much increase in the states’ GDP as a result of the common market that are produced by the expansion if the European Union countries. The obvious raise in GDP will raise the living standards of the EU member states.

The potential benefits and challenges of joining the European Union are most likely to come from many perspectives and directions. This ranges from the potential benefits of the heightened economies of scale to the problem that the poor countries would receive a high budget from the already existing EU states. More so, if the European Union should be able to permit new members, it should at all time ensure that their decision making processes are not compromised but remain accountable to the larger EU. It should be in a position as it continues its expansion of implementing common policies to all the areas and also finance these policies equitably to all the new and existing areas in a very sustainable manner. The other key component of expansion should be harmonization of the important areas of the policy by involving coordination of policies on all the nation’s businesses and regulating the competition, taxation, fiscal policy, monetary policies and the environmental policies.

How the enlargement would affect the Businesses

If enlargement takes effect, many things would happen including;

Break down the barriers to trade and the businesses. The existing countries will highly benefit from accessing a larger market for trade and investment in the entire world. On the other hand, the consumers will also benefit by being given the opportunity of choosing from a wide range of goods and services from the extended markets and also at a favorable prices. Integration will also encourage the growth of GDP both to the existing member states and the newly joined members and this would also require changes to the institutions which are within the EU (Kardas and Saban, 2009).

Through integration, the well established corporations of the existing nations will be faced with a lot of opportunities. Especially with the addition of more members and expansion of the union, the corporations will be able to reach more customers and cheap labor for their companies and products. This will increase their economies of scale with low cost of production and hence it would be a very bi boost to the existing members’ states (Piket and Vincent, 2010). The main aim for the 1957 treaty of Rome was to establish a common market for all the nations. For instance, if Turkey was allowed to join the union, they will cancel the barriers to trade like the tariffs along with the non-tariff barriers to align itself with the EU current policy. Therefore the products of the member countries will move to a more big market easier than before. The new member states will also open new investment opportunities to the existing member states due to their low economies. Therefore, expansion of the EU makes a lot of sense both to the joining members and the existing members because a lot of export opportunities would be opened up for the existing members.

The companies in the existing member states will enjoy a cheaper labor force from the joining members. This is because the existing member states like the France and the United kingdom have a very high living standards hence more and more workers from the eastern Europe nation will always flow into these labor markets and hence this will lower their production costs.

Owing to the fact that France, Germany and United Kingdom are still the word’s most important financial centre, the integration of the Eastern Europe region into the EU is a win situation. The integration will increase the prosperity of wealth in the new members and hence stimulate economic growth in the existing member states. This is because their market will experience an addition of 100 million more consumers into the existing market if this enlargement was to be honored. All the remaining barriers between the countries would be removed. All the legal and technical trade barriers will be no more (Piket and Vincent, 2010). The trade possibilities and investment would be further enhanced and high expected economic growth would radically enhance the consumers’ purchasing power in the prospective nations. Increased trade would be so much valuable as a contribution to the functioning of the enlarged European Union and hence the economic development of the whole continent.

The European Union’s expansion is seen as the most successful foreign policies even though it has in many instances suffered a lot of resistance. For example, France has alaways been very opposed to enjoy this enlargement. The British membership was vetoed by France as they actually feared the United States’ influence. Also according to (IISS 2008) France was so much opposed to the Greek, Portuguese and Spanish membership as they feared that these states were really not ready and hence it would dilute the European Union down to a Free trade Area (ESI 2006). The biggest reason why the first members applied and were accepted was basically economical, while for the second enlargement, it was much more to do with politically instigation (IISS 2008). The southern Mediterranean countries in the Europe were just recovering from dictatorship and also the single party government hence they wanted to preserve their democratic system security through the European union and also the EU wanted to be sure that their counterparts in the southern region were stable democracies and also a move to steer them away from any possible influence by the communists. These two main factors, the economical factor and also political security has been the driving force towards enlargement of the EU. Hut with the recent expansion of 2004, the European public opinion has turned against any further extension. Also, it has been eminent that there are expansion limits and hence the Union cannot expand all through (ESI 2006)

So as to understand these enlargement limits, we have to understand the effects that these enlargement may have on the European Union.

Since the break of 2005, when the proposed treaty by the European constitution was rejected in the France and the Netherlands referenda, a debate on the enlargement drawbacks has since gained more intensity. The senior politicians across the Europe have since called for a slowdown in the expansion or even a permanent seizure of such enlargement. A lot of opposing enlargement voices had hit the headlines, which have created the impression of the future enlargement to be hanging in the balance (ESI 2006)

One of the biggest factors that are turning the public opinion against this enlargement is the threat of immigration that may lead to overpopulation and hence stressing the resources of the Europe. The old Europe members fear influx of people that may come up by adding more members to the Union. Owing to the fact that the older European Union members’ states public, the France and the Britain, are very hostile to the foreign labor markets, makes this to be worse. In fact, the immigration factor was the main reason why the constitution was defeated in the Dutch and French Referenda of the year 2005. Another big problem is posed where the highly skilled work force of the member states will leave the country for the other new member states. The new member states would alter the economic boom that comes with joining the European union falling into economic decline and more and more money would be demanded from the European Union budget so as to keep the economy afloat (Bache, 2006).

More so, further enlargement would also insert, more and more pressure on the European Union already struggling administrative system. With the failure of the constitutional planning, and also the unpopularity of the Lisbon treaty, it basically lacks the integration degree that is needed for effective decision making along with its implementation. Also owing to the fact that the European democracy is still lagging behind the limited progress that is being made in the strengthening the executive powers of the union, accommodation of more new members would not make any sense. (Bache, 2006)

There seems a very little doubt that at this point, the classical European Union would have reached its end. For sure a lot of questions about the European Union relations with other countries which are further east like the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia), Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova still remain (Bache, 2006). Although these questions will obviously be solved through varied processes that would involve more limited sovereignty sharing with the European union’s member states. Consequently this may well become a very much attractive deal for turkey in the coming decade. If the European Union expansion was put to a halt right now, it would be very disastrous not only to the peace of the continent but also to the democracy in the broader European Neighborhood. Nevertheless, we need a definition of the broader European commonwealth that is not binding to the both sides into the mainly detailed legal structure that was drawn up fifty years ago for the European countries which were facing quite varied challenges.

The existing member states are very afraid that their markets might be swamped by cheap imports from these new members. Most of the markets that are vulnerable to this threat are the politically sensitive markets like the agricultural markets and the textiles where the European Union has imposed very high tariff barriers so as to protect the domestic producers.

Also, there is great fear that the contribution of the well off states to the European Union budget would rise more considerably following this integration. If more poor countries join the union, and the regional along with the CAP payments are maintained. It is deemed inevitable that there would be large budgets transfers paid by the existing member states for the new members.

Some nations also fear that there will be a delay by integration to the plans that are underway to move the union to even greater economic and political union. It might be very difficult for the implementation of a single currency if in that period more members are joining the union.

Both labor and capital movement could also pose a very big problem. There is a very high fear that capital would slowly stroll to the new members with cheap labor while workers from these states would move in huge numbers from the newly joined states to the already existing countries having instigated by the high wage rates in these states.

This shows the potential challenges that would be experienced in case of EU expansion. The main challenge is the inability for these states to reach the total economic integration. Also, different economical blocks or countries in the enlarged European Union may require different fiscal and monetary policies. Normally countries like United Kingdom require high interest rates so as to encourage savings while discouraging consumption, a country like Hungary would consider reduced interest rates so as to increase the consumers’ expenditure and consequently increase the aggregate demand which will in advance lead to an increased GDP (Kardas and Saban, 2009).

These would form an arena of conflicting policies that would affect adversely the running of the union. It is also clear that Germany, France and UK posses a vast GDP advantage comparing with the Czech Republic and Hungary which are the prospective members of the union. This brings up a concern regarding the convergence requirement in the economies within the European Union and in regards to the monetary policy. In 2008, it was confirmed by Nicola Sarkozy and Angella Merkel, the French president and the German chancellor respectively that the EU cannot enlarge any more than the current twenty seven states without undergoing a reform to the institution of the present treaty of the nice laws. This kind of reform could only happen if the Lisbon treaty comes into action (Piket and Vincent, 2010).

In a broader perspective, we can see that the benefits of EU integration highly outweigh the limits. The enlargement hence makes a lot of sense to both the existing and the new members. For the prospective members, access to the European Union implies a very high potential for raising trade and also cooperation. Also, this will be on the other hand a golden opportunity to the existing members’ companies. During the last ten years, these countries’ investors and exporters have secured a great dominance in these markets and exports have increased drastically. Many researchers have proved that this market could be multiplied many times if the existing member countries allowed further integration to the East Europe countries. Hence there is a lot of sense in enlarging the European Union.

References

Presidency Conclusions, Copenhagen European Council 1993

Piket, Vincent (2010) EU Enlargement and Neighbourhood Policy, Institute for Strategic Studies

Beyond Enlargement Fatigue? The Dutch debate on Turkish accession, EuropeanSecurity Initiative 2006

Bache, Ian and Stephen George (2006) Politics in the European Union, Oxford University Press. p540–542

Kardas, Saban (13 May 2009) Merkel and Sarkozy Call for Privileged Partnership Angers Turkey, Jamestown Foundation

European Commission (2005-11-10). “1972”. The History of the European Union.

European Economic Community Treaty, Art”7Potential candidates, European Union’s official site

Source document