Autobiography Of A College Student

My name is Gelliza Z. Quiambao, and I am currently in college learning training. I was born on 12th of September 12 months 1996, four o’clock within the afternoon, in Jose Payumo Memorial Hospital. My dad and mom are Gilbert and Josephine and I actually have two brothers who are Gil Joseph and Gianni.

I began studying after I was three. My grandparents are those who served as my babysitter since my mother and father weren’t home for work, so my granddad enrolled me in a Daycare Center.

You may not imagine this however my grandma advised me that I at all times sleep and cry in school.

After that, my dad and mom enrolled me in Kindergarten then to Elementary. I was solely five years old after I was on the first grade. Had to say, I was the youngest however I’m subsequent.  My elementary days are incredibly awesome. I gained many friends; I achieved honors and awards, educational and sports activities, specifically chess. It’s been fairly jaded learning six years on the identical faculty however it’s totally fantastic with me as a outcome of I truly have pals to snort with, have enjoyable with, and learn with.

In 2008, I graduated from elementary and have become a highschool freshman in Bataan Peninsula State University. It’s great that I discovered true associates that same yr, and it’s quite humorous how I always needed a sister and God gave me nine super cool and superb friends that actually handled me like a sister. I had a lot enjoyable with them.

We went hiking on a mountain. It’s really unforgettable as a end result of we took a journey on a horse.

It’s my sophomore year in 2009, and one of the best moment that I remembered back there is after we ditched class. Yeah, I know it’s not a really good factor to do but, best moments come from worst ideas, right? We cleaned the faculty room as our punishment. We did it for 3 months.

In 2010, I fell in love with music. It’s like, my world revolves around music. There’s something concerning the songs that I can one means or the other relate myself into the lyrics. I discovered a lot from it. Also this year is once I fell in love with a boy. Honestly, it wasn’t a fairly story. I fell deeply in love with him then when we broke up; it’s like my worst nightmare ever. But I realized that perhaps we’re probably not meant to be together. Then, I realized that the fact between ‘boy love’ and ‘boy hate’ is the assumption that whatever happens, I’ll be fantastic.

Good pals, competitive lecturers and one great household are those who mould me for who I am today. Everything good I actually have inside me, I get from them.  I skilled lots of challenges that check my skills and personality. All those challenges and problems that I’ve been by way of leaves an exquisite lesson. Good days gave me happiness, bad days gave me experiences, that are both essential to life. Success retains me growing and failures make me humble.

Right now, I’m learning very properly so if I completed school, I can have an excellent job to ensure that me to assist my household and raise the style of residing that we now have now with God’s grace and steering. Just always do not overlook that, life is like a curler coaster. It has ups and downs. But it’s your choice to scream or simply enjoy the ride.

ASSIGNMENT NAME HOW ZHEN YI STUDENT ID SCKL1900465 TOPIC ACCOUNTING CYCLE

ASSIGNMENT NAME: HOW ZHEN YI STUDENT ID: SCKL1900465 TOPIC: ACCOUNTING CYCLE McDonald’s Introduction McDonald’s is an American fast food firm, established in 1940 as a restaurant managed by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. McDonald’s is the world’s biggest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million clients daily in over a hundred nations across 37,855 shops as of 2018. Besides, McDonald’s primarily sells hamburgers, all kinds of hen, Cheeseburgers, French fries, breakfast gadgets, porridge, delicate drinks, milkshakes, wraps, pie, and dessert.

McDonald’s even have McCafe, McCafe is used high-quality coffee created from Arabica coffee beans, freshly floor coffee to supply the great coffee. For the kids, McDonald’s has prepared indoor or out of doors playgrounds and pleased meals. Furthermore, McDonald’s is obtainable as either dine-in that means is customers can select to eat in a restaurant or take-off that means is clients can choose to take the meals off the place. Moreover, McDonald’s app can be download through Google play store and App Store to let our prospects get pleasure from plenty of offers and we provide delivery in 24 hours to customer’s house when we get the customer order via this app, our service is let our pretty customer having a meal at the house or workplace when their inconvenience to hang out.

Most McDonald’s eating places provide each drive-through service and counter service, with indoor or out of doors seating. On top of that, McDonald’s afford to customers simply and conveniently. Nowadays, McDonald’s turned perfectly successful and turn out to be the most important restaurant organization in the world.

Accounting Cycle The accounting cycle is a step-by-step strategy of classifying, recording, crediting payments made, summarizing and accepting a enterprise financial transaction throughout a fiscal 12 months. Moreover, the only purpose of recording transactions and maintaining track of expenditures and income is popping this data into meaning monetary information by presenting it in the form of an revenue assertion, stability sheet, assertion of owner’s equity, and statement of cash flows. Furthermore, Company usually balances their books at year-end, different firm could prefer to resolve the books at every week or each month. The accounting cycle has nine-steps to recording enterprise transactions. Accounting cycle step 1 is Identifying and Analyzing Transactions. The accounting proses commenced with figuring out and analyzing transactions. Transactions solely embrace immediately related to the company’s financial. These transactions included gross sales income, any purchases, any expenses, acquisition of belongings or debt payoff. Use source paperwork like buy orders, receipts, invoices, fee slips assist in figuring out enterprise transaction effects on particular accounts. Hence, impact means figuring out what merchandise increased or decreased and with how much. For instance, the gross sales for a day in a retail retailer are collected on a cash register machine. These sales turn into inputs into the accounting system. Since figuring out enterprise transactions, decide which account they belong to. After figuring out and analyzing the transactions knowledge in the first step, the transaction data is entered in the basic journal or Book of Original Entry. Accounting cycle step 2 is Recording within the Journals. For single-entry bookkeeping is a method of bookkeeping that identifies just one facet of enterprise transactions and often contains solely a record of money and private accounts with account receivable and account payable. For double-entry bookkeeping relies on the case that each transaction has two parts. Every transaction features a credit entry in one account and a debit entry in one other account. This meaning is each transaction should be recorded in two accounts; one account shall be credited as a end result of it has given worth and one other account shall be debited because it has receivable value. The debit side and credit score side must be equal. After recording the transaction in journals, transactions are transferred and posting to the ledger accounts. Accounting cycle step three is Posting to the Ledger. The common ledger is underneath the name of the e-book of ultimate entry. These accounts are displayed by T-accounts which report the credit on the best side and the debits on the left facet and show their present balances. The common ledger is a record of the entire accounts that the company employs. A general ledger separated accounts into three account types: Assets account, Liabilities account, and Equity account. Most firm have many of the identical common accounts like account receivable, account payable, cash, any bills, any purchases, gross sales revenue, return outwards and return inwards, but some firm has particular accounts particular for his or her operations. The fourth step is the unadjusted trial balance. An unadjusted trial balance is ready to test the balance of the credits aspect and debits side. All account surplus extracted from the ledger. The credit stability is recorded on the best aspect and the debits stability is recorded on the left aspect. Make certain the two-side complete is the same. If the 2 columns are divergence found within the quantities, it implies an error within the posting of transactions. Hence, it have to be corrected straightway. It may have posted an entry or figure wrongly and may have even neglect to publish an entry within the first part. We should establish the error by making the correct entry. Even the column gets balanced, there will be the eventuality of an error. Hence, should check all of the entry again. After the unadjusted trial steadiness is adjusting entries. Adjusting entries are accounting cycle fifth step. When the top of the accounting interval, some income might need been earned however not but entered in the books or some bills might have occurred however not yet recorded within the journals. Use adjusting entries to document transactions that have occurred but not but recorded. For instance, the proprietor earned interest on a checking account stability, the proprietor not but recorded the curiosity in books. But curiosity appears on the bank assertion, use adjusting entries to document the interest in the books. After the model new entries are done, we can simply transfer on a model new trial stability. At the accounting cycle Adjusted Trial Balance is the sixth step. The adjusted trial stability is to test the equality of the credits facet and debits side. After that, the next step is to analyze the monetary incident that incurred within the firm whole the accounting cycle. If any error at an adjusted trial balance, it may adjust entries of the quantity wrongly, corrected immediately. Step 7 monetary statements are probably the most crucial part of the accounting cycle. When the new trial steadiness is equality between the debits side and the credits facet, the monetary statements may be prepared. The financial statements are one of the primary outputs of the accounting system. Shareholders’ Equity Statement, Balance Sheet (Statement of Financial Position), Income Statement (Statement of Financial Performance), Cash Flow Statement and Statement of Retained Earnings are the organization of the financial statements. The first monetary statements are the earnings statement, within the earnings statement is in regards to the income and expenses of the corporate. From the operating profit, different bills are deducted to calculate the web income of the yr. The second financial statements are the stability sheet, within the balance sheet is concerning the asset and the liabilities of the company. And examine the steadiness of the belongings and the balance of the liabilities whether equality. The next of the monetary statements is the statement of retained earnings. Retained earnings are the amount of internet income remainder for the company after it has paid the dividend to shareholders. The final of the financial statements are the cash flow statement. The money circulate statement has three main parts, money from operating actions, cash from investing activities and money from financing actions. Close entries are the penultimate step in the accounting cycle. Close entries are fashioned journal entries made by the guide accounting system on the finish of the accounting interval to divert the stability within the momentary accounts to permanent accounts. Temporary accounts include revenue, expenses, losses, owner’s drawing accounts, dividend, and positive aspects. Any accounts list is included in the stability sheet, besides dividends paid are everlasting accounts. Close entries want to depart the accounts empty with a zero stability to enter the transactions for the model new accounting interval. Close entries just made for short-term accounts, not for permanent accounts and steadiness sheet accounts. For the last step within the accounting cycle is post-closing trial stability, the post-closing trial balance is to record all the steadiness sheet accounts are non-zero balances on the finish of a reporting interval. The post-closing trial balance to make sure the total of credits balances and debits balances is equality, which ought to net to zero. As the temporary accounts are already closed at step eight, the post-closing trial balance solely incorporates permanent accounts. In conclusion, the accounting cycle makes the recording of monetary information extra simply manage to exterior customers and the accounting cycle refers again to the process of generate financial statements. The targets of the accounting cycle are to produce well-organized monetary information that might be conveyed effectively each to the external users and i
nternal users.

Argument Essay Student Samples Corporation

For corporations, sponsoring a school’s sports activities groups or amenities is a way of neighborhood outreach, the place for an excellent turn, a company’s name and emblem are disseminated more freely among the many populace. For faculties, sponsorship is a method to choose up extra cash-to purchase books, renovate school rooms or make sure the soccer group has up-to-date equipment. In most public college techniques, the taxpayers can’t present all that. While cities cry foul for the supposed company “brainwashing” that takes place when a enterprise writes a check to a nonprofit, it’s fairly clear they’re the beneficiaries of such generosity.

Sure, gifting away money is a brilliant public relations transfer, because it typically garners a newspaper article or two and the emblem stamped on a kid’s t-shirt, however it is a far cry from the monopolization of the thoughts that some are so apprehensive about.

Here’s exhibit A. At my high school. The football staff wears under-Armour completely.

AS a bulk package from a smaller firm, the athletic department will get a reduction, and is ready to present uniforms at significantly lower bills than if people purchased every little thing on their very own. The “cost” of corporate influence is a small “UA” under the collar of every kid’s t-shirt, Under Armour’s advertising department will get a slap on the again for profitable outreach to an essential consumer group, and both sides are glad. The relationship is mutualistic the company “parasite” is AWOL.

Exhibit B: my previous highschool. As a freshman, I attended a small, Catholic faculty, with a student body of roughly 300 college students.

What saved the doors open and the lights on was partially from tuition, but that barely made a debt in overall costs. In the gym had been about twenty billboards of reasonable measurement with a brand. A telephone number, and a tag line for the enterprise that provided financial help to the varsity. Thanks to the companies, who gave a little tog et a little, the place was still working last time I checked.

Despite these tales of cozy, appropriate relationships between corporate America and America’s colleges, sometimes things go too far. In past years, Coca-Cola held a contest to see which college in Atlanta might produce essentially the most coke “patriotism”, presumably for a money prize for the varsity. One 12 months, two kids wore Pepsi shirts on the designated “Coke day” and have been suspended. Whether it’s the story if the money strapped faculty or simply overzealous administrators doesn’t matter. Somebody went to far.

However, if the tabloids are any suggestion, this doesn’t happen with nice frequency. The company sponsoring of a TV channel in school meant to solely promote, or a billboard the size of Texas within the lunchroom, cross the line, however on balance, the connection is mutually useful. Extra cash traded for brief recognition at a sport or a little embroidery on the back of a t-shirt, most would agree, is worth everyone’s time. As with all things moderation is the key—but none should be denied a brand new classroom, sports activities jerseys, or anything, for that matter because it got here from company America.

Score: 9
Clearly defines the issue of corporate sponsorship for colleges Shows a full awareness of the professionals and cons of the issue
Develops a transparent, thoughtful place between extremes
Makes efficient use of two acceptable and convincing examples based on private experience Uses syntactically various and complicated language with spectacular management throughout

The commercials that corporations place round US faculties nowadays are ubiquitous. Around each corner in a school is vending machines encouraging children to buy a coke or another product the machine may promote. The cash that comes from these company ads perhaps helpful in funding the trendy college, however has a negative affect on the students that see ads daily.

A school in today’s society has a huge monetary burden placed upon it that corporate money helps ease. School’s have to buy textbooks, computer systems, over-head projectors , say TVS, keep the physical condition of the school and heaps of might other financial prices are needed to help a faculty. Buy permitting firms to advertise in the faculty, funding all the prices of running a modern faculty turns into attainable. Coco Cola has large, multi-million greenback contracts with many colleges and has merchandising machines in them. Many other corporations like Subway and Chick-Fil-A also pay faculties to see their meals within the school’s cafeteria’s. The money gained from these contracts permit faculties to have desks and chalkboards. And many new modern technological developments in class supplies. Buy advertising for these companies, schools basically gain the right funds to perform.

Although schools are capable of present students with a correct learning environment through company funds, the ads themselves paradoxily make the school surroundings less about studying and extra about marketing. Students already advertise for firms on their own through the clothes they put on, the shoes they buy, and different industrial merchandise they have of their possession. The promoting at school is only selling students to buy certain products and solely encourages them to let their mentality of consumerism develop. School is about learning and that must be what the aim of a faculty seems like. Walking to a college shouldn’t be like coming into a metropolis mall like is at present.

Students walk around the campus as if it were full of retailers and shops; they purchase cokes before class or pick up a subway sandwich earlier than the bell rings and next period begins. Schools shouldn’t be a zone where consumerism takes the place of learning. A thought on a student’s mind should be “how do I take the by-product of 3x squared minus 8x?” or “I really learned a lot from that lecture on Vietnam.” They should not be pondering “do I have time to purchase a coke before 2nd period?”

Advertising within the faculty setting also turns college students from kids that work on schooling into marketing teams that firms use to gauge the success of their merchandise. This is essentially what schools have turn into. Students buy meals and drinks which are there to promote for certain corporations and relying on what sells and what does not, firms change their products so they will be extra affective in making a profit. Students usually are not check topics that should be studied. They are the longer term leaders of the world and should not be labeled as a lain demographic as
companies do by promoting in colleges. Focus teams that many companies additionally use consist of volunteers.

Students do not get to choose whether they want to be a half of market research or not. They are put in these advertising teams simply by going to school. Corporations are altering faculties from studying environments to managed research for his or her merchandise. Education is an important aspect of a college and corporations and their ads are changing this. Students ought to be in a position to go to excessive school and study with out being bothered by corporations who solely wish to acquire a revenue from these students.

Modern faculties function today largely partially because of the money they receive from corporations that publicize in them. Bat funding should not take priority over learning. New methods to offer schools an enough price range have to be explored so colleges can once once more turn out to be a place of schooling. As colleges are actually, they’re only getting college students trapped in the world of consumerism and advertising.

Score: 8
Effectively dramatizes the increasing prevalence of company adverts in faculties In paragraph two, explains why corporate sponsorship is increasing In paragraphs three by way of 5, presents and embraces the opposing view, that advertisements “make the schools less about studying and more about marketing” Draws upon brief, helpful examples of promoting in schools

Uses language that is effective and controlled

Essay # 3
Corporate partnerships have been becoming rather more prevalent in our colleges at present. The Under Armor brand seems to be on every single baseball, soccer, and volleyball uniforms even at my very own faculty. The money acquired by the school for endorsing the company than is used in quite lots of methods to enhance the school and its facilities. This is why these partnerships have become a necessity for cash-trapped schools. Others, however, frown upon colleges, which settle for these partnerships, as they consider schools ought to provide an ad-free surroundings for the scholars. Corporate partnerships are
useful to colleges, because they provide the funds to further the students’ academic opportunities and the commercials haven’t any adverse impact on the training surroundings.

I personally am very familiar with the connection between faculties and “corporate sponsorships”. Having lived in South Korea for over ten years, I really have heard many arguments about the “special relationship” between schools and sponsors. In South Korea, contributions of big sums of money to schools by individuals, households, and corporations are prohibited, contrary to American colleges. Here in America, universities accept large amounts of donation from outside sponsors in change for a better admission. This is seen as outrageous and corrupt in South Korea. However, I believe that many South Koreans disregard the tremendous benefits that result from these sponsorships

. One of the most important explanation why quite a few students, who come from a poor financial background, may even dream about attending colleges is that universities make the most of the money obtained from sponsors to provide scholarships. In South Korea, students with out cash can’t go onto school. The advantages of these company sponsorships greatly outweigh the drawbacks.

These relationships are significantly assist faculties of other degree similar to high schools. Although no many high colleges will make the most of the cash by way of scholarships (as public schools are free), the money can be utilized for fundamental necessities of the twenty first century similar to up-to-date computers, textbooks, and different college services. With these advancements and enhancements, students will be succesful of entry more assets and have higher chances of success. This is fitting particularly for underneath funded schools across America. These sponsorships could probably be exactly what they should carry themselves out of the stagnation they’ve been trapped inside for quite a few years.

Corporate logos could distract a student from paying attention in AP English Language and Composition. However, the advertisements’ affect is restricted. Seeing merchandise and logos that we as students already see every day outside of school will not have vital effects on the students. Sure, we could choose to drink more Pepsi than coke since we see more Pepsi logos and products at out colleges. But what harm is done through that? With the advantages that can be obtained by way of sponsorships money greatly overpowering the drawbacks of enhance in Pepsi sales, schools should and should be allowed to maintain company sponsorships.

Score 7
Develops both sides of the corporate partnership issue
Contrasts (not altogether clearly) South Korea and US attitudes in the path of company sponsorship Develops an sufficient rationale in help of corporate partnership, utilizing acceptable proof Demonstrates a mature prose fashion with few lapses

Some argue that company sponsorship or faculty exposes students to adverts and company affect, and that schools should be an envirornment freed from these things. However, the cash that comes from these company sponserships might be extremely necessary to varsities and so these sponsorships do extra hurt than foul.

The actual world is full of advertisements and company affect. Even if firms and merchandise weren’t highlighted in faculties, college students could be exposed to the identical products elsewhere. Marketing is so advanced and successful nowadays, that a company will do whatever it takes to achieve their target market. If their idea advantages a faculty, why not create a partnership? Also, a school will only enable certain firms to associate with them. A faculty could additionally be probably the greatest places for a student to be uncovered to ads because they’re college appropriate and considered thoughtfully. It isn’t like Marlboro or Coors are attempting to create partnerships with college, so why not expose students to regular companies they may already purchase into, and earn cash doing it? Partnering with Coca-Cola may set up brand loyalty amongst youngsters, however it’s not introducing them to gentle drinks. By highschool age, just about each American has no less than tried a Coke and/or Pepsi.

Although the argument selling corporate sponsorships with school is stronger and has more positive effects, it does have a number of situations that might be argued with. Some might argue that teenage years are too young to be establishing model loyalty, which is the company’s objective in partnering with the varsity. Parents might argue that they want their children experiencing several types of soda instead of only consuming the one offered at school. Or buying garments from different corporations. Or listening to other radio stations. Pretty issues, that in comparison look even more petty to receiving cash for the college, which might go toward computers, extra lecturers, more provides, a greater school.

Regardless of the exposure to advertisements and company affect, partnerships present cash for schools; a means fro colleges to enhance, and have a extra optimistic, extra helpful impact on students. Students are already going to be exposed to corporations, no matter it they are discovered at their school or on the industrial of their favourite TV show or the bus stopped in visitors in front of their faces. A company sponsorship is a brilliant method for firms and schools alike to get what they want.

Score 6:
Shows an understanding of the issue and evaluates pro and con adequately Argues that corporate sponsorship will do no harm as a end result of ads are pervasive in our society anyway Presents applicable proof and reasoning, though without sturdy, particular examples Uses usually clear prose but incorporates some syntactic awkwardness and lapses in diction

Unfortunately cash is required for the majority of issues to be successful. Both private and non-private colleges need cash for their various applications and facilities. Corporations for years have sponsored faculty sports activities group, however now have moved on to different school services and negotiating contracts with meals, drink, and clothing firms. While some argue that this is a necessity to pay for certain features of the varsity, others declare that the college environment ought to be ad and corporate influence free. Corporations should be able to promote inside schools so that college can receive funds.

To argue that faculties ought to be corporate affect free one should first consider the actual affect advertisements have. Right now I am in my school’s health club writing this essay and the scoreboard has a Coke logo avout it. Am I really going to go purchase a coke after this check simply because Coke was written on the wall? No. I don’t like coke, nor do I need one. The reality that there is an advertisement above my head does not change the truth that I don’t drink soft drinks. Similarly my sister goes to a non-public college that only sells Pepsi merchandise because of a contract with a Pepsi company. She does not just like the taste of Pepsi and is not going to pay cash for one thing she does not want just because it’s there.

Most individuals will purchase what they need or need no matter an indication on the wall. For the School newspaper final summer I was required to sell five hundred dollars worth of advertisements. In each concern the adverts are on the backside of the web page, however nobody looks at them. Whether or not colleges must be ad free is a trivial query as a result of the majority of the people don’t discover these ads round them.

Since adverts don’t have a adverse influence upon college students schools ought to be able to accept necessary funds from companies. Without advertisements the newspaper staff I am on could not publish or distribute our paper, sports activities packages would not have as a lot money and would not be as environment friendly, drinks for school kids would price more. Corporate assist makes things that might have been inconceivable originally, potential. Corporate funds are needed for a successful college.

Corporate assist through advertisements and contracts must be allowed so that colleges can attain cash needed for numerous packages. Advertisements have little to no affect on students, but the cash they carry in can make a world of distinction.

Score: 5
Opens with a statement of the basic problem, indication support for company sponsorship Acknowledges the opposition to company sponsorship in schools but does little to evaluate this place Develops a tenuous argument that’s considerably tangential to the central issue-that adverts are acceptable in faculties because folks don’t pay attention to advertisements anyway Makes some use of private anecdote as evidence

Contains language that conveys the writer’s concepts but lacks maturity

Advertisements are seen in all places, on a regular basis and by everyone. They stimulate the financial system and make products and services know to the public increasingly, companies are sponsoring colleges to be able to get their product known. Some say that schools ought to be “an environment free from adverts and company affect,” however the adverts provide needed funding for faculties which advantages the students.

There is not cause there shouldn’t be commercials in schools. The companies give the varsity cash merely to indicate their brand or sell their merchandise. The cash given to the faculties goes in path of new computer systems, new know-how and better teacher. If the money is given to the sports teams it goes towards new uniforms, equipment and higher coaches. All of these items benefit the coed in everyway the scholar has better resources and is extra motivated to do properly and succeed.

Many colleges in less lucky areas receive a majority of their funds from companies that need to promote. Say for instance the college needed to make changes or repairs to the facility, the place would the money come from? Since the dad and mom, students or neighborhood members wouldn’t have the flexibility to donate, the companies should step in. with out the company funding, repairs to amenities, new know-how and better resources turn into available to the scholars that in any other case wouldn’t have the entry to them.

In conclusion, there is no legitment purpose that ads should not be allowed in faculties. It is throughout beneficial for the scholars, teachers, and the college itself. The commercial or merchandise positioned in the schools are informative to the students and employees, and permit east access to the product. If not, the ad can simply be ignored simply as in everyday life. The money given to the school significantly outweighs any unfavorable of advertising. The money allows for higher amenities, teachers, resources, and tools, which enevitably permits the scholars to do better. Don’t you need your child to succeed?

Score 4:
Makes an assertion about the pervasiveness of advertising
Briefly mentions the view opposing adverts in colleges but doesn’t consider or elaborate on this position Argues in favor of corporate sponsorship but is inadequate due to its simplistic development Prose suggests immature management of language

Should corporations be allowed to affect students at school with ads? Schools need cash to have certain programs. Corporatiosn are allowed to give faculties money to sponsor sports, libraries, music rooms, cafeterias, hallyways and textbooks.

It takes some big cash to have sports activities teams. Schools should pay insurance, coachs, buses to take teams to video games, repairs in gear, and shopping for equipment. Schools additionally need to pay for additional activities, books, and other expanses. Corporations that sponsor a few of these expanses are helping the faculties. The only price to pay is logos and advertisements.

Now college is suppose to be a secure studying setting. Children usually are not suppose to be exposed to different influences whereas they’re learning. Colorful ads and logos are distracting. While faculties may want the money, their ought to be a limit to the inference of some partnerships. Like the soda and chip corporations. Vending machines with unhealthy meals should not be allowed in schools.

It is a common incontrovertible reality that schools need cash and are influenced by their partnerships with firms. There should be a limit to ads and logos. Having them in gymnasiums and football stadiums is okay. Having them in classrooms and different places within the faculty where schooling should be the main and only influences is not a position schools must be in. A line must be drawn.

Score 3:
Acknowledges pros and cons of company sponsorship however evaluates them inadequately and superficially Moves abruptly from one position (paragraph two) to the following (paragraph 3) Presents a place on the problem, stating that there are some circumstances in which corporate sponsorship is suitable, others where it’s not Contains weak, typically labored writing, exhibiting poor syntactic control

It is true that companies have long supported highschool athletics. For one, athletics require essentially the most outdoors money, due to the nature of bills. Other than that, there is normally nothing corporate about highschool. However, that is slowly beginning to change. The extent to which corporate help is unsolved in schools is rising and may be very beneficial to the college.

Schools have logos throughout. Most promote “goings-on” inside the school. Others merely say “THIS IS SPARTA!” And others have corporate backings. These final ones are beneficial to colleges in that they attract cash for the college. Budget cuts and issues of that nature constantly appear to plague the general public school system.

Score 2:
Demonstrates little success in evaluating and taking a place on corporate sponsorship Substitutes a less complicated task than the immediate requires, merely making an attempt to explain the necessity for company help quite than creating a transparent position Offers little development

Shows some syntactic capacity but usually weak in control of language

Essay # 9

Sponsorships between colleges and firms are indeed useful. There are all sorts of expenses to worry about for sports teams, and in turn the partnership helps companies. The exposure to such business could even affect college students who need to pursue an identical career.

Advertising plays a vital position in sponsorships. By seeing the logos around school and on uniforms, more customers are introduced into enterprise.

Score 1:
Claims assist for corporate partnerships does not develop the place Does not consider pro and con
Uses simplistic, repetitious language

Analysis and Action Plan for Student Learning

Part A: The candidate with the approval of the school management will establish a professional studying neighborhood with a minimal of three friends to research areas of want in pupil studying and development in class. On January 17, 2012 a request was made for permission via email from principal, Roger Edwards to complete my internship at HCHS. He responded the identical day and granted me the approval by e-mail. See email 1A. On February 1, 2012 a request was made to considered one of our Assistant Principals, Mr.

Heriberto Corral and requested permission to ascertain a PLC. Mr.

Corral approved it and likewise agreed to serve on the committee. See e-mail hooked up under; The Career Management academics already had a PLC established and we might meet periodically. However, it did not embody a mother or father, assistant principal or a noncareer tech teacher. Therefore, it seemed most acceptable to gain permission earlier than moving ahead with a modified PLC. The new PLC must meet consistently and document our meetings officially.

Our PLC will have a minimum of three friends to research an space of want in scholar learning and improvement within the course work of VoCATS scores.

In addition to permission to complete my internship, I have also included the email granting me permission to ascertain a new PLC. See e mail 1B. The PLC team will encompass the opposite two Career Management academics; Mrs. Rouse and Mr. Covington. Mrs. Diane Mitchell was selected based on her 31+ years of experience. Mrs. Mitchell will be articulate her experiences.

Mr. Heriberto Corral is certainly one of our four assist principals that will participate on this PLC. The staff would benefit a fantastic deal by having an administrator on board.

Our PLC will specifically look at the Career Management scores at Hoke County High School. Our PLC will focus primarily on our Career Management scores in Career Technical Education. The major goal is to improve the test scores on this specific area and hopefully via out the school in state testing courses. This faculty is above the state average for Career Management. See chart 1C below with comparisons. The current and previous information reveals students at this school perform above the state stage. The information reveals that this school has average scores compared to different colleges compatible in the surrounding space.

The results additionally reveal that the scholars at this faculty are performing above the state common. However, these students expertise issue with vocabulary and comprehension expertise. As a staff, our focus might be to handle these areas of weak point. A meeting was arranged with the brand new PLC members: Antonio Covington, Marquitta Rouse (Dept. Chair), Diane Mitchell (30+ years expertise teacher), Heriberto Corral (Assistant Principal), Cynthia Dial (parent) and myself (PLC Leader). Prior to our assembly, members had been contacted on February 3, 2012 to solicit subjects of concern.

The agenda was created based on their responses. See agenda 1D. As a staff we discussed the position of the student. We articulated that the function of the coed is that of a learner, a collaborator, and a group member. We have numerous theories about studying which help us understand the role of a student or learner. One of the theories that we’re fond of was developed by Abraham Maslow and it is called the speculation of primary human needs. Maslow (1954) contended that human beings are motivated by several fundamental wants. These needs are primary and are in a hierarchical order based on human priority and necessity.

Maslow found that individuals whose fundamental wants are satisfied are more effective learners. Maslow believed it’s the responsibility of the trainer to insure the basic needs are met before an individual can turn out to be an efficient learner; survival, safety, belonging, and esteem. We also articulated the imaginative and prescient the group held for one another as individuals, staff members, and most significantly, our common imaginative and prescient for pupil achievement. While the individual teaching kinds of the team were very totally different, it became obvious that commonality existed by way of supporting the expansion of our college students.

After team collaboration, we adopted the following vision statement: “We will present a classroom climate that fosters considerate and respectful consideration of different viewpoints and ideas, private ownership of studying, and individual building of personally meaningful data. ” Once the team’s imaginative and prescient had been established, we grew to become very trustworthy about our private and professional strengths and our target areas of development. From this dialog, the group was able to clearly outline the primary target and obligations of the PLC Leader and particular person staff members.

The assembly was profitable and everybody is happy about working collectively. Our imaginative and prescient will stay in the forefront of our meetings, reminding us to always provide a climate in our school rooms that fosters thoughtful and respectful consideration of all viewpoints.

An Ideal Student

An perfect pupil is a mannequin for others. He is totally conscious of his duties and has some good qualities. An perfect pupil is an asset to a school, society and to the nation as a whole. A scholar of right now is a mother or father and citizen of tomorrow. Ideal students are noble, studious and high-minded in their duties. But they’re acutely aware of their mission in life. They are bold, frank, truthful and sincere however never imply, egocentric and narrow-minded. Politeness is their decoration.

They hate none but love all. An ideal student is self-disciplined.

He obeys his dad and mom, elders and lecturers. He is punctual in coming to the college and common in research. He hates sin but not the sinner. He is at all times cautious in selecting associates. An perfect scholar cultivates good and useful habits. He never neglects his health. He is very robust of character, both in mind and physique by common practices of bodily exercises in order to hold them match.

He knows that if character is misplaced everything is lost. He is economical each in money and time. He is in good books of his lecturers and parents.

Childhood as Important Life Stage

Childhood is a stage of formation of character. A child is despatched to school for essential coaching for his future life the place the worth of discipline in life is learnt. Here he is beneath the direct coaching and control of his academics who appraise his talent, punished for his folly and guide him in his research and in the advance of his habits to mould him into an best character so that he could not have any problem in his later life Thus he comes to know what is good and what is bad in this world.

When this sense in him is properly developed, he becomes as perfect scholar.

He can prove himself to be sincere, obedient and bold in his character. An best student is he who is aware about his duties and responsibilities in the course of his household, his society and his country and bears a good moral character by leading a simple life with noble considering, being patriotic, respectful in course of his superiors, and compassionate in the direction of his juniors. If a scholar scores excessive marks in an examination, it does not imply that he ought to be known as an best pupil, unless he possesses all those good qualities.

Conlcusion: Why Noble Character is More Crucial Than Grades

He could set academicals document in the university, but could prove to be a failure in his real life, whereas, a pupil, who could not make a brilliant academicals career, might prove himself an perfect pupil by virtue of his noble character. An perfect scholar respects and loves his parents and teachers. He behaves, each in his household life and his college life, like a smart individual, and shares equally the joys and sorrows of others. He is truthful, loyal and disciplined. He is the longer term perfect citizen of the world.

He is additionally a true patriot, who sacrifices his personal interests, when the question of security of his motherland comes and will volunteer him for the service in a pure calamity wherever in the country. He provides choice to humanity than the rest in life. These days it is very difficult to discover ideal students. They are very rare. But the one who is, he is a model for different college students. He is beloved by all. He is the delight of his dad and mom, his society, and his nation.

An Episode of My Life- Life of a Grade 8 Student

I awoke in the center of the evening after the bizarre noise coming from my brother Jake’s room. It was his alarm that made such noise. He has an essential high school examination today. Apparently he thought that having a hearth drill sound as his alarm tune would absolutely wake him up, it did nevertheless it woke all of us up.

After finally being ready to sleep once more, I awoke round eight o’clock. I was thirty minute later from the time once I often get up.

It is Wednesday, June 27th. The climate was extremely stunning and warm, a typical June climate in L.A. After having breakfast and a nice cup of ice tea, I received ready for school.

Today was the last day of faculty so I wanted to get pleasure from it. I put on an over- sized sweatshirt and paired it with ripped skinny denims whereas grabbing a pair of sneakers. I was by no means allowed to wear such kind of cloths in school, apparently my faculty is non-public and only accepts correct dress code.

My dad’s driver drove me to highschool today as a outcome of I was going to be late. Usually I just walk to excessive school since it solely takes me ten minutes.

Around 9 thirty, I arrived at school. I entered through the front door and noticed the gang surrounding a seventh grader that was being bullied by a bully. This really occurred so much after he arrived to our school. His name is Thomas Thomson and had been known as names ever since last year.

He was a showcase and had a nasty attitude. The bully was Joe Kinderson. He always bullies younger graders and was expelled twice in one 12 months. The solely purpose he’s nonetheless here is due to his dad, the president of Kinderson Company. His dad’s company founded our college and that is why our school’s name is Roy Kinderson Academy.

Being in a non-public faculty had never been what I wanted. If I hadn’t fail grade five, I would nonetheless be in Rosemary public faculty that may give me no much less than freedom. That was not unhealthy sufficient, as a outcome of I received a D on two of my topics for the previous two semesters, I must be sent to a boarding faculty in England and live with my aunt Frowny after summer time break. Aunt Frowny’s precise name is Juliana Frowren Williams. My brother and I gave her the nickname “Frowny” since she barely smiles to us.

First interval was imagined to be French but Ms. Lewis our homeroom teacher determined to alter it into science so she can provide us a evaluate quiz on what we learned this yr. Our French instructor Madam Garcia was one of the nicest teachers in grade eight as a outcome of the fact that she barely gave us any homework and that she always has a giant brilliant smile on her face.

Since right now was the last day of school, we solely needed to keep in school till after lunch. We had recess after first period. My two finest associates Trina and Elisa were with me alongside another girls. They assume that going to high school in England shall be a fairy story but for me its undoubtedly not.

Lunch was pizza and fruit salad. We had to assist clean out the classroom before lunch.

Around one o’clock we had been about to go away. I knew it will be the final time I ever see my friends and teachers so I left early. I didn’t want to get emotional since I was known as a lady who never cries. I will actually miss my faculty but I can still contact folks from my faculty utilizing Facebook.

I got house 1 / 4 to 2. Took a bathe and watched TV until my mom went home. She made me to go shopping together with her and buy new cloths for tomorrow. Tomorrow is our household “Frienbely” day. It was a unique holiday my dad and mom considered after I was 5. They needed to rejoice the approaching of summer time break by hanging out with Jake and I as friends for an entire day. We thought it was cool at the moment but that was because we had been young.

As we have been on our way to the mall, I needed to inform my mom how my day went. I told her in regards to the follow fire drill we had right now and the whole morning of cleansing. She asked me if I took memorable pictures with any of my academics and associates however I stated I would still go to them in the summertime.

The afternoon turned to be a catastrophe to me. I accidently went off to the incorrect escalator and ended up bumping into the set where they had been shooting a music video. The digital camera caught me spilling coffee onto my pants by accident and broadcasted it on the large screen in the mall. The embarrassing thing wasn’t this however my mom. She shopped at my favourite store and acquired the very same fabric I was carrying. She although it would be fun and would be good for tomorrow’s “Frienbely” day. Because my mother withdrawn 5 of her bank cards last week with out understanding, my brother Jake had to come over to pay for her bills. He laughed so exhausting at both of us and laughed even more durable when he noticed the massive display playing over my coffee spilling second.

Around seven thirty in the afternoon, my household went out for dinner after my dad returned from work. We had dinner at a famous Spanish restaurant since my mother is half Spanish. The restaurant wasn’t well-known due to its extraordinary style however by its cheap value and its attention-grabbing arrangement of tables.

Dad bought cloths for the “frienbely” day as nicely. He advised his secretary to get the identical outfit that matched with the cloths Jake purchased final week. I was going to laugh at Jake to get back at him, however I thought I would reserve it for the subsequent time he makes enjoyable of me.

After we got home simply earlier than eleven o’clock, I found Jake’s new girlfriend waiting for him by the back door of our home. Jake didn’t inform mother and pa about his new girlfriend because he just broke up with his ex- girlfriend last week and their relationship only lasted for two days. I didn’t inform mother and pa about Jake’s new lady friend because they promised me to buy me a new CD that mother banned me from listening to. They have been going to sing on the karaoke membership with a bunch of associates to have enjoyable and relax after their two months of studying.

I went to mattress at two AM in the morning. The new online game I purchased last week saved me from sleeping early. After five minute, I slept soundly with a dream that led me to the uncertainness of tomorrow.

An Active Student vs Passive Student

We go to highschool schools for the sake of education to be a great citizen as nicely as a patriot too. But what we find is completely opposite we see that there is a race to win to be a book worm and much more other than this. Their start additional classifying scholar. There turn into two different types of students, passive students and active college students. Well what makes the scholar completely different is its Attitude, the quantity of power he or she put into classes, and the standard of labor determines the type of student he or she is.

Attitude is the first element that determines the quality of a scholar.

A passive scholar is almost in all probability negative. Usually they’ve much more necessary things to do different then research; it is also not important to them that how well they status is in the class. Very Often passive students are inclined to think that when they obtain a poor grade, it’s as a end result of the instructor does not like them.

On the opposite hand an active pupil has a very optimistic perspective. They try to be taught as much as potential about what they’re finding out. It could be very much necessary for them that what trainer think about them they all the time have a tendency have a good even greatest status on teachers mind.

The second issue that helps “diagnosing” the sort of scholar is the amount of energy she or he puts into their work for his or her courses. A passive pupil is usually lazy. Since he or she perspective is to poor, they tend to place solely enough energy in to study just get by.

What they want is to be promoted within the next class no matter their grades and marks then again an active pupil does just the other. They have their priorities straight. They make the time to review as an alternative of going out and having fun. Such as not hanging out with their associates once they know that a quiz or test is developing.

Passive students always suppose that active students are the additional strange scholar they have no different precedence this level is very much unusual them. Usually passive college students didn’t prepare nicely for the examination so that they attempt to get help of Cheating and different means whereas the lively scholar put together well for their examination it doesn’t matter for them who’s coming as an invigilator. Any how we can sum up our essay that Active students are proactive they search work and intrinsically value accomplishment. While the passive students are reactive, they avoid work and solely confront it when completely necessary.

Any how we are able to say that every one college students can’t be the same. So if some pupil is more active than different because of the pure skills is kind of apparent. But beside the character, the environmental components are playing a vital function as nicely. A person is understood by its firm he retains and the impact of society is much more effective as the position of instructor. So what we need is to motivate and appreciate any optimistic change from passive pupil as all the person carry a great importance for his or her society, enivronment,metropolis and finally for their Country as properly.

A Problem of Student Activism

Many in the academic community condemn the violent protests that occurred recently at their campuses and on the CHED office however pupil activists justify their acts as a final resort to air their grievances. Chair burning. Paint throwing. Effigies set on fire. Slogan screaming. Unadulterated violence. No, these aren’t scenes created by adult dissidents, however by radical Filipino college students of right now. Last month, people witnessed violent on-campus protests that led to the destruction of property on the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, and the paint bombing of University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) Chancellor Luis Rey Velasco at UP Diliman.

The gates of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) workplace were also destroyed by uncontrollably outraged students. Surprised at such a show of hatred and aggression, many thought that student activists have completely gone uncontrolled. But the League of Filipino Students (LFS), one of the largest pupil activist organizations within the nation, seems at these forms of protest not as a knee-jerk response to points, however because of a collection of rejections for dialogue with the concerned parties.

THE BURNING ISSUE IN PUP

At PUP, the throwing of chairs and tables from the fifth and sixth floor of a building and their subsequent burning final March 19 stemmed from the proposed tuition payment increase from P12 to P200 per unit for freshmen taking laboratory-intensive programs corresponding to Engineering and Architecture. Damages to highschool property allegedly amounted to half one million pesos. Five college students involved within the incident were detained but have been freed afterward.

LFS chair Terry Ridon downplayed that value, saying that they burned chairs that have been thought of scraps already. “The college students aren’t that silly to burn chairs which would possibly be nonetheless usable, alam naman nila yung plight ng PUP eh,” Ridon says. Dr. Dante Guevarra, PUP president, says youth activism has certainly turn out to be more aggressive. While students are entitled to express their opinions freely, he believes that it must be carried out peacefully and in consideration of different students’ welfare.

Destroying faculty property isn’t the proper form of expression. “We encourage academic freedom in PUP but there are cases that the protests affect our program like the schooling charge enhance. Had they not protested it, it might have generated as much as 50 million pesos a 12 months in income. That could presumably be used for infrastructure constructing and the acquisition of laboratory equipment,” explains Dr. Guevarra. For the past 32 years, PUP has not increased its tuition fee amid its meager finances of P660 million a 12 months. It offers the lowest tuition charge for its hundreds of students from the marginalized sector of the society. Before the violence occurred, Dr. Guevarra says they had been open to dialogue. But the student leaders had been apparently not severe in communicating with him.

“We hold dialogues before we implement adjustments however they are clever. My data will show na hindi sila dumadating sa mga assembly. Nung minsan naman nagkaroon kami ng dialogue they didn’t want to talk about the tuition enhance but about their funds in the scholar council. May kapilyuhan nang konti,” says Dr. Guevarra. LFS chair Ridon justifies the action. “This is a bread and butter issue. Tuition charge will increase in a school composed of less fortunate and poorer students mean a lot won’t be able to check anymore,” points out Ridon, a senior regulation pupil at UP Diliman. But Ridon says the true issue is the fight for the proper allocation of assets by authorities, and the long-overdue increase in price range for state universities and schools.

DROPPING THE BOMB AT UP

Over at UP Diliman, UPLB Chancellor Luis Rey Velasco turned actually green when paint bombs have been pelted at him (and his car) by student protesters. While Velasco considers the assault as a barbaric act by irrational, unthinking rabid persons, LFS’ Ridon thinks in any other case and defends the paint bombing. “Forms of protests like which are relegated to probably the most rabid, and to a sure extent, sinful individuals. We’ve done it in opposition to Gen. Esperon in 2006 in the course of the time two UP college students have been abducted. He went to UP to justify abductions and human rights violations of the regime. Tinapunan siya talaga ng itlog. Chancellor Velasco was pelted with paint bombs to precise outrage for the years of repression and vilification of student organizations. In the final two years, I think he suspended the UPLB Student Council and the coed publication, delayed the appointment of the Student Regent, and can be now answerable for the ousting of that particular Student Regent from UPLB precisely as a outcome of he was sitting on her registration request papers,” Ridon laments.

He additionally accused Velasco of being responsible for the vilification campaign in opposition to progressive organizations, student councils and publications, alleging they’re fronts of the communist party at UPLB. Chancellor Velasco vehemently denies any of those charges, saying these were totally baseless and irresponsible statements. According to Velasco, he was not liable for the ousting of Student Regent and senior UPLB Comm Arts student Charisse Bañez. He says Bañez had pending instances with the Student Disciplinary Tribunal (SDT) that prevented her from graduating in April 2009. Bañez additionally reportedly didn’t file a Leave of Absence (LOA) for the second semester of 2009, despite reminders by the CAS dean, the CAS Office of the College Secretary (CAS-OCS). Banez’ request for late submitting of residency was disapproved by Velasco for alleged lack of legitimate reason. A subsequent request for an LOA was additionally denied as a outcome of she wasn’t capable of meet the required requirements.

Velasco also denies accusations that he repressed and vilified scholar organizations at UPLB, nor suspended the scholar council and scholar publication. “Student welfare has been one of the priority agenda underneath my administration. We have elevated security and safety measures on campus and have significantly decreased campus violence. We have never prevented college students to arrange themselves into protest rallies and brazenly expressing their opinions, even if many of these bordered on defamation,’’ he says, also lambasting the failure of scholars to correctly account for a minimal of Php1.2 million in funds collected in reference to the UP February Fair. Despite the assault on him, Velasco has not filed any costs in opposition to the protesters.

THE PRINCIPLE OF LOCO PARENTIS

No matter how violent students get, PUP president Dr. Guevarra says administrators ought to nonetheless be considerate and reasonable in dealing with the protesters, upholding the principle of loco parentis because they’re their second fathers and moms. “Kahit gusto mo silang bigyan ng leksiyon, andun pa rin yung component na titignan mo sila bilang estudyante, bilang anak ng mahirap, at mamamayan ng Pilipinas. At the identical time titignan mo yung kasalanan nila, you need to weigh it. You shouldn’t treat them as common criminals because pag ganon mawawala yung elemento na they are in an educational establishment and the one dispensing justice is an educator. Iba ang treatment kasi second parent ka nila, anak mo sila. Pag binanatan mo yan kaagad eh baka lalo lang mapasama yung bata.

Hindi puedeng basta expelled, ipakulong o posasan yan. Kasi pag ginawa mo yun, hindi ka na educator, you’ve turn into a jail warden,” says Gueverra. Ridon, on the other hand, stresses student activists know the art of self restraint, except on events when there are steady rejection of requires dialogue in full equality between the events. “Student activists police their ranks, we plan our actions, but when we are forced to up the ante of protests significantly in repressive circumstances, we should force the matter or to deliver it to the fore of a national debate,” says Ridon, a former UP Student Regent.

Mary Grace V. Mora, a sophomore Journalism pupil at PUP believes violence won’t remedy any drawback as a result of it doesn’t go to the foundation of the matter. Students, she says, should know what self-expression and educational freedom are all about. “Sure, we’re entitled to practice our rights but operating amok isn’t certainly one of them. We are entitled to follow our rights in the same means that we have to attend to our duties. A peaceful approach to precise grievances is all the time the easiest way. The government, however, should consider other ways to augment the college budget, proper ways that would not stoke the craze of activists to the point of violating the legislation,” she ends.

A Database For A Student Information System Computer Science Essay

Database usually refers again to the utilization of modern computing machine engineering to display screen out all sorts of data orderly, easy to occur and pull off. In net selling refers back to the utilization of the our on-line world to roll up private data, and archive course, similar to: fname, lname, age, intercourse, reference, phone determine, shopper behaviour and so forth.

Database is an utility that could be pull offing informations and allows quick storage and retrieval of informations. Database apart from is a aggregation of informations, hive awaying information ; it is really easy to query the contents of the agreement, managing and updates.

Databases often use to arrange in conformity with a format of informations and data aggregation so as to ease straightforward and effectual utilization of the informations. For illustration: the database could also be fashioned by the group of contracts, along with relevant information. It might incorporate bibliographic, numerical or other informations, by and huge structured in order that it can be sought and retrieved automatically.

Relational database, the relationship between the informations explicitly offered entree to the same belongings.

Database could be thought of to routinely question and modify informations sets. There are many types of databases ; from the best signifier of assorted informations retailers to find a way to transport out large-scale mass informations storage in all sides of database system has been broadly used. The most popular is relational database that shops informations in tabular arraies the place each row within the tabular array holds the same type of info. Largely, the database aggregation of a giant figure of informations data or informations information, similar to gross revenues minutess, merchandise catalogs, inventory record, and client information.

A typical database direction system supplies customers with entree to informations, study coevals and informations analysis capablenesss, SQL is a normal question linguistic communication, and for database updates, and IBM, the same functionality.

The logic of the database is to portion relevant informations aggregation and the information description. Its intent is to run into the knowledge demands of an organisation. Database system catalog ( metadata ) to supply informations to do the plan description informations independency. Database logically associated informations includes entities, attributer, and relationships of an organisation ‘s information.

In Question 2, we’re using Microsoft Access to make relational database. Microsoft Access is a pseudo-relational system from Microsoft Office. Microsoft Access is broadly used by little considerations, inside sections of massive firms, and avocation coders to make ad hoc personalized methods for passing the artistic exercise and use of informations. Its easiness of utilization and highly effective design tools given the non-professional coder a batch of convenience for small attempt.

A relational database is a aggregation of dealingss or tabular arraies. The rows of a tabular array in a relational database are generally identified as tuples and each column of a tabular array is called an property. By definition becomes a set of tuples holding the same properties. Operationss, which could be performed on the dealingss, are selection, enterprise and articulation. The connection operation combines dealingss, the selection questions are used for informations retrieval and the undertaking operation identifies attributes. Similar to other database theoretical accounts, even relational databases help the insert, delete and update operations.

Define Question 1

Application database is implemented as a aggregation of end-user services.Also, every plan could possibly be defines and manages its ain info. It is a system that can see info to user. Database allows each person has his or her ain positions on this system. It Is mainly a sing a subset of a determine of database. In the database, all users ought to have the power to entree the identical information. A person ‘s level of place is non succesful to the positions of different alterations. In add-on, the person does non necessitate to cognize the physical database storage inside informations. Merely the DBA ought to be ready to alter, and can non impact the positions of customers, database storage construction. The internal building of the database must be free from bodily storage alterations. In fact, DBA should be succesful of alter all users, with out impacting the construct of the database development.

Answer of Question 1

In Question 1, we should make a Student Information System. In that database, we should include table and each tabular array ought to maintain Primary Key acknowledged and relationship between of them.

There are some relational keys which are including Primary Key. First is Super key. It is an property, or set of properties, that uniquely identifies a tuple within a relation. Second one is candidate key ; it is a minimal ace key. Primary Key is a campaigner key that chosen to place tuples unambiguously inside relation. Alternate keys are candidate keys that are non selected to be main key. Last one is overseas key. It is besides a set of properties ; it is within one relation that matches candidate key of some ( perchance same ) relation.

Primary Key

Primary secret is to record and hive away the informations in others tabular arraies related to it. At this point, the first secret is pointer. Normally, the primary cardinal worth for customers is nonmeaningful, and its value must be given no explicit hyperlinks. Primary cardinal usually used for general enquiries quicker ; it’s as a end result of there is an index in the above.

Information science

Fname

Lname

Sexual activity

Age

Address

Capable

1001

Trap

Lucky

F

20

7 Taman Untung

Dot

1002

Phang

Tommy

Meter

22

10 Sungai Siput

CICT

1003

Phang

Harry

Meter

19

10 Sungai Siput

CICT

1004

Chemical bond

James

Meter

20

11 Taman Chemor

Dot

1005

Oh

Loser

Meter

19

69 Taman Bunga

Dot

1006

Elizabeth

Mary

F

19

44 Taman Ipoh

DBM

1007

Lee

Anna

F

18

KLCC

DHM

1008

Valentine

Vincent

Meter

21

7 Taman Fantasi

DHM

1009

Discord

Cloud

Meter

19

8 Taman Fantasi

DBM

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

F

18

9 Taman Fantasi

IEP

Table 1: Student ‘s Table

This tabular array is the 1st tabular array that demoing 10 pupils who’re surveies in Olympia College Ipoh. In this tabular array, there are 6 male and 4 female. three of them are analyzing DIT, 2 of them are analyzing CICT, 2 of them are analyzing DBM, 2 of them are analyzing DHM and the last one are analyzing IEP. The primary key of this tabular array is TP.

By tips on how to make table, we now have to utilize Microsoft Excel. In the Microsoft Excel, we’ve to tape all the rubric 1st, so that we are in a position to set all pupil information one after the other into the tabular array.

StuffNo

FName

LName

Sexual activity

Age

Address

Capable

SN010

Reasonably

Wong

F

28

Lucky Hotel

Dot

SN011

Handsome

Lee

Meter

25

Lucky Hotel

CICT

SN012

Olivia

Holmium

F

30

12 Taman Ipoh

DHM

SN013

Emily

Chan

F

38

23 Taman Kinta

DBM

SN014

Andy

Lao

Meter

32

52 Jalan Pinang

IEP

Table 2: Lector ‘s Table

This is the second tabular array. This tabular array is demoing who the lector is and what matter which are those lectors studying roughly. In this tabular array, there is demoing 5 lectors ‘ information. Each lector is studying one subject. The Primary key of this tabular array is SUBJECT. This is as a result of SUBJECT is same info with Student tabular array. In lector tabular array, SUBJECT is relational with Student tabular array.

Information science

Fname

Lname

Capable

Consequence

1001

Trap

Lucky

Dot

C-

1002

Phang

Tommy

CICT

A

1003

Phang

Harry

CICT

A+

1004

Chemical bond

James

Dot

A-

1005

Oh

Loser

Dot

I/W

1006

Elizabeth

Mary

DBM

B+

1007

Lee

Anna

DHM

B-

1008

Valentine

Vincent

DHM

A-

1009

Discord

Cloud

DBM

Bacillus

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

IEP

A

Table three: Oscilloscope Table

This is the third tabular array. This tabular array is demoing that consequence for all pupils. In this tabular array, it’s demoing that some may go through, some might neglect and tonss of them purchase high mark. The main key of this tabular array is IP in addition to, and the IP is relational with the first tabular array. Besides, this tabular array is demoing about pupil matter.

Information science

Fname

Lname

Sexual activity

Capable

Pqyment

1001

Trap

Lucky

F

Dot

Yttrium

1002

Phang

Tommy

Meter

CICT

Nitrogen

1003

Phang

Harry

Meter

CICT

Nitrogen

1004

Chemical bond

James

Meter

Dot

Nitrogen

1005

Oh

Loser

Meter

Dot

[newline]

Yttrium

1006

Elizabeth

Mary

F

DBM

Yttrium

1007

Lee

Anna

F

DHM

Nitrogen

1008

Valentine

Vincent

Meter

DHM

Yttrium

1009

Discord

Cloud

Meter

DBM

Nitrogen

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

F

IEP

Nitrogen

Table 4: Casher Table

This is the last tabular array. This tabular array is demoing many of the pupil information. Besides that, this tabular array apart from demoing the cost information of all pupils. It is demoing that pupil has been or havens wage the fee. The primary key of this tabular array besides are IP. In this tabular array, the IP major key besides relational with the first tabular array.

Define Question 2

In inquiry 2, we have to stand for the database for the Student Information System Entity Relationship ( ER ) theoretical account. Besides, Question 2 calls for Microsoft Access to face for database.

Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access is the database software from the Microsoft Office Suite of purposes. It is a robust private database and informations use software that is apart from extensively utilized in many little considerations.

Microsoft entree is released by Microsoft relational database course system. It combines the Microsoft Jet Database Engine, and two graphical person interface characteristics. It is likely one of the Microsoft Office system plans. It could presumably be entree although the Access/Jet, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, or any ODBC-compliant database informations. Skilled bundle interior decorators and informations analysts use it to develop application package deal, and a few unskilled coders and non-programmers whereas advanced person can put it to use to develop easy functions.

Answer of Question 2

Before making database with Microsoft Access, we have to some measure.

This tabular array is demoing that taking Icon utility. First, we should snap on ( begin ) , and so we can see the ( All Program ) . Snap it, so it will come out the listing, so we select Microsoft Office. After that, take and snap Microsoft Access.

This is the 2nd portion ; this tabular array is demoing what’s going to come out after snaping the appliance. In this tabular array, we need to snap the ( Blank Database ) . So on, it’s going to come out the best aspect factor. Now, we can entry the file name, and it’s Student Information System.

After create the database file, it’s going to demo this tabular array. From now on, we will come in all pupil information. We should make at least four tabular arraies ; there are Student tabular array, Lecturer tabular array, Casher tabular array, and CRO tabular array.

In this tabular array, we’ve been taping all data into the tabular array. In the pupil information, we’ve IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, AGE, ADDRESS and SUBJECT. In lector tabular array, there are STUFFNO, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, AGE, ADDRESS and SUBJECT. In casher tabular array, there are IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, SUBJECT and PAYMENT. In the last tabular array, it’s CRO tabular array. In that tabular array, there are IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, SUBJECT and RESULT.

After come ining all information, we need to take the Primary key. The primary key of pupil tabular array, IP is the Primary Key. In the lector tabular array, SUBJECT is the Primary Key. IP is about as Primary Key in Casher tabular array. The CRO tabular array ‘s main key in addition to is about as IP.

This tabular array demoing that three tabular array are relational with the last tabular array. The chief tabular array is the pupil tabular array. The lector is relational with pupil tabular array with the capable main key. The casher and CRO tabular array are similar relational with pupil tabular array with the IP primary key.

From this tabular array, we are ready to see that every one tabular arraies are relational with the pupil tabular array. So the pupil tabular array would be the chief tabular array.

This tabular array demoing that the lector is relational with the pupil tabular array. After snaping the bins, it’s going to demo the pupil data that the pupil who take the subject that is studying by these lector.

This is the table demoing the fee of all pupils, and this is the Casher tabular array.

The bins demoing pupil have been or haven pay their cost.

This tabular array reveals the consequence of all pupils, and that is the CRO tabular array.

The bins demoing the complete pupil consequence.

Conclusion & A ; Recommendation

Database is a really highly effective system. Database besides can be say as package. It can be created to pull off generalised database is often known as a database course system ( DBMS ) . Several package deal architectures are attainable: For smaller particular person person databases incessantly all maps are managed by one plan. Questions 2 are utilizing relational theoretical account nomenclature. It is a relation and is a tabular array with columns and rows. In relational theoretical account, consumer can bespeak informations from a relational database by directing it a question that’s written in a selected linguistic communication, it normally a idiom of SQL. Although SQL was initially supposed for end-users, it’s much more common for SQL questions to be embedded into package that gives a neater consumer interface.

In this project, a relational database lucifers informations by utilizing frequent features discovered throughout the information set. The ensuing teams of informations are organized and will be a lot simpler for different user to know it. Relational databases are presently the predominant decide in hive awaying fiscal records, fabrication and logistical in formation, forces informations and and so on.

We are using Microsoft Access in inquiry 2. Microsoft Access is a improvement surroundings used to make computer-based databases. To complement it, it ships with a scheduling linguistic communication called Visual Basic for Application ( VBA ) and various libraries. This linguistic communication and the libraries are utilized in a scheduling environment called Microsoft Visual Basic, which apart from ships with Microsoft Access.

In my sentiment, there are some advantages of the relational databases. Relational database is predicated on set concept dealingss. A relational algebra relational database are back uping the relationship between set theory operations. In add-on to mathematical set operations, viz. brotherhood, intersection, distinction and Cartesian merchandise, relational databases besides assist the selection, endeavor and relationship to fall in and division. These operations are alone relational database.

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Besides that, there are a couple of advantages of DBMS. It is holding good control of informations redundancy and data consistence. Users can seek more info from the identical sum of informations. DBMS can utilize to sharing informations, it besides enforcement off criterions and economic system of graduated desk. DBMS could possibly be improved informations unity and safety.

As my advice, database will better within the hereafter. It is as a result of, the database often is best to used for little firm or concern. If database for giant company, it’s extra complexness and confusing.

A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance in an Online vs. Traditional Classes

Overall, face-to-face and on-line courses have some similarities and differences when talking about the student’s educational performance, the surroundings and the degrees of freedom they give to the students. Students should choose the place they want to take lessons relying on their studying type for the precise topics they are considering taking. Online classes can be more handy for some who cannot attend class as a outcome of they’ve children, for example. Both methods of taking classes are good ways to get a higher schooling and get a greater job to comply with their career objectives.

As lengthy as students work onerous they are going to be profitable in either class style they select to take, which can be on-line or face-to-face.

Lastly, the learning setting is totally different between the normal and online classes. According to “Comparing the Effectiveness of Classroom and Online Learning: Teaching Research Methods”, the “impact of learning environment” and can differ depending on the place students are taking courses. In face-to-face setting participation is a half of the final course grade.

Some college students find participation to be a little intimidating. This may be a reason why they would somewhat take the online class because they don’t have to speak in front of everybody, as an alternative they take part in on-line class discussions in a less intimidating means. Both lessons might help college students develop communication and improve confidence that might be needed in a future when they are in search of a job.

Another distinction between taking face-to-face and on-line lessons is the diploma of freedom. Online classes are more self-managed as a end result of students can make their very own schedule to work on the homework or when to learn the guide, whereas still meeting the deadlines.

Compared to face-to-face which are managed by the professor, which implies that the students can’t do any changes to the lectures. Face-to-face courses are easy to observe because too much freedom can typically make you forget in regards to the on-line course. Since both classes can give lots of free time, especially in faculty, it is necessary for college kids to always set their priorities. Being up to date course could be an advantage when emergencies come up. For example, traditional courses meet no much less than twice a week, and sometimes lacking one lecture can put students behind in comparison with on-line lessons that go at the student’s tempo. Either class will teach good time management expertise and students accountability.

The educational efficiency can range depending on the course that it’s been taken and its level of problem. According to ‘Comparing grades in on-line and face-to-face writing programs: Interpersonal accountability and institutional commitment”, college students are inclined to “fail or don’t full the web courses”, this demonstrates that college students may forget to turn in some assignments as a end result of it’s extra self-managed in comparison with the standard method the place the professor may remind the class at least as quickly as of upcoming deadlines or exams. Also, the subject itself can affect the tutorial performance of some students because the material requires extra visualization than just reading from the textbook. For example, typically taking a Math or Physics course is best to be taken face-to-face because seeing someone else clear up an issue step by step and asking questions as they go can help you perceive the material. Either class type may help develop critical pondering expertise depending on the educational style of the individual taking the category.

Getting a better education has by no means been so easy. Many universities around the globe have moved from the traditional class setting into the cyber world by permitting students from all all over the world to complete their degrees from the consolation of their properties. While many others still prefer the normal classroom setting. It’s a matter of perspective and learning type. Online courses and traditional face-to-face classes have many similarities and differences in the categories of educational efficiency, freedom, and studying environment.

21st Century Technologies and Their Relationship to Student Achievement

The Holy Grail in education right now is to link an academic strategy, program, initiative or expertise to scholar achievement. There are quite a few organizations advocating for Technology Literacy, Information Literacy, twenty first Century Learning Skills, and any number of other titles for literacy in a modern context. In all sectors of human society, the know-how of the 21st Century has revolutionized and enhanced our lifestyle.

From medicine to the military and from enterprise to the arts, the applied sciences of today have made our lives better.

It isn’t a surprise then, that the common public expects technology to have an analogous revolutionary impact on education. After all, the most important advancements of the final 20 years have been within the realm of knowledge and the tools of human knowledge; that is Education’s back-yard. Yet, when individuals have a look at our colleges they see many school rooms that appear to have been immune to those advances.

There are obstacles that schooling faces in implementing a twenty first Century method to education not the least of which is discovering a definition and a clear image of what it actually seems like and whether it is going to be more practical for college kids.

Costs to implement technology-rich programs rapidly appear prohibitive when scaling to a whole faculty system, particularly so in a state that lags the nation in academic funding.

Teachers are our greatest asset and are recognized to be the one largest influence on student achievement the district can provide, so professional development is essential and basic. The measure of success, the CSAP, is a paper and pencil check which shall be unable to measure all the positive effects know-how can have for pupil learning.

Indeed, a 20th Century take a look at technique shall be unable to correctly assess (and might even inhibit) the skills growth of a 21st Century learner. And then, are we simply concerning the content material and helping students master it, or is schooling about something extra as well?

Therefore, making the case that investment in technology will improve student achievement can be fraught with pitfalls and obstacles. To attempt to deal with this problem, the authors of this paper will review quality research and commentary in an array of areas the place technology-related tools and strategies have been applied with positive results for students. A strict filter of research that produce higher take a look at outcomes won’t be used due to the constraints present paper and pencil checks have in evaluation of 21st Century abilities.

In addition to improved evaluation performances, the reader is encouraged to consider the context of a worldwide office and education’s duty to arrange students to thrive in a highly digital, interactive information workforce. Research that reveals increased scholar achievement on assessments, studies that point to methods training can efficiently put together college students for a modern workforce and our own experiences in Littleton Public Schools shall all be considered optimistic correlations between technology and scholar achievement on this paper.

The Challenge Inherent in Determining the Effectiveness of Technologies via Research The following is an excerpt that addresses a gestalt view of technology and its correlation to scholar achievement: When we attempt to determine the effectiveness of instructional applied sciences, we’re confronted by numerous methodological and practical issues. First, we have to remember that know-how is just one component of an educational activity. Assessments of the impact of know-how are actually assessments of instruction enabled by technology, and the outcomes are extremely depending on the standard of the implementation of the instructional design.

According to Roy Pea, director of SRI Center for Technology in Learning in Menlo Park, California, the “social contexts” of how expertise is used are crucial to understanding how expertise might affect instructing and learning. Educational applied sciences cannot be effective by themselves. The social contexts are all-important. This means more consideration should be paid to the educating methods used both “in” the software and “around it” within the classroom, and to the classroom setting itself.

It is a recurrent discovering that the results of one of the best software may be neutralized through improper use, and that even poorly designed software program can be creatively extended to serve important learning targets. There are additionally a number of methodological issues to confront. First, standardized achievement exams may not measure the kinds of changes in college students that instructional expertise reformers are looking for. New measures, a few of which are presently underneath improvement, would assess areas, similar to greater order pondering expertise, that many believe could be significantly affected through the use of new applied sciences.

There can be a need to include consequence measures that transcend pupil achievement, because student achievement might be affected by students’ attitudes about themselves, their colleges, the forms of interactions that go on in colleges, and the very concept of learning. Another consideration is pointed out by the U. S. Office of Technology Assessment’s Teachers and Technology: Making the Connection: Technological adjustments are prone to be nonlinear, and would possibly show effects not only on scholar learning, but additionally on the curriculum, the character of instruction, the college tradition, and the elemental ways that academics do their jobs. Coley, 1997). Instant Response Systems Data-driven determination making is an academic strategy that requires educators to resolve on instructional methods and activities based on what they find out about how well students have grasped an idea. Whereas before, this may be done with mini quizzes, homework or performances at the chalk board, today’s technologies present another avenue. Using handheld devices in Modesto City Schools school rooms, teachers can pose inquiries to college students who use wi-fi remotes for real-time responses.

Such engagement allows the lecturers to immediately determine if students are greedy ideas and resolve whether or not extra time is required on a topic or whether the group can transfer on. Item banks of standards-aligned questions make teacher’s jobs simpler in developing such review materials (Hines, 2005). Another related technology is the graphing calculator which can be used in math and science classrooms to allow every pupil to take part and have the facility of a modern computing software.

Classrooms that make use of the graphing calculator exhibit better questioning and feedback behaviors; goal-oriented instruction turns into more attainable and extra frequent; actions result in higher student engagement and college students tend to reveal more collaborative learning behaviors (Whitehurst, 2003). In Littleton Public Schools, a definitive interest is rising for these applied sciences as several classroom units are deployed in schools throughout the district. Results are largely anecdotal and preliminary, however math coordinators are seeing the Texas Instruments graphing calculator as a valuable software that will attain beyond simply math class.

Technology Education Littleton Public Schools has a strong custom within the realm of know-how education. Our Middle and High Schools are all equipped with curricula that introduce a broad selection of technologies to students. LPS technology education college students and teachers have won national recognition for his or her work. A comparatively small amount of analysis has been carried out on students’ understandings of design and technology concepts, or technical information. This limited analysis generally makes it troublesome to capitalize on such an ever evolving subject as Technology Education.

The findings from the Australian research state that an increasing awareness of students’ understandings of design and know-how concepts can have an impact on the instructing and learning of design and know-how in elementary colleges similar to that experienced in elementary science schooling (Davis, Ginns, & McRobbie, 2002). Called Career and Technical Education in Virginia, CTE correlations to curricular areas have been documented on a state website (http://www. valinkages. net/) and are thought-about a key component to getting ready students for End-Of-Course tests.

A research was carried out in 2002–2003 on Illustration and Design Technology coursework, an example of CTE pupil performance on Standards of Learning (SOL), the Virginia equal of CSAP tests. The outcomes confirmed that 78 p.c of CTE students handed the mathematics SOL take a look at while solely 72 percent of non-CTE enrolled college students move the test (Dyer, Reed, & Berry, 2006). Authors on the subject advocate for offering college students with opportunities to synthesize their learning in other topics in technology-related programs.

The alternative to apply and reinforce studying from content material areas in know-how programs is important if learning is to be meaningful to students (Lewis, 1999). In our personal experiences in LPS, we discover that the Technology Education courses generate excitement and interest for studying amongst each male and female students which must have an impact on their studying. Recent research has proven that Technology Education courses appeal to each genders equally (McCarthy & Moss, 1994). Although ladies appeared to get pleasure from required know-how education courses, they have been much less more doubtless to proceed taking such courses as electives(Silverman & Pritchard, 1996).

Certainly motivation and utility of data help to improve scholar achievement. And whereas current results don’t conclusively show that these courses impression student achievement at the next degree than different packages we implement in colleges, it would be imprudent to think that these programs don’t have a really constructive impact. This is amongst the limitations of research on students: it’s nearly impossible to create a real control group. When requested, students at present enrolled in LPS Technology Education programs reported their ideas of know-how to include: computer systems, iPods, video video games, music media, email, and instruments generally.

Recent laws supports the concept that education’s expertise initiatives have to go beyond serious about computers. Rather, Technology Education is about educating innovation; offering opportunity for practical application of knowledge gained at school; mastery of abstraction and downside fixing. Technology Education programs at LPS embrace a broad scope of tools that human beings use to grasp their surroundings including manufacturing, development, energy and energy, communication, transportation, and biotechnology.

While analysis that clearly correlates higher pupil achievement on standardized checks is lacking, the abilities that college students learn in such programs clearly match what employers, from engineering corporations to manufacturing companies, indicate they seek of their applicant pools. Simulations and Video Games “Dad, did you know that a Prefect in ancient Rome was each a firefighter AND a policeman? ” was a question that arose from the again of my (Dan Maas) car during a long road trip with my son, Calvin.

He described, in quite correct detail, the pantheon of Roman gods, the essential parts of Roman society and then abruptly ended the query and reply period that arose from his initial query so he could fend off the Carthaginians. How did he know they have been Carthaginians? “Hannibal all the time assaults with elephants” was his reply. The boy had realized all this about Rome enjoying a online game at age five. Video games have long been the bane of the mother or father and teacher’s existence, however there’s one thing right here that could be of some use to us. Some have picked up on the possibilities.

A multi-user virtual surroundings (MUVE) is a sort of video game. Schools like Harvard University are creating MUVEs which might be patterned after video video games with a couple of critical differences. Video games usually have objectives like amassing points, defeating enemies or gathering gold. On the other hand, MUVEs have the objective of learning. By creating virtual environments, issues may be posed, research can be collected, theories examined and outcomes achieved. One MUVE example begins with an outbreak of a illness in a small town that players must investigate, decide the pathogens involved, develop theories on how o treat the sickness and test strategies to resolve the disaster.

The simulation is extremely visible, interactive, and extremely partaking to the scholars. See  Studies show that children whose lecturers use technology for simulations and software of knowledge are likely to develop larger order considering skills and tend to attain higher on tests like the National Assessment for Educational Progress. Conversely, expertise use that focuses on drill-and-practice tends to correlate to lower performance (Archer, 1998).

In another pilot, college students who participated in computer-assisted literacy instruction earned greater scores on a Stanford Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory and on a Test of Written Spelling (Bottege, Daley, Goin, Hasselbring, & Taylor, 1997). In a 2005 examine on a gaming system known as an Intelligent Tutoring System, results confirmed elevated instructional interest and motivation among students. Students confirmed statistically important features educationally, but of particular observe was the very significant impact on students who had carried out poorly previous to the pilot (Virvou, Katsionis, & Manos, 2005).

When one thinks about games, it appears as if there is a clear opportunity for utilizing this software for advancing educational skills. Students solve problems, learn languages and grasp digital world guidelines whereas playing video video games for leisure. This sample was examined in a Newark, New Jersey examine using Lightspan academic video games the place forty seven pre-school age children played forty minutes per day for 11 weeks and demonstrated significant features over the control group on the Wide Range Achievement Test R-3.

The scores for spelling and decoding were considerably improved for the experimental group over the management while no vital difference was detected in math (Calao & Din, 2001). The Pokemon video game is also fascinating to consider. By the time the first draft of this doc is accomplished for the Board of Education, the country will rejoice Dr. Suess’ birthday. His children’s books assist younger people to learn to learn by creating easy, repetitive language constructs that reveal patterns to students and assist them improve their decoding and phonic awareness.

He even made up nonsense words to press the student’s phonetic capability. Pokemon has many comparable traits. Text on the handheld game appears in small, five word chunks that solely proceed when the reader is finished. The studying is significant in that comprehension is required to unravel the puzzles of the sport. And the story line is full of imaginary creatures with made-up names… each phonetically correct. Did the makers of Pokemon intend to create a game which may assist children study to read or did the creators use phonics to create the English language equivalents of their native Japanese?

Who knows, however perhaps this game, or something prefer it, could be helpful. In talking informally at a number of buildings in LPS, college students on the center stage indicated that they would take a glance at instructional video video games to play on their house gaming systems. Could video games, tuned to training by eliminating violence and different objectionable themes, turn out to be a new device educators can use to engage college students both throughout and after school? More analysis is certainly warranted but the current results and intuitive logic leads one to suppose that there is promise right here. At-Risk/Intervention

An ever current emphasis in schooling is the means to intervene for college kids with at-risk traits. We see academic and financial gaps forming for college students at-risk and our public system is at all times targeted on closing gaps and offering bridges for college kids. Can technology-integrated interventions be a half of the answer? In a current examine revealed by North Carolina State University’s Meridian, journal on middle school know-how, students repeating eighth grade have been isolated right into a focused 27-week program that used hypermedia, online sources and Power Point as built-in technologies.

Students demonstrated statistically important features (29 percentile points) in studying and language arts. Additionally college students demonstrated marked improvements (23 percentile points) in writing performances (Little, 2006). Within LPS, the Center for Online Studies is a partnership with Arapahoe Community College (ACC). Students come to ACC to take on-line coursework supplied by Class. com and supervised by a certified instructor. The college students enrolled have had issue succeeding of their traditional excessive colleges and reported to the Board of Education in January, 2007 that this system has made a distinction of their educational pursuits.

The rules in use here which may be making this first 12 months program a success are having a top quality content material supply, a licensed instructor and a supportive studying surroundings. 1:1 Initiatives One-to-one computing is an business time period of one computing gadget allotted to at least one particular person. This primarily is an initiative to finish shared computing resources based mostly on the concept such studying instruments are so essential that each scholar needs one all the time. This view is one thing akin to the status that textbooks have loved for some time.

When the basic public hears about classroom textbooks, that means students can’t take their own e-book house, there is usually concern or even outcry to increase the resource. Proponents of 1:1 computing believe that the twenty first Century represents a time when that status held by textbooks transfers to the computer. Indeed, if we’re to shift from paper-based studying materials to digital sources, a 1:1 initiative of some sort of computing device will be a pre-requisite. Some faculty districts and even states have begun to discover this concept.

In Maine, a state-wide initiative started nine years ago to supply each seventh grade scholar with a laptop computer. The program is called the Main Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI) and it’s having an impression on instructing and learning in their public schools. After 5 years, researchers reported that lecturers had been simpler at helping students meet state requirements. Also college students were more motivated, discovered extra, and mastered ideas to deeper ranges. Finally, students appeared to be learning new abilities for the 21st Century (Lane, 2003).

Further analysis into the MLTI project showed that college students who had used laptops in seventh and 8th grade, but not had school supplied laptops in 9th grade reported that the quantity and quality of their faculty work had dropped since shedding access to school-provided laptops (Pitler, Flynn, & Gaddy, 2004). A 1:1 project is the initiative in Henrico County, Virginia which began in 2001. Prior to the project, 78 % of the district colleges had been accredited based mostly on the scholar achievement on the Virginia Standards of Learning test.

By the top of the varsity year in 2003, all faculties had earned accreditation meaning that a passable proportion of students passed the state check (Pitler, Flynn, & Gaddy, 2004). In Canada, a 1:1 effort entitled the Wireless Writing Project begun in 2002 started in Peace River North with sixth and 7th grade college students. In pre and post-test outcomes on writing assessments, researchers found that the proportion of scholars who met or exceeded the efficiency standards of the take a look at increased from 70 p.c to ninety two p.c (Pitler, Flynn, & Gaddy, 2004).

Another 1:1 initiative is underway in New Hampshire the place initial outcomes replicate other research of comparable efforts. Students and lecturers are demonstrating elevated know-how use throughout the curricular areas. Student engagement and motivation is improving and student-teacher interactions are on the rise. Initial reviews of instructor judgment of student achievement (that is, basing achievement on grades rather than standardized tests) point out that college students are doing better than before (Bebell, 2004).

In our personal experiences in LPS, we see school rooms with laptop computer access achieving a 1:1 ratio for the class interval exhibiting a lot improved academic behaviors. Working in this manner, students reveal an inclination to return to earlier homework and revise, edit and reuse to far higher degrees than the classroom teacher was accustomed to seeing. Students extra typically examine their writing samples with peers and appear more more doubtless to collaborate. Using blogs, wikis and different on-line instruments, students broaden on the usefulness of word processors by working collaboratively and ubiquitously.

Collaboration by way of Technology A robust theme by way of the analysis and observations on this paper is how technologies are used to enhance student achievement and general practices. This section is devoted to the artwork of collaboration and how numerous instruments enable people to reach throughout distances and thru time like never earlier than. iPods and other MP3 playing devices have opened up a very handy and powerful pathway for data to be produced, accessed and archived. San Diego State University is leveraging this technology in science trainer preparation.

Podcasting is a method of recording digital audio and video files and posting them on-line for others to access. This methodology can be used to bring distant specialists to students, provide opportunities to evaluation materials at leisure, grant unprecedented access to college students to analysis material and extend the training alternatives for students well beyond the classroom. Surveys of pre-service science teachers who used iPods and podcasting in their preparation reported time financial savings, elevated curiosity in subject matter, and declared that they would use podcasting in their own teaching strategies in the future (Yerrick, 2006).

The presence of global networks, the affordability of a extensive selection of data expertise and the truth that connected people create an integrated entire have drastically impacted how we work, and be taught right now. Learning theories of the previous century together with behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism have been developed, prior to the current means our lives are organized, on account of technology. Siemens proposes a new concept of studying primarily based on the new human situation: Connectivism. In this view, information resides in individuals and on gadgets.

Learning and understanding rest on diverse opinions from a big selection of sources. Learning becomes a means of connecting nodes of information. Continual studying is maintained by nurturing connections. Learners find connections between totally different ideas, fields of research, and primary concepts. Being present is of paramount significance. And decision-making is actually a learning process, that means selecting what to learn and with the flexibility to cope with the shifting nature of information. Learners should turn out to be snug with the reality that what is considered correct right now may be confirmed incorrect tomorrow.

This principle of learning represents an enormous shift in thinking: that learning isn’t a person pursuit, but is a collaborative, dynamic and unending activity (Siemens, 2005). In LPS, the weblog and the wiki has turn into a captivating collaborative studying software. In a Language Arts classroom, college students now not simply take a glance at a book, write some sticky-note annotations, and have one-at-a-time discussions prompted by the instructor. Rather, students copy Macbeth from a web useful resource right into a word processor and annotate electronically, keeping their work on personally owned USB memory keys.

While some college students talk about a scene with the trainer, others are free to blog commentary on the subject of verbal discussion or other interests in the subject-matter at hand. Suddenly, a dozen conversation threads are taking place suddenly and the trainer only has management of 1. The participation price of students has risen and college students return to the blog after faculty to proceed their dialog. Students report that the dialog by way of weblog makes them extra reflective and but more confident due to the dearth of a public speaking element to the classroom discussion.

In one discussion, the variety of postings became so frequent over a brief time frame that the free running a blog service shut down the account as a outcome of the activity resembled a malicious digital attack on the blog server. A wiki supporting one other Language Arts class is being used to connect students to younger individuals in different countries like South Korea. Students reading Arabian Nights have alternatives to share their insights with others from around the United States and even in international countries.

Other alternatives embrace the use of SKYPE for toll-free calls around the globe to different connected school rooms and instant messages permitting free-form, high speed conversation on matters of study. And in a Foreign Language classroom, chat and Voice Over IP systems permit students to apply their second language acquisition with their instructor, with one another, and even with students exterior the classroom. The lesson is that the artwork of collaboration has no boundaries right now. Time and house are not the limiters they once were and the list of applied sciences on this section only scratches the surface of what’s available.

And like the training theory of Connectivism factors out, this too will change. Education should take notice and prepare college students to succeed in an setting that thrives on collaboration whereas continuously altering and bettering the instruments that help it. Word Processing and Writing For many years now, research has been carried out on the effect word processing has on writing expertise for faculty students. In a 1997 study, Owston and Wideman cite a substantial physique of labor on this matter as a part of their research project that studied third grade college students utilizing word processors for writing.

They concluded in their very own research that use of word processors that have been available to college students and were an built-in part of their day by day actions resulted in significantly higher quality and quantity of writing as compared to an analogous scholar group without entry and assist for such tools (1997). In a more recent qualitative study, using word processors with seven third grade students over a six week period led to significantly extra inventive, extra comprehensive and improved style.

This research of 5 ladies and two boys also reported greater motivation to work with the writing course of as compared to paper and pencil strategies (Beck & Fetherston, 2003). In LPS, Anne Smith reports that students are extra engaged when utilizing classroom laptops. The college students benefit from the ease of use to control text to indicate numerous sentence constructions. While these studies definitely level to improved writing volume and quality from young students, research additionally means that young students must be exposed to handwritten learning as nicely, which has been some extent of debate for some time.

An article by Balajthy et al factors out that students need a diverse writing expertise and that word processors ought to be part of the experience rather than replacing handwritten work (Balajthy, McKeveny, & Lacitignola, 1986). At this developmental degree, the varied tools for writing are best for learners when they are used in an built-in approach with the general tutorial program somewhat than taught individually (MacArthur, 1988).

There are research that show little or no impression of word processors on the quality of student writing, however, a meta-analysis in 1993 showed that these studies tend to have numerous limitations not the least of which is the use of text-based word processors somewhat than the Graphical User Interface (GUI) techniques in use right now. Additionally, the evaluation revealed that such research typically contain college students who’ve sporadic access to the expertise and weren’t achieved with the tool (Bangert-Drowns, 1993).

The process of mastering writing is essential and there’s research that shows how emphasis on writing abilities positively improves pupil achievement throughout the curriculum. Writing Across the Curriculum initiatives have over twenty years of skilled follow and anecdotal proof to assist this declare. Strong analysis has been onerous to return by, however, to actually proof the consequences. One of the most important obstacles is the ability to really have a strong management group for any study as such would require a population of students who didn’t use writing as a half of their studying process (Railsback, 2004).

Some studies have been able to document optimistic effects. In a 1992 research, Van Allen was capable of conclude that school-wide efforts in Writing Across the Curriculum in five middle colleges over a five 12 months period resulted in higher writing and higher general student achievement on assessments (1991). What we have discovered important in LPS is to have students write regularly and in a selection of types including wikis and blogs in addition to word processors. We wish to observe right here that we must be cautious about using analysis that is old, despite the fact that some of it is unavoidable.

The know-how tools of at present are very totally different than when computers first entered schools. As an example, the word processing analysis from the Nineteen Eighties will not be utterly irrelevant, but the software of at present bears so little resemblance to the software of the late 1980s. In addition, elevated pupil (and teacher) familiarity with these tools may also affect the impression these instruments have on achievement. A key question is “How will we measure the influence of tools that change so quickly that by the time you measure their impression, the instruments have changed?

In other words, by the point most analysis is completed (and revealed in “reputable” sources), the expertise has changed so much that the research loses no less than a few of its relevance. This shall be a big hurdle to overcome. In a complete peer-reviewed report, Bangert-Drowns carried out another meta-analysis with Hurley and Wilkinson on the influence of writing throughout the curriculum in 2004. This analysis, which reviewed 48 research, produced three main findings. First, writing for learning produced constructive effects on faculty achievement within the research reviewed.

The second finding was that grade levels, minutes per task, and writing prompts had important impact on outcomes. The examine found that programs applied in Grades 6–8 actually had lowered performances, presumably as a outcome of lack of time on the extra differentiated content lined at the secondary stage. Longer tasks also depressed outcomes perhaps for related time constraint points and motivational points amongst students. The use of writing prompts regarding students’ current understandings and confusion were very effective whereas prompts for personal writing confirmed no impact. The third discovering involved the size of remedy.

The analysis revealed the intuitive conclusion that college students who’ve longer publicity to writing for learning strategies expertise a cumulative effect that is very optimistic (2004). The analysis continues at present and can be seen in an article printed in Education Week on February 14, 2007, where the National Assessment of Educational Progress has been piloting a computerized test for assessing writing. This move recognizes the analysis that is displaying how college students write more typically, of higher high quality, and with more consistency (between both genders) when utilizing these writing instruments.

And preliminary results are exhibiting that college students have a tendency to write higher on the tests when utilizing the word processor (Cavanagh, 2007). What can be drawn from these studies is that writing, being an lively learning process, has been shown to positively influence pupil achievement in all subject areas. It may also be stated that college students who have ample entry to word processing in conjunction with skillful instruction in a faculty that’s emphasizing Writing Across the Curriculum can be reasonably anticipated to produce higher achievement results. Streaming Video

In 4 Los Angeles public faculties, a examine was conducted on the effectiveness of United Streaming video in supporting 6th by way of eighth grade mathematics achievement. Students had been pre and post-tested to provide the supply data for the examine which revealed that the experimental group utilizing streaming video outperformed the management group by four. 7 p.c among sixth grade college students. This differential was shown to be statistically significant. Eighth grade college students showed a more modest 2. 2 % benefit which nonetheless registered as significant (Boster et al. , 2004).

In LPS, the identical United Streaming resources had been secured for all colleges initially of the 2006–2007 faculty yr. Additional digital projection and speaker gear was provided to varsities together with a concerted orientation effort to assist lecturers entry and use the fabric. Prior to the introduction of United Streaming video, the Internet connection for the district was peaking at 26 megabits of demand. Within two months of the introduction of United Streaming, the height demand had reached a hundred megabits which represented the maximum throughput the connection was capable of sustain.

This 400 p.c enhance in Internet demand was traced directly to streaming video services requested by the faculties demonstrating the worth lecturers instantly saw on this expertise. Today, LPS is deploying a regionally hosted server to current the streaming video to satisfy the rising demand for each amount and high quality of the content. Laptops for Teachers The following is an statement of know-how use at Lenski Elementary School by Assistant Director of Instructional Technology, Boni Hamilton.

As a half of the Technology Grants from Plan for Social Excellence (www. pfse. org). faculties offered laptops for teachers in the first 12 months of the three year grants. PFSE didn’t collect exhausting information in regards to the impact, however at Lenski Elementary School, I saw firsthand the effects on teachers and instruction. Some observations: 1. Teachers who had been least assured about their know-how expertise increased their confidence and competence with technology skills to equal that of the extra tech-savvy staff members within four months.

While the classroom academics had common access to expertise skills after they co-taught in the lab and so had been pretty confident with expertise expertise, the non-classroom staff similar to specialists acquired coaching solely when it was scheduled for the employees. This was too infrequent to provide them the level of competence they wanted. The portability of the laptops allowed the specialists to get assist from friends, family members, and pals. A couple of teachers even signed up for computer courses exterior the varsity as a outcome of they lastly had computers they could take home and apply on.

One trainer who had been solely moderately snug with know-how learned the way to make tables in MSWord and began showing everybody on staff — she became the employees expert. 2. Teachers improved of their trouble-shooting abilities. Trouble-shooting is tough to teach as a end result of problems happen at inconvenient instances and are onerous to reproduce throughout a coaching session. However, when lecturers have been carting their laptops home and had issues, they needed to clear up the problems themselves. They both used members of the family to help or they ‘fooled around’ until it did what they wished.

Because they knew the computers could be restored, they not worried about what would happen in the occasion that they took a threat and pushed a button. 3. Teachers grew extra relaxed about issues. Before laptops, academics often obtained stressed when some know-how failed. As they discovered to problem-solve laptop problems, that they had much less tendency to get up-tight when something went incorrect. They had been then in a position to think about problem-solving strategies, seek the assistance of a peer, or cart the laptop computer to a pc coach for assist. four. Teachers increased the level of student use of technology.

As lecturers gained confidence, they grew to become extra prepared to threat utilizing computer systems within the classroom. It wasn’t as scary to let youngsters attempt initiatives on classroom computer systems as a outcome of they trusted that either they or their students could solve issues. 5. The demand for student computers in classrooms has increased dramatically yearly. Even though teachers felt their lecture rooms were too small to handle clusters of computer systems, six months after they acquired laptops, they made room for laptop clusters as a result of they began to depend on computer systems to enable college students to proceed tasks, collaborate on studying, and practice expertise.

The number of desktop computers in classrooms went from a mean of three per room to a mean of five to 6 per room. Lenski additionally purchased two 15-computer laptop computer carts, however demand was so heavy that the college added two extra carts within the following year. Then the library’s demand for computer systems increased so dramatically that the varsity had to purchase a fifth cart. In the third year of getting laptop computer carts, teachers at the moment are complaining that there are too few carts obtainable for the library and sixteen classrooms (Grades 2-5). 6.

After three years of having laptops, most lecturers opted to return to desktop computers. There seemed to be a quantity of causes for this: 1) They bought house computers and located they may use USB drives to cart information; 2) The college had enough wi-fi laptops for student use that teachers might get on a laptop computer; and even borrow one in a single day, in the event that they needed; 3) They most well-liked bigger screens, sooner processors, and standard mice. Based on these observations, I advocate strongly for giving teachers experience with laptops earlier than buying laptops for students. Concluding Remarks

The following is a summative commentary from Karl Fisch, Edublog Nominee and Finalist for the Best Blog of 2006: We’re not going to discover a entire lot of actually good research to support this right now. I can summarize what the analysis usually says. The use of expertise in applicable ways has a small, constructive effect on scholar achievement. It also has a bigger, however still small, optimistic effect on student and instructor motivation, engagement and satisfaction. That’s about it. But I would strongly argue that – to a certain extent – that is lacking the purpose. I would also recommend that a lot of our current practices are in direct contradiction to what the analysis says we must always do, but we do them anyway as a result of it’s handy for the adults.

How come no person is demanding to see the research to assist these practices? But I digress. ) I don’t assume that if we infuse expertise into our schools, even placing in a 1:1 program at the excessive faculties, that we’re going to see student achievement – as we presently measure it – skyrocket. I suppose we might even see a small positive impact, with possibly a slightly larger impact amongst these students who typically have not accomplished very properly in our colleges.

But the basic downside with in search of analysis that supports growth in student achievement is that – by necessity – analysis has to take a look at mounted, testable content to attempt to decide growth. Now I’m not saying that content information isn’t valuable, it is. But I think the abilities and abilities and habits of mind that ubiquitous access to technology would assist us develop in our students are ones which are actually hard to measure. How do you measure creativity? Or the ability to collaborate with others, each in the same room or across the planet (or beyond)?

Or the ability to absorb data from an virtually inexhaustible supply, synthesizes it, remix it, after which produce one thing that is of worth to others? How do you measure imagination? How do you measure the flexibility to perform in a flat, globally interconnected, technology-enabled, quickly altering world? How do we measure the power to learn how to learn? To know how to adapt, to reinvent your self over and over again to fulfill the wants of a world that is changing at an exponential tempo. How do you measure the ability to perform in a world where all of human factual data will be available virtually instantaneously?

Knowledge is sweet. Having content material information is necessary, however not sufficient, to achieve success within the 21st century. The research – at greatest – is just going to inform us about content material data. The energy of the technology is to transform teaching and studying as we know it. To make it more student-centered, more individualized (yet additionally extra community-based), more related, extra significant. It allows each scholar to attach to every other, to the world, to information, to learning, in the way(s) that works greatest for that pupil. I guess I concern we’re asking the mistaken questions . . .

Where does all this depart us? And what use does this document provide? Clearly, extra analysis is needed, but our efforts can no longer await the coming of complete research research. Not having solid research behind us will not be an adequate excuse for failing to organize our college students for the twenty first Century. Therefore, we have to be on the fixed look-out for analysis that will help us gentle the method in which whereas we transfer ahead within the modernization of our public schools and our strategies. We must turn into students of our personal society and permit our personal observations and action-research to influence our selections.

We should mannequin for our college students the creativity and risk-taking that will be defining traits of the following age. In quick, educators must come out of the consolation zone, launch some control and be a part of the wave of seemingly chaotic world empowerment. Daniel Pink describes the next age of society which could give us some clues. He defines an age by the type of employee that is most commonly found among the many inhabitants. During the Agricultural Age, the common individual was some kind of farmer. During the Industrial Age, it was the manufacturing facility worker.

And during the Information Age, which he describes as starting within the 1960’s, it was the Knowledge Worker. But the end of each age is preceded by an out-sourcing and off-shoring of the common worker prompting the rise of the next age. So what does Daniel Pink counsel is next? The Conceptual Age. This economy maintains the need of sturdy left-brain expertise (reading, writing, math and science) while adding the best mind expertise (aesthetics, intuition, worth and play). Daniel Pink would advise us to proceed our left-brain pursuits, however introduce the richness of that means and worth. It is now not enough to create a well engineered product; now the product should be interesting as well (2005).

References:

How Can Respect Make Me A Better Student

Students and teachers agree that there is often a lack of respect between teachers and students, students and students, and teachers, students, and parents. Students report that respect in the classroom is vital for the success of each student. They say teachers need to be respected by the students in order to effectively teach and students need to be respected by their teachers in order to learn. Respect being an important character trait, is most graciously valued. We all value respect, as to if there wasn’t respect, society would be an ugly place. However, how can respect make a better student? Part of being respectful is to be courteous and kind. For students, examples could be waiting your turn to speak or not cheating. During school, I try my best to show how respectful I can be by respecting not only my teachers, but most importantly, my peers. First of all, in order to be a respectful student, you have to respect the teacher teaching you.

Most teachers have gone through a long process of learning themselves in order to be up there at the front of the room teaching you. The best thing you could do in return could be to respect them and their time. Every day, there’s a portion of time you have with every teacher. Of course, they would hate for you to waste their time. Not only are you jeopardizing your own opportunity to learn, but you’re also jeopardizing your peers’ opportunities by being a distraction. Interrupting class time is highly disrespectful. The reason why you’re in a teacher’s class is to basically learn. If you decide to disrupt their class, you’re also disrupting the bond of respect that the teacher has towards you. Just think, how are you supposed to properly get an education if the teacher does not respect you? Second of all, another example of being respectful is respecting your peers. It’s clearly disrespectful for you to put them down, call them names, and discourage them. I’m sure you would like for them to respect you. If you give a certain respect, it’s automatic for them to respect you back. If we all respected each other, the school environment would be much more peaceful.

For example, in the movie we watched in class, the leader of a committee had trouble with the people she was with because they weren’t being respectful of each other’s ideas for an event the school was planning. She stated that the people in her committee wouldn’t give others the chance to speak; when they actually did get something across each other’s minds, someone would discourage their idea. With help from a radio station, she realized that if they didn’t respect each other’s ideas and wait their turn to speak, nothing would get done. She then said that at the beginning of the next meeting, she would make it clear that the “golden rule” would be intact. In class, being a respectful person toward a peer could be as simple as not cheating. You have to respect the fact that that person did their work, and should be honored for that.

Outside of class, an example of a respectful student could be if you’re walking down the hall and you bump into someone you particularly don’t know too well, you would say “excuse me” as a sign of respect towards them. If you’re a respectful person inside and outside of school, I’m pretty sure you’d have a ton of friends and a lot of people lining up wanting to be your friend. Not only that, but being a respectful person gives off a great impression towards teachers. Lastly, another important concept of being respectable is having respect for yourself. If people see that you don’t have respect for yourself, how are they supposed to give you respect? Yes, you might respect them, but if you look at the situation thoroughly, they can’t possibly respect you knowing that you lack self-respect. The first step into gaining other people’s respect is to basically have respect for yourself. When others notice that, they’ll most definitely have no trouble in respecting you.

Once you have self-respect, you have the ability to gain others’ respect as well. In conclusion, the question: “How can respect make me a better student?” made me think of a myriad of real situations dealing with respect. Not only do you need to respect your elders, teachers, and other students, but you most importantly need to respect yourself. After thinking about that, I have concluded that being a respected student will take you places. How can you move on in life if you’re not respected? Respect is a precious value. One can gain and lose respect in a blink of an eye, or in a simple snap of fingers- easy as that. Being on top of your work, kind and courteous to everyone, and having a good attitude at most times will have teachers thinking of you as a respected student. In addition, having teachers’ respect is very blessing and most likely, a student would be entirely grateful.

Student Success Courses

College failure has been more common than not in recent years, many students just go off to school unprepared and unaware of what to even expect. Often in High School the teacher say they are preparing you for college, but in many cases it is nowhere near what college is really like. In High School you were forced to attend, your teacher held your hand along the way and you were required to take classes you may have not wanted to take or interested in. In the article, “Do Student Success Courses Actually Help Community College Students Succeed?” written by authors from the community college research center (CCRC), they explain that studies have shown college success classes to highly improve the success rates of college students.

Many community colleges offer success courses, and some even require them. These courses help prepare students what to expect in the near upcoming years. They teach students about different resources around campus to utilize for success, studying habits, time management, how to set clear goals and even how to navigate the many different websites and online class programs. This article describes that these courses have been very affective, which is proved by lots of research. Some research was done in Schools of Florida, where students taking “student life skills” or “SLS” were more likely to earn a community college credential, transfer to a state university, or remain in college after five years. The study shows that students not taking the SLS course were usually rated with higher failure rates.

Many college success courses have specialized textbooks for their school, like we do here at TCC for example and they help the students specifically here at TCC and helping us be successful. The books can teach you about resources on campus, support groups, and how to succeed at your college. This article concludes that many students come to community colleges with very limited understanding of the opportunities and demands of college life and lack the skills and orientation needed to thrive in college. Student Success coursed more often than not contribute to positive outcomes by helping students early in college by developing goals, becoming aware of resources, and have an overall clear idea of what it takes to succeed in college.

Works Cited
Zeidenberg, Mark; Jenkins, Davis; Calcagno, Juan Carlos. “Do Student Success Courses Actually Help Community Colleges Succeed?” Community College Research Center: CCRC BRIEF. (June 2007): Volume 36. Web. 10 October 2013.

Guiding principle for assessment of student learning

Evaluation should bebased on clearly stated objectives. An objective is defined as the statement of the expected behaviors that the student should display after instruction or teaching. These objectives serve as basis for constructing and using assessment instruments to assess students’ learning. The expected behaviors are somehow related to either of the following, but not limited to: 1) knowledge; 2) reasoning; 3) skills; 4) products; or, 5) affects.

Knowledge – refers to the cognitive activities which include memorizing, recalling of facts, understanding of concepts and meanings, analysing the relationships of related facts, synthesizing or related facts and principles, and evaluating the outcomes of the relationships of concepts and principles. Reasoning – is a behavior which refers to the cognitive activities which require the use of presentation, justification, and rationalization of the existence of facts, concepts, theories, and principles.

Skills – defined as the ability to use once knowledge effectively and readily in the execution of performance of a specific task. This requires three elements in the skill: 1) sensing; 2) precision (accuracy); and, 3) timing. Products – refers to psychomotor activities that show the end result of using the abilities to manipulate, apply, and operate facts, concepts and principles in real-life situations. Affects – refers to the activities that show values, morals, ethics, ideals, and standards in life.

B. The Principle of Appropriateness of Assessment
Evaluation procedures and techniques should be selected in terms of the clearly stated objectives (Gronlund, 1981).There are various formats of assessment instruments from which the teacher can choose for classroom use. The suggested general formats are the following: Objective test – are those that require one and only one correct answer and no possible answers.

Reganit, et al.(2004) posits that an objective test is made up of items for which correct responses maybe set up in advance. There are different types of objective test item formats, these are: 1) supply type; 2) matching type; 3) alternate-response type; 4) labelling; 5) enumeration; and, 6) multiple choice. Subjective test – res are evaluated by giving an opinion about the issue, concepts, ideas, and the like.

In an English class, a test for the assessment of students’ writing skills are often considered as subjective because it require the teacher to rate a piece of work based on his/her personal interpretation.

The raters can assign the corresponding points depending upon the quality of the piece of writing output. Performance test – when the objective of the lesson requires that at the end of the lesson the student are required to perform in an activity, the appropriate test to measure the achievement of this objective is a performance test. Oral Reasoning– when the instructional objective states that “ at the end of the lesson the pupils orally defend their stand on the issue,” then an oral reasoning test is appropriate.

Observation – Reed and Bergmann (2001) observation is one effective means of learning…how students response to classroom environment. This assessment method can be done by the teacher, co-student, or even parents. Self – Reports – students may be required to write personal opinions, journals, and reflection about a learning activity.Fromthese self-made reports, the teachers evaluate whether or not these students have learn the concepts taught in the classroom.

Student Loan Debt

Going to college has been taught to be the next step in education after graduating high school but is it truly that easy? The main factor to attending college now is the money issue. In today’s generation receiving a scholarship would be the best way to get through college without the burden of student loan debt piling up as you get further into college. Even though financial aid is available for students seeking college education, some of those students will not all qualify for financial aid. With them not being able to qualify, it leaves taking out student loans to afford those college expenses. By them having no other option but to take out student loans, it is the start to a long road of student loan debt issues.

Majority of student loans today are through the popular loan company Sallie Mae. In 1972, Sallie Mae was founded as a private company for loans but since late 2004, it generally became a publicly traded company. The biggest challenge with student loans is finding one that offers the lowest interest rate. Rising interest rates may make obtaining and paying off student loans more burdensome, particularly for students from financially disadvantaged households. Students from lower income households rely on federal loans more heavily than their higher income counterparts, meaning that students from households with fewer financial resources may be disproportionately affected by increases in interest rates. For instance, over half of all lower income students pay for college with federal loans (ranging from 48% to 56%), whereas less than half of all higher income students pay with federal loans (ranging from 27% to 49%).

While some research suggests that the overall percentage of students is small who report substantial problems with repaying their loans, those with lower current and lifetime earnings report the greatest difficulty and are perhaps overburdened. Given this, it is critical to find ways of reducing students’ reliance on loans, particularly for those from households with fewer financial resources. Where some students take a turn for the worst is not paying attention to the interest rate numbers which adds up over the years causing the owed amount to double and even triple in some cases. As of the beginning of this year, it has been reported that Sallie Mae will split in the fall for money reasons. Sallie Mae will split into two companies with one keeping the name Sallie Mae and the other called Navient who will service most of Sallie Mae’s existing student loan portfolio. With Navient taking over, payments will now go to them instead of Sallie Mae.

Financial aid is given to students based on their household income. Students with a lower based income will be more likely to receive a full amount than a two parent wealthy home. Even though Without the help of financial aid for students, taking out student loans would be the next step for affording college. At that time, student loans could be a great way to help students by giving them a chance to still be able to attend college without the help of financial aid but there is also a downfall to student loans as well. According to the Federal Reserve Board of NY, there are approximately thirty seven billion student loan borrowers with large student loan debt amounts. These student loan debts can take years before they are paid and in some cases, they never get fully paid. This situation with student loan debt is what makes the decision to attend college even more difficult.

With the debt loan rapidly increasing from year to year, it is not only effecting young adults but the economy as well. With Students having this load of debt to pay, it decreases the ability for them to be able to afford things such as cars and their first homes. Without the purchasing of these items, it causes problems such as unemployment. (Bidwell, n.pag)

The Student loan debt crisis not only affects the graduates of the university but also the future students as well. The future students who have one day dreamed about going to college are now taking a second look on attending school because of this debt problem. Without receiving a scholarship or financial aid it is virtually impossible for students to attend college without the possible outcome of being drowned in a large amount of student loan debt. (Bidwell, n.pag)

`Because of the money issue with college, some students do not get to become better educated as well. The skills that you will be able to learn in college are very different from high school teaching. You will learn to think more critically and have reasoning skills that will stay with you for a lifetime. Students will also have a much greater opportunity in the job market as well if they were able to obtain a college degree. Having a college degree is the main source that jobs look for in the work field today whether it is to become a lawyer, doctor, or either some form of office worker. Being able to provide that you have some type of college degree can increase your chances of acquiring a better and high paying job but because of some students do not attend college because of money issues, it lowers their chances of having those same opportunities in general as well. (Raumont, n.pag)

Going to college may be easier for some more than others. Whether it be financial aid issues, student loan debt fear, or some students cancelling the college dream out very quickly because they think financially it is impossible and causing them to miss out on good opportunities

Student engagement essay

The overall experience changes drastically in post secondary institutions compared to high school mainly because of student engagement. Student engagement is what adds to the atmosphere of a post secondary setting and being involved within a post secondary institution can really help with making friends and doing well in school. Student engagement can vary drastically through the classes, the campus and based through my experience as well as residence engagement.

In post secondary institutions students go through a big transition, as the environment that they are put into is very different from what they are used to. Student engagement is “the other focuses on students’ cognitive investment, active participation in and emotional commitment to their learning” (Zepke et al, 2009). Student’s class engagement can decrease as they are put into a new environment, with different teaching and learning methods.

The change in this could cause disengagement, as students become not motivated to accomplish good grades. Students need to realize that hard work, time and effort is needed, and if unable to do that grades could result very poorly. Relationships with teachers/professors are not strong in post secondary. Students who transition from high school to post secondary school are not given the attention that they were given in high school by their teachers.

Students are used to being “babied” in high school, as they are told several times that an assignment needs to be done or are allowed to hand in late assignments. “Students are more likely to engage if they are supported by teachers who establish inviting learning environments, demand high standards, challenge, and make themselves freely available to discuss academic progress” (Zepke et al, 2010). In post secondary school, students need to go out of their way to get the extra help they need, as class sizes are usually very large. Since class sizes are usually large, students may have a difficult time listening, as well because classes range between one to three hours in length.

Coming to a new environment puts students out of their comfort zone. Campus engagement is all about how students interact with the extra curricular activities and getting involved with the school on campus. Students are put into a new environment and not knowing people when coming to a new school can be intimidating, and it makes it harder to become involved in the school clubs, sports, activities and committees. Sports teams could be more competitive as students could possibly just decide not to try out because they may think they are not good enough, and teams and clubs would require many hours a week, which could be very time consuming. Campus life is very different than high school, as students are used to all their classes being in one building, appose to post secondary school where classes are in multiple buildings and require to walk to different buildings.

In conclusion, the overall experience changes drastically in post secondary institutions compared to high school because of student engagement. Students poor class engagement could be that they are not motivated to do the work, not pushed by teachers to get assignments and homework done, and class sizes are quite large as it would be hard to focus. What is not realized is that students do not think it is as hard, as they slack the first term, but once they get their marks back, it’s a big shock to them.

Getting involved in the campus could be challenging for some students because they are out of their comfort zone and they do not know a lot of people. They are hesitant to get involved, as it is a huge change from high school going into post secondary school. Student engagement can be challenging with students when they do not know what to expect going into post secondary school, but will eventually learn from their mistakes and start creating better class and campus ethics.

Responsibility of student

“In the long run/ we shape our lives/ and we shape ourselves//. The process never ends until we die. And the choices we make/ are ultimately our own responsibility.// (Eleanor Roosevelt) Being responsible/ is a learned behavior. Sometimes// we want everything to be easy. I often hear some students say /”Bakit may P.E tayo,hindi naman natin magagamit pag nagtrabaho na tayo”.

We have so many complaints in terms our studies. As Mr. Olarte once said “Kapag nag enrolll ka siguraduhin mong papasukan mo yung mga klase mo.” Most of us /take our studies for granted/ not taking in consideration the effects of these actions/ to our future. So//, why do we need to take responsibility of our studies?

They say /that education is not a choice//, it is a privilege.// We all know/ that not all students who finished their secondary education /can afford to take up college. Fellow classmates// we are very lucky to be here in SMU,// taking up our own choice of profession. So why we not taking advantage of this given opportunity? Many students don’t attend their classes. Some would prioritize playing DOTA,/ waste their time in drinking and smoking rather than finishing their school requirements. Some practice cheating and academic dishonesty, instead of studying hard for their exams.

These irresponsible students don’t think of the consequences of their actions. And as a result? Failing grades and disappointment of parents. And yes//, later, regrets. Tons of them. By being responsible, accountable and dependable. I believe that every one of us could achieve whatever goals we have set for our lives. Just always remind yourself that every decision and actions that you will make entails a big responsibility.

And as a student you know what your responsibilities are. We should be actively involved in the learning process and should behave appropriately for a learning environment. Attend all your classes and listen carefully. Put a sufficient time for your studies. And if you think you’re doing your best right now, then, strive harder. With all the temptations, hindrances, and problems towards education we should always bear in our mind that OUR OWN FUTURE LIES IN OUR OWN HANDS. Let us all be responsible and strive harder for our own success.

Student Resources Worksheet

Student resources include a variety of helpful sites and tools that can be of assistance when completing assignments, connecting to other students, and searching for careers. Complete this table regarding student resources provided by the university. In the first column, identify where the resource can be found. In the second column, summarize each resource in at least one sentence. When you are finished with the matrix, answer the follow-up question in part B.

Part A: Resources Scavenger Hunt

Student resource
Where found
Summary of the resource
Syllabus
Home section
Lets you know all of your tasks and assignments and what is required of you to do throughout your whole course Class Policies
Class Home
Tells you the academic and instructor policies
University Library
Library
Has a variety of resources and links to help us as students. We can also search for a variety of things. University Academic Catalog
Program
Contains academis program and policies effective to your program University Learning Goals

Student information system

1.0 Introduction
Student Information Systems (SIS) manages student records and information. A Student Information System provides a capability to view the student records. It includes student status, grades and the remaining accounts. A Student Information System helps schools mange various operations including student data, accounts, and viewing grades on previous semester. Students preferred to have guide and easy transaction like release of records, enrolment and many more. These are demands that institutions should come up with. They need technology which should do the work for them. What they need is a program or a system where they would simply press or click button and all the necessary information about a person will be provided. Additionally, much of the software used in previous student information systems and school administration worked on an outdated code base and had a curious mix of presentation, businesses and data accessibility. Thus, educational institutions were looking for a web- based solution such as a student information system or an intelligent student information system with an inbuilt mechanism to meet the requirements of student- related information management as well as to serve the purpose of a school management system. The advantage of having a student management system was missing as it was not possible to integrate any of the campus- based activities within the systems.

Furthermore, they were looking forward to a complete package on student information management system from a single programmer. The ever changing trend in technology brought the necessity for the automation of everything from paper-and-pen based to absolute computer domination. The overwhelming emergence of computers paved way to easier access of information that leads to increased production, efficiency and reliability. The increasing urbanity of modern information system allows the information and communication technologies to be utilized in different actions. In fact, the educational institutions are one of the leading users of computer applications in order to manage student data. Student Information System is a computer application that deals with the generation, collection, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of recorded knowledge. Computerized Student Information System provide capabilities for entering student information, building a student record and managing other student – related data needs in the school.

1.1 Statement of the Problem
There is no Privacy of student’s data. We can’t know what action is being performed by whom. There is not register id provided for Administrator. Student’s data can modify without permissions. The data of students has been written on Microsoft Excel sheet. Taking name, id and subj. marks as each column. There are was no privacy for student’s data. There were no log-in id’s for administrators 1.1.1.1 General Problem

How to develop and Implement an Automated Point of Viewing of the student of STI College Tuguegarao 1.1.1.2 Specific Problem

1. To Provide security in the system
2. To create user friendly yet Effective system
3. To provide an easy access of the student Information
4. To create a system that will easily interact with its users thru easy-to-use interfaces and understandable transactions 1.2 Current State of the Technology
The Student Information System (SIS) is a student-level data collection system that allows the Department to collect and analyze more accurate and comprehensive information, to meet national and state reporting requirements, and to inform policy and programmatic decisions. A student information system (SIS) is a software application for education establishments to manage student data. Student information systems for entering student school, college or university. Also known as student information system (SIS), student records system (SRS), student management system (SMS), campus management system (CMS) or school management system (SMS).

1.3 Objective of the Study

We proposed a system, which is called Computerized Student Information System, to help the school to provide complete information of the student. It will help to maintain and monitor the yearly enrollees, drop outs and to keep their records. This will be ease in accessing the records needed for
their will be an option for searching with the use of student number issued by the school. The common functions of a Computerized Student Information System are to support

1.3.1 General Objectives
This study aims to develop and implement an automated Student information system for STI College Tuguegarao Which could minimize at least 75% of the time consumed in asking the accounts, schedule and grades in every term and lessen data loss to provide student information storage which could be easier to access. 1.3.2 Specific Objectives

1. The maintenance of personal and study information.
2. Handling inquiries from prospective student
3. Handling the admissions process
4. Handling records of examinations, assessments, marks, grades.
5. Maintaining records of absences and attendance
6. Handling personal information etc.
1.4 Scope and Limitations
Scope is determining the coverage of the system while limitations are provided to restrict instances that are unnecessary to the system’s use.

1.4.1 Scope
1. The Information system will be used by the School with the old and new Students to transact. 2. The system includes the Student Schedule, Grades, Accounts and the Student Information module of the Student and will generate all reports. 3. The User and Administrator that will use the system must undergo to orientation to ensure optimum and efficient usage of the system. 4. The system will produce reports from the authorized Administrator which has the access of the system for the accredited School holding. 5. The system will implement a User that has knowledge with computer to ensure optimum usage of the system.

1.4.2 Limitations
1. Only the Accounting and Registrar can have the access to the information of the Student. 2. The system shall be deployed to the Administrator’s
office 3. The Student has no power to use the system to change his/her personal information. The Registrar can do it for the Student. 4. The User has no power to change the user to log on. The administrator has to do it for the User to delete accounts to the system.

2.0 Theoretical Framework
A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts. It guides the research in determining what things to measure, and what statistical relationship to look for. Theoretical frameworks are obviously critical in deductive, theory of testing of studies. In those kinds of studies, the theoretical framework must be very specific and well-through out. 2.1 Theories Used in the Study

A repository is a knowledge base information about the facts that an enterprise must be able to access and the processes it must perform to be successful. In a sense, a data base is a repository itself, which contains information needed to generate the entire diagram from and report definitions, and others system documentation. A repository helps system and data base analysis achieve a seamless integration of data from several CASE tools.

The proponents would be using CASE tools to draw the modeling constructs needed for the data bases that would serve as the back end of the system. It would also be used for the code generation that would contain the database definition commands that would be passed to a database management system.

Database Management System is computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases. It is also defined as a collection of programs that enables one to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMS, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge computers that run on mainframes. User Interface is the aggregate of by means by which people – the users interact with the system. A particular machine, device computer program or other complex tools. The user interface provides means output and input. The user interface of the propose system would be vital to the interaction of the user to the system. Data administration is high – level function that is responsible of the overall management of the data resource in an organization, including maintaining corporate wide definitions and standards. A data administrator is a person who coordinates activities within the data administration department. The international networks, or more commonly known as the internet, or the world wide web are not synonymous.

The internet is the interconnection of computers linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connection etc. in contrast the URLs. The world wide web is one of the service accessible via internet, along with many other including email, files sharing and others. (data administration Hoffer, Jeffrey a., Prescott, marry b., McFadden, Fred r.2002) Data flow diagram is use not only in structured system as analysis and design, but also as a general process modeling tool. Data flow diagrams show the passage of the data through the system by using five basic constructs: data flows, process, data stores, external entities, and physical resources. The proponents use data flow diagram to form structured that would guide the proponents in the system that they would be developing.

The Data Flow Diagrams also show how the proponents handle the barriers that govern the system: which or which are not included in the system and what process is and what process is involved. Normalization is a technique for designing a relational database against certain types of logical or structural problems, namely data anomalies. (Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Kendall, Kenneth E. and Kendall, Julie E. 2002)

Entity Relationship Diagram is the end-product of the Entity Relationship Model (ERM) a type of conceptual data model or semantic data model. It is specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationship between entities in a database.ER Diagram often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Entities are things about which we seek information. Attributes are data we collect about entities. Relationship provides the structures needed to draw information from multiple entities. (Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) Hoffer, Jeffrey A., Prescott, Mary B., and McFadden, Fred R.2002)

Structured Query Language is a computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), Database Schema creation and modification, and database objects access control management.

The advantage of using this kind of methodology includes the acquisition of feedback from the user early in the project, the client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches with the software specification, according to which the system software program was built. (Structured Query Language (SQL) Hoffer, Jeffrey A., Prescott, Mary B., and McFadden, Fred R. 2002) 3.0 STI College Tuguegarao Student Information System

In this fast changing world were technology starts to populate and invade us, almost everyone find its advantages useful because each technology presented helps ease the workload of people. Having it will not help make the work easier but it will also ensure faster and more accurate work.

STI College Tuguegarao ‘student information process is strenuous and time consuming activity because many of parents/guardian including the students, registrar, accounting personnel manually searching for the information of every student enrolled in this school.

It is a long this line that the proposal to Student’s Information System of STI College Tuguegarao is made. The resulting program of the proposed study enables to keep information about each student, generate standard reports and all necessary information together with the student’s assessment, schedule and list of enrolled subjects. The need for a fast, accurate, organize way and more convenient of getting student’s information. Thus the goal is to develop an automated Students Information System for STI College Tuguegarao that will compensate the schools lack of manpower, file handling, and generation of forms and other documents.

3.1 Methodology
The System Development Life Cycle is the process of developing system or software. SDLC is a process of gradual improvement that is done into several
phases There are five development phase in SDLC which are:

Planning
This process or phase we define the requirements of the system to be made. Planning is the first step of making a system which we improve and correct the system. Database

Interface

Requirement and Determination
This second phase of SDLC where we managed to ask questionnaires during the interview and we gather information through identifying problems of manual system.

Analysis phase
Analysis phase is where we analyze and identify problems of the system which we determine if the system is needed to be improve or not. This phase will be the guide of the developer of the

Design phase
Design phase shows how the system will be build it also shows how will the system perform. It also shows how the system flows.
It also shows the design of the front end of the system.

Implementation
Implementation is the stage the system is already built and ready to use. This is where we determined if the system owner approves the system if we met their requirements and goals.

Maintenance
Maintenance is how we use and maintain the system.
This is the most important phase where we fix problems of the system.

3.2 System Design and Specification

Context Diagram (Level 0)
Student Information System
For STI College Tuguegarao

3.2.2 Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

Context Diagram (Level 1)
Student Information System
For STI College Tuguegarao

3.2.3 Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Context Diagram
Student Information System
For STI College Tuguegarao

3.3 Input Process-Output Diagram
INPUT
PROCCESS
OUTPUT

LOGIN
Username
Password
Account type
STUDENT INFORMATION

STUDENT SUBJECT SCHEDULE

STUDENT GRADES

STUDENTS ACCOUNTS
SCHOOL YEAR
USER ACCOUNT

LOG-IN Button – this button is used to identify if the supplied data inputted correctly ADD Button –
EDIT Button-
DELETE Button-
SAVE Button-
CANCEL Button-

Enter Password

STUDENT INFORMATION FORM

ASSESSMENT FORM

3.4 Hierarchical Input-Process-Output Diagram

3.5 Screen Shot

3.6 Resources
3.6.1 Hardware and Requirements
Description
Quantity
Amount
Remarks
2.0 Ghz Processor
ATX Motherboard
1 GB Memory
60 GB HDD
15 “ Colored monitor
50 watts AVR
Mouse
Keyboard
Printer

Php 15, 000.00
Php 250.00
Php 250.00
Php 2,500.00

This complete computer set will be for the use of the proposed system. Total

This is the hardware components needed to be able to implement the system to STI College Tuguegarao

3.6.2 Software Requirements
Description
Amount
Remarks

Visual Basic 6.0 (VB)

Php. 1,800.00
Used for the interface and coding of the proposed system.

Microsoft Access (MS)

Php. 3,000.00
Used for the database production of the proposed system.

This is the software components needed to be able to run the system for STI College Tuguegarao

3.6.3 Human Resource Requirements
One(1) System Administrator – must have a knowledge on how database works and all the workings of the system. Users – at least computer literate.

4.0 Performance Analysis
The performance analysis is considered to determine the experiment done by the proponents to assess errors and fix them to meet the desired output. 4.1 Introduction
We have analyzed the performance of the proposed system by using the Black
Testing Strategy 4.2 Experimental
Black Box Testing is not a type of testing; it instead is a testing strategy, which does not need any knowledge of internal design or code etc. As the name “black box” suggests, no knowledge of internal logic or code structure is required. The types of testing under this strategy are totally focused on the testing for requirements and functionality of the work product/software application. Black Box Testing is sometimes called as “Opaque Testing”, Functional/Behavioral Testing” and “Closed Box Testing.

Functional Testing:
In this type of testing, the software is tested for the functional requirements. The tests are written in order to check if the application behaves as expected.

Stress Testing:
The application is tested against heavy load such as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc. which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand.

Usability Testing:
This testing is also called as ‘Testing for User Friendliness’. This testing is done if User Interface of the application stands an important consideration and needs to be specific for the specific type of user.

Smoke Testing:
This type of testing is also called sanity testing and is done in order to check if the application is ready for further major testing and is working properly without failing up to least expected level.

Recovery Testing:
Recovery Testing is basically done in order to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure etc. Type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications.

Volume Testing:
Volume Testing is done against the efficiency of the application. Huge amount of data is processed through the application (which is being tested) in order to check the extreme limitations of the system.

Testing where user plays a role/user is required

User Acceptance Testing:
In this type of testing the software is handed over to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and work as it is expected to.

Alpha Testing:
In this type of testing, the users are invited at the development center where they are used the application and the developers note every particular input or action carried out by the user. Any type of abnormal behavior of the system is noted and rectified by the developers

Beta Testing:
In this type of testing, the software is distributed as a beta version to the users and users test the application at their sites. As the users explore the software, incase if any exception/defect occurs that is reported to the developers.

4.3 Result and Analysis
As a result of the testing we have done during the development of the system, errors do occur but given solutions immediately just after occurrence because of the conduct of the said “Block Box Testing”. Each form that is finished with its coding are tested several times to figure out what are the errors and to also give us idea on any additions we may include that would make the system better.

5.1 Conclusion

The system provides large database where it can store all of personal information of the student and easy to produce data about the student
information required by the student and stored by several users as the registrar, the accounting officer and an administrator

Student Information System

Foundation and Background
Executive Statement:
“Everyone who works at this university — or at any technology-driven institution — understands how much we rely on our information systems. Unfortunately, WSU’s IT infrastructure is increasingly unreliable, made up of obsolete systems that were not originally designed for the multiple tasks they now perform. That they continue to work at all is a tribute to employees who have specialized knowledge of the unique fixes that are frequently required. Clearly, a world-class research university cannot long stand on such a shaky IT foundation. In fact, in the generally glowing accreditation report filed by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities about our university this summer, one recommendation read: “The Committee recommends that Washington State University provide contemporary information management systems that will address the needs of the future for its student, academic and management support requirements.” The committee echoed the findings of Gartner, Inc., the consulting firm brought in by WSU to examine our information systems in light of our funding requests.

“The current applications do not provide the necessary agility to meet changing business and academic requirements in a rapidly growing and evolving environment such as WSU is experiencing today,” the report found. Students and their parents are frustrated by breakdowns in our systems for registration, payments and financial aid. Just this fall, our registration software failed in the days leading up to the first day of classes. The situation was resolved, thanks to an intensive round-the-clock effort by our programming team. However, it was yet another clear sign that we can no longer delay solutions.” Excerpt from: Dr. Elson Floyd, Perspectives, November 9, 2009

Accreditation and Leadership Statement
The Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU) 2009 Evaluation Committee recommendation that Washington State University provide contemporary enterprise information management systems that will address the needs of the future for its student, academic and management support requirements did not come as a surprise. Over the course of preparing the 2009 Self-Study report, information technology and an aging legacy system were identified as one of four cross-cutting challenges impacting the university as a whole and serving as a serious impediment to progress for almost every area of the university. Our internal assessment, and that of the Evaluation Committee, was reaffirmed in May 2009 in a report provided by a nationally recognized professional consultant. Responding to this challenge has been and continues to be a high priority of the University. The Student Information System project is a key component to the University’s overall effort to enhance WSU’s ability to deliver improved and expanded information technology services to the University community.

Problem Statement
The forces pushing the WSU student information replacement project forward are particularly strong at this time. These are the primary business drivers: • Risk of non-compliance • Risk of system failure • Improved integration and system capabilities • Opportunity for a vastly improved business intelligence program • University, college and program accreditation needs

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These business drivers push WSU forward from a risk and compliance standpoint and/or pull WSU forward from an opportunity standpoint. While the administrative systems generally do not deal directly with the strategic initiatives of the University, they play key supporting roles in fulfilling the University’s mission. Risk of Non-Compliance The lack of a robust electronic workflow process across integrated University systems jeopardizes WSU’s ability to exercise adequate internal controls in the current systems and in meeting complex regulatory requirements. In general, WSU systems are characterized by relatively weak internal controls and are thus vulnerable. Risk of System Failure The current student systems put WSU at significant risk. The myWSU Portal has failed at key times over the past several years – severely impacting the ability of faculty, staff and students to prepare for the beginning of both fall and spring terms. The current 30 year-old student systems are unique to WSU and supported by only two or three technical staff members, some nearing retirement. In general, the availability of qualified staff to support administrative systems is extremely limited, and there is no vendor support available for the current application software. Improved Integration and System Capabilities Historically WSU has worked around many limitations in current systems, but is unable to do much more without addressing the fundamental underlying systems.

There are long lists of system improvements that WSU needs, but is unable to implement due to the inflexibility of current systems. Over the past few years WSU has, for the most part, only developed and implemented systems to keep current with regulatory requirements. WSU is not in a position to react quickly to market needs and pressures with current student systems. On the other hand, there is a tremendous opportunity to improve the capabilities of our systems and allow for greater economies of scale. With the implementation of PeopleSoft we will be able to sunset many existing peripheral systems while taking advantage of the economies of scale of an expanded, flexible and integrated system. Improved system capabilities will not only allow WSU to address long-standing known shortcomings, but will also put us in a position to react quickly to unforeseen emerging needs. Opportunity for Vastly Improved Business Intelligence The business intelligence (BI) portion of the project will primarily focus on university business processes and the needs of data consumers at the institution.

More broadly, this change in data management will allow data consumers to ask new types of questions that previously went unanswered. By structuring data from a University perspective based on consistency of common data and hierarchies, we will make a leap forward in reporting, predictive analytics and data modeling. In order for our BI program to be successful the implementation team will ensure data conversion and data warehousing are consistent with the needs of current and future organizational goals. The BI functional team’s efforts will encompass data conversion and cleansing, data warehousing, data consistency and data consumption. For reporting, a set number of general dashboards and reports will be made available at implementation time. Extensive training of the basic BI tools will be offered in the initial phase. In a later phase tools for data analysis will be added to support analytics.

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University, College and Program Accreditation Needs The risk to the university was documented in both internal and external reviews including a recommendation from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU) based upon their Evaluation Team’s visit in 2009. While the university’s accreditation was reaffirmed, the Commission identified the need for contemporary enterprise information management systems as a challenge the university needed to address.

Purpose of the Project Charter
The Project Charter is the primary operating document defining the goals, objectives, strategies, scope, organization and standards for the SIS project (“The Project”). It anticipates the reality of very large projects and defines processes for constructively dealing with project issues and decisions and defines the mechanisms for project control.

Project Vision
Once implemented, this student information system will positively impact virtually everyone associated with the University: students, their families, faculty and staff. The new system will increase data accuracy, make student information management more secure, effective, convenient and accessible, and begin to coordinate information across the system to simplify student access to University resources.

Mission
Washington State University demonstrates its commitment to WSU students, faculty, staff and the State of Washington by planning, resourcing and implementing on time and within budget a robust, modern, integrated, standards-based, sustainable and vendor-supported Student Information Systems (SIS). The new SIS will improve service, accountability, work-flow, end-user reporting and provide access to reliable, timely, accurate and insightful information for recruiting prospective students, managing the
needs of current students as well as the related needs of faculty and for institutional decision-making and resource planning.

Goals, Critical Success Factors and Success Criteria
Because a new student information system is a significant investment for the institution, the successful implementation will need to meet or exceed a number of goals. These goals or “Pillars of Success” will be used in conjunction with critical success factors to guide project decision making which optimizes the likelihood of meeting the success criteria as defined by system users for each functional area. Goals • • • • • • • Complete the project on time and within budget. Provide a system that substantially improves service to students, faculty, staff and other users. Provide a system that supports institutional initiatives. Provide reliable and valid student and academic program data in one integrated University system of record that allows for the flexibility to meet specific university and academic unit strategic decision-making needs and ensure that data quality continues to improve. Implement a stable, integrated, upgrade-compatible system with minimal total cost of ownership. Position WSU’s administrative applications to support significant growth and expansion. Implement a reliable, secure and scalable technical infrastructure.

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Critical Success Factors Critical success factors are conditions and resources that must be present in order for the project to succeed. • Acknowledge that people are the most important critical success factor. For success, it is essential that we: o Place the right people in the right roles at the right time across the breadth and length of the project; o Provide strong support by senior management; o Use skilled participants; o Keep employees and students informed; and o Foster broad participation and representation. o Give department personnel a good understanding of how their departments and roles will change as early as possible in the project so that people can assimilate to the changes more effectively. The organizational design effort will be a sensitive topic for end users. • Agree that the PeopleSoft student business processes are reasonably close to best practices. Therefore, it is reasonable to start with a “vanilla” approach to the implementation and adapt our business processes to minimize complexity and optimize the delivered capabilities of our system. Project participants will be able and willing to think out of the box, across departmental lines, and with an eye always toward the good of the institution. • Ensure that the overall SIS project is viewed as a “university owned” project and not owned by individual departmental silos. • Manage scope in a disciplined but not rigid manner. Scope changes can occur if it’s best for the institution, but they must be explicitly identified, assessed and approved. • Structure and discipline governance process to a high extent with clear decision rights.

The project leadership’s decisions and processes will be biased towards action, accountability, candor and support for the greater good of the institution. • Expect that we will not get the system and process design perfectly right the first time. Therefore, we will use an “iterative design” approach to implementation throughout the project. • Agree that end users must be trained in regards to business processes in addition to their role within the business processes so that they can play a key role in achieving the intended business outcomes. • Assume that the project will be able to proceed in the face of overall budget reductions. In part this has to do with protecting the project budget. But more importantly the project will not take place in a vacuum, as many participants, and all those affected by the project, are being affected by budget reductions. Success Criteria WSU functional areas have defined the following as measurements of success for the SIS project. As the project progresses, the project team will monitor activities and deliverables to ensure that these criteria are met. Campus Community • A single source for associates and biographical/demographical data. • Ability to create and maintain checklists for students, streamlining student notification of information needed for admissions and other areas. • Ability to create communications, either by batch or manually, as needed by any area for their needs. P age |5

Admissions • A seamless transition from the current legacy AIS system to PeopleSoft Campus Solutions in which staff from graduate and undergraduate admissions will be trained and able to process applications without confusion. • Ability to proceed through all steps of application processing via automated processes wherever possible while retaining the ability to “rush” or manually process when needed for individual cases. • Ability of departmental users to easily access accurate data for their day-to-day operations which will cut down on manual intervention. • Ability to track applicants by the appropriate offices through all stages (applicant, admitted, confirmed) for both graduate and undergraduate, in order to accurately project matriculation. • Logical manner for work to flow through the system. • Well-defined and flexible business processes (easy to change when necessary) that are easily documented (with documentation tools that are common across modules), and trainable (with interfaces that are intuitive for users and training materials that are easy to maintain). • Easy access for users/departments to data for their day-to-day operations instead of lists that are ‘fed’ to them by The Graduate School. This will cut down on manual intervention and communication from Graduate School to departments and to students. Student Financial Aid • Meeting all target deadlines and ensuring that data across the PeopleSoft Campus Solutions environment is accurate and accessible.

• Successful load of FAFSA/Scholarship applications, packaging aid and delivery of funds to student accounts while staying compliant with state and federal regulations all without adversely impacting students. Student Finance • Precise tuition calculation. • Successful coordination of aid release in conjunction with Financial Aid. • Appropriate and accurate posting of all payments to Student Accounts. • Accurate aid disbursement/refunds to students on the first day of school. Student Records-Graduate • Smooth transition from one registration system to the next with student completing their priority registration with full class loads, by priority group. • Effective drop/add period beginning the week prior to classes and extending two weeks into the term, with students able to complete their changes in a timely manner. • Planned and effective use of class lists and grading by faculty before, during and at the conclusion of the 2012 fall semester. • Ability to track special population of students (example: Fulbright and International Agreements) in the Campus Solutions system rather than in shadow systems and paper files. • Ability to track and communicate with students on Graduate leave or Continuous Doctoral Status without staff intervention.

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Advising • Ability for students and their advisors to create “programs of study.” • Ability for offices or students to run a degree audit to check their status and progress towards a degree. • Ability to track departmental degree requirements and faculty committee eligibility. • Ability to easily schedule student exams. • Ability to process deficient students easily along with holds to prevent registration until reinstatement occurs. • Improved reliability of the system and true accuracy of reported data. Reporting • Adoption of a tool for easy access to all components of the enterprise student system from a single source with planned integration and/or linkages to data outside the SIS (Housing, Human Resources, Research, Finance, Alumni, WSU Foundation, etc.). • Secure self-service access to data and information for a broad base of users in appropriate forms that meet diverse needs. • Ability to conduct deeper analysis and data mining, turning data into information.

Project Scope
In Scope Items:
WSU is replacing parts of its major administrative systems: Student, Student Warehouse, and the myWSU Portal. This will affect many support and peripheral systems as well. We are replacing WSU student systems with PeopleSoft Version 9.0. The new PeopleSoft student system will be integrated with the existing WSU business systems (Human Resources, Payroll, and Financials). The new system replaces functionality currently found in our “student” administrative systems, which is comprised of modules in AIS, RONet, Financial Aid and the Graduate Schools systems. Along with replacing the core administrative systems, a substantial investment is being made in Business Intelligence. These efforts are being made to both adapt to changing administrative systems and to greatly expand the availability of business information to managers and executives. New BI tools will replace the current ITS housed data warehouse and Business Objects, the primary tool used to access that data. Also in scope is the replacement of the current Undergraduate Admissions data mart and the Graduate School reporting data base. The following list identifies what is currently in scope for the SIS project: • PeopleSoft Portal • PeopleSoft Campus Solutions o Academic Advising (including DARS replacement) o Student Self-Service o Admissions o Campus Community o Student Financials o Financial Aid o Student Records • PeopleSoft Data Warehouse (EPM and OBIEE toolsets) • PeopleSoft Campus Solutions Fusion Intelligence • OBIEE • Integration of current SAN located on SharePoint P age |7

Depending on project progress, performance to budget and business needs, the steering committee may add additional items to scope. As this occurs, the additional items will be added as in scope to this charter through the projects scope change process.

Out of Scope Items
On a regular basis the project team and the steering committee will review project scope. Currently, the following items are deemed out of scope: • • • • • Human Resources systems and processes Finance systems and processes Research systems and processes Campus Recruiting and recruiting business processes. Recruiting data will be fed from legacy recruiting systems to Campus Solutions via an interface. Campus Solutions Grade Book

Depending on project progress, performance to budget and business needs, the steering committee may deem additional items out of scope. As this occurs, the additional items will be added as out of scope to this charter through the projects scope change process.

Approach
Project Sequence
The SIS project will use a phased implementation approach that delivers new and improved functionality in time to support the normal WSU academic calendar. The SIS project will aggressively seek to minimize customizations to the delivered software. Appropriate project processes have been defined to enforce this practice.

Customizations
To help minimize customizations the WSU SIS project will: • Communicate clearly about “vanilla” implementations. The SIS project view is that sound business processes are embedded in the software and that WSU will look to adopt those processes rather than changing the delivered software. We will question why we do things the way we do. Is it really a “best practice” or is it because our legacy systems have limited how we could do it? Many WSU business processes were built around antiquated systems and limitations of current systems. What’s the worst thing that could happen if we change it? • Be open to possibilities and doing things differently. Be open to new ways of naming and talking about things. Be open to self-service, automation and consistency. Explore and take advantage of the full functionality. How can we better serve students? How can we better serve departments? Along with delivering systems that WSU is in great need of, this approach also serves to manage cost. The SIS project team will work very hard to meet target dates. Aggressive timelines require rapid decision-making, and the project will work in this fashion. Processes are set up to support knowledgeable and empowered decision-making. These processes are documented in the Project Management Plan document. Proven methodologies will be employed. The SIS project will also implement strong control mechanisms to effectively manage budget, issues, changes, etc. This includes outside audit oversight by JB Harris Consulting, the selected Quality Assurance vendor, which will perform monthly review of project status, plans and budgets.

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Conversion
Data conversion is the process of migrating high-value information from our legacy transaction systems into the new PeopleSoft system. This is done for both operational and analytic purposes. There are mature best practices and technologies available to minimize the cost of performing this work. Conversion will be performed by creating data extracts from the mainframe legacy system, AIS. These extracts will then be loaded to a series of staging tables through the SQL loader tool. The Oracle Component Interface tool will be used to then load data to the appropriate Campus Solutions data tables.

Testing
The strategy for testing SIS is to employ all the aspects as listed below when they are applicable and when they are possible. For example, a performance test is valuable when there is a concern about volume processing and/or a critical need for response time. A usability test is valuable when the experience of users will help us either in the design of the user interface or in the design of user training and help-desk tools and materials. A parallel test is extremely valuable when possible. Transcript production is an excellent example. The testing strategy varies from one initiative to another and is incorporated into the implementation strategy and then the project plan for that initiative. Test Plan Before testing begins, a test plan is created. A typical test plan documents input values for the test, procedures used to perform the testing and the expected output values or results. Test plans range from very simple to very complex, usually in relation to the complexity of software processes which are to be test. For instance, testing whether a new user prompt is added to a screen may not require a test plan at all, while testing a complicated process may require documenting many varied input scenarios and the corresponding expected results and outputs for each case.

During the testing, the test plan is updated to log test activities, results and variances with what was originally expected. Unit Test A unit test typically focuses on a minimal component, module or narrow activity. The unit test validates that the specific module functions correctly. In relation to new or modified code, the unit test is often performed by the developer. Integration Test Integration testing follows a business process through a series of components, modules and activities to ensure that a function performed by the system works as designed from end to end. The purpose of integration testing is to reveal issues arising along the process chain, even though the individual modules execute correctly. Performing integration testing is usually the domain of business analysts or their equivalent that are well versed in the system functionality. System Test System testing takes, as its input, all of the “integrated” components that have successfully passed integration testing. System testing is a more limited type of testing; it seeks to detect defects both within the “inter-assemblages” and also within the system as a whole. Parallel Test Parallel testing compares the output between two different systems performing similar processes on the same input data. In cases where the output is not identical, the causes of the differences are researched and explained.

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Acceptance Test Acceptance testing usually occurs in cases which require a ‘sign-off’ in order for the coding or functionality to be considered complete. If the acceptance testing proves successful, the code or functionality is considered ready for production, and no further changes are required or allowed. Performance Test Performance testing attempts to put a system under a heavy load (such as a large number of concurrent users or complex batch processing). The performance test shows whether measures such as system response time are acceptable. Usability Test Usability testing seeks to discover whether the user interface is intuitive or at least easy to use. Usability testing is often administered in a controlled environment in which sample end users are monitored and asked for feedback on their experience.

Training
Training is a critical activity to ensure successful user adoption of the new applications system as well as to meet the success criteria of the project. The user community of SIS is large and is spread out among multiple locations and campuses. The SIS project will utilize a “Train the Trainer” strategy that provides detailed application and business process training to a select group of “power users” throughout the various departments and locations. These “power users” in turn will train other employees within the various departments. The “power users” then can function as user support during the post go-live period. This maximizes the effectiveness of training and minimizes the cost of classroom training and materials. Training will be made available to end users via PeopleSoft on-line functionality (User Productivity Kit). For training to be effective, it should be delivered on a “just in time” basis in order to maximize information retention and allow task repetition to reinforce learning. A detailed training strategy and plan will be developed as part of the project execution process.

Reporting
Reports to support day-to-day business processes will be delivered along with each Campus Solutions module. These reports are referred to as Operational and Transaction Reports. The development of reporting requirements, report layouts and data elements will be accomplished by the functional teams with input and participation from the appropriate University department. The technology team will code and build these reports and will aid in testing and implementation. The appropriate functional and technical project team members will work together to build and test these reports as part of the SIS implementation. In addition, cross-functional reporting requirements will be defined by the reporting team and will ensure that all University wide reporting requirements will be met. A fit /gap analysis will be performed to identify any cross-functional issues and to set direction for analytical and business intelligence reports to be defined later. These will be then prioritized by each functional area, based on business needs. As an overall strategy, the execution and running of reports needs to have a minimal effect on Campus Solutions processing and user response time. Where practicable, reporting should be supported by the EPM and OBIEE toolset. PS Query and other Campus Solutions tools will be used when necessary and will contain well defined security to ensure minimal impact to production processing and system access. A detailed reporting strategy document will be created as part of the project execution process.

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Security
With the implementation of the new student system, WSU will implement a system that is FERPA compliant and gives users access to only the student records that they should be able to see. PeopleSoft security can be set at two different functional levels simultaneously. An individual user’s security access privileges are controlled by the resulting interacting combinations of these settings for that user. Page (Screen) Access A user can be granted one of the following access modes to Campus Solutions: • No Access—the user can neither see nor interact with the application. Further, if no access is granted to any of the pages associated with a menu choice, then that menu choice is not shown to the user. • View-Only (also referred to as Display-Only) — the user can see the data on the page but cannot change it. (Note that link controls on the page may or may not be active depending on the page design and coding.) • Update/Display—the user can see and change data on the page if no effective dating is involved. If the data is effective-dated then the user can only change current-dated and future-dated data, not historic data. • Correction—the user can see and change all data on the page, effective-dated or not. Administering Security In order to ease the burden of redefining security for each individual user, standard groupings of security objects are typically defined.

• Sets of pages and the corresponding page access modes are grouped into permission lists. Additionally, any page or set of pages can appear in multiple permission lists with the same or different access modes. Also, a permission list is often used as a convenient way to hold a given row-level security definition. • In turn, permission lists can be grouped in a variety of ways and assigned to a role. Additionally, multiple roles may make use of the same permission list in combination with other permission lists. • Effective security administration leverages the power of roles and permission lists by assigning users with similar requirements to the appropriate set or combinations of roles. Security access for an individual is defined by that individual’s assigned roles which are in turn defined by the role’s permission lists which are in turn composed of sets of pages, the access modes of those pages, and the assigned row-level security.

End User Acceptance
The overall strategy for end user acceptance starts early in the project and extends through Help Desk support after go-live. These are some of the key components: Support by executive management End users know at all times that executive management fully supports the SIS project and understands the difficulties of adapting to these new administrative systems. Involvement by middle management Middle management is informed of project progress and involved in project issues and decisions through vehicles such as the Steering Committee and Core Project Team. Involvement by university technical leaders Similar to the above, university technical leaders are informed of project progress and involved in project issues through vehicles such as the Technical Integration Group.

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Project communications Through multiple vehicles (including open forums and web pages), described elsewhere in the Project Charter, end users have access to information about project progress, issues, target dates, etc. (Please refer to the project’s communication plan.) Hands-on exposure End users have opportunities to see the system in action in a demonstration environment. Training Training specific to end users and specific to the WSU environment is developed and delivered to end users by the SIS project team. End user training will also be made available to end users via PeopleSoft on-line functionality (User Productivity Kit). Testing To the extent possible, the project team will recruit end users to participate in tests, in order to provide early exposure and to receive early feedback on any end user acceptance issues. Support Support for end users will be provided by the same organizational unit that is responsible for training. This will provide a seamless training and support environment that will extend into the future. This consistency will avoid the issues of inconsistent facts and language.

Staffing Approach and the Use of External Resources
The SIS project is too large and too complex for WSU to undertake on its own. Thus, outside consultants will play key roles on the project and will serve as well as sources for the additional temporary labor that is needed. The SIS project will employ consultants for their specific expertise and advice and will work to maximize knowledge transfer. There will also be a great impact on colleges/departments due to changes in business processes, including shifts in responsibility for data entry and the forms and formats of the information available. Based on experience, this impact is best addressed by overall project communications, appropriate involvement in the project, and in particular by adequate training provided by knowledgeable trainers.

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Project Management and Control
In developing a project management and control framework, WSU benefits from the experience of other leading research-intensive institutions that have successfully implemented the PeopleSoft Student Information System. WSU will aggressively seek to employ proven leading practices and core values that will guide us in the management of the overall project. 1. Demonstrate consistent and visible support for project by executive management. 2. Continuously communicate implementation information to university community. 3. Re-engineer business processes to conform to industry standards built into the software, to avoid software customization. 4. Drive implementation schedule with specific milestones. 5. Develop business intelligence and reporting strategies early in the project. Data conversion is addressed early, not late, in the life cycle. In addition, operational and transaction reporting are to be delivered at the time of go-live for each module. 6. Employ experienced consultants for expertise and support of core functional team. Consultants enable WSU to make decisions, and WSU drives the project, so that at the end of implementation WSU will be self-sufficient.

7. Maximize knowledge transfer from consultants to WSU staff. 8. Establish project teams representing all functional areas, weighing functional more than technical. Functional process and needs are core to the project. 9. Assign the project management team and core team members full-time on the project; reassign normal job duties. 10. Empower the project team to make decisions. 11. Track and reallocate project budget in a timely manner. 12. Create a dedicated work environment for the project team. 13. Promote positive work environment, with actions to reward, praise and celebrate project successes and value fun at work. 14. Monitor organization’s need and readiness to adapt on a continual basis. 15. Build prototypes early and often. Build, test and demonstrate frequently. Processes and procedures to implement these practices are outlined and maintained in the Project Management Plan document.

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Timeline

Summary of Key Milestones
MILESTONE ▪ Start SIS Implementation Project ▪ Academic Structure Defined ▪ Campus Community Defined ▪ Student Bio/Demo Data Converted ▪ Course Catalog/Schedule Converted ▪ ISIRs Loaded ▪ Enrollment History Converted ▪ Ready for Live Student Pre-Registration ▪ Student Financials Balances Converted ▪ Financial Aid Awarded/Packaged ▪ Ready to Post Grades ▪ Calculate Tuition/Accept Payments ▪ Business Intelligence/OBIEE and EPM Fully Functional TARGET DATE July 2010 November 2010 June 2011 June 2011 September 2011 January 2012 March 2012 March 2012 August 2012 August 2012 November 2012 June 2012 June 2012

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Project Structure
Organization Chart
The organization chart below illustrates the SIS project organization.

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Roles and Responsibilities
The table below defines the various roles and responsibilities of project leaders and team members of the SIS project: Role Responsibilities Overall • Act as champions for the project • Make decisions that affect the University as a whole or those that cannot be resolved by the Steering Committee Executive Leadership • Define project success criteria • Advise project management in resolution of escalated issues. (See definition of “issues” under Decision-Making and Issue Escalation Process.) • Seek input from SIS Policy Committee on fundmental academic policy issues • Review and approve modifications that affect University policy, project duration and budget • Foster executive support and buy-in • Assess value accomplished for the investment • Attend weekly “State of Project” Steering Committee Meeting Recommendations and Oversight • Review project progress regularly • Make policy change recommendations as requested by Steering Committee Project Direction • Review progress and work products • Prioritize; decide scope boundaries for potential customizations • Manage organizational change • Determine what risk mitigation strategies to adopt • Review and approve options to resolve issues, problems and scope changes to be brought to the SIS Steering Committee • Monitor that staffing is maintained; participate as appropriate in candidate selection • Provide weekly updates to Microsoft Project plan • Provide operational oversight over core functionality Overall

Decision Authority Example

Executive Committee

• •

Changes to implementation date Major scope or approach changes with impact to cost

Steering Committee

Policy Committee

• • • •

Project Management Team: Tori Byington Mark DeMaio Mike Corwin John Hansen

Prioritization of scope change requests Risk mitigations to adopt Approval of issues to escalate to SIS Steering Committee Resolve any project team issues that cannot be resolved by the project team members

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Role WSU Steering Committee Chairperson Tori Byington

WSU Project Manager: Mark DeMaio

Responsibilities • Assume responsibility for the successful completion of the SIS project • Maintain oversight and enforce accountablity for the project team • Co-chair of Policy Committee • Lead and coordinate issues escalated from the core project team • Assist with graduate school functionality Overall • Assume responsibility for execution of project plan and the successful completion of the SIS project • Manage and revise project workplan with inputs from Oracle Project Manager and WSU Technical Manager, BI and Change Management teams • Review and approve time in SIS time tracking • Oversee and direct Oracle Project Manager • Facilitate the development of project strategy documents and project organizational items • Create weekly project progress status reports • Assist with facilitatation of the weekly Steering Committee Meeting • Facilitate the resoultion of project issues and problems as appropriate • Provide monthly progress reports to Independent QA consultants • Assist with conversion planning effort and strategy Contract Management • Review contracts, identify exposures and manage contract changes or additions • Monitor contract compliance • Scrutinize expenses • Escalate vendor issues to accomplish resolution Risk Management • Manage risk tracking, mitigation strategies recommended, mitigation strategies adopted, responsible party, status, probability and impact • Monitor impacts to critical path based on

Decision Authority Example • Provide guidance and leadership regarding academic policy and issue escalation • Oversee and provide guidance to project management team members

• •

Oversee planning activities Maintain project work plan

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Role

• •

Responsibilities updated project schedules from Oracle Consulting Project Manager and WSU Technical Manager Participate in all quality checkpoints Recommend risk mitigation strategies

Decision Authority Example

Independent Oversight • Provide independent project management opinions to the State of Washington • Provide independent project review, assessment, and advice to the CIO • Assume other duties as appropriate and defined by the Vice President and Chief Information Officer Overall • Manage and lead all Campus Solutions functional activities • Provide oversight and management to Oracle consultants • Provide Campus Soluitions subject matter expertise • Create and manage detailed project schedule for Campus Solutions implementation tasks and provide project plan updates to WSU Project Manager • Provide progress reports to WSU Project Manager Budget • Create and manage vendor detailed budget • Calculate burn rate throughout phases • Reconcile to actuals from finance Contract Management • Review contracts, identify exposures and manage contract changes or additions • Monitor contract compliance • Scrutinize expenses • Escalate client issues to Oracle Management when required to accomplish resolution Risk Management • Assist with risk tracking, mitigation strategies recommended, mitigation strategies adopted, responsible party, status, probability and impact • Monitor impacts to critical path based on

Lead configuration activites

Oracle Project Manager: John Hansen

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Role

• •

Responsibilities updated project schedules from Oracle Consulting Team Project Managers Participate in all quality checkpoints Assist in creating risk mitigation strategies

Decision Authority Example

Project Administration • Monitor appropriate framework in place for project results Detailed Task Management • Assign tasks and monitor completion • Update completed Microsoft Projects • Identify at-risk, late tasks • Provide preliminary status compilation to Program Director weekly • Identify and monitor critical path • Review team work products (primary) • Manage day-to-day staff resources • Assign and maintain adequate resource levels and appropriate allocations • Manage issues tracking (date, responsibility, status) Overall • Assume responsibility for all development activities, including all aspects of the lifecycle • Create and manage detailed project schedule for techncial implementation tasks and provide project plan updates to WSU Project Manager • Develop conversion strategy and plan • Provide leadership and management to WSU technical staff • Identify and staff technical roles to successfully deliver required functionality • Act as WSU client manager for all Oracle technical services and Oracle On-Demand • Provide leadership to ensure successful implementation of WSU environments, when necessary Detailed Task Management • Assign tasks and monitor completion • Update completed technical activities in Microsoft Project • Identify at-risk, late tasks • Provide preliminary status compilation to Project Manager weekly • Identify and monitor critical path

WSU Technical Manager: Mike Corwin

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Role • • • • Program Coordinator: Ivy Wang SIS Budget Administrator: Dawn Barnard • Washington State Treasury/COP Liaison: Barry Johnston • • • • • • • •

Washington State University Budget Liaison: Matt Skinner

Responsibilities Review team work products (primary) Manage day-to-day staff resources Assign and maintain adequate resource levels and appropriate allocations Manage issues tracking (date, responsibility, status) Responsible for coordinating project logistics including space, onboarding, supplies, etc. Also acts as Administrative Assistant to Project Management Team Reports to the CIO Assumes responsibility for managing all aspects of project finances, including the project budget. Responsible for project time tracking. Also responsible for administration of all consultant contracts Advises CIO on project financial matters that relate to the WSU and to the State Treasury Office Responsible for all communications with the Washington State Treasury Office regarding project funding Responsible for regular reports and expenditure submissions to the Treasury Office Responsible for coordinating long term Certificate of Participation documentation and payments Advises CIO on project financial and budgetary matters that relate to WSU and to the Office of Financial Management Advises the project team on student financials as it relates to the University’s budget and budget process

Decision Authority Example

• • • •

Meeting scheduling Document preparation

Monthly budget report Approval of all consultant requests

Other Teams
• Student User Team is a group of selected students that will participate in focus groups, testing, review, etc. The Integration Group, chaired by the Director of UISS, consists of technical leaders within the project and within the university IT community. The integration group is responsible for ensuring that project functional decisions are aligned with technical directions. The group works with the University community to develop technical integration standards and ensures non-ERP systems can integrate with PeopleSoft. SIS Communications Committee will be responsible for and will coordinate all campus and University wide communications pertaining to the SIS project.

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Team Operations and Guiding Principles
SIS implementations bring together a group of talented individuals to bring about significant University transformation and improvement. While WSU can and should expect a very positive and successful project, implementations can also be a challenge. The SIS project will seek to balance the needs of team member work and personal time. The project will promote trust, accountability, openness and will provide mechanisms for conflict resolution.

Project Management and Control
Project Plan Maintenance
The overall SIS Project Plan is a consolidation and integration of the project plans for the individual initiatives. Project plans will be created and maintained in Microsoft Project for these initiatives: • • • Campus Solutions Portal Business Intelligence

The Oracle Project Manager is responsible for maintaining the project plans, with oversight and direction from the WSU Project Manager. This responsibility may be partially delegated to consultants and/or to a WSU Project Administrator, but the Project Manager is responsible for the integrity of the plan as a whole, including integration across projects and with other initiatives. Maintenance activities include marking of completed tasks, reassignment of tasks, redefinition of tasks, etc. Since project plans contain greater detail for near-term tasks than for longer-term tasks, a part of the regular maintenance of project plans is the decomposition of upcoming activities into tasks. The ideal task, from a size standpoint, is
what one person can accomplish in a week. That level of detail is normally expected to be present for the upcoming three months. With regard to the SIS project plan the SIS project team will work with the WSU Project Manager and Oracle Project Manager to “plan the work and work the plan.” At the beginning of each week, the Oracle Project Manager will ensure that each team member knows and understands the work that is expected to be worked on and completed during the week. The Oracle Project Manager will complete updates to the project plan(s) each and every Friday. Project plans will be done in Microsoft project, will be versioned, and will be kept on the SIS project SharePoint site.

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Project Meetings
Continual communication across the project organization is essential and will often include meetings. However, it is essential that meeting time be designed to maximize productivity and efficiency. Thus, the standard SIS meeting protocol is: • • • • • • • There is a designated chair. There is an agenda that includes expected participants and topics to be discussed. Meeting notes are kept, typically by supplementing the agenda with key decisions made and/or follow-up items and assignments indicated. Necessary documents are available either as pre-printed materials or as electronically displayed materials. Meetings are conducted in such a way to maximize the productivity of the group time investment. Team will strive for full participation in meetings. Team members that are unable to attend a meeting should be prepared to accept the decisions reached during the meeting. Executive Committee – typically every 3 months Steering Committee – weekly or as needed SIS Policy Committee – monthly or as required/requested by the Steering Committee. Senior Project staff – weekly Steering/Project Coordination Committee – weekly SIS Project Management Meeting – weekly Project Management – weekly Quality Assurance – monthly Functional Teams – daily or as required

The standard SIS meeting schedule includes: • • • • • • • • •

The core functional team working sessions are held as needed. A general project pattern is to meet daily as a group in the morning and to work as individuals or smaller groups in the afternoon, but this is at the discretion of the Project Manager.

Project Reporting
Project status reports will occur weekly and monthly. Weekly Status Each Oracle consultant will provide a weekly status report to the WSU Project Manager and the Oracle Project Manager. The Oracle consultant will work with their WSU counterparts to produce the status report. The status report will detail the work in progress, accomplishments, issues, risks, hours and all information necessary to allow the Oracle Project Manager to update the Microsoft project plan. All status reports will be posted to the project SharePoint site and be visible to the core project team. The WSU Project Manager will provide a weekly report that summarizes project status, progress against milestones, steering committee action items, and risk summary and resource issues. In addition, the WSU Project Manager will provide an overall project assessment of work in progress, accomplishments, issues, risks and hours. The functional coordinators and technical lead will report status to the Project Director and Project Manager (and to each other) at the weekly Core Management Team meeting.

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Monthly Status and Quality Assurance The WSU Project Manager and SIS Budget Administrator will ensure that an updated project plan, budget summary issues log, and risk log are available on SharePoint for examination by the Independent Quality Assurance Consultants by the 5th business day of each month.

Project Budget Management
Budget management is critical to determining project status and making timely project decisions. The SIS Budget Administator, in close collaboration with the WSU Project Manager, is responsible for tracking actual expenses to date, actively forecasting of total project costs, and administering project contracts. Responsiblities include: • • • • • • • Create and manage detailed budget Review/approve invoices/record in spreadsheets Calculate burn rate throughout phases Reconcile to actuals from finance Review contracts, identify exposures and manage contract changes or additions Monitor contract compliance Scrutinize expenses

The budget management process is supported by the SIS Budget Administrator, with representation from the Office of Business and Finance and the University Office of Budget and Planning. The SIS Budget Administrator and WSU Project Manager are responsible for tracking time spent on the SIS project. Core team members and consultants will submit a weekly timesheet showing time spent by initiative and by activity. This is an important tool for project management. It allows monitoring of resources as actually delivered to the project, as well as a tracking of what is required to complete activities. This timesheet is separate from, and has a different business purpose than, timesheets submitted for payroll purposes. The SIS Budget Administrator and WSU Project Manager will meet monthly to review and track fiscal/project progress, to resolve open issues, and to discuss upcoming planned expenditures. The SIS Budget Administrator is responsible for the processing of all project-related invoices. This includes contractor/consultant invoices with reconciliation against project timesheets. The Project Manager has authority to initiate spending requests in accordance with established project budgets. The SIS Budget Administrator will provide second-level review and set appropriate accounting codes on the transactions.

Issue Management
Issues will arise throughout the life of the project. An issue is any condition or situation which, if not addressed, threatens the project from a time, cost or result standpoint. When an issue is identified it is logged, in the SIS Project Issues Log, located in the SIS Project SharePoint site. The log of outstanding issues is reviewed as a standing item on project team meeting agendas. Standard protocol for issue creation includes: • Assign a unique ID • Name the issue • Describe the issue, including its potential impact • Assign a priority (Critical, High, Medium, Low) • Assign the person
responsible for resolution • Set the initial status (Open)

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The protocol for issue review includes • • Update status, record key decisions and next steps Determine the current status (Open, Closed, Hold)

Once an issue is opened it remains on the log until closed. One way to close an issue is to resolve it by taking action or making a decision. Another is to determine that in fact it isn’t an issue; no action or decision is required. A third way is to turn it into a task on the project plan. All issues will be tracked via the SIS SharePoint Issues List. Issue logs are maintained at multiple levels on the project and managed as follows: • • • • The SIS Steering Committee Chair The WSU Project Manager The Oracle Project Manager The Functional Lead (for an individual project within a given initiative)

Decision-Making and Issue Escalation Process
Issues will arise over the course of the project. An issue is any condition or situation which, if left unresolved, threatens the project from a time, cost or result standpoint. Quick and appropriate resolution of issues is critical. Each of the core project teams are empowered to identify and develop recommended resolutions to project issues. Some issues, those that affect University policy, project scope, project schedule and the budget, will require escalation and resolution by the Project Management Team, the Steering Committee or the Policy Committee. If an issue requires escalation, it will be assigned a “PMT” status and will be reviewed by the Project Management Team weekly. In the event that a weekly turnaround is not sufficient to complete an activity on time, the issue owner can escalate the issue to the WSU Project Manager immediately. The Project Management Team will either accept the resolution or, if required, assign it to the Steering Committee for approval. Items escalated to the Steering Committee will be reviewed weekly.

Change Control Management
One of the more difficult aspects of a large project is change. Change is a fact, and it needs to be managed in a controlled way. The process should be quick when the request is straightforward and inexpensive and very considered when the request is more complex and/or more expensive. The change control process has these steps: 1. Propose Anyone may propose a change informally in the course of the project. These proposals are normal “what-if” discussions. A formal request for change, however, must go through the WSU functional lead. If the functional lead concurs, a System Change Request (SCR) is initiated. If the functional lead does not concur, an issue will be opened, and the issue process used to resolve the disagreement. The System Change Request (SCR) includes: • Initiative • Requestor • Date • Description • Expected benefit • Attachments as necessary

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2. Log System Change Request The System Change Request (SCR) is presented to and discussed with the Project Manager. If the Project Manager agrees with the judgment of the functional leads, then the Project Manager assigns an ID to the SCR, and logs it in the System Change Request Log. This log is maintained for the overall SIS project. 3. Assess System Change Request The requested change is analyzed to determine what would be involved if this request were approved. What modules/dialogs/tables/etc. would be affected? What more specifically would be the benefit? What would be the cost to the project? Assessment of benefit and cost is done on a ‘lifetime benefit/cost’ basis. For example, a customization to PeopleSoft will need to be revisited every time a new PeopleSoft release is installed. In the case of more complex requests this analysis can itself be a considerable amount of work. As a result of this work the original SCR is modified, so that it now includes: • SCR ID • Initiative • Requestor • Date submitted • Analyst • Date analyzed • Description (revised if necessary) • Affected components • Expected benefit (revised if necessary) • Expected cost (time and dollars) 4. Review System Change Request All SCRs are reviewed by the Change Request Group (Oracle Project Manager, Technical Lead, Undergraduate Liaison, Graduate Liaison, the Independent Project Manager, WSU Project Manager, and the SIS Steering Committee Chair). The Change Request Group then decides

Student debt by the time they graduate

Not many are lucky to have paid all their debt by the time they graduate. Colleges and universities have given students the ability to work around the campus in order to pay for their education. Although this seems like a positive effect to help students pay and try to minimize debt, work is bound to get in the way of education. As students worry about having money in their pockets and scavenge any type of job they can find in or around the campus, they put aside their studies and their capability to perform in class is diminished. In his article, Hoover is able to capture a statement made by Ashley Dawson, an English professor at the College of Staten Island, regarding how work affects students ability to work in class and colleges maintaining high educational standards, “As the rally was winding down, Ashley Dawson, an English professor at the College of Staten Island, read from a pledge that asks faculty members to support students who refuse to pay their loans. Debt, he told the crowd, limits what’s possible in the classroom.

“When students are working one or two jobs, it affects the kind of assignments you can give them,” he said. “We want to maintain the highest educational standards, but it just gets harder and harder.”” (Hoover p. 2) Although there are those who don’t or are unable to pay for their loans, there are those like Jill McCusker, mentioned in “A Life Time of Debt? Not likely”, who belongs to a group labeled as silent majority who “are repaying their student loans without much complaint” (Wilson 259). Although this silent majority may be of a group who are lucky enough to be paying their loans, there is a greater majority who are unable to pay for their loans. In this article, the author examines the issue of student debt. Despite tales of gargantuan student debt burdens for some college graduates, studies show that most students borrow sensibly, pay it back, and are better off for having gone to college. But for a vocal minority of borrowers, problems with student-loan debt are very real. About 8 percent of undergraduates borrow at least double the national average. More often, the problem among students who go heavily into debt is that they are determined to attend their dream college, no matter the cost. High student-loan debt “can ruin someone for life.” Many borrowers who find themselves in trouble use options under the federal loan program that allow them to postpone repayments on their loans for years. The problem is that because interest keeps racking up during such a deferment and after a default, the amount a borrower owes can soar. It is not that difficult for borrowers to find themselves in trouble. People lose control of their finances, and sometimes they make choices one wishes they hadn’t made. Overborrowing for college isn’t much different than overborrowing for a home. People live outside their means. But that doesn’t describe most college graduates. In spite of all the hysterical extremes, there are a lot of people in the middle who are making things work. They are graduating from college with $20,000 in debt, they are going to graduate school, getting jobs, and buying homes within their means

Student money problems affect performance

Student money problems affect performance

Many students believe that financial problems are having an adverse effect on their academic performance, a survey of University of Central England undergraduates has shown. The survey, carried out by UCE’s Centre for Research into Quality (CRQ), found that 51.9 per cent of the 1,139 full-time undergraduates polled believed their academic performance was suffering and 15.1 per cent believed that there was a major negative impact. Lee Harvey, senior research fellow at CRQ and co-author, with Selena Mason, of the report, believes that UCE students are reasonably representative.

The survey had been constructed so as to minimise overstatement of financial and academic difficulties. Just over 20 per cent said that their financial status had a positive impact on their academic performance. Students who also had part-time jobs were more likely to think that financial problems were affecting their academic work, with proportions rising to more than 60 per cent for those working 11 or more hours per week, against 49 per cent for those with no part-time job.

The report found an overwhelming lack of confidence in the current higher education funding system, with 92.2 per cent calling for reform against only 2.7 per cent wanting to leave things as they are. Asked about alternative sources of funding, students drew a clear distinction between tuition and maintenance. Seventy-one per cent believe that Government should continue to contribute 100 per cent of tuition costs, but 44 per cent were prepared to accept either a student or a graduate contribution to maintenance. Professor Harvey said: “But in many cases they were prepared to say that this should be 50 per cent or more of the maintenance cost.” The report argues that it is the current student loan system of maintenance rather than the idea of student contributions in themselves that makes students unhappy.

Source:
http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/98360.article

As your student is packing up for highschool, take the opportunity to have a serious money talk. As adults, we understand the temptation to “keep up with the Jones’s”. It is no different for your student. At college, your student will meet others that may have more discretionary income available to them. Make sure your student understands his or her own financial situation and is not surprised that

Does Homework Increase Student Achievement?

Introduction
Homework is a very complex topic and a source of great discussion. Support for homework has ebbed and flowed over the last century. Some have argued that the burden of homework causes significant family stress–including parent-child conflict, reduced family leisure time, and overly tired children. (Kralovec & Buell, 2000). Others have argued that homework is a necessary part of the American educational experience. After the Russians launched Sputnik in 1957, Americans were worried about keeping up educationally with other nations and began to demand more homework for the children (Gill & Schlossman, 2000). Due to these changing views on homework, research is more important than ever to determine (if possible) the effects of homework on student achievement. Definitions

Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for students to carry out during non-school hours (Cooper, 1989). The scope of the word homework can include many different types of things. Variations in homework can be classified according to its (a) amount, (b) skill area, (c) purpose, (d) degree of choice for the student, (e) completion deadline, (f) degree of individualization, and (g) social context. Variations in the amount of homework can appear as differences in both the frequency and length of individual assignments. Assignments can range over all the skill areas taught in school. (p. 1, Cooper, Robinson, and Patall, 2006). Primary Purposes/Benefits of Homework Assignments

Homework can be assigned to fulfill many purposes. Those purposes are either instructional or non-instructional. (Epstein, 1988; Epstein and Van Voohis, 2001). Practicing or reviewing material from class is the most common instructional purpose. Other purposes include the introduction of new material and the application of learned skills to new situations. Examples of non-instructional purposes are to fulfill district homework policies, open and grown parent-teacher lines of communication, as well as improved parent-child communication regarding school. (Cooper et al., 2006) Students, teachers and parents experience these benefits of the homework assignments. Additional Benefits of Homework

While the primary reason for assigning homework is to aid and reinforce instruction, there is growing evidence that the practice of homework can have additional benefits including managing distraction, self-efficacy, and perceived responsibility for learning (Bembenutty, 2009). While these self-regulation tasks, such as time management, setting goals, effort and persistence in completing difficult tasks, and self-monitoring one’s performance, are important to academic success, they are also vitally important life skills, especially for successful professional writers, athletes, artists, and scientists. (Ramdass and Zimmerman, 2011). Other benefits include long-term academic benefits such as better study skills, as well as nonacademic benefits such as greater self -direction and more independent problem-solving. In addition, parents tend to have a great appreciation of and involvement in schooling (Protheroe, 2009). Relationship between Homework and Achievement

There are varied findings in the research for the relationship between homework and achievement. Some research finds a positive relationship between homework and achievement.
Zhu and Leung (2012) studied this relationship by introducing quality of homework as a factor. They focused on three aspects: frequency and amount of homework; types of homework; and usage modes of homework. Overall, Zhu & Leung found that the three aspects of homework studied did have a positive influence on assessment results.

Tanis and Sullivan-Bustein (1998) studied homework completion and its effect on weekly quiz performance. This research did show improved test performance as homework completion increased. This study was somewhat flawed, however, because the participants were not chosen randomly. The students were chosen due to their history of achievement (or lack thereof) and homework issues. Nonetheless, this research did positively affect the students studied.

Omlin-Ruback (1998) conducted a study focusing on increasing homework completion of middle school students through the use of interventions. This study found that the students who were participating in the homework interventions on a daily basis had better grades than those who did not. Thus, students who were completing more homework had improved achievement.

While these three studies did find a positive relationship, other research finds no relationship. Trautwein, Schnyder, Niggli, Neumann, and Ludkte (2009) reviewed a great deal of prior research on the relationship between homework and achievement and decided that a more complex research design was required to study this relationship. The results of their study depended on the variables under focus. The homework-achievement association was positive, negative or not statistically significant depending on which variables were being studied.

Opponents point out that homework can also have negative effects on achievement and school in general. It can lead to boredom with schoolwork, since all activities remain interesting only for finite periods of time. Homework can deny children access to leisure activities that also teach important life skills. Parents can get too involved in homework. They can pressure children and can confuse them by using instructional techniques that are different from those used by the teacher (p.1, Cooper, 2008).

Factors other than Homework that Affect Achievement
The relationship between homework and student achievement is complex. One significant factor other than homework affecting achievement includes home life. Some students do not have the tools or support at home to complete homework. (Protheroe, 2009). In addition, test anxiety and stress levels can negatively affect student achievement even if homework completion is complete and thorough. (Talib and Sansgiry, 2011). Thus, studying a single relationship between homework and student achievement cannot explain the effects, or lack thereof, of homework. Conclusions

There are varied finding in the research concerning the relationship between homework and student achievement. While there is a great deal of research on the topic of the value of homework in student achievement, it turns out that this relationship is very complex. There are many factors involved, many of which are out of the control of the school or teacher. In addition, there are gaps in the research regarding the different types of homework and the quality of homework. This complex relationship needs to be further defined and refined. Further research needs to be done using new statistical techniques that can successfully handle the number of variables in this relationship.

References
Bembenutty, H. (2009). Feeling-of-knowing judgment and self-regulation of learning. Education, 129(4), 589-598. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61800994?accountid=12924 Bempechat, J., Li, J., Neier, S. M., Gillis, C. A., & Holloway, S. D. (2011). The homework experience: Perceptions of low-income youth. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(2), 250-278. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/864940664?accountid=12924 Cooper, H. (2008). A brief history of homework in the united states. research brief. ().National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1502. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/61858829?accountid=12924 Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62008296?accountid=12924 Cooper, H. (1989). Synthesis of research on homework. Educational Leadership, 47(3), 85-91. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/63060036?accountid=12924 Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., Kunter, M., & Baumert, J. (2010). Homework works if homework quality is high: Using multilevel modeling to predict the development of achievement in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 467-482. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/742870744?accountid=12924 Epstein, J. L. (1983). Homework practices, achievements, and behaviors of elementary school students. (). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/63342872?accountid=12924 Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301 ($35). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62348785?accountid=12924 Gill, B., & Schlossman, S. (2000). The lost cause of homework reform. American Journal of Education, 109(1), 27-62. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62249711?accountid=12924 Hong, E., Wan, M., & Peng, Y. (2011). Discrepancies between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of homework. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(2), 280-308. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/864939429?accountid=12924 Kralovec, E., & Buell, J. (2000). The end of homework: How homework disrupts families, overburdens children, and limits learning Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892; Tel: 617-742-2110; Fax: 617-742-2290; Web site: http://www.beacon.org ($18). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/62323216?accountid=12924 Protheroe, N. (2009). Good homework policy. Principal, 89(1), 42-45. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61819932?accountid=12924

Omlin-Ruback, H.A study of mathematics homework. , 98. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1011399791?accountid=12924. (1011399791; ED531060). Ramdass, D., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Developing self-regulation skills: The important role of homework. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(2), 194-218. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/864939542?accountid=12924 Talib, N., & Sansgiry, S. S. (2011). Factors affecting academic performance of university students in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(3), 589-600. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/926273717?accountid=12924 Tanis, B., & Sullivan-Bustein, K. (1998). Teacher-selected strategies for improving homework completion. Remedial and Special Education, 19(5), 263. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236286267?accountid=12924 Trautwein, U., & Ludtke, O. (2009). Predicting homework motivation and homework effort in six school subjects: The role of person and family characteristics, classroom factors, and school track. Learning and Instruction, 19(3), 243-258. Retrieved

http://search.proquest.com/docview/61902599?accountid=12924 Trautwein, U., Schnyder, I., Niggli, A., Neumann, M., & Ludtke, O. (2009). Chameleon effects in homework research: The homework-achievement association depends on the measures used and the level of analysis chosen. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 77-88. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61988315?accountid=12924 Zhu, Y., & Leung, F. K. S. (2012). Homework and mathematics achievement in Hong Kong: Evidence from the TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(4), 907-925. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1037906879?accountid=12924

High School Student

Students
Chapter 3 Learner Diversity: Differences in Today’s Students Chapter 4 Changes in American Society: Their Influences on Today’s Schools

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Learner Diversity
Differences in Today’s Students
T
eachers begin their careers expecting to find classrooms like the ones they experienced when they were students. In some ways classrooms are the same. Students go to school to learn, but they also want to have fun and be with their friends. They expect to work but often need encouragement from their teachers. They’re typical kids. Classrooms are changing, however; the population of our schools is becoming increasingly diverse. Students come from different cultures and speak many different languages at home; they possess a range of abilities and talents; and issues involving differences between boys and girls are receiving increased attention. In this chapter we examine this diversity as we try to answer the following questions: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ What is cultural diversity, and how does it influence student learning? How are the educational experiences of boys and girls different? How do schools accommodate ability differences in learners? What are learning styles, and how should teachers respond to them? Who are learners with exceptionalities, and how can schools best meet their needs? Let’s see how learner diversity influences the lives of teachers.

Shannon Wilson, a fifth-grade teacher in a large urban elementary school, walked around her classroom, helping student groups as they worked on their social studies projects.A number of hands were raised, and she felt relieved that she had Maria Arguelas, her special education resource teacher, to help her. Shannon had 27 students in her class, seven of whom did not speak English as their first language. Five of the seven were Hispanic, and fortunately Maria was able to assist them in their native language. Shannon often spent extra time with Kwan and Abdul, the other two non-English speakers. Maria also assisted Shannon by working with four of her students who had learning disabilities. Shannon’s class was preparing for Parents’ Day, an afternoon in which parents and other caregivers would join the class in celebrating the students’ ancestral countries. The students would present information about the countries’ history, geography, and cultures in their projects.The class had already prepared a large world map with pins marking the students’ countries of origin.While several of the pins were clustered in Mexico and Central and South America, the map showed that students also came from many other parts of the world. Each student was encouraged to invite a family member to come and share a part of the family’s native culture. The parents could bring food, music, and native dress from their different homelands.

Case STUDY

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Figure 3.1

Dimensions of Diversity

Your first classroom is likely to be comprised of students from a variety of backgrounds, primarily because student diversity in today’s schools is rapidly increasing (Hodgkinson, 2001) but also because new teachers are more likely to find jobs in schools that serve diverse populations (Olson, 2003a). This diversity has several sources (Figure 3.1), and it presents both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, teachers need to develop a deep understanding of diversity and adopt teaching strategies that address the learning needs of students from varying backgrounds. In some instances they will require professional knowledge in specialized areas such as English language learning or special education. Acquiring such professional knowledge, however, gives teachers additional tools for increasing learning for all students, and it presents enormous opportunities for professional growth. This chapter is designed to help you start the journey toward meeting the challenges and capitalizing on the opportunities of the diverse classroom.

Cultural Diversity
What kinds of clothes do you wear? What types of music do you like? What foods do you eat? Your clothing, music, and foods, along with other factors such as religion, family structure, and values, are all part of your culture. Culture refers to the attitudes, values, customs, and behavior patterns that characterize a social group (Banks, 2001). The enormous impact of culture is illustrated by its influence on all aspects of our lives (Gollnick & Chinn, 2002). An activity as basic as eating is one example: • ● •

Culture not only helps to determine what foods we eat, but it also influences when we eat (for example, one, three, or five meals and at what time of the day); with whom we eat (that is, only with the same sex, with children or with the extended family); how we eat (for example, at a table or on the floor; with chopsticks, silverware, or the fingers); and the ritual of eating (for example, in which hand the fork is held, asking for or being offered seconds, and belching to show appreciation of a good meal). These
eating patterns are habits of the culture. (Gollnick & Chinn, 1986, pp. 6–7) • ● •

Culture influences people’s responses to other basic needs, such as the need for shelter and clothing, and it influences school success through the attitudes, values, and ways of viewing the world embedded in it.

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Figure 3.2

Changes in School-Age Population, 2000–2020

Percentage of children ages 5-17

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

64.8 59.5 55.6

15.3 14.8 4.1 1

20 14.1 5.4 .9

22.9 14.2 6.3 1

2000 White, non-Hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic

2010 Hispanic

2020 Black, non-Hispanic

American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut, non-Hispanic

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census (1998b).

Increasing Understanding 3.1
What ethnic group or groups do you belong to? How is your heritage evidenced in the foods you eat, the holidays you celebrate, and the language spoken in your community? To answer the Increasing Understanding questions online and receive immediate feedback, go to the Companion Website at www. prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Increasing Understanding module. Type in your response, and then study the feedback.

An important part of culture is a person’s ethnic background. Ethnicity refers to a person’s ancestry; the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came (deMarrais & LeCompte, 1999; Gollnick & Chinn, 2002). Members of an ethnic group have a common identity defined by their history, language (although sometimes not spoken), customs, and traditions. More than 14 million people immigrated to the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. Between 1980 and 1994, America’s classrooms underwent the following changes:

• • • •

An increase in Asian American students of almost 100 percent An increase in Hispanic students of 46 percent An increase in African American students of 25 percent An increase in Caucasian students of 10 percent (Kent, Pollard, Haaga, & Mather, 2001; U.S. Bureau of Census, 1996)

By the year 2020, the U.S. school-age population will see many more changes (Figure 3.2). Experts predict considerable increases in the percentages of Hispanic students and Asian/Pacific Island students, while the percentage of
African American students will remain essentially the same. During this time the proportion of White students will decrease from 64.8 percent to 55.6 percent of the total population (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1998b; U.S. Department of Education, 2000c). By 2020, almost half of the U.S. school population will consist of members of non-Caucasian cultural groups. Each of these groups brings a distinct set of values and traditions that influences student learning.

Cultural Attitudes and Values
Increasing Understanding 3.2
How do the foods Americans eat reflect this growing cultural diversity?

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Students come to school with a long learning history. Cultural patterns exist in their dress, family roles, interactions with parents and peers, and attitudes and values. When they enter our classrooms, they bring these attitudes and values with them. Some complement learning; others conflict with it. Language is an example. Students are sometimes hesitant to drop the use of nonstandard English dialects in favor of “school English” because doing so might

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The increasing cultural diversity of our students provides teachers with both opportunities and challenges.

alienate their peers (Ogbu, 1999). The same problem occurs in second-language learning. Research indicates that programs encouraging students to drop
their native language in favor of English can cause students to distance themselves from their parents, many of whom cannot speak English (Wong-Fillmore, 1992). Even school success can be an issue. To succeed in school is interpreted by some as rejecting a native culture; to become a good student is to become “White”—to uphold only White cultural values. Students who study and become actively involved in school risk losing the friendship and respect of their peers. John Ogbu, an anthropologist who studies the achievement of minority students, believes that in many schools peer values either don’t support school learning or actually oppose it; students form what he calls “resistance cultures” (Ogbu & Simons, 1998). Low grades, management and motivation problems, truancy, and high dropout rates are symptoms of this conflict.

Cultural attitudes and values can also complement school learning. In a crosscultural study comparing Chinese, Japanese, and American child-rearing practices, researchers found significant differences in parental support for schooling (Stevenson, Lee, & Stigler, 1986). More than 95 percent of native Chinese and Japanese fifth graders had desks at home on which to do their homework; only 63 percent of the American sample did. Also, 57 percent of the Chinese and Japanese parents supplemented their fifth graders’ schoolwork with additional math workbooks, as compared with only 28 percent of the U.S. parents. Finally, 51 percent of the Chinese parents and 29 percent of the Japanese parents supplemented their children’s science curriculum with additional work, compared with only 1 percent of American parents. A study attempting to understand the phenomenal successes of Indo-Chinese children in U.S. classrooms further documents the effects of home values on learning (Caplan, Choy, & Whitmore, 1992). In examining the school experiences of Vietnamese and Laotian refugees who had been in the United States for a relatively short time (an average of 31⁄2 years), the researchers found amazing progress. The IndoChinese children received better than a B average in school, and their scores on stan-

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dardized achievement tests corroborated the grades as reflecting true achievement, not grade inflation. In attempting to explain this encouraging pattern, the researchers (Caplan et al., 1992) looked to the attitudes and values in the families. They found heavy emphasis on the importance of education, hard work, autonomy, perseverance, and pride. These values were reinforced with a nightly ritual of family homework in which both parents and older siblings helped younger members of the family. Indo-Chinese high schoolers spent an average of 3 hours a day on homework, and junior high and elementary students spent an average of 21⁄2 hours and 2 hours, respectively. In comparison, non-IndoChinese junior and senior high students spent 11⁄2 hours a day on homework.

Cultural Interaction Patterns
Cultural conflict can occur in the interaction patterns typically found in most classrooms. Let’s look at an example: A second-grade class in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was reading The Boxcar Children and was about to start a new chapter. The teacher said,“Look at the illustration at the beginning of the chapter and tell me what you think is going to happen.”A few students raised their hands. The teacher called on a boy in the back row. He said,“I think the boy is going to meet his grandfather.” The teacher asked, “Based on what you know, how does the boy feel about meeting his grandfather?” Trying to involve the whole class, the teacher called on another student—one of four Native Americans in the group—even though she had not raised her hand. When she didn’t answer, the teacher tried rephrasing the question, but again the student sat in silence. Feeling exasperated, the teacher wondered if there was something in the way the lesson was being conducted that made it difficult for the student to respond. She sensed that the student she had called on understood the story and was enjoying it. Why, then, wouldn’t she answer what appeared to be a simple question? The teacher recalled that this was not the first time this had happened, and that, in fact, the other Native American students in the class rarely answered questions in class discussions. She wanted to involve them, wanted them to participate in class, but could not think of ways to get them to talk. (Villegas, 1991, p. 3)

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Why did this happen? One explanation suggests that Native American children are not used to the fast-paced, give-and-take patterns that characterize many American classrooms. When involved in a discussion like the one just described, they are uncomfortable and, as a result, reluctant to participate. Studies have found interaction differences between White and African American students as well (Heath, 1989, 1982). For instance, Heath (1982) looked at students’ responses to teacher directives such as “Let’s put the scissors away now.” Accustomed to this indirect way of speaking, White students interpreted the directive as a command; African Americans, used to more direct commands like “Put your scissors away, now,” did not. Teachers viewed a student’s failure to comply as either a management or a motivation problem, when instead the problem arose from the mismatch between home and school cultures. Heath (1982) found other cultural differences that also caused problems during instruction. White children, accustomed to being asked direct questions in the home,

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knew how to answer questions requiring specific answers, such as “Where did the puppy go?” and “What’s this story about?” African American children, by contrast, were accustomed to questions that were more “open-ended, story-starter” types that didn’t have single answers. In addition, in their homes, African American children “were not viewed as information-givers in their interactions with adults, nor were they considered appropriate conversation partners and thus they did not learn to act as such” (Heath, 1982, p. 119). When teachers learned to use more open-ended questions in their instruction, participation of African American students increased. In addition, over time African American students began to understand that answering teacher questions was part of the educational game, designed to increase their involvement and learning.

Educational Responses to Cultural Diversity
Historically, social commentators have used different metaphors to describe the relationship between diverse cultures in the United States. The “melting pot” was one of the first. Those who saw the United States as a melting pot emphasized assimilation, a process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior. Assimilation attempted to make members of minority cultural groups “similar” to those belonging to the dominant cultural group—typically Whites of European descent. The melting pot metaphor was especially popular in the early 1900s, when large numbers of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe entered the United States. Society assigned schools the task of teaching these immigrants how “Americans” were supposed to think, talk, and behave. Immigrants, eager to become “American” and share in this country’s economic wealth, generally accepted efforts to assimilate them. About the middle of the twentieth century, a shift in thinking occurred. People realized that assimilation had never totally worked and that there was no “melting pot,” as indicated by neighborhoods and groups that continued to speak their home languages, celebrate their unique cultural festivals, and maintain their cultural habits (such as eating certain foods).

The contributions of different cultural and ethnic groups were increasingly recognized, and leaders began to realize that some educational practices aimed at assimilation were actually counterproductive. For example, in an effort to encourage English acquisition, schools in the Southwest frequently didn’t allow students to speak Spanish, even on playgrounds. Schools became hostile places where students had to choose between family and friends, and school. The policy probably did as much to alienate Hispanic youth as it did to encourage English language development. To remedy these problems, educators began developing new approaches to addressing cultural diversity. Multicultural education is a catch-all term for a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences and provide educational opportunities for all students. Instead of trying to create a melting pot, these approaches align with new metaphors that describe America as a “mosaic” or “tossed salad” in which each culture’s unique contributions are recognized and valued. Multicultural education seeks to recognize and celebrate cultural differences and contributions to our American way of life. Controversies over Multiculturalism Multicultural education has become highly controversial. Critics contend that it is divisive because it places too much emphasis on differences between cultural groups and not enough on our common characteristics (Schlesinger, 1992). Textbooks have been scrutinized; in 2000, a spokesperson for ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Culturally responsive teaching builds on students’ cultural backgrounds, accepting and valuing differences and accommodating different cultural learning styles.

Increasing Understanding 3.3
Use American’s eating habits to explain why the “mosaic” and “tossed salad” metaphors are more accurate than the “melting pot” metaphor.

the American Textbook Council criticized modern history textbooks as emphasizing multicultural themes at the expense of basic information about history (Sewall, 2000). Conservative columnists in the popular press, such as U.S. News and World Report, consistently criticize multiculturalism and concepts associated with it, such as identity politics and political correctness. Proponents of multicultural education assert that building upon students’ cultures is nothing more than sound teaching; by recognizing, valuing, and utilizing students’ cultures and languages in their instruction, teachers help students link the topics they’re studying to what they already know, a process consistent with effective teaching and learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2004; Ormrod, 2003). In addition, proponents of multicultural education point out that the United States has always been a nation of immigrants and that this diversity has long been recognized in a number of ways. For example, American society embraces the music, holidays (St. Patrick’s Day, Mardi Gras, Chinese New Year), and foods of many cultures. Good multicultural education continues this tradition by recognizing and building on students’ diverse cultural heritages. Like all educational approaches, multiculturalism will undoubtedly evolve as educators decide what works and what doesn’t in the classroom. One promising approach to working with diverse student populations is called culturally responsive teaching. Culturally Responsive Teaching Culturally responsive teaching is instruction that acknowledges and accommodates cultural diversity in classrooms (Gay, 1997). It attempts to accomplish this goal in at least three ways:

• Accepting and valuing differences • Accommodating different cultural interaction patterns • Building on students’ cultural backgrounds ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Accepting and valuing differences. By recognizing and accepting student diversity, teachers communicate that all students are welcome and valued. This is particularly important for cultural minorities, who sometimes feel alienated from school. As a simple example, Shannon, in our opening case study, attempted to meet this goal by having her students identify their ethnic homelands on the map. This showed an interest in each student as an individual and helped students see similarities and differences in other students’ backgrounds. Genuine caring is an essential element in this process. Teachers can communicate caring in several ways, including the following:

• By devoting time to students—for example, being available before and after • • school to help with schoolwork and discuss students’ personal concerns By demonstrating interest in students’ lives—for example, asking about Jewish holidays, Muslim holy days, and festivals like Kwanzaa By involving all students in learning activities—for example, calling on all students as equally as possible

Each of these suggestions communicates that all students are welcome and valued. Accommodating cultural interaction patterns. Teachers who are sensitive to possible differences between home and school interaction patterns can adapt their instruction to best meet their students’ needs. For example, we saw earlier that the communication patterns of Native Americans may clash with typical classroom practices. Recognizing that these students may not be comfortable in teacher-centered question-and-answer activities, teachers can use additional strategies, such as cooperative learning, to complement teacher-centered approaches. Similarly, knowing that White and African American students sometimes have different communication patterns, teachers can incorporate more open-ended questions in their lessons and can word instructions more directly (“Put your scissors away, now”). As another example, when a teacher learned that her Asian American students were overwhelmed by the bustle of American schools, she tried to keep her
classroom quiet and orderly and encouraged shy and reluctant students to participate with openended questioning, extra time to respond, and gentle reminders to speak a bit louder (C. Park, 1997). Another teacher reported the following: • ● •

I traditionally end every day with the students lining up and receiving a hug before they leave. My Vietnamese kids were always the stiff huggers until October. Through my understanding of their cultures, I now give all students the choice of a hug, handshake, or high five. This simple act may make children feel more comfortable interacting with me. (McAllister & Irvine, 2002, p. 440) • ● •

Through increased sensitivity to each cultural group’s learning needs, teachers can make their classrooms safe and inviting learning environments for all students. Accommodating different cultural interaction patterns can result in “accommodation without assimilation,” the process through which minority students adapt to the dominant culture (including that of schools) without losing their cultural identities (Ogbu, 1987). Other terms for this process include “alternation”—the ability to comfortably function in both cultures (Hamm & Coleman, 1997) and “code switching”—talking differently in different contexts (DeMeulenaere, 2001). The challenge for teachers is to help students learn about the “culture of schooling”—the

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norms, procedures, and expectations necessary for success in school—while honoring the value and integrity of students’ home cultures. Increasing
Understanding 3.4
To which metaphor—”melting pot” or “tossed salad”—does the concept of accommodation without assimilation most closely relate? Explain.

Building on students’ backgrounds. Effective teachers also learn about their students’ cultures and use this information to promote personal pride and motivation in their students, as the teacher in the following example did: • ● •

In one third-grade classroom with a predominately Central American student population, youngsters are greeted most mornings with the sound of salsa music in the background, instruction takes place in both English and Spanish, magazines and games in both languages are available throughout the classroom, maps of both the United States and Latin America line one wall, with pins noting each student’s origin, and every afternoon there is a Spanish reading lesson to ensure that students learn to read and write in Spanish as well as English. (Shields & Shaver, 1990, p. 9) • ● •

Increasing Understanding 3.5
In this chapter’s opening case study, what does Shannon do to build upon her students’ cultural backgrounds? Provide at least two specific examples.

The benefits of building on students’ cultural backgrounds are felt in both the classroom and the home. Students achieve more in the classroom, and parents become more positive about school, which in turn enhances student motivation (Shumow & Harris, 1998). Shannon recognized this when she invited parents and other caregivers to share their cultural heritages with her class. Students bring to school a wealth of experiences embedded in their home cultures. Sensitive teachers build on these experiences, and all students benefit.

Reflect on This

To analyze a case study examining issues involved in attempting to adapt instruction to cultural differences, go to the Companion Website at
www.prenhall. com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Reflect on This module.

Language Diversity
One of the most prominent parts of any culture is its language, and because language diversity is so important to learning, and the responses to it are so controversial, we devote a major section to it. Immigration has brought increasing numbers of students with limited backgrounds in English to U.S. classrooms. The number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States increased by more than 50 percent between 1985 and 1991. Between 1991 and 1993, the language minority population increased 12.6 percent, compared to an increase of only 1.02 percent in the general population (Weaver & Padron, 1997). There are more than 3.2 million students in U.S. schools whose first language is not English, and in many states, these students now make up a significant proportion of the student body. For example, California’s 1.4 million ELL students comprise 35 percent of the state’s school-age population; ELL students comprise 30 percent of the population in New Mexico, 28 percent in Texas, and 23 percent in New York (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1998b). Nationwide, the number of ELL students is expected to triple during the next 30 years. The most common language groups for these students are Spanish (73%), Vietnamese (4%), Hmong (1.8%), Cantonese (1.7%), and Cambodian (1.6%).

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Language Diversity: The Government’s Response The federal government, through legislation and court rulings, has attempted to address the needs of English language learners. For example, in 1968 Congress passed the
Bilingual Education Act, which provided federal funds for educating non-native English speakers. In 1974 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously, in the controversial San Francisco case Lau v. Nichols, that the San Francisco School District unlawfully discriminated on the basis of students’ national origin by failing to address children’s language problems. More recently the English Acquisition part of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandated that the primary objective of U.S. schools should be the teaching of English without any attempt to preserve minority languages (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001). Accordingly, the previous Office of Bilingual Education became the Office of English Acquisition. Language Diversity: Schools’ Responses Schools across the country have responded to the challenge of language diversity in several ways, outlined in Table 3.1. All of the programs are designed to ultimately teach English, but they differ in how fast English is introduced and to what extent the first language is used and maintained. Maintenance language programs placed the greatest emphasis on using and sustaining the first language. For example, in one bilingual program in Houston, students ini-

Table 3.1

Different Programs for ELL Students
Type of Program Maintenance Description First language maintained through reading and writing activities in first language while English introduced. Students learn to read in first language and are given supplementary instruction in English as a second language. Once English is mastered, students are placed in regular classrooms and first language discontinued. Students learn English by being “immersed” in classrooms where English is the only language spoken. Pull-out programs in which students are provided with supplementary English instruction or modified instruction in content areas (also called sheltered English programs). Advantages Students become literate in two languages. Maintains first language. Transition to English eased by gradual approach. Disadvantages Requires teachers trained in first language. Acquisition of English may not be as fast. Requires teachers trained in first language. Acquisition of English may not be as fast.

Transition

Immersion

English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

When effective, quick transition to English. Does not require teachers trained in second language. Easier to administer when dealing with diverse language backgrounds.

Loss of native language. “Sink or swim” approach hard on students.

Students may not be ready to benefit from content instruction in English. Pull-out programs segregate students.

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Bilingual education maintains students’ first language, using it as the foundation for learning English.

Increasing Understanding 3.6
Which approach to helping English language learners is most culturally responsive? Least? Explain why in each case.

tially received 90 percent of instruction in Spanish and 10 percent in English (Zehr, 2002a). The amount of English then increased in each grade. In contrast with maintenance programs, immersion and English as a second
language (ESL) programs emphasize rapid transition to English. Transition programs maintain the first language until students acquire sufficient English. The current viability of maintenance programs is questionable, given the English Acquisition Act, which discourages such programs. Logistics are often a factor when schools consider which type of program to use. When there are large numbers of ELL students who speak the same language (such as Spanish-speaking students in Los Angeles), transition programs are feasible because one teacher who speaks the students’ native language can be hired. When several different first languages exist in the classroom, however, it isn’t feasible to find teachers who speak all of the languages. High schools, with students going from one content classroom to the next, also present logistical challenges, and ESL programs are more likely to exist at this level. Language Diversity: Implications for Teachers How will language diversity affect you as a teacher? First, bilingual education is likely to be a subject of hot debate for years.

Second, although bilingual programs have been reduced, the need for teachers with ELL expertise will only increase. Experts estimate that an additional 290,000 teachers with ELL certification will be needed to meet the demands of these students (Zhao, 2002). Teaching candidates who speak two languages, especially Spanish, are in high demand across the country. Third, you will almost certainly have non-native English speakers in your classroom, and your ability to make informed professional decisions will be essential for their learning success. In working with students from diverse backgrounds, your professionalism will be tested perhaps more than in any other area of your work. Research offers the following suggestions:

• Attempt to create a warm and inviting classroom environment by taking a personal interest in all students and involving everyone in learning activities. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Teaching in an Era of Reform
THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION ISSUE
Bilingual education has been the focus of several reform efforts. Through the Bilingual Education Act in 1968 and guidelines drafted as a result of Lau v. Nichols in 1974, the federal government has demonstrated its commitment to providing services for nonnative English speakers. A counterreform occurred in California in 1998 when voters passed Proposition 227, a ballot initiative that sharply reduced bilingual education programs, replacing them with English-only immersion programs for ELL students. Similar measures passed in Arizona in 2000 and Massachusetts and Colorado in 2002, and other states, such as Utah, are considering similar initiatives (K. Gutiérrez et al., 2002; Schnaiberg, 1999a; Zehr, 2000a, 2000b).

These initiatives have sharply curtailed the use of bilingual education in these states. For example, before the initiatives occurred in Arizona and California, about one third of ELL students were taking bilingual education classes; after, the numbers plummeted to 11 percent in both states (Zehr, 2002b). In addition, 26 states have passed laws making English the official language (U.S. English, Inc., 2000). Although these laws are mostly symbolic because they have few concrete implications, they do illustrate public sentiment in favor of English and highlight fears about losing English as a common cultural bond. In addition, in 2002 the U.S. Congress failed to renew the Bilingual Education Act, instead packaging funds for English language learners into the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires students to attain “English fluency” in 3 years and requires schools to teach students in English after that time period. The Issue The essence of bilingual programs is an attempt to maintain students’ native languages while they learn English. Proponents make several arguments in support of bilingual education. First, they contend that the programs make sense because they provide a smooth and humane transition to English by building on students’ first languages.

They also argue that being able to speak two languages has practical benefits; a bilingual person is able to live and communicate in two worlds, which can increase economic and career opportunities. They also cite research. A study conducted in the early 1990s indicated that students in bilingual programs scored higher in math and reading and had more positive attitudes toward school and themselves (Arias & Casanova, 1993). In a more comprehensive study, researchers found significant benefits for bilingual programs on standardized tests in reading (Zehr, 2002b). Contrary to arguments that newcomers to the United States are learning English more slowly than in previous generations, the opposite appears to be true (Waggoner, 1995). Fur-

• Avoid situations that draw attention to students’ lack of English skills and cause embarrassment. One student commented:
• ● •

I think it is a bad strategy to make [ELLs] read aloud in front of other kids when they really can’t. Teachers should give them time and make them more welcome by talking to them in Spanish first and later in English. They shouldn’t expect them right away to do everything in English. (Thompson, 2000, p. 85) • ● •

• Mix teacher-centered instruction with learner-centered approaches, such as cooperative learning, where students can interact informally and practice their language skills at the same time as they study content. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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ther research indicates that knowledge and skills acquired in a native language—literacy in particular— are “transferable” to the second language, providing students with a better understanding of the role of language in
communication and how language works (K. Gutiérrez et al. 2002; Krashen, 1996). Proponents of bilingual education also contend that immersion programs are ineffective because they place unrealistic language demands on learners. They note that conversational English, such as that spoken on the playground, is learned quite quickly, but the cognitively demanding language needed for academic success is learned much less rapidly (Peregoy & Boyle, 2001). Finally, the magnitude of the challenges involved in requiring students to attain “English fluency” in 3 years, as mandated by No Child Left Behind, is enormous. For example, in Arizona an estimated 37 percent of the state’s ELL students were enrolled in bilingual programs in 1999, and in California roughly one third of the state’s 1.4 million ELL students were enrolled in such programs (Schnaiberg, 1999a, 1999b). The Los Angeles Unified School District alone had more than 100,000 of its 310,000 ELL students enrolled in bilingual education programs. Critics of bilingual education have attacked it on several grounds. They contend that it is • Divisive, encouraging groups of non-native English speakers to remain separate from mainstream American culture • Ineffective, slowing the process of acquiring English for English language learners

Inefficient, requiring expenditures for the training of bilingual teachers and materials that could better be spent on quality monolingual programs Critics also cite their own research. For instance, one California school district reported that standardized test scores for students in the early grades—those most affected by the move from bilingual to immersion programs—improved from the 35th to the 45th percentile after students spent just one year in an immersion program, and additional research found similar positive results across California (Barone, 2000). For a report on “The Initial Impact of Proposition 227 on the Instruction of English Learners,” go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Web Links module. You Take a Position Now it’s your turn to take a position on the issue. State in writing whether you feel that schools should make efforts to retain students’ native languages or whether it makes more sense to move students into English as quickly as possible, and provide a
twopage rationale for your position.

For additional references and resources, go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall. com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Teaching in an Era of Reform module. You can respond online or submit your response to your instructor.

• Provide peer tutoring and “buddy” programs where students more proficient in English can help classmates who are less proficient. Peer tutoring not only increases learning but also helps ELL students feel at home in the classroom. One student recalled: • ● •

One day, while everyone else was working, my teacher called a young boy and me up to her desk. She told him something and then he glanced at me. All of a sudden, he asked me my name in Cambodian. I was so happy to know that there was someone else that spoke my language. So, I answered him back in Cambodian. Then, he told me that he was my partner in the class. In only a week, I memorized the alphabet. (Thompson, 2000, p. 84) ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

• ● •

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Schools can be frightening places for ELLs; having a learning partner can help in the transition to English. Use many examples and illustrations to provide concrete referents for new ideas and vocabulary. (Echevarria & Graves, 2002; Peregoy & Boyle, 2001)

These strategies represent good instructional practice for all students; for English language learners, they are essential.

Gender
What Geri Peterson saw on her first day of teaching advancedplacement calculus was both surprising and disturbing. Of the 26 students watching her, only four were girls, and they sat quietly in class, responding only when she asked them direct questions. One reason that Geri had gone into teaching was to share her interest in math with other females, but this situation gave her little chance to do so. • ● •

Case STUDY

Lori Anderson, the school counselor at an urban middle school, looked up from the desk where she was working on her annual report to the faculty.From her coursework at the university and her internship, she knew that boys traditionally outnumber girls with respect to behavioral problems, but the numbers she was looking at were disturbing. In every category—referrals by teachers, absenteeism, tardies, and fights— boys outnumbered girls by a more than 2 to 1 margin.In addition,the number of boys referred to her for special education testing far exceeded referrals for girls. This was a problem that her faculty needed to think about. • ● •

Gender and Society
The fact that males and females are different is so obvious that we usually don’t think about it. Some important differences between the sexes may not be readily apparent, however. Researchers (Feingold, 1995; Halpern & LaMay, 2000) have found, for example, that women generally are more extroverted, anxious, and trusting; they’re less assertive and have slightly lower self-esteem than males of the same age and background; and their verbal and motor skills tend to develop faster than boys’ skills do. In addition, the play habits of boys and girls are different; boys typically prefer more “rough and tumble” play. Why do these gender differences exist? Research suggests the causes are a combination of genetics and environment (Berk, 2003).

Genetics result in physical differences such as size and growth rate and may also influence other differences such as temperament, aggressiveness, and early verbal and exploratory behaviors. Environment plays a part as well. From the day they are born, boys and girls are treated differently (Berk, 2003, 2004; McDevitt & Ormrod, 2002). Often, girls are given pink blankets, are called cute and pretty, and are handled delicately. Boys are dressed in blue, are regarded as handsome, and are seen as tougher, better coordinated, and hardier. Fathers are rougher with their sons and involve them in more physical stimulation and play; they tend to be gentler with their daughters and offer more sex-stereotyped toys, such as dolls and stuffed animals. Not surprisingly, boys and girls grow up looking and acting differently. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Gender and Schooling
The differences between boys and girls should generally be celebrated. They’re problems only when societal or school forces limit the growth and academic potential of students—either male or female. Consider these findings which suggest that schools are failing to meet the educational needs of girls:

• In the early grades, girls are ahead of or equal to boys on almost every standardized measure of achievement and psychological well-being. By the time they graduate from high school or college, they have fallen behind on these standardized measures. In high school, girls score lower than boys on the SAT and ACT, two tests that are critical for college admission. The greatest gender gaps occur in science and math, and the gaps are more pronounced at the upper end of scores. Women score lower on all sections of
the Graduate Record Exam, required to get into most graduate programs; the Medical College Admissions Test; and admission tests for law, dental, and optometry schools (P. Campbell & Clewell, 1999; Sadker, Sadker, & Long, 1997). Other research suggests that schools also fail to meet the learning needs of boys:

• •

• Boys outnumber girls in remedial English and math classes, are held back in grade • • • more often, are 3 to 5 times more likely to be labeled learning disabled, and are 2 to 3 times more likely to be placed in special education classes. Boys consistently receive lower grades than girls, receiving 70 percent of the Ds and Fs on report cards, and they score lower than girls on both direct and indirect measures of writing skills. Boys are more likely to be involved in serious school misbehavior. They account for 71 percent of all school suspensions. The proportion of both bachelor’s and master’s degrees earned favors women by a ratio of 54 to 46. (Hunsader, 2002; Riordan, 1999)

Let’s examine some possible explanations for these findings. Again, a combination of genetics and environment is likely at work. Because little can be done about genetics, more attention has been given to environment, particularly gender-role identity differences, expectations and beliefs about appropriate roles and behaviors of the two sexes. Gender issues are controversial. For instance, in 1992’s How Schools Shortchange Girls, the American Association of University Women (AAUW) argued that different treatment of boys and girls by both teachers and society was seriously hampering the educational progress, self-esteem, and career choices of girls and women. In 1998’s Gender Gaps: Where Schools Still Fail Our Children, the AAUW reiterated many of its earlier claims. Counterclaims have also been made. For example, Christina Sommers, author of The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men (Sommers, 2000), has pointed out that—in addition to having lower achievement, more frequent misbehavior, and more frequent placement in special education classes—boys are less likely to do their homework and are more likely to cheat on tests, wind up in detention, and drop out of school. Yet it’s the myth of the fragile girl that continues to receive the lion’s share of attention, she has argued. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Is differential treatment of girls and boys really to blame for these problems? The controversies are likely to continue. It’s important to point out that gender-role identity differences aren’t a problem unless they perpetuate stereotypes or negatively influence behavior, learning, or expectations for school success. Research indicates that this may be happening, particularly in math, computer science, and engineering (J. Campbell & Beaudry, 1998; O’Brien, Kopola, & Martinez-Pons, 1999).

Gender and Career Choices Look around the classroom you’re in for this course. If it’s a typical education course, probably three fourths of the students in it are women. The same would be true in nursing classes, but you would find the opposite in math, science, and computer-related fields. Differences in students’ views of gender-appropriate careers appear as early as kindergarten (Kochenberger-Stroeher, 1994). In spite of strong and systematic efforts to address the needs of both boys and girls in today’s schools, when asked about future potential career options, boys continue to be more likely to choose doctor and engineer and girls are more likely to mention nurse or secretary (Riordan, 1999). Significantly, when kindergarten children chose nontraditional roles for males or females, their choice was based on personal experience (e.g., “My friend’s dad is a nurse”). Where do the stereotypes of “appropriate” careers for boys and girls originate? Society and the media perpetuate stereotypes, but ironically, the most powerful source is parents, particularly mothers. For instance, one study found that mothers who held negative gender-stereotyped attitudes about girls’ ability in math adversely influenced their daughters’ achievement in, and their attitudes toward, math (J. Campbell & Beaudry, 1998). Parents can also have powerful positive influences on their children. One female chemistry software developer reported: • ● •

My mother always engendered in me the attitude that I could do absolutely anything I ever want to do. So she really gave me the confidence that is a big part of success in academics and maybe in other things—sometimes you get to a point where you don’t have that much either skill or knowledge, and you have to just go on your guts or your confidence. You have to just kind of push your way through something until you have the time to accumulate the knowledge. And I think that that’s something she engendered in me just by always being herself so confident of my abilities, rightly or wrongly. And my father certainly never detracted from that. He always portrayed her as being the smarter of the two. So I was raised in an environment where women were not only capable but were even potentially very well and highly regarded. (Zeldin & Pajares, 2000, p. 229) • ● •

Gender-stereotypic views can also negatively influence career decisions. Girls are less than half as likely as boys to pursue careers in engineering and physical and computer sciences (AAUW, 1998). At the high school level only 11 percent of students taking the College Board advanced placement test in computer science in 2001 were women (Stabiner, 2003). The percentages of female physicians (26%), lawyers (27%), and engineers (8%), as well as professors in science-related fields (36%), remain low as well (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1998b; U.S. Department of Education, 1998b). The problem of gender-stereotypic views of math, science, and computer science careers is especially acute for minority females (O’Brien et al., 1999). ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Role models are effective in preventing students from forming gender-stereotypic views about appropriate careers.

Increasing Understanding 3.7
In single-gender classrooms and schools, should the teachers be the same gender as the students? Explain alternate positions, using the information in this section.

Single-Gender Classrooms and Schools One response to gender-related problems has been the creation of single-gender classes and schools, where boys and girls are segregated for part or all of the day (Mael, 1998; Vail, 2002). One researcher found that middle school girls were more likely to ask and answer questions in girls-only math classes than in other coeducational classes (Streitmatter, 1997). The girls also preferred this type of learning environment, saying that it enhanced their ability to learn math and their view of themselves as mathematicians. Research on single-gender schools has revealed other positive effects—for both girls and boys. Girls who attend single-gender schools are more apt to assume leadership roles, take more math and science courses, have higher self-esteem, and have firmer beliefs that they are in control of their destinies (Datnow, Hubbard, & Conchas, 2001).

Advocates of all-male schools claim that they promote male character development and are especially effective with males from low-income and minority families. Although research shows that single-sex schooling has positive effects on both general achievement and achievement in gender-stereotyped fields such as math and science, this research also raises other issues (Datnow et al., 2001; Vail, 2002). For example, because boys and girls are isolated from one another, single-gender schools and classes can exacerbate stereotypic views of the opposite sex (Datnow et al., 2001) and fail to prepare students for the “real world” in which males and females must work together. In addition, some critics question the legality of single-sex classrooms and schools based on Title IX, a federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender (Zehr, 2000c). More research is needed about the long-term effects of these experiments and the ways in which they may (or may not) help students learn and develop. Gender and Schooling: Implications for Teachers What can you do to prevent gender inequities in the classroom? To begin, you should be aware that you may have stereotypical attitudes of your own. Attitudes influence behavior, and you will need

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to monitor how you interact with the boys and girls in your classroom. Research indicates that teachers typically call on boys more often than girls, probably because boys are more verbally assertive or aggressive, and boys are more likely to ask questions and make comments about ideas being discussed in class (Altermatt, Jovanovic, & Perry, 1998; Sadker, Sadker, & Klein, 1991). These differences increase as students move through school. In the extreme, these patterns can result in girls becoming less involved in learning activities. As a teacher, what can you do? Several possibilities exist:

• Communicate openly with students about gender issues and concerns. Simply telling your students that teachers often treat boys and girls differently and that you’re going to try to treat them equally is a positive first step. Continue to explain why and how you are attempting to make your classroom gender-fair. Encourage equal participation in all classes, particularly in math and science classes. One demanding but extremely effective technique is to call on everyone in your classes individually and by name, regardless of
whether or not their hands are raised. Arrange to have science and computer experiments and demonstrations, which tend to be dominated by boys, prepared and conducted by both boys and girls equally. Make an effort to present cases of men and women in nonstereotypical roles, such as women who are engineers and men who are first-grade teachers. Encourage girls to pursue science-related careers. Significantly, girls who did so reported that the encouragement received from teachers was an important factor in their career decisions (AAUW, 1992).

• • •

The powerful influence that teachers can have on students is captured in the following remembrance from a 42-year-old female mathematics professor: • ● •

It was the first time I had algebra, and I loved it. And then, all of a sudden, I excelled in it. And the teacher said, “Oh no, you should be in the honors course,” or something like that. So, there’s somebody who definitely influenced me because I don’t think I ever even noticed. I mean, I didn’t care one way or the other about mathematics. It was just something you had to do. I remember she used to run up and down the aisle. She was real excited. . . . She said,”Oh, you gotta go in this other class. You gotta.” And she kind of pushed a little bit, and I was willing to be pushed. (Zeldin & Pajares, 2000, p. 232) • ● •

When teachers believe in their students, students start believing in themselves. No one is suggesting that boys and girls are, or should be, the same. Teachers should, however, attempt to provide the same academic opportunities and encouragement for all.

Sexual Harassment
Hey, babe. Lookin’ good in that sweater! Hey, sugar. Want to make me happy tonight? Comments like these, heard in many classrooms and hallways in our nation’s schools, may constitute sexual harassment. A problem that affects
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Sexual harassment often occurs in school hallways, and teachers can play a powerful role in preventing it there and in the classroom.

with your life” (AAUW, 1993, p. 6). It can also interfere with a student’s learning and development. In one survey, 4 out of 5 teenagers (grades 8–11) reported some type of sexual harassment in schools (AAUW, 1993). Sexual comments, gestures, and looks, as well as touching and grabbing, were most commonly cited (Figure 3.3). Several aspects of the AAUW survey are disturbing. One is the high incidence of sexual harassment that occurs in the schools; schools and classrooms should be safe places for learning. Another is a finding that only 7 percent of the harassment cases were reported. In addition, only 26 percent of students were aware of school policies regarding sexual harassment. A more recent survey (AAUW, 2001) found that sexual harassment continues to be a problem in schools. Both boys (79%) and girls (83%) continue to report problems with sexual harassment, and the figures don’t differ for urban, suburban, or rural schools. However, there has been a sea change in awareness of school policies toward sexual harassment. The 2001 study found that 69 percent of students were aware that school policies on sexual harassment existed. This is an encouraging first step, but more needs to be done to make schools safe for all students. Harassment is a particularly acute problem for homosexual students (Meyer & Stein, 2002). One national survey found that 91 percent of homosexual students had encountered anti-gay comments, 69 percent had been verbally abused, and 34 percent were verbally abused on a daily basis (Galley, 1999).
Sometimes the abuse isn’t only verbal: • ● •

When I was changing classes, I had all the books in my hands. . . . I’d hear someone mutter “faggot” and have my books knocked down. People are walking over me as I’m trying to gather my books. I don’t have time to turn around to see who said it. (Sears, 1993, p. 129) • ● •

Students report that treatment such as this makes them feel “sad and worthless” and “powerless” (Shakeshaft et al., 1997). This harassment contributes to higher rates of depression, substance abuse, and suicide for gay students (Berk, 2003). ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Figure 3.3

Sexual Harassment in U.S. Schools
80 70 60 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 Sexual Had sexual Touched, Intentionally comments, rumors spread grabbed, or brushed up gestures, about them pinched in a against in a or looks sexual way sexual way Boys Girls Flashed or mooned Shown, given, Had their or left sexual way drawings, blocked messages, in a sexual or photos manner

Source: From American Association of University Women (1993). Hostile hallways: The AAUW survey on sexual harassment in America’s schools. New York: Louis Harris and Associates. Reprinted by permission.

Schools and teachers need to do a better job of making classrooms and hallways safe. Teachers are likely to encounter increased attention to the
problem in light of a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that found school districts legally responsible in cases where sexual harassment is reported but not corrected (N. Stein, 2000). Research also suggests that teachers may require additional help understanding the problem and what their professional and legal obligations are (Meyer & Stein, 2002). All students—boys and girls, heterosexual and homosexual—have a right to harassment-free schools. Teachers have an important role in ensuring that this happens. Talk with your students about the problem, and emphasize that no form of sexual harassment will be tolerated.

Ability Differences
When you look out over your first class, you’ll see obvious similarities and differences. Your students will be about the same age, and their dress and hairstyles will probably be similar. They’ll come from different cultural backgrounds, and you’ll have both boys and girls. Less obvious, however, will be differences in their ability to learn. In virtually any class, you’ll work with students who master the content effortlessly as well as other students who struggle just to keep up. In this section we examine ability differences and how schools accommodate them.

What Is Intelligence?
To begin this section, try to answer the following questions, and then decide what they have in common. 1. On what continent is Brazil? 2. A coat priced $45 is marked 1 3 off. When it still doesn’t sell, the sale price is reduced by half. What is the price after the second discount?

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3. Who was Albert Einstein? 4. How far is it from Seattle to Atlanta? 5. How are a river and a plateau alike? The common feature of these questions may surprise you. Each resembles an item found on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991), one of the most widely used intelligence tests in the United States. In other words, experts believe that the ability to answer questions such as these is an indicator of a person’s intelligence. We all have intuitive notions of intelligence; it’s how “sharp” people are, how much they know, how quickly and easily they learn, and how perceptive and sensitive they are. These casual definitions would not satisfy the experts, however. They more precisely define intelligence as the capacity to acquire knowledge, the ability to think and reason in the abstract, and the ability to solve problems (Snyderman & Rothman, 1987; Sternberg, 1986). It is these three dimensions that intelligence tests seek to measure. The test questions at the start of this section are interesting, however, because they tell us about something else that is needed to perform well on most intelligence tests: experience and background knowledge (Halpern & LaMay, 2000; Perkins, 1995). Indeed, research has consistently indicated that experience and background knowledge are essential to the development of problem-solving ability in general as well as the ability to think in the abstract (Bruning et al., 2004).

Increasing Understanding 3.8
If experience is crucial to performance on tests of learning ability, how might performance be affected by growing up in a minority culture?

Changes in Views of Intelligence
Historically, researchers believed that intelligence was a unitary trait and that all people could be classified along a single continuum of general intelligence. Thinking has changed, however, and some researchers now believe that intelligence is composed of several distinct dimensions that, unlike the unified dimensions in our traditional definition of intellience, may occur alone or in various combinations in different individuals. One of the most well-known proponents of the idea that intelligence is composed of more than one factor is Howard Gardner (1983, 1999), a Harvard psychologist who did groundbreaking work in this area. He proposed a theory of multiple intelligences, which suggests that overall intelligence is composed of eight relatively independent dimensions (Table 3.2). Gardner’s theory makes intuitive sense. For example, we all know people who don’t seem particularly “sharp” analytically but who excel in getting along with others. This ability serves them well, and in some instances they’re more successful than their “brighter” peers. Other people seem very self-aware and can capitalize on their personal strengths and minimize their weaknesses. Gardner would describe these people as high in interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence, respectively.

Despite the theory’s popularity with teachers (Viadero, 2003c), most classrooms focus heavily on the linguistic and logical-mathematical dimensions and virtually ignore the others. If the other dimensions are to develop, however, students need experiences with them. For example, cooperative learning activities can help students develop interpersonal intelligence, participation in sports or dance can improve bodily-kinesthetic abilities, and playing in a band or singing in choral groups can improve musical intelligence.

Increasing Understanding 3.9
If educators were to apply Gardner’s theory, what would an elementary-level report card look like? A high school report card?

Ability: Nature Versus Nurture
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No aspect of intelligence has been more hotly debated than the relative contributions of heredity versus environment. The extreme nature view of intelligence asserts that

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Table 3.2

Gardner’s Eight Intelligences
Individuals Who Might Be High in This Dimension Poet, journalist

Dimension Linguistic intelligence

Description Sensitivity to the meaning and order of words and the varied uses of language The ability to handle long chains of reasoning and to recognize patterns and order in the world Sensitivity to pitch, melody, and tone The ability to perceive the visual world accurately, and to re-create, transform, or modify aspects of the world on the basis of one’s perceptions A fine-tuned ability to use the body and to handle objects An understanding of interpersonal relations and the ability to make distinctions among others Access to one’s own “feeling life” The ability to recognize similarities and differences in the physical world

Logical-mathematical intelligence Musical intelligence Spatial intelligence

Scientist, mathematician

Composer, violinist Sculptor, navigator

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Naturalist intelligence

Dancer, athlete Therapist, salesperson

Self-aware individual Biologist, anthropologist

Source: Checkley (1997).

intelligence is primarily determined by genetics. The nurture view of
intelligence emphasizes the influence of the environment. Differences between the nature and nurture views are controversial when race or ethnicity is considered. For example, research indicates that in the United States, children from some cultural minority groups collectively score lower on intelligence tests than White children (Brody, 1992; McLoyd, 1998). People who emphasize the nurture view explain this finding by arguing that minority children have fewer stimulating experiences while they are developing. People adhering to the nature view argue that heredity is the more important factor. In their highly controversial book, The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray (1994) concluded that the contribution of heredity outweighed environmental factors in influencing the intelligence test scores of minority populations, especially African Americans. Methodological problems, such as inferring causation from correlational data, caused other experts to reject this position (Jacoby & Glauberman, 1995; Marks, 1995). In considering the nature–nurture debate, most experts take a position somewhere in the middle, believing that ability is influenced by both heredity and the environment (Petrill & Wilkerson, 2000; Shepard, 2001). In this view, a person’s genes provide the potential for intelligence, and stimulating environments make the most of the raw material. If learning environments don’t provide enough stimulation, however, children may not reach their full potential (Berk, 2003; McDevitt & Ormrod, 2002). For example, researchers tracked children born of low-income parents but adopted as infants into high-income families. Children in the high-income homes received more adult 104

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attention, went on more outings, and were exposed to a greater variety of playthings and reading materials. The children in these enriched
environments scored an average of 14 points higher on intelligence tests than their siblings in the low-income environments (Schiff, Duyme, Dumaret, & Tomkiewicz, 1982). School experiences can also lead to increases in intelligence test scores (Ceci & Williams, 1997). A longitudinal study of disadvantaged, inner-city children indicated that early stimulation provided in school settings can have lasting effects on IQ (F. Campbell & Raney, 1995). In addition, attempts to directly teach the skills measured by intelligence tests have been successful with preschool and elementary students (Bronfenbrenner, 1999), adults (Whimbey, 1980), and students with learning disabilities (A. Brown & Campione, 1986).

Ability Grouping and Tracking
The most common way schools respond to differences in learner ability is by ability grouping, the practice of placing students of similar aptitude and achievement histories together in an attempt to match instruction to the needs of different groups (Holloway, 2001; Lou, Abrami, & Spence, 2000). Ability grouping is popular in elementary schools and typically exists in two major forms. Between-class ability grouping divides all students in a given grade into high, medium, and low groups. Within-class grouping divides students within one classroom into ability groups. Most elementary teachers endorse ability grouping, particularly in reading and math. In middle, junior high, and high schools, ability grouping goes further, with highability students studying advanced and college preparatory courses and lower ability classmates receiving vocational or work-related instruction.

In some schools students are grouped only in certain areas, such as English or math. In other schools the grouping exists across all content areas; this practice, called tracking, places students in a series of different classes or curricula on the basis of ability and career goals. Some form of tracking exists in most middle, junior high, and high schools (Braddock, 1990), and tracking has its most negative effects on minorities in the lower tracks (Davenport et al., 1998; Mickelson & Heath, 1999). Why is ability grouping so common? Advocates claim that it increases learning because it allows teachers to adjust methods, materials, and instructional pace to better meet students’ needs (Gladden, 2003). Because lesson components, as well as assessments, are the same (or similar) for students in a particular group,
instruction is also easier for the teacher. Research has uncovered the following problems, however:

Increasing Understanding 3.10
Considering his theory of multiple intelligences, do you think Howard Gardner would favor ability grouping? Explain. How might he modify ability grouping?

• Homogeneously grouped low-ability students achieve less than heterogeneously • • grouped students of similar ability (Good & Brophy, 2003). Within-class grouping creates logistical problems for teachers, because different lessons and assignments are required, and monitoring students in different tasks is difficult (Good & Brophy, 2003). Improper placements occur, and placement tends to become permanent. Cultural minorities are underrepresented in high-ability classes and overrepresented in lower classes and tracks (Davenport et al., 1998; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1992). Low groups are stigmatized, and the self-esteem and motivation of students in these groups suffer (Good & Marshall, 1984; Hallinan, 1984).

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8 percent to 26 percent after students’ transition to a tracked junior high (Slavin & Karweit, 1982), with most of the truants being students in the
low-level classes. Tracking can also result in racial or cultural segregation of students, impeding social development and the ability to form friendships across cultural groups (Oakes, 1992). The negative effects of grouping are related, in part, to the quality of instruction. Presentations to low groups are more fragmented and vague than those to high groups; they focus more on memorizing than understanding, problem solving, and “active learning.” StuTeachers minimize the negative effects of ability grouping by using it only when absolutely necessary, such as in reading or math, and by adapting dents in low-ability classes are often instruction to meet the needs of all students. taught by teachers who lack enthusiasm and stress conformity versus autonomy and the development of self-regulation (Good & Brophy, 2003; Ross, Smith, Loks, & McNelie, 1994). Teachers can avoid the problems associated with ability grouping and tracking by working with students in heterogeneous groups whenever possible. Instructional adaptations will be needed, however, to ensure the success of students of varying abilities. Some effective strategies include the following:

• Breaking large assignments into smaller ones and providing additional scaffolding • • • • and support for those who need it Giving students who need it more time to complete assignments Providing peer tutors for students requiring extra help Using small-group work in which students help each other learn Providing options on some assignments, such as giving students the choice of presenting a report orally or in writing (Nyberg, McMillin, O’Neill-Rood, & Florence, 1997; Tomlinson & Callahan, 2001)

Effective teachers adapt instruction to meet the needs of all students; the need for these adaptations is especially acute for low-ability students (Tomlinson & Callahan, 2001).

Learning Styles
One thing Chris Burnette remembered from his methods classes was the need for variety. He had been primarily using large-group discussions in his junior high social studies class, and most of the students seemed to respond okay. But others seemed disinterested, and their attention often drifted. Today, Chris decided to try a small-group activity involving problem solving. The
class had been studying the growth of American cities, and he wanted the class to think about solutions to some of the problems of big cities. As he watched the small ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

Case STUDY

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groups interact, he was amazed at what he saw. Some of the quietest, most withdrawn students were leaders in the groups. “Great!” he thought. But at the same time, he noted that some of his more active students were sitting back and not getting involved. • ● •

How do you like to study? Do you learn most effectively in groups or alone? Do you prefer teacher presentations or reading a textbook? Your answers to these questions reflect your unique learning style, or your preferred way of learning or processing information. Teachers often see differences in cognitive learning styles when they present problems to students. For example, some students jump in and try to solve a problem through trial and error, whereas others sit back and carefully analyze the problem. In learning style theory, impulsive students are students who work quickly but often make errors and reflective students are students who analyze and deliberate before answering. Impulsive students emphasize speed and take chances; reflective students think more carefully and consider alternatives before they answer. Impulsive students perform better on activities requiring factual information; reflective students have an advantage in problem solving. Another difference in learning style involves field dependence/independence, an individual’s ability to identify relevant information in a complex and potentially confusing background (Kogan, 1994).
Field-dependent people see patterns as wholes; field-independent people are able to analyze complex patterns into their constituent parts. In mathematics, for example, a field-independent student would be better at breaking a complex word problem into subcomponents and using relevant information to solve the problem. Research has also revealed learning style differences between introverts and extroverts (Nussbaum, 2002). During small-group discussions, extroverts were more likely to challenge others’ ideas, whereas introverts were more likely to work cooperatively with others to develop solutions to problems. Teachers using these research findings might strategically group these different types of students together so that they could learn from and complement each other. One of the oldest and most popular approaches to learning styles is that proposed by Rita and Kenneth Dunn (1992a, 1992b). Through their work in schools, they observed differences in the ways students responded to instructional environments. Some liked to learn alone, whereas others preferred learning in groups or from a teacher. Dunn and Dunn identified a number of key dimensions on which they suggested student learning styles differed. In an attempt to systematically measure these dimensions, the researchers constructed a learning styles inventory that asked students to respond to statements such as the following (Dunn & Dunn, 1992a, 1992b):

• • • •
Increasing Understanding 3.11
Would a field-independent person more likely be impulsive or reflective? Why? ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

I study best when it is quiet. I like to study by myself. I do my best work early in the morning. The things I remember best are things I hear.

According to Dunn and Dunn, teachers should try to provide optimal learning environments for each student based on responses to the inventory. Despite the popularity of learning styles theory, there is little research evidence linking learning style accommodations to increases in student achievement. In practice, making accommodatations for individual styles in a class of 25 or 30 students

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Teachers can meet students’ different learning styles by offering a variety of learning options.

can be quite difficult. A more practical idea may be to teach students to adapt their learning strategies to different tasks and environments. High achievers demonstrate this adaptive flexibility to a greater extent than do lower achievers (Eggen & Kauchak, 2004).

Cultural Learning Styles
Learning styles are also influenced by culture and gender. In typical U.S. classrooms, individual initiative and responsibility are emphasized and reinforced by grades and competition. Competition demands successes and failures, and the success of one student is often linked to the failure of another (D. Campbell, 2000). Contrast this orientation with the learning styles of the Hmong, a mountain tribe from Laos that immigrated to the United States after the Vietnam War. The Hmong culture emphasizes cooperation, and Hmong students constantly monitor the learning progress of their peers, offering help and assistance. Individual achievement is deemphasized in favor of group success. • ● •

When Mee Hang has difficulty with an alphabetization lesson, Pang Lor explains, in Hmong, how to proceed. Chia Ying listens in to Pang’s explanation and nods her head. Pang goes back to work on her own paper, keeping an eye on Mee Hang. When she sees Mee looking confused, Pang leaves her seat and leans over Mee’s shoulder. She writes the first letter of each word on the line, indicating to Mee that these letters are in alphabetical
order and that Mee should fill in the rest of each word. This gives Mee the help she needs and she is able to finish on her own. Mee, in turn, writes the first letter of each word on the line for Chia Ying, passing on Pang Lor’s explanation. Classroom achievement is never personal but always considered to be the result of cooperative effort. Not only is there no competition in the classroom, there is constant denial of individual ability. When individuals are praised by the teacher, they generally shake their heads and appear hesitant to be singled out as being more able than their peers. (Hvitfeldt, 1986, p. 70) • ● • ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Think about how well Hmong students would learn if instruction were competitive and teacher centered, with few opportunities for student help and collaboration. Some research suggests that Native American, Mexican American, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Island students experience similar difficulties in competitive classrooms (Greenfield, 1994; Triandis, 1995). Cooperation is more important to these groups than competition, which they view as silly, if not distasteful. When students come to school and are asked to compete, they may experience cultural conflict. Getting good grades at the expense of fellow students seems both strange and offensive. Raising hands and jousting for the right to give the correct answer isn’t congruent with the ways in which students interact at home. If forced to choose between two cultures, some young people may conclude that schools are not for them. Although cultural learning styles can provide insights into why some students think and act the way they do, multicultural experts caution against cultural stereotyping: • ● •

Increasing Understanding 3.12
From a nature–nurture perspective, how might cognitive and cultural learning styles differ?

The notion that certain learning styles are associated with different ethnic groups is both promising and dangerous. Promise lies in the realization that low academic achievement among some ethnic minorities may sometimes be attributed to conflicts between styles of teaching and learning, not low intelligence. This leads to the possibility that teachers will alter their own instructional styles to be more responsive to the learning needs of students. Danger lies in the possibility that new ethnic stereotypes will develop while old ones are reinforced, as in “Blacks learn aurally,” “Asians excel in math,” “Mexican American males can’t learn from female peer tutors,” and “Navajos won’t ask a question or participate in a discussion.” (Bennett, 1999, p. 63) • ● •

Keeping these cautions in mind, new teachers can use information about different minority groups as springboards to think about the individuals in their classrooms.

Instructional Responses to Learning Styles
Unquestionably, individual students come to school with different ways of learning and solving problems. The key question is “What should teachers do in response to these differences?” or perhaps, more realistically, “What can teachers do about these differences?” One position would take all instruction and tailor it to the distinctive needs and predispositions of individual students. Field-independent students, for example, would be allowed to work on independent projects, whereas field-dependent students would be allowed to work in small groups. The opposite position strives for balance— for example, by attempting to make impulsive students more reflective (“Now think a minute. Don’t just blurt out the answer!”) and vice versa. Neither of these positions is realistic; in a class of 25 to 30 students, it is virtually impossible to individualize your teaching to meet the distinct learning style preferences of all students. Further, research evidence doesn’t support the practice of tailoring teaching to students’ individual learning styles (Curry, 1990). So why do we study the concept of learning styles? We believe it has three implications for teachers. First, and most important, the existence of learning styles suggests the need to vary our instruction. Evidence supports the notion that teachers who vary the way they teach are more effective than those who repeatedly use the same strategies (Shuell, 1996). Individual projects, student presentations, smallgroup discussion, and cooperative learning all provide alternatives to teacher-led ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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activities and provide flexibility in accommodating individual learning styles. Second, considering learning styles reminds us that our students are, indeed, individuals and helps us become more sensitive to differences in the way they act and learn. In turn, we are less apt to interpret these differences as unimportant or inappropriate, and our classrooms become models of tolerance that provide positive learning environments for all students. Finally, discussing learning styles gives teachers the opportunity to encourage students to think about their own learning and, as a result, to develop metacognition. Metacognition refers to students’ awareness of the ways they learn most effectively and their ability to control these factors. For example, a student who realizes that studying with a stereo on reduces her ability to concentrate, and then turns the stereo off, is demonstrating metacognition. Students who are metacognitive are better able to adjust strategies to match learning tasks than are their less metacognitive peers, and consequentially are more successful students (Eggen & Kauchak, 2004). By encouraging students to think about how they learn best, teachers provide students with a powerful learning tool that they can use throughout their lives.

Students with Exceptionalities
As we’ve seen in this chapter, students differ in several important ways, and effective teachers consider these differences when they plan and teach. In some cases, additional support is required. Students with exceptionalities are learners who need special help and resources to reach their full potential. Exceptionalities include disabilities as well as giftedness. Help and resources can include special schools, self-contained classrooms designed especially for these students, resource rooms where students can go to receive supplemental instruction, and inclusion in regular classrooms with the support of specially trained professionals. Special education refers to instruction designed to meet the unique needs of students with exceptionalities. The terms children with exceptionalities, special education students, children with handicaps, students with special needs, and individuals with disabilities have all been used to describe students needing additional help to reach their full potential.

About 6.5 million students in the United States are enrolled in special education programs, two thirds of them for relatively minor problems (Galley, 2000b; Heward, 2003). Approximately 12 percent of students in a typical school receive special education services (U.S. Department of Education, 2002b). Federal legislation has created categories to identify students eligible for special education services, and educators use these categories in developing programs to meet students’ needs. The use of categories and the labeling that results is controversial, however (King-Sears, 1997). Advocates argue that categories provide a common language for professionals and encourage specialized instruction that meets the specific needs of students (Heward, 2003). Opponents claim that categories are arbitrary, many differences exist within them, and categorizing encourages educators to treat students as labels rather than as people. Despite the controversy, these categories are widely used, so you should be familiar with the terms. The federal law that describes the educational rights of students with disabilities, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (discussed later in this chapter), lists 13 disability categories:

• Autism • Deaf-blindness
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• • • • • • • • • • •

Developmental delay Emotional disturbance Hearing impairments including deafness Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairments Other health impairments Specific learning disabilities Speech or language impairments Traumatic brain injury Visual impairments including blindness

Three categories make up more than 70 percent of the population of students with exceptionalities who have disabilities (U.S. Department of Education, 2002b):

• Students with mental retardation • Students who have specific learning disabilities • Students with behavior disorders In addition, a large number of students are gifted and talented. Accurate figures on the number of students in this category are difficult to come by, and state averages range from less than 2 percent of the total student population in Washington to 15 percent in Wisconsin (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001). Figures are not always comparable because of state-by-state differences in the definition of “gifted and talented.” Despite these differences, it is safe to assume that there are a substantial number of students who are gifted and talented in most classrooms.

Gifted and Talented
Although we don’t typically think of gifted and talented students as having exceptionalities, they often have learning needs not met by the regular education curriculum. Gifted and talented is a designation given to students at the upper end of the ability continuum who need special services to reach their full potential. At one time the term gifted was used to identify these students, but the category has been enlarged to include both students who do well on intelligence tests and those who demonstrate above-average talents in a variety of areas such as math, creative writing, and music (Callahan, 2001; G. Davis & Rimm, 1998). The first step in meeting the needs of gifted and talented students is early identification. Experts recommend using a variety of methods for identification, including standardized test scores, teacher nominations, creativity measures, and peer and parent nominations (G. Davis & Rimm, 1998; Shea, Lubinsky, & Benbaw, 2001). As a teacher, you will have an important role in this process. Although the majority of states require that schools identify students who are gifted and talented, in 2003 only 27 had laws requiring that schools provide services to them (Shaunessy, 2003). Nine states, however, required that schools prepare an individualized education program, like those used for students in special education, detailing specific goals for meeting a gifted student’s educational needs. The regular education teacher may be responsible for adapting instruction for students who are gifted and talented, or students may attend special programs. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Table 3.3

Acceleration and Enrichment Options for Students Who Are Gifted and Talented Enrichment Options 1. Independent study and independent projects 2. Learning centers 3. Field trips 4. Saturday and summer programs 5. Simulations and games 6. Small-group inquiry and investigations 7. Academic competitions Acceleration Options 1. Early admission to kindergarten and first grade 2.
Grade skipping 3. Subject skipping 4. Credit by exam 5. College courses in high school 6. Correspondence courses 7. Early admission to college

Increasing Understanding 3.13
Using information from this chapter, explain why standardized testing might fail to identify many minority students who are gifted and talented.

Programs are typically based on either acceleration, which keeps the curriculum the same but allows students to move through it more quickly, or enrichment, which provides richer and varied content through strategies that supplement usual gradelevel work (Callahan, 2001; Feldhusen, 1998). Table 3.3 lists some acceleration and enrichment options. Failure to address the needs of these students can result in gifted underachievers, with social and emotional problems linked to boredom and lack of motivation (Dai, Moon, & Feldhusen, 1998; Louis, Subotnick, Breland, & Lewis, 2000).

Mental Retardation
Students with mental retardation have an exceptionality that includes limitations in intellectual functioning, as indicated by difficulties in learning, and problems with adaptive skills, such as communication, self-care, and social ability (Turnbull et al., 2002). Prior to the 1960s, definitions of mental retardation were based primarily on below-average scores on intelligence tests, but this approach had at least three problems. First, errors in testing sometimes resulted in misdiagnoses, and second, disproportionate numbers of minorities and non-English-speaking students were identified as mentally retarded (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2003; Hardman, Drew, & Egan, 2002). Third, individuals with the same intelligence test scores varied widely in their ability to cope with the real world, and these differences couldn’t be explained based on the tests alone (Heward, 2003). Because of these limitations, adaptive functioning was added to the definition.

Learning Disabilities
Students with learning disabilities have exceptionalities that involve difficulties in acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing,
reasoning, or mathematical abilities (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 1994). Problems with reading, writing, and listening are most common, and disparities between scores on standardized IQ tests and scores on achievement tests (representing classroom performance) are often used for identification. However, experts caution that languageintensive IQ tests may not adequately identify learning disabilities in students who are English language learners (Gunderson & Siegel, 2001). Learning disabilities are assumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Students with learning disabilities make up the largest group of students with exceptionalities—approximately half of the special education population (U.S. Department of Education, 2002b). The category first became widely used in the early 1960s, and the number of school-age children diagnosed as learning disabled has continually increased since then. Students with learning disabilities have the following problems:

• • • •
Increasing Understanding 3.14
Identify at least one similarity and one difference between learning disabilities and mental retardation.

Uneven performance (e.g., capabilities in one area, extreme weaknesses in others) Hyperactivity and difficulty in concentrating Lack of follow-through in completion of assignments Disorganization and tendency toward distraction

Many of these characteristics are typical of general learning problems or immaturity. Unlike developmental lags, however, problems associated with
learning disabilities tend to increase over time instead of disappearing. Students fall further behind in achievement, behavior problems increase, and self-esteem decreases (Hardman et al., 2002; Heward, 2003). Lowered achievement and reduced self-esteem intensify each other, resulting in significant learning problems.

Behavior Disorders
Students with behavior disorders have exceptionalities involving the display of serious and persistent age-inappropriate behaviors that result in social conflict, personal unhappiness, and school failure. The term behavior disorders is often used interchangeably with emotional disturbance, emotional disability, or emotional handicap, and you may encounter these terms in your work. In the definition, the words serious and persistent are important. Many children occasionally fight with their peers, and all children go

SAFE HAVEN: HELPING EMOTIONALLY TROUBLED KIDS GET BACK ON TRACK

Video Perspectives

The trend in special education is to include students with exceptionalities in the regular education classroom, but some students require extra structure and support to cope with the demands of schooling. This ABC News video examines a day school that assists teens with serious emotional problems. Think About This 1. How well would these students function in regular schools and classrooms? 2. How does this approach to helping students with special needs compare with inclusion? What are the advantages and disadvantages? 3. How could schools and classrooms be adapted to help these students make a successful transition back into a regular classroom? To answer these questions online and receive immediate feedback, go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Video Perspectives module.

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Increasing Understanding 3.15
Identify at least one similarity and one difference between learning disabilities and behavior disorders.

through periods when they want to be alone. When these patterns are chronic and interfere with normal development and school performance, however, a behavior disorder may exist. Estimates of the frequency of behavior disorders vary (Hardman et al., 2002). Some suggest that about 1 percent of the total school population and about 9 percent of the special education population have these disorders (U.S. Department of Education, 2002b), whereas others suggest that it’s closer to 6 percent to 10 percent of the total population (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2003). Identification is a problem because the characteristics are elusive, making diagnosis difficult (Turnbull et al., 2002).

Changes in the Way Schools and Teachers Help Students with Exceptionalities In the past, students with exceptionalities were separated from their peers and placed in segregated classrooms or schools. However, instruction in these settings was often inferior, achievement was no better than in regular education classrooms, and students didn’t learn the social and life skills they needed to function well in the real world (D. Bradley & Switlick, 1997). Educators and lawmakers looked for other ways to help these students. In 1975 the U.S. Congress passed Public Law 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which mandates a free and public education for all students with exceptionalities. This law helped ensure consistency in how different states addressed the needs of students with exceptionalities. IDEA, combined with recent amendments, provides the
following guidelines for working with students having exceptionalities:

• Identify the needs of students with exceptionalities through nondiscriminatory • • • assessment. Involve parents in developing each child’s educational program. Create an environment that is the least restrictive possible for promoting learning. Develop an individualized education program (IEP) of study for each student.

The impact of IDEA can be seen in the large numbers of students with exceptionalities now being served. For example, in 1976–1977, just after the law’s passage, the nation educated about 3.3 million children with exceptionalities; presently the schools serve more than 6 million, an increase of nearly 82 percent (Sack, 2000). IDEA has affected every school in the United States and has changed the roles of general and special educators. The Evolution Toward Inclusion As educators realized that segregated classes and services were not meeting the needs of students with exceptionalities, they searched for alternatives. The first was mainstreaming, the practice of moving students with exceptionalities from segregated settings into regular education classrooms, often for selected activities only. Popular in the 1970s, mainstreaming began the move away from segregated services; however, because students with exceptionalities were often placed in regular classrooms without adequate support and services, results were unsatisfactory (Hardman et al., 2002). ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Inclusion attempts to integrate students with special needs into the regular classroom through instructional adaptations that meet their special needs.

In attempting to solve these problems, educators developed the concept of the least restrictive environment (LRE), one that places students in as normal an educational setting as possible while still meeting their special academic, social, and physical needs. Broader than the concept of mainstreaming, the LRE allows a greater range of placement options, from full-time placement in the regular classroom to placement in a separate facility, if parents and educators decide that this environment best meets the child’s needs. As educators considered mainstreaming and the LRE, they gradually developed the concept of inclusion, a comprehensive approach to educating students with exceptionalities that advocates a total, systematic, and coordinated web of services. Inclusion has three components:

• Including students with special needs in a regular school campus • Placing students with special needs in age- and grade-appropriate classrooms • Providing special education support within the regular classroom Initially, students with exceptionalities received additional services to help them function in regular school settings (Turnbull et al., 2002). Gradually the concept of coordination replaced this additive approach. Special and regular education teachers collaborate closely to ensure that learning experiences are integrated into the regular classroom curriculum. For example, rather than pulling a student with special needs out of the classroom for supplementary instruction in math, a special education teacher would coordinate instruction with the general education teacher and then work with the student in the regular classroom on tasks linked to the standard math curriculum. ISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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Inclusion seeks to make all educators responsible for creating supportive learning environments for students with exceptionalities. When inclusion is properly implemented, general education teachers receive help from trained specialists when they have students with special needs in their classrooms. Inclusion is controversial. The specialized help teachers are supposed to receive often isn’t provided, so teachers are left to cope with students’ special needs on their own. Some parents criticize the practice, because they worry that their children will get lost in regular classrooms. Even special educators don’t agree on inclusion (Turnbull et al., 2002). Advocates contend that placement in a regular classroom is the only way to eliminate the negative effects of segregation, whereas opponents argue that inclusion is not for everyone and that some students are better served in separate special classes for parts of the day (Hardman et al., 2002; Holloway, 2001). What does all this mean for you as a teacher? You are virtually certain to have students with exceptionalities in your classroom, and you will be expected to do the following:

• Aid in the process of identifying students with exceptionalities. • Adapt your instruction to meet the needs of students with exceptionalities, ac• tively seeking out the help of special educators in the process. Maintain communication with parents, school administrators, and special educators about the progress of students in your classroom who have special needs. For up-to-date national information and statistics on the implementation of IDEA, go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Web Links module.

Decision Making

Defining Yourself as a Professional
As you think about the kind of professional you want to become, you will need to make a number of decisions related to the diversity of today’s students. One of the most important is deciding how you will personally approach issues involving culture, gender, ability, and exceptionalities. For example, one of the paradoxes of culture is that people tacitly believe their cultural views are the “normal” or right ways to look at the world,
and as a consequence, they tend to see others in narrow, stereotypical ways. But if you are to help all students grow as much as possible, you will need to avoid stereotypes and think of each student as an individual. How can you grow in these areas? A number of possibilities exist. For instance, travel can expose you to different cultures, in both the United States and other countries. Gathering experiences in working with cultural minorities, either through volunteer or part-time work, provides another opportunity for growth. Schools that serve high numbers of students who are members of cultural minority groups are constantly seeking adults to work with students both during and after school. LearnISBN: 0-536-29980-3

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ing another language can lead to personal and professional growth. Teachers who can speak foreign languages, especially Spanish, not only learn about other cultures but also make themselves more marketable. Similar learning experiences can help teachers deepen their understanding of gender issues. Coaching girls’ athletic teams, for example, can provide you with valuable insights into how girls think and interact. Talking with other skilled teachers can give you ideas about how to encourage students to consider nontraditional occupations and how to maintain gender equity in the classroom. You will need to make many decisions about how diversity will affect your instruction. Many people view instruction as a simple dissemination of information and learning as a process of absorbing that information. In other words, teachers simply explain topics to their students, and students remember the explanations. Research indicates that learning is more complex than this simplistic view, however, and learners are much more than empty vessels to be filled with knowledge; they bring with them a wealth of background experiences, beliefs, and language capabilities that all influence learning. When you enter your first classroom, you will need to build upon your students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds, forging bridges between their communities and the school community.

To build on students’ strengths, you must discover what these are. Effective teachers do this in a number of ways, including talking with students’ previous teachers, examining students’ cumulative folders, and giving comprehensive preassessments at the beginning of the school year. The most successful teachers go beyond these traditional strategies and establish communication links by reaching out to their students as human beings (Obidah & Teel, 2001). Suggestions for creating these links include the following: • Have students write about themselves and their families at the beginning of the school year. Ask them to share their hopes and uncertainties about the new year and some personal information about themselves and their families, such as their favorite foods and leisure activities, the number of brothers and sisters they have, and how long they’ve lived in the area. Spend time with students at lunch and on the playground. This provides you with opportunities to learn about how they act and feel outside the classroom. Make yourself available before and after school for academic help. Teachers who do this often find that students want to talk about much more than homework problems.

• •

The most important component of a student’s education is you, the teacher: “The beliefs, intentions, and personalities of all teachers play a more significant role in the success of individual students than the curriculum, materials, class size, and [other factors]” (Obidah & Teel, 2001, p. 107). Becoming the kind of teacher that can promote the most possible growth for all students will require a great deal of effort, but it can also provide you with some of the most satisfying experiences that you will ever have.

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Summary
Cultural Diversity Due to demographic trends, our schools are becoming increasingly diverse. In the past, schools responded to diversity with the goal of assimilation, hoping to “Americanize” students as quickly as possible. Multicultural education, by contrast, attempts to recognize the contributions of different cultures and build on students’ cultural strengths in the classroom. This increase in diversity is also seen in the languages students bring to our classrooms. Different approaches to dealing with this language diversity place different amounts of emphasis on maintaining the first language versus learning English as quickly as possible. Gender Evidence suggests that both boys and girls encounter problems in today’s schools. For girls these problems focus more on achievement, especially in math, science, and computer science, whereas for boys the problems are more behavioral and connected to learning problems. Suspected causes of these problems range from societal and parental expectations to differential treatment in classrooms. Teachers play a major role in ensuring that gender differences don’t become gender inequalities. Sexual harassment is a problem for both males and females and occurs most often in environments where teachers and administrators allow it to occur.

Ability Differences A third dimension of diversity found in today’s classrooms focuses on students’ different abilities to learn. Earlier perspectives viewed ability as unidimensional and unchanging; current perspectives view ability as multifaceted, malleable, and adaptable. Ability grouping is one of the most common responses to this dimension of diversity. Despite its popularity, ability grouping is associated with a number of problems, ranging from inappropriate and rigid placements to substandard instruction in some low-ability classrooms. Learning Styles Cognitive learning styles emphasize differences in the ways students process information and prefer to learn in the classroom. Cultural learning styles reflect the variety of ways that different groups learn and interact. The concept of learning styles reminds us that all students learn differently; effective teachers are sensitive to these differences and adapt their teaching accordingly. Students with Exceptionalities Students with exceptionalities require extra help to reach their full potential. The majority of students with exceptionalities who have disabilities fall into three major categories—students with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and behavior disorders—and a substantial number of students are gifted and talented. Inclusion is changing the way schools assist students with exceptionalities, providing them with a supporting network of services.

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Important Concepts
ability grouping (p. 105) acceleration (p. 112) assimilation (p. 88) behavior disorders (p. 113) between-class ability grouping (p. 105) culturally responsive teaching (p. 89) culture (p. 84) English as a second language (ESL) programs (p. 92) enrichment (p. 112) ethnicity (p. 85) field dependence/ independence (p. 107) gender-role identity differences (p. 97) gifted and talented (p. 111) immersion programs (p. 92) impulsive students (p. 107) inclusion (p. 115) intelligence (p. 103) learning disabilities (p. 112) learning style (p. 107) least restrictive environment (LRE) (p. 115) mainstreaming (p. 114) maintenance language programs (p. 92) mental retardation (p. 112) metacognition (p. 110) multicultural education (p. 88) multiple intelligences (p. 103) nature view of intelligence (p. 103) nurture view of intelligence (p. 104) reflective students (p. 107) sexual harassment
(p. 100) single-gender classes and schools (p. 99) special education (p. 110) students with exceptionalities (p. 110) tracking (p. 105) transition programs (p. 92) within-class ability grouping (p. 105)

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Developing as a Professional
Praxis Practice
Read the case study, and answer the questions that follow.
Diane Henderson, a fifth-grade teacher at Martin Luther King Elementary school, began her language arts class by saying,“Class, look up at the overhead. What do you notice about the two sentences?” He gave the gift to her. John sent him the letter. She called on Naitia. “The second one has a proper noun.” “Okay. What else?” Diane said, smiling. . . .“Sheila?” “Both verbs are past tense.” “Indeed they are!” Diane nodded and smiled again. “What else, Kelvin?” she asked quickly. “The first has a pronoun for the subject.” “That’s true,”Diane confirmed.“Does everyone see that?”she asked energetically. “Now,let’s look more closely at the first sentence.What is the direct object in that sentence? . . . Randy?” Diane asks as she walks down the aisle. “Her?” Randy responded. “Hmm. What do you think, Luciano?” “Gift?” answered Luciano, hesitating. “Class, what do you think? Is the direct object in sentence one her or gift? Think about that one for a moment. “Okay, Todd, do you want to try?” “Uh, I think it’s gift.” “That’s correct. But why is gift the direct object, Theresa?” “Because that’s what he gave,” Theresa replied. “Good answer, Theresa. The direct object takes the action from the verb. But now, what about her? What is her?” Diane asked, looking around the room. “Well, that’s what we are going to learn about today. Her is an indirect object. An indirect object receives the action. So, in the first sentence, gift is the direct object and her is the indirect object. Now let’s look at the second sentence. It has both a direct object and an indirect object. Who can tell us which is which? Heather?” “The direct object in the second sentence is letter,”Heather responded hesitantly. “Yes, good,” Diane said and smiled reassuringly. “So what is the indirect object? Jason?” Diane continued. “It must be him.”

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“Very good, Jason! And why is letter the direct object? . . . Laura?” “Because that’s what John sent.” “And how about him? Why is it the indirect object. . . . Jana?” “’Cause that’s who received the letter.” “Good! Now look at this sentence and tell me which is the direct and indirect object.” The batter hit the shortstop a line drive. “Katya?” “Umm . . . ” “Oh, I know,” Tom blurted out. “That’s great, Tom, but remember what we said about giving everyone in the class a chance to answer? Go ahead, Katya.” “I think line drive is the direct object.” “Good, Katya. That’s right. Now who can tell us why it’s the direct object? . . . Angie?” “Because that’s what the batter hit.” “And what’s the indirect object, Kareem, and why?” “I think it’s shortstop because that’s who the batter hit the line drive to.” “Yes, good answer.” Diane nodded and then wrote an additional sentence on the overhead: Jim passed the papers back to Mary. “What is the indirect object in this sentence? . . . Sean?” Sean looked up suddenly at the sound of his name. “Could you repeat the question?” “Sure, Sean.What is the indirect object in this sentence?” Diane repeated, pointing to the overhead. “Is it Mary?” Sean asked tentatively. “Okay. Good, Sean. And why is it the indirect object? . . . Spence?” “Because that’s who Jim passed the papers to.” “And so, what is the direct object in this sentence? . . . Debbie?” “Papers.” “And just for review, what is the subject? . . . Maria?” “Jim.” “And what about the tense? What tense do we have here? . . . Sara?” “Past.” “Very good, everyone.” “Now, look,” Diane continued.

She reached back and took a tennis ball from her desk. “I want you to pair up with your partner and write a sentence about this tennis ball that contains a direct and indirect object. When you’re done, decide which of you will present your sentence.” As the students began writing their sentences, Diane walked up and down the rows, looking at each student’s work. “Now let’s look at some sentences,” Diane announced after a few minutes. “Someone volunteer a sentence,and I’ll write it on the chalkboard. . . .Okay,Rashad?” “She threw him the tennis ball,” Rashad volunteered. “Very good, Rashad. And which is the direct object in your sentence?” “Tennis ball?” “Good, Rashad. And so, what is him? Jacinto?” “It’s the indirect object.” After discussing several more student examples, Diane continued,“That’s excellent. Now I want each of you to write a paragraph that has in it at least two exam-

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ples of indirect objects and at least two other examples that are direct objects. Underline them in each case and label them. If you are having problems getting started, raise your hand and I’ll be by in a minute.” While the students wrote their paragraphs, Diane circulated among them, periodically stopping to comment on students’work and to offer suggestions.Todd,a student who had been receiving extra help from a resource teacher, sat with his head on his desk. “What’s the problem, Todd?” “I can’t do this,” Todd replied with a shrug. “Well, getting started is often the hardest part. Why don’t you write down one sentence and then raise your hand, and I’ll help you with the next step.” At 1:40, Diane announced, “All right, everyone. Please turn in your paragraphs; we’re going to get ready for social studies.” The students passed their papers forward. By 1:45, the students had turned in their papers and had their social studies books out and waiting.

1. To what extent did Diane display culturally responsive teaching in her lesson? 2. To what extent did Diane’s teaching reflect sensitivity to gender issues? 3. What did Diane do to accommodate differences in learning ability and learning styles? To receive feedback on your responses to the Praxis Practice exercises, go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Praxis Practice module.

Discussion Questions
1. Is multicultural education more important at some grade levels than in others? Why? Is multicultural education more important in some content areas than in others? Why? 2. Experts debate whether teachers should adjust instruction to match student learning styles or teach students to broaden their learning repertoires. Which approach is more desirable? Why? 3. Which approach to teaching English to ELL students makes the most sense in the teaching setting in which you hope to find yourself in your first job? Why? 4. Are single-gender classrooms a good idea? Why or why not? 5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of full-time inclusion in the regular education classroom? Should it be used with all students with exceptionalities? 6. What implications does Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences have for you as a teacher? In answering this question, be sure to relate your answer to the grade level and content area(s) in which you plan to teach.

Classroom Observation Guide
Before You Begin: The purpose of these observation activities is to help you understand how classroom teachers adapt their instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners. Several of the items ask you to combine your observations with teacher interviews, which will allow you access to
teachers’ professional thinking. 1. Observe a classroom, and focus on several students from cultural minority groups. a. Where do they sit? b. Who do they talk to and make friends with?

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c. Do they attend to the class, and are they involved? d. Do they participate in classroom discussions? Ask the teacher how these students perform in class and what he or she does to build upon the differences in these students. Analyze the teacher’s response on the basis of the information in this chapter. 2. Observe a class during an interactive questioning session. a. Note the number of boys and girls in the class. b. Where were the boys and girls seated? c. Did boys and girls raise their hands to respond equally? d. Record the number of times boys and girls were called on. Were they equal? e. Did the number of management interventions vary by gender? How gender-neutral was the class? What can teachers do to make their classes more gender-neutral and a better place for both boys and girls to learn? 3. Observe a class working on an in-class assignment. As you do this, circulate around the room so you can observe the work progress of different students. Note the following: a. Beginning times—Do all students get immediately to work, or do some take their time starting? b. On-task behaviors—What percentage of the class stays on task throughout the assignment? c. Completions—Do all students complete the assignment? What do they do if they don’t? d. What forms of help or assistance are there for students who need it? e. Options—What options are there for students who complete their assignments early? On the basis of your observations, how diverse is this class in terms of learning ability? What concrete steps
could a teacher take to address this diversity?

Going into Schools
1. Interview a teacher about the diversity in his or her classroom. How do students differ in terms of the following: a. Culture b. Home language c. Learning styles d. Multiple intelligences e. Learning ability What does the teacher do to accommodate these differences? Summarize these responses, and analyze them using information from this chapter. 2. Ask the teacher to identify several cultural minority students. Interview these students, and ask the following: a. How long have you been at this school? b. What do you like most about school? c. What do you like least about school? d. What can teachers do to help you learn better? On the basis of students’ responses, suggest several things a teacher could do to make the classroom a better learning environment for these cultural minority students.

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3. Interview a teacher to investigate his or her use of the following strategies to address differences in learning ability: flexible time requirements, grouping, strategy instruction, and peer tutoring and cooperative learning. Answer these questions: a. Are differences in learning ability a problem for the teacher? Explain. b. Does the teacher use any of the strategies mentioned in the book? Which ones work and why? Have any been tried that didn’t work? c. Does the teacher employ any other strategy for dealing with differences in learning ability? What implications do the teacher’s responses suggest for you, and how you would teach in your future classroom? 4. Interview a teacher about working with students with exceptionalities in the classroom. Answer the following questions: a. Which students are classified as exceptional? What behaviors led to this classification? What role did the teacher play in identification? b. In working with students with exceptionalities, what assistance does the classroom teacher receive from the following people? • Special education teacher • School psychologist or school counselor • Principal c. Ask the teacher to share an individualized education program. What are its major components? How helpful is an IEP to the teacher when working with exceptional students in the classroom? d. What is the biggest challenge the teacher faces in working with students with exceptionalities? In a paragraph or two, describe what your approach will be in working with students who have exceptionalities.

Virtual Field Experience
If you would like to participate in a Virtual Field Experience, go to the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Field Experience module.

Online Portfolio Activities
To complete these activities online, go to the Companion Website at www. prenhall.com/kauchak, then to this chapter’s Portfolio Activities module.

Portfolio Activity 3.1

Exploring Diversity
INTASC Principle 9: Commitment Personal Journal Reflection The purpose of this activity is to encourage you to think about your own personal experiences with the different dimensions of diversity you have encountered during your educational experiences. First, analyze yourself in terms of the different dimensions of diversity identified in Figure 3.1, “Dimensions of Diversity.” How have these different dimensions of diversity influenced your development as a person? Next, think

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about your personal experiences with these different dimensions of diversity during your education. Finally, reflect on how these different personal experiences with diversity will influence your effectiveness as a teacher of diverse students, and think about things you can do to fill in any learning gaps.

Portfolio Activity 3.2

Exploring Cultural Diversity
INTASC Principle 3: Adapting Instruction The purpose of this activity is to introduce you to the cultural diversity in an area where you might teach. Contact the State Office of Education in a state where you’re thinking of teaching (addresses and Web sites can be found in Appendix B). Or contact a district in which you might teach (school district telephone numbers can be found in the White Pages of the telephone directory, in the Business Section under “Schools”). Ask for demographic information on cultural minorities and ELL students. Summarize the information briefly, identifying major cultural groups and possible implications for your teaching.

Portfolio Activity 3.3

Exploring Careers in Special Education
INTASC Principle 9: Commitment This activity is designed to acquaint you with teaching career options in special education. Visit the Web site for the Council for Exceptional Children, the national professional organization for special educators (the address can be found in Chapter 3’s Web Links module on the Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/kauchak). Click on “Student
CEC” for information on Tools You Need, Career Info, Goals, Chapter Directory, and Regional Contacts. The Career Info module contains additional information on résumé writing, interviewing, and building a professional portfolio. Write a brief description of career opportunities in special education and how your talents and personality might match these.

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Student Success

Student Success: Motivating School Students through Personal Development A very good morning, to everyone who are present here.
I’m Kanishka,
I’m here by to present a topic about “Student Success: Motivating School Students through Personal Development”. First of all, I would like to summaries the essential topic’s which I’m going to share with you related my today’s lecture. Synopsis:-

1. How do I motivate my class mate students to learn?
2. What is personal development?
3. Self-Awareness
4. Self-Concept
5. Self-Discipline
6. Personal development: Implications for teachers
7. Conclusion
1. “How do I motivate my class mate students to learn?
It is the question mostly asked by everyone in the school level. The diversity of our student population in today’s schools makes motivating students more challenging than ever. Students come to school from cultural differences, cast differences, differing belief systems, and complex issues like poverty, substance abuse, and dysfunctional families. What is motivation? Motivation is what compels us to act. It is the energy that provides fuel for action. Motivation can be either

1. Extrinsic or
2. Intrinsic.
Extrinsic motivation relies on effective incentives and providing direction or structure for achievement. Motivation comes from an expected external reward for a desired action or behavior. Intrinsic motivation occurs when students generate the motivation from within, discovering the satisfaction of achievement and taking joy in doing something for the sake of doing it. ————————————————-

Intrinsic motivation is a natural outcome of students actively working on their personal growth and development.

Personal growth and development requires students to become self-aware through self-reflection. Students learn the skills associated with personal growth and development in the context of learning subject matter, making the subject matter more interesting. For example, our teacher’s might ask students to identify characteristics. So they share with the realistic hero or the heroine in the story. Every learning opportunity will becomes as an opportunity for their personal growth. 2. What is personal development?

Personal development is the process of becoming who we aspire to be in our life. In the process of personal development, we learn the
1. skills,
2. knowledge,
3. Aptitudes necessary to live a fulfilling,
4. Satisfying, and happy life.
Focusing on personal development is a focus on student success. Schools are traditionally focusing on personal development only. 3. Self-Awareness
Personal growth and development requires students to become self-aware. It is a critical dimension of self-regulation and the ability of students to relate to others Through self-awareness, students discover and appreciate their strengths and uniqueness. They learn what is important to them and what they value most. They identify their beliefs and how those beliefs help or hinder their personal growth and success. They become aware of the authentic self and learn to harness the power of the mind. School students are fully aware of their differences. They mature at different rates both physically and intellectually with dramatic variations. This is the ideal age for students to begin to explore and appreciate how they think, feel, And act in a variety of situations.

Researcher Mr. Reeve Stark told that,
————————————————-
“Learning and development progress optimally when there is an active participation from the student to take personal responsibility for his or her own learning and developing”

4. Self-Concept
There is a direct tie to how students think, feel, and believe about themselves and motivation. It is the belief of the learner and his/her self-image (do I possess the necessary skills, knowledge and abilities to learn?) that provide the degree of motivation to learn. Students self-evaluate and judge themselves, forming outcome expectancies of success or failure. If the evaluation is positive, the learner is motivated, viewing the task as a challenge and persevering in the face of adversity. If the evaluation is negative, the student becomes anxious and tends to avoid the task. “Internal perceptions, interpretations, and expectancies will primarily determine the motivation and performance in everyone’s life” A student’s self-concept plays a major role in the kind of help he seeks when faced with challenging work. Students with lower levels of self-esteem, in an effort to protect themselves from failure, chose less effective help strategies. ————————————————-

Students’ self-concept or self-worth is directly related to what they believe about themselves and the self-talk they employ.

Through self-awareness students can identify their patterns of self-talk and change them to be more affirming. Positive self-talk fosters autonomy and self-responsibility while enhancing a student’s self-confidence and self-esteem. 5. Self-Discipline

Self-discipline refers to self-regulation; the ability of students to set goals, delay gratification to attain a long-term goal, and develop coping skills to overcome setbacks. Research indicates that students connecting to possibilities – a positive vision for their future and their aspirations – is one of the greatest indicators of a student’s success in school. Researcher Mr. Reeve Stark told that,

“It is the possible self idea that provides the plans and strategies for their future – that will put them in an action.” Helping students connect to a vision of their future provides them with the motivation to set and achieve goals. In the process of personal development,

1. students not only set external goals (I want to be a doctor and earn a large income), 2. They also set personal goals (I want to be compassionate and a good listener). 6. Personal development: Implication for teachers

Modeling is one of the most effective methods of teaching.

Teachers who openly share areas of their personal growth and development convey the importance they place upon it. Teachers who practice what they lecture validate that the practice is of value and useful for students.

In contrast, when a teacher does not model the behavior she is trying to convey, students wonder why and are less motivated to participate or listening in class what the teacher is taught.

7. Conclusion

Learning through the lens of personal development provides strong intrinsic motivation; the two are inextricably linked.

Teachers need to make plain the objectives of personal development and pursue it directly with students to attach intrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation becomes a natural outgrowth in the pursuit of personal growth and development.

Adolescence is an ideal time to assist students in their struggle to find their identity.

Through self-awareness students learn the techniques of self-appraisal and self-acceptance.

They build their self-concept by identifying and minimizing disempowering beliefs and self-talk, affirming their unique qualities, and building upon
their strengths.

They connect to a positive vision of their future, gaining the self-discipline to pursue and attain their goals.

Teachers and students are both learners in the process.
With a focus on success, personal growth and development is enjoyable and satisfying, giving credence to education’s goal of developing life-long learners.

To encourage intrinsic motivation (Self Developement), teachers can do the following:

1. Help students find meaning or real time examples what the topic or the lessons what they already taught to the students. 2. Design an open and positive environment. Focus is on growth and success, never on lack, weakness, or failure. 3. Ensure students are valued members of a learning community – everyone is valued for their own uniqueness. ————————————————-

I would heartily thankful to everyone who has spent their valuable time with me during my small lecture. ————————————————-
Thanks once again.

The effect of not having personal gadgets in i.t student

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In the year where electronic gadgets are not yet invented like computers, students are not yet engage in activities using technologies. Students rely on books and visit library facilities to study, read their notes and review their school lessons. During those years, despite the lack of computers and hi-tech gadgets students still achieve high and good grades and the students are still focused on their studies. They strive hard just to attain higher and better grades in their education. Students who can’t afford to buy a computer just go to the library to read book, to do research work, and to make their school project. During the years when computers were first invented, people make use of computers to help them accomplish their works and to make their tasks lighter and fester.Now in the present time, the age of modern technology, where almost everything is hi-tech, computer technologies has greatly improve and become better. These days, the computer technology industry is rapidly growing and changing. Along with that growth and change of computer are the people who almost instantly adapt to changes. The reason why computer technologies are invented is to help make people’s life easier and to improve their way of life, especially the students. Modern computer technologies make studying easier and fun to the students. Computers help students in their studies for students can start.

1.1.SUBJECT

Several studies and researches have suggested about the various harmful effects gadgets have on human health. Electronic gadgets are now very essential to our society today. We need electronic gadgets to do business, to have some recreation and help us get through our daily lives.

1.2.PURPOSE

This study aims to know how gadgets affect the studies of the IT students of MPC. This study will show the researcher how the gadgets can affects the studies of the IT students of MPC as said on the title. As we know, gadgets are now part of our daily basis.

1.3.SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This research was conducted an Montessori Professional College, 1812c.m Recto Avenue Corner, Coromina Street Quezon Boulevard, Quiapo Manila, Approximate 2kms. From Manila City Hall, it is located right side of the Isetan Recto, In front of Cartimar Center. 3rd floor along University Belt.This action research may not be copied or reproduced in books, pamphlets, outlines or note without any permission of the author.

1.4.PLAN OF DEVELOPMENT

The researcher went to the library to gathered the data to the books, magazine and even at the internet, it happened at the MPC library, then pass it to the professor ad check it, then give it back again to the researcher to rewrite the correction. The researcher went to the bookbinding store, bookbind it after that gave it back to the professor for recheck if ever there will be any correction after that gave it back again to the researcher and ready for the defense.

Facebook and Student

People use Facebook for many reasons; some of them consider it the vehicle to communicate with their friends, including old friends or current friends; some agree that it also helps them relax when they are stressful; others, on the other hand, might argue that Facebook brings distractions to them (Facebook 101). For instance, my friend, a quite person, did not socialize with people in both real life and in the Internet community. However, after knowing Facebook in a short period of time, he became addicted to it. He used most of his time to chat with friends, to play games, and to stare at his Facebook profile. Now, his friends list comes up to 300 and he daily logs on Facebook from 3 to 4 hours a day.

Hopefully, this research of our group will help college students get better understanding of the role of Facebook in students’ lives. Moreover, not only students in general but also people of all ages will gain their cognitive of the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook. The research will benefit reader to determine whether Facebook is good or bad for human being. Furthermore, if people use it as a habit or want to check of how frequently they use it, they could apply this research as an important source to figure out whether they are addicted to Facebook or not, or where they are in the rank.

Hypotheses:
Our research paper is mainly focused on the impacts of Facebook on BHCC students. The effects will be discussed on both negative and positive sides of Facebook. First of all, we predict that Facebook will mostly bring negative effects on students and employees. If they use it so repeatedly, they might be addicted and cause distractions in working or studying. This is already proved in the story of my friend. Secondly, because of the separation of geographies or busy life, people tend to talk less and type more in this modern life. So, we also want to check it out of how many percentages that Facebook occupies our private lives. The last assumption will mention about privacy threat on Facebook. On the other hand, besides of its negative, our group wants to observe how people use Facebook effectively since it is the most useful communication tool to most people.

Research Method:
Our research was done with the survey format of 22 questions. We developed questions with many concerns about Facebook. All the questions were related directly to our purposes, which are substitution of social life, distractions to school/work, privacy theft, and communication tool. Approximately each category will cover from 4 to 5 questions to get into deep understanding of the aspects. Each of the questions shows the list of answers for participants to demonstrate their thoughts. When we provide the survey to participants, we are not stay close to them to make sure that they could feel comfortable when filling the questions. We are not going to record any participants’ names and to remain them anonymous. To do that, we could get the answers honestly and that would serve the expectation of our group.

Participants and Procedure:
Our group met several times for the research very carefully to discuss what we would do for the plan. First, we decided to work on Facebook but it was such the general issue for us whether to go on its good or bad sides. Properly, many college students just see advantage sides but they do not perspective of its side effects. Hence, we combined both sides, and decided that we would concentrate more on the negative effects of Facebook. After gathering all the questions of each member, we filtered and arranged them in order in the survey. To collect and choose which questions are suitable for out hypotheses, it took us almost two weeks to come up with all agreements. Understanding that people are hesitating to help our research, the reasons are vary as they are in rush, they are lazy, or even they do not want to listen to what we talking about.

Furthermore, we targeted on BHCC’s college student, so we finally chose to go to the BHCC’s library or started with our other classmates to get the results. Moreover, we provided our team members spent a week conducting the survey to ensure that they could do the project thoroughly. Especially, we already created Facebook group account for our members to share, to debate, and to discuss and make sure we were on the right track. Surprisingly, the results came out our pleasure: BHCC’s students were eager and happy to help us when asked to fill out with Facebook questions. However, very few numbers of participants answer our survey quickly and unready, so we already ignore those minorities. Data Results and Analysis:

Our group had a total of 162 surveys, which were added by all of our group members. In our last question we asking people about “What would you rather describe Facebook as?”, and the result did not surprise us, we already knew that as an assumption. More than half of our participants –118 out of 162 or 73 percent of total result– consented that Facebook as a useful communication too. Some of them added that they used Facebook to communicate with friends and families, to share pictures, videos, status and information, or to kill time if bored; therefore, most of them choose to pick its good side as an answer. The last 27 percent, 44 of 162, chose “a powerful distraction” as the result (Figure 1).

As you can see on the chart (Figure 2), it can explain why three-fourth of our participants prefers Facebook as useful tool (Figure 1). There are so many ways to use Facebook that suite with people interests. The majority of participants use Facebook to check mail, to chat, to communicate, and to update friends’ information as 97 of 497 (19%), 80 of 497 (16%), 75 of 497 (15%), and 62 of 497 (13%) respectively. Besides that, 4% users also log in Facebook for playing games/quizzes, and 9% use it for relaxing when bored. It is interesting that there are a small number of participants – 11 students, approximately 2% in total – choose Facebook as a studying tool.

As we mention above, Facebook is also distractive at work and school, and the statistic already proved this. 56 percentages – slightly above half of the percentages — access to Facebook at home, 21 percentages and 4 percentages do that at work and school. The rest 19 percentages access by cell phones; even though we do not know exactly where they use them, we indicate they are not properly use them at home. (Figure 3)

According to the results from survey, we divided this bar chart into two categories: addicted group and non-addicted group. The first group includes many times/day, more than 2 hours/day, 1-2 hours/day, and 3-5 hours/week. The other is 1-2 hours/week and less than an hour/week. Both groups have nearly equal balance about 50 percent each; therefore, we could have more trustful information and it is not bias. (Figure 4) After all, we conclude BHCC’s students are not really addicted on Facebook. They contribute equally in both studying/working and relaxing on Facebook.

We agree that Facebook right now is the most popular use in the world and it is on the way growing up, yet it still cannot replace other multimedia communications like phones in general, instant messengers, and in direct with person. In the figure 5, Facebook occupies the smallest percentage in the pie chart with 17%. The next two common ways of communicating with friends are using instant messengers like Yahoo, AIM, MSN, or Skype (19%), and socializing with friend face to face (18%). Absolutely, instant messengers and in person have theirs advantages in communication because we can listen and talk simultaneously, or even we can see our partner faces by webcams. The largest percentage is using phones which are 46%. They are still the most familiar way to exchange all the time by talking and texting. We assume that because of its lack of “live” features like those above, Facebook still cannot be a substitution in personal life.

Figure 6 and figure 7 show us “How many friends are there in participant friend’s list?”, and “With how many out of your Facebook friends do you frequently communicate?” People tent to protect their privacies by having fewer friends than ever on Facebook, 53 percentages and 35 percentages are chosen to have less than 100 friends and from 100 to 200 friends in friends’ list (Figure 6). In there, 25% and 50% is the most common rank to contact with friends on friends’ list, approximately 52 percentages. The next best option is less than 25% with 31 percentages (Figure 7). Our results in the survey proved that people do not really want to socialize usually on Facebook; they just need Facebook to relax, not the place for them to put their personal information. In the next graph will show how Facebook users think of privacy when using it. (Figure 8) More than half of our respondents do not want to add unknown people as friends, about 70% (Figure 8). This could be explained, if they add them as friends, they do not contact with them on Facebook, according to figure 7. Generally speaking, people do not want to express themselves on social network. Conclusion:

The result of doing this survey gives us better interpretation of how a social network could affect on people life. Especially BHCC’s students, they adopt and love Facebook’s features, but they could still control their time spending on it. Therefore, most of the students consider Facebook a helpful tool to socialize with others. Even though Facebook is good for students to communicate with other people and make their social life happier, sometimes, Facebook appears to be a distraction to their study and private life. Using Facebook too much can make student exhausted and also affect their health badly. In addition, it is important to realize that Facebook is only an online tool, and it cannot replace human being’s activities. Students should allocate their time spending on studying, socializing, and using Facebook effectively, so that they can balance their real life and their online life to avoid being distracted by any network.

Limitation:
Even our team has done with the research, but it still has limitations when doing this. Due to the lack of processing time and missing experience in each member of us, we extend more time on choosing questions, or picking for secondary research, and then filtering the result as well. The amount of seven weeks seems not enough for us to accomplish a professional research as others. In addition, funding is also significant too. Because we did have any fund for the research, so we mainly focus on BHCC college’s students and limit on the number of respondents. In our questionnaires, we would want to ask more questions about how distractive in performance of workers and students at Bunker Hill Community College, and we desire to collect more information from school staffs and professors. However, our results from the participants are appropriated because of respondent’s excitements and their honest answers. We are glad that they did cooperate very well with us.

Works Cited
N.p., n.d. “Facebook- The Complete Biography” Web. 13 May 2010. . “Facebook 101: Ten Things You Need to Know About Facebook.” EBSCOhost. Ed. Thomas Krivak. Information Today Inc. 2010. Web. 01 May 2010 .

Should Every Student Go to College?

Now a days there’s a lot of pressure for high school graduates to further their education by attending college. Hard evidence states that more high school graduates attend college immediately after graduation compared to any other generation. However, college may seem more of a challenge to some rather than others whom may “need” vocational school. Getting an education is important but some say college isn’t for everyone. In the article “What’s Wrong with Vocational School?” Charles Murray says that not every student is mentally suitable for college and vocational school would prepare them for the vigorous academic demands that come along with college. To critically analyze if this argument is effective in it’s ways, there are parts that one would have to look into and compare to opposing essays to expose weaknesses and strengths in his argument. In a Critical analyzer’s view, one would want to look to see if the writer backed up their statements with evidence in order to persuade the target audience.

Analyses also call for doing background research of the author, which could sway the reader to believe some aspects of the argument and doubt others. Overall, the job of a Critical/Analytical Reader is to look at the logical fallacies and strong points the author make to conclude weather an argument is doing what the author ultimately wants, persuading there target audience. When it comes to “What’s Wrong with Vocational School,” Charles Murray’s argument could seem effective in the ways of persuading an audience that is on his side. However, he may not effectively be persuading a neutral audience or catching the attention of opposing audience because he doesn’t back up his strong opinions with facts, evidence, or statements from outside sources. Murray’s transparent opinions and strong sense of diction shows the majority of the audience he is trying to persuade.

Murray says, “a four-year college teaches advanced analytic skill and information at a level that exceeds the intellectual capacity of most people” (Kirszner, Mandell 677). By putting such a strong statement earlier on in his essay, it is obvious he is talking to an audience that already agrees with his views. Also, a statement should be backed up by information outside of his own to validate that his statement is true. By having an audience that is on their side, the author uses strongly written opinions to support his ideas which make the audience have an even stronger stance in his direction. Murray also uses bold statements to keep his audience hooked in by making unvarnished supporting ideas. For example, “ A bachelors degree in a field such as sociology, psychology, economics, history, or literature certifies nothing” (Kirszner, Mandell 678). By putting such a profound yet unaccredited statement like this in his article he can keep his reader hooked in because such large statements make a supporting audience validate the authors opinion by associating it as “fact” that he clearly cannot support statistically.

This can also be found as use of pathos, because he names a list of fields that someone could find as a high achievement and states that such an accomplishment has no value, that it accomplishes “nothing.” The emotional attachment one has with sociology, history or psychology would find Murray’s statements offensive if they truly loved their jobs and considered what they did in that specific field as “certified.” On the other hand, in an article “The privileges of the Parents” by Margaret Millar, her argument is backed up with data, quotes and even anecdotes from past experiences that make her ideas seem more valid. For instance, she states, “A college education has benefits that ripple down through the generations” ( Kirszner, Mandell 675). This is backed up by previous information from the Educational Testing Service (EST) that “By age 4 the average child in a professional family hears about 20 million more words the average child in a working-class family.” (Kirszner, Mandell 674).

By her addressing the facts before opinions like thus, it gives her credibility to make strong statements because she showed that she did research. Upon doing research on Charles Murray it was discovered that he went to Harvard, which may make one doubt the validity of his argument. Another faulty is that a man who went to such a prestigious school will have a different expectation than someone who went to the University of New Hampshire for example. Of course he doesn’t think college is for everyone because not everyone may be able to make it through a college as vigorous as Harvard. Anyone that attends Harvard has some amount of talent but “anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic…if you want to do well [in college], you should have an IQ of 115 or higher” (Kirszner, Mandell 677). By making this statement, one can doubt his arguments validity; he may be making too high of an expectation for the “qualifying” student academically college abled and underestimating the “unqualified” college student that should try two years of vocational school before attempting a four year college.

Millar, who did not attend an Ivy League school like Murray, and did an exceptionally well job of convincing her readers by stating facts with opinions. If a woman who went to UCLA can do that, than Murray may be overestimating college and adding more insult than encouragement. If a parent has a child with an IQ less than that of a “qualifying” one, then Murray may appear discriminatory towards an audience that is associated with a demographic that the majority of his argument is dedicated to, the kids and their education.

Murray’s argument could seem strong to those already on his side and extremely opinionated by those on the opposing side but at an analytical standpoint it has some good ideas with valid support and some fallacies. An example of a logical fallacy is when he says, “few people who are intellectually unqualified yearn for the experience, any more than someone who is athletically unqualified for a college varsity want to have his shortcomings exposed at practice everyday” (Kirszner, Mandell677). Firstly, this is a logical fallacy because he is comparing the drive of education with the drive of a sport, a participation activity, which does not have the same ethical value.

You are going to college ultimately for your education, if you fail then you don’t get kicked out and do not play a sport; so one has more of a moral value than the other. Finally, this is a fallacy is because an athlete may want his shortcomings exposed so he may learn and get better, likewise when you attend college you aren’t ready for the academically challenging work so you may grow and expand your horizons while there. The statement can be easily turned around which is what an author doesn’t want to happen, so this logical fallacy is among a few that could hinder his argument rather that help it.

Charles Murray’s “What Wrong with Vocational School?” argument proves to be strong in the fact that undeniably confident statements kept his supporting audience hooked in. However, the strong opinions and slightly pompous approach of who really “qualifies” for college may avert neutral audience. What it lacked was the evidence to support his bold ideas; with evidence come reasoning and logic, which may draw a critical thinker to consider an argument as valid and creditable. Between the under supported statements and the deductive fallacies, Murray’s persuasive argument may not persuade a neutral audience to critically consider his views based upon the logical support. His opinions can also hurt his argument because opinionated statements can be turned around and used against him, especially if they aren’t supported with evidence.

However, what Murray can achieve is making an audience that is agreeing with him from the start find his strong opinions and statements useful and inspiring to amplify their dedication to stand on the issue at hand. Overall, his opinions are worded strongly; however, some seem less valid because of the support behind it. Charles Murray, being a writer for the opinion section of the Wall Street Journal, would know how to make an opinion strong, but may rely on opinion a little too much to make a valid point. Also, being a graduate form Harvard, he may be underestimating the “un-qualifying” student and overestimating the “qualifications” to succeed in college. Murray’s essay may give a supporting audience a stronger stance, but in the eyes of neutral and opposing audiences, may not hold to credibility because his deductive reasoning is not backed up with evidence, statistics or statements.

Work Cited

Brady, W., H.. Charles Murray.
http://www.aei.org/scholar/charles-murray/. 2013. American Enterprise Institute for Public Research. Web. 14 Sep. 2013 Miller, Margaret. “The Privileges of the Parents.” Practical Argument: A Text and Anthology. 2nd Ed. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2011. Print. Murray, Charles. “What’s Wrong with Vocational Scholl?.” Practical Argument: A Text and Anthology. 2nd Ed. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2011. Print.

should high school student work part-time?

Nowadays, there are more and more students work part-time job in their free time. Actually, a part-time job can provide money and working experience to them. But it partly disturbs their study as well. So the high school students should not be encouraged to have a part-time job because of the following reasons.

Firstly, most high school students are too young to work. Specifically, they still lack the necessary abilities to make their own living and to face and handle the problems from their work. According to a scientific survey, teenagers have a high rate of the possibility to be forced or exploited to do what they don’t want or something illegal. In many countries, there are still many criminal cases which high school students involved; they do something illegal such as they kill people, they sell the illegal drugs… This is not an aspect of their working a part-time job but this is the consequence when they are extremely stressful or they are forced to do that because of money. I think the reason is that they still not have the ability to balance between their work and their study. In some countries, laws were enforced to prevent high school students from working. This aims to protect their right of study and growing healthily and having a happy childhood. Obviously, high school students should focus on studying more than work.

Secondly, a part-time job would occupy high school student a lot of time, which should be used to learn useful knowledge and living skills in class without worries of work force and society problems. Moreover, high school can provide students a community to fit in to learn issues so that they can develop their qualities and skills. This is extremely dangerous that some students choose to have a part-time job instead of focusing on study. They can easily miss some important parts of study that high school is trying to equip them. Moreover, experts agree that students who work more than 15 to 20 hours per week often decrease school success. College is the last step that leads to the success of each students, so high school students need to prepare very well their knowledge before they become college students.

Finally, working for long hours can limit your chance to make your friendship as well as to explore new things you are interested in that will enhance intellectual and emotional development. The major thing that working students should keep in mind is the importance of balance. Student should maintain the time between work and study. Beside this, they must answer this question as well: “Do they spend enough time for their friends and family? Dan Crabtree, college and career counselor at Wheaton Academy in Illinois, explains that: “We want out students to establish a healthy balance in life and work to maintain it through their lives”.

Having a part-time job is not a wise decision if it affect their schoolwork, their time for family and friend or even their necessary relax time. I think high school is not a good time for student to choose to have a part-time job.

Censoring Student Publications Persuasive Essay

Imagine that you are a high school student and have just received the newest edition of your school’s newspaper. As you are flipping through the pages, you discover a terrible article written about you. How would you feel? Recently, there has been much debate on whether high schools should be able to regulate the content of student publications, such as newspapers and magazines. Censoring student publications would be beneficial because they may contain inappropriate things. Also, it would be favorable because the material in student publications may be offensive to its readers and the text may bepoorly written. Because of this, high school officials should have the right to control the content of student publications.

First of all, student publications should be censored because they may be filled with inappropriate content. Some high school students are not mature enough to determine whether certain subjects and language are usable. Without censoring student publications, students may publish something with an inappropriate subject. Since it is used throughout today’s entertainment, they may also use vulgar language. It is not appropriate for school, so high school officials should be able to censor student publications in case it is used.

As a result of inappropriate subjects and vulgar language, the content of student publications may be offensive to its readers. If a student publisher does not like a fellow student, he or she may publish an article about that student. Of course, it will be something terribly offensive. Since student newspapers are given to the entire student body, practically everyone will see it. This will lead to a higher chance of bullying. Bullying is already widespread, so it does not need to be increased by angry, careless teenagers.

Lastly, most high school students are not good enough writers to publish a newspaper or magazine. Students’ articles will not always be grammatically correct and presentable. Their research will be insufficient because they do not do enough research about most topics and write mostly off the top of his or her head. The articles will also be bursting with bias. Most students are not able to write an article without including bias because they are not mature writers at his or her age. Because of this, student publications
should be censored.

In conclusion, high school officials across the nation should have the right to control what goes into his or her school’s newspaper or magazines. Because of immaturity and carelessness, students may publish an article about an inappropriate subject and include crude language. Content of student publications may be offensive and increase the risk of bullying. Also, the newspapers and magazines may be poorly written due to the lack of writing maturity. It is essential to students’ wellbeing that a law be passed that allows high schools to control their student publications for every school in the United States not just Hazelwood School.