Attitudes Towards Technology: Han China and Roman Empire

Han and Roman attitudes in path of technology within the late BCE and early CE pointed in course of two primary categories, optimistic and adverse.

Attitudes Expressed in Documents

The Majority of the documents had positive attitudes in the course of know-how due to its apparent benefits to the author’s cities. Documents 1 and eight show government officers in cost of water expertise. Both show obvious help for the technology they are associated with, preventing floods or creating aqueducts for their cities. Also, their jobs require them to make use of know-how in order that they must have an appreciation for it.

Documents 3 and four describe times when the expertise used to help residents direct their water to help productivity.

It is proven that both government and philosophers see a advantage of know-how in society, clearly bettering productiveness for their complete country. Lastly, Document 6 exhibits Plutarch, a excessive authorities official, writing of the creation of roads that helped the mobility of horses, the group of cities, and great factor about the land.

On the other hand, few paperwork show points of view seeing expertise in a negative gentle.

Document 2 exhibits a govt. official describing the unhealthy high quality of know-how because of lack of workers and high quality labor. He additionally states that the shortage of quality expertise causes a rise in the iron and salt costs, leading to lack of seasoning for the peasants’ meals and lack of strong instruments for farming. Documents 5 and 7 present two Roman higher classman against expertise as a end result of they imagine inventors and craftsment lack knowledge and enlightenment.

Their have been two main perspective that could have affected the bias of the documents’ place on the matter.

The first is shown in paperwork 1 and eight the place the sources are males with an occupation in technological work. This means they must have started with an appreciation for it. Also, the extra they advertised the ideas of their applied sciences, the higher the enterprise was for them, making them extra wealthy and important, thus extra powerful. The second point of view comes from positions of very high energy and little information of the use of technology. Shown in documents 5 and 7 are two sources which have very excessive positions of their society the place they lack experience and data of the uses of know-how. Had they recognized more and had first hand expertise with instruments and totally different crafts, they might have a higher appreciation for such “vulgar” jobs.

Documents Expressing Opinions of Wealthy People

Looking over the documents, it is made apparent that every one the document come from high class residents fiving us no perspective from the much less rich. Had we gotten a document from a lower class citizen, we would then be ready to draw data on how technology affected the larger part of societies. Also, all the sources come from male citizens fiving us no knowledge of the impact it know-how had on the ladies. Perhaps their household lives have been affected greatly by the creation of instruments, an area of daily lives men of the upper class would don’t have any data of. The majority of perspective in the course of expertise in the course of the Han dynasty and Roman Empire fairly was optimistic, but the portion of unfavorable responses lay largely in areas of lack of know-how on the topic.

Asynchronous Javascript And XML AJAX Technology Computer Science Essay

In this chapter, there are some remedy in regards to the starting of Ajax that include the debut to Ajax, the background of Ajax, and the way does Ajax procedure in order to briefly explicate what are Ajax to be able to go on to the following chapter of the execution of Ajax. The execution of Ajax will discourse about how does Ajax being implement similar to execution in application and interface design. The undermentioned chapter would be the therapy of the pros and cons of the Ajax as a outcome of every engineering will hold their ain professionals and cons so within the chapter three, there are some pros and cons with the given illustrations to find a way to do it clearer.

Introduction to Ajax

Ajax besides every bit often known as AsynchronousA JavaScriptA andA XML is a technique utilized in client-side to developing an synergistic Web utility with a mix of several engineerings. The first engineering is including usage of HTML or XHTML and CSS for presentation. Second engineering is for dynamic present and interaction with the web page by way of Document Object Model ( DOM ) , while third engineering is the usage of XML and XSLT for the informations interchange.

Fourth engineering is the utilization of XMLHttpRequest object for asynchronous informations retrieval and the last engineering is the most of import engineering that is JavaScript that playing a function to associate all these engineerings together ( Stamey and Richardson, 2006, pg282 ) .

Harmonizing to Fu et Al. ( 2010, pg567 ) in twelvemonth 2004, Ajax net software such Gmail and Google Suggest is turn into well-liked and its referred to Web 2.

0 functions, since these web software are more synergistic and the way of planing is more dynamic that are just like desktop utility.

Ajax Background

Before the execution of Ajax, Web page is a strictly server-side application, users interact with an hypertext markup language web page, the hypertext transfer protocol petition will direct to the waiter and so the waiter will replace its province and direct a response to the shopper with a brand new hypertext markup language web page, server calculate a new hypertext markup language page may take some clip. Besides that, clear web page will be displayed to the consumer while waiting for the waiter response, and it will do the consumer unable to do any interplay with the online web page and every clip of the petition are require the page to be refresh. Ajax page are dependent with the client-side JavaScript together with the usage of JavaScript and Ajax library constituents similar to squeeze field, jazz band field, tab saloon and and so forth Fu et Al. ( 2010, pg567 ) .

Procedure of Ajax

An illustration on how does the Ajax work in form entry is, after consumer replenish the signifier and so snap on submit button, the browser will get down working an event managing to roll up all the data from the web page. After that, it will direct an asynchronous XmlHttpRequest ( XHR ) with a reply animal trainer recall map that had specified. While ready for the response, the browser does non expose a clean web page for reviewing intent, and the web page are nonetheless remain and person are still able to work together with the web page. The web page ‘s province shall be partly update after the response animal coach receives the waiter ‘s response ( Modelworks Software, 2005 ) .

Another illustration from Modelworks Software ( 2005 ) is a canvass in an Ajax page. User can vote either Cats or Dogs based on the Figure 1.three.1 and the consequence will expose in a saloon chart after chink the ballot button.

Figure 1.three.1

Figure 1.three.2 AJAX sequence diagram

The Figure 1.three.2 from Modelworks Software ( 2005 ) shows how the XMLHttpRequest is being used. The AJAX procedure begins with a DOM event. Then, shopper demand to acquire an XMLHttpRequest object in measure 1, and after person make alternative of either Cats or Dogs, so snap on Vote button in Figure 1.3.1. After purchase the XMLHttpRequest object in measure 1, ‘onreadystatechange ‘ recall is working and naming the ‘open ‘ and ‘send ‘ method. By using the XMLHttpRequest object, any format of informations could be ship and obtain yet it can be aside from XML. JSON are really helpful to make the most of because it is a subset of the sphere object notation in JavaScript that accommodates many traits of XML. When directing the XMLHttpRequest to server, the application should give the consumer some ocular indicant that one thing has changed so as to keep away from confusion. In this illustration, “ Vote ” button had modified to “ Loading… ” as proven in Figure 1.three.three.

Figure 1.3.3

In measure 2, server need to hold a animal coach to deal with the petition and the animal coach could be a Common Gateway InterfaceA ( CGI ) or different server-side guide similar to JSP, PHP and and so on. These server-side books could be the animal trainer to treat the petition, and in measure 3, client-side calls for to deal with the response from waiter. While ready for the consequence, consumer are still enable to interact with the page. At the terminal of measure three, the web page ‘s province will partly replace, and the canvass consequence will expose in Figure 1.three.4.

Figure 1.3.4


Application Design

In this chapter, we’ll discourse about tips on how to construct a great Ajax application. The illustration that’s being used in this chapter for treatment is the look intoing on the username in a person enrollment.

Ajax Request

To plan an Ajax software, foremost in any respect we want to specify a JavaScript map within the Web web page for event handling. The occasion animal trainer map is used to direct an asynchronous HTTP petition using the XMLHttpRequest object. The XMLHttpRequest object created by the JavaScript is used to raise with server-side plan. In this illustration, username might be send to the waiter as petition parametric amount ( Lerner, 2006 ) .

Second is to make a server-side plan by using any linguistic communication apart from JavaScript. The Server-side plan may have the HTTP petition with parametric portions from client-side and so will bring forth HTTP response in any Multipurpose Internet Mail ExtensionsA ( MIME ) format, XML, plain text and JSON ( JavaScript Object Notation ) . In this illustration, server-side plan will utilize the username parametric amount and execute look intoing with the database to hunt whether or not the username is already bing or non. The consequence will return in XML ( Lerner, 2006 ) .

Last, a Callback JavaScript map that must be defines within the person ‘s Web browser so as to manage the informations response from waiter ( Lerner, 2006 ) .

Sending a POST Request

POST, is one other sort of petition that are infixing the parametric portions into the petition organic structure. By using POST, there are no restriction on the parametric quantity ‘s size for both names and values, and the URL shall be cleaner. By utilizing different petition corresponding to GET petition, the URL ‘s entire measurement will hold restriction by a batch of browsers. Post are easier to implement and far more unafraid in comparison with Get petition as a result of the creative exercise of POST petition is much tougher than the artistic activity of a GET petition.

The cryptography under exhibits that the parametric quantities is being POST and indicating a plan that will make the dynamic ouput coevals. Besides that, for the third parametric quantity, it’s the scene of the question in background, which is asynchronously to be true value by informing XMLHttpRequest object.

map checkUsername ( )

// Send the HTTP petition ( “ POST ” , “ /cgi-bin/ ” , true ) ;

xhr.onreadystatechange = parseResponse ;

volt-ampere username = doc.varieties [ 0 ] .username.worth ;

xhr.ship ( “ username= ” + flight ( username ) ) ;

The Server Side

Besides client-side, server-side plan is apart from taking part in an of import operate in Ajax utility. This is as a result of server-side is the plan that might work together with database for informations change in order to do answer to the shopper facet. Besides that, server-side is a concealed plan from user that may execute all the actions of checking, validate, settle for, and reply petition which are despatched from client-side utility ( Lerner, 2006 ) .

# ! /usr/local/bin/perl

usage strict ;

usage nosologies ;

usage warnings ;

usage CGI ;

usage CGI: :Carp ;

# Define the usernames which would possibly be taken

# ( Use a hash for lookup effectivity )

my % usernames = ( ‘abc ‘ = & gt ; 1,

‘def ‘ = & gt ; 1,

‘ghi ‘ = & gt ; 1,

‘jkl ‘ = & gt ; 1 ) ;

# — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

my $ query = new CGI ;

print $ query- & gt ; heading ( “ text/plain ” ) ;

# Get the POST informations

my $ postdata = $ query- & gt ; param ( “ POSTDATA ” ) ;

# Get the username

my ( $ name, $ worth ) = disconnected /=/ , $ postdata ;

my $ username = ” ;

if ( $ name eq ‘username ‘ )

$ username = $ value ;

# If this username is outlined, say “ yes ” !

if ( exists $ usernames { $ username } )

print “ sure ” ;

# Otherwise, say “ no ” !



print “ no ” ;


The server-side plan can be written in other programming linguistic communication ; the illustration within the Listing is a straightforward Common Gateway InterfaceA CGI plan that is written in Perl. Look on the POSTDATA parametric amount, this is the informations received from the Ajax petition. In this server-side plan, if there is a petition of username, this plan will in search of for the matching among the keys of the % usernames hash, if it is matched, a ‘yes ‘ value shall be return to the company, while whether it is non match, so ‘no ‘ worth shall be returned ( Lerner, 2006 ) .

Listing 2.1.three.1

Parsing the Response

When the response arrives from the waiter, the parseResponse map [ Listing ] might be known as. The parseResponse map known as for each particular person alterations of the readyState belongings of the XMLHttpRequest object. There are values from zero to four for the readyState belongings which are ‘0=UNINITIALIZED, 1=LOADING, 2=LOADED, 3=INTERACTIVE, 4=COMPLETED ‘ . The worth of four within the readyState belongings mean that having the response from the waiter is accomplished and the response information is available by way of belongingss of the XMLHttpRequest object. The belongings worth of readyState are required to hold four instances alterations in order to make the completion, which is from Loading to COMPLETED, that the parseResponse map will get referred to as for 4 occasions for each response. In order to guarantee that the information is on the market within the XMLHttpRequest object, the belongings comparing of worth ‘4 ‘ will be made to the xhr.readyState belongings within the map of parseResponse ( Potturi, 2005 ) [ Listing 2.1.four.1 ] .

If the readyState of the XMLHttpRequest instanceA has a worth of ‘4 ‘ , so necessitate to checkA its place belongings to do sure that a sound response was received. The position belongings holds the codification of the HTTP place that’s returned from the waiter. A worth of 200 companies that the informations received within the petition is OK. Work sharing for both shopper and waiter is the key for an excellent Ajax application. In this illustration, we used change assertion to seek on the totally different responses from waiter ( Potturi, 2005 ) [ Listing ] .

First at wholly, if the response is yes, so the submit button for the signifier will be disable and can expose a warning message indicate that the username was taken. The submit button will re-enabled and the warning message might be eliminated when consumer change the username contained in the textual content subject. Besides that, if the response is not any, which imply the username is out there, so the submit button will allow and the warning message shall be removed. Furthermore, if the response is empty, so this instance will be disregarding, and finally, if the response is an surprising info, an surprising response qui vive will inspire. Look on the parseResponse map ( Lerner, 2006 ) [ Listing 2.1.four.1 ] .

volt-ampere xhr = getXMLHttpRequest ( ) ;

map parseResponse ( )

// Get variables ready

volt-ampere response = “ ” ;

volt-ampere new_username = doc.types [ 0 ] .username.value ;

volt-ampere warning = doc.getElementById ( “ warning ” ) ;

var submit_button = document.getElementById ( “ submit-button ” ) ;

// Wait for the HTTP response

if ( xhr.readyState == four )

if ( xhr.standing == 200 )

response = xhr.responseText ;

switch ( response )

instance “ sure ” :

setText ( warning,

“ Warning: username ‘ ” +

new_username + ” ‘ was taken! “ ) ;

submit_button.disabled = true ;

interruption ;

instance “ no ” :

removeText ( warning ) ;

submit_button.disabled = false ;

interruption ;

instance “ ” :

interruption ;


qui vive ( “ Unexpected response ‘ ” + response + “ ‘ ” ) ;


qui vive ( “ job: xhr.status = “ + xhr.status ) ;

Listing post-ajax-register.html

Interface Design

Use of a mixture of asynchronous JavaScript, the Document Object Model ( DOM ) , CSS and XMLHttpRequest AJAX enables faster, extra antiphonal Web functions. A Dynamic HTML-based Web software is a Web interface interior decorators that can do quick, synergistic, animated, and increased updates to a consumer interface with out reviewing the complete Web web page ( Wroblewski, 2005 ) .

Previous net functions used frames or iframe to hold certain elements on a web page up to date. But with Ajax, any element outlined with DOM may be extremely dynamic, and informations could be buffered from the background without user action. The data is available every time the person needs it ( Wroblewski, 2005 ) .

Since Ajax permit all the weather within a Web web page to be modified separately and rapidly without impacting the rest of the web page, non many of the Web consumer are purchase common with it. The Ajax-based updates are really quick person could non detect the alterations of the web page. Therefore, to find a way to catch an attending to person, some strategies could be use. Two frequent assaults to advise user the interface alteration are color alteration and life ( Wroblewski, 2005 ) .

The utilization of color alteration merely like when informations on peculiar subdivision is updated, that subdivision is colour is changed to bespeak the informations alteration. In order to acquiring the attending from person efficaciously, the color used should be distinction with the rest of interface. The gesture of an life is besides attractive to user ( Wroblewski, 2005 ) .

The usage of life is to permit user cognize that the waiter is process some response to their motion. The life could be a loading circle or saloon and and so on. Animation apart from can make the most of to decelerate down the interface update to do certain person is notice it. This attack is great, but if user did non detect the alteration is made, consumer may presume no responsive is given ( Wroblewski, 2005 ) .


Advantages of Ajax

By using Ajax, there are lots of advantages and there are some of the main advantages. First in any respect Ajax is cut downing the web latency job and higher user interactivity with the applying interface compared with conventional page-based Web design. Google Maps is an illustration where the refresh latency job is solved ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

When user are using Google Maps software and hunt for a peculiar location, the maps might be displayed in a frame shown in Figure 3.1.1. Download-refresh paradigm is utilized in old map software, which are when consumer hunt for a peculiar location, a map image is displayed as one page, and the web page is required to evaluation when consumer pan or speedy climb the map picture hence user demand to wait for the net web page to get the information from waiter. But for the Ajax-enabled map utility, Google Maps let consumer to catch the map and drag it and the map body will filled with informations fluidly with out reviewing the page proven in Figure three.1.2.

The data is being buffered and lies outdoors the boundary line of the map in body before consumer need it so when consumer dragged the map, there isn’t a refresh latency, and the pre-fetched informations will be displayed within the frame. User interacts with Ajax web page is more doubtless desktop software feels because there isn’t a page refresh. User request a data and the informations are carried asynchronously at a special clip.

Figure 3.1.1 and Figure 3.1.2 is allocated on following web page.

Figure 3.1.1 searched consequence of Sri Aman

Figure 3.1.2 image from Figure3.1.1 being speedy climb in.

Similar to Gmail, alternatively of pre-fetching informations, Gmail is more dressed ores on Ajax to produce software interplay and there might be non full energetic show will necessitate to evaluation. In old kind of e-mail software, the web page will be refreshed when a model new electronic mail arrives, however with the execution of Ajax, merely the peculiar subdivision demands to be refreshed. The design of Gmail is extra like a desktop application, when a brand new emails arrives, the full page will non be refresh, the electronic mail will added mechanically to the inbox in order that consumer no demand to press the refresh button to see the model new electronic mail and this can higher person interactivity ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

Besides minimize downing the net latency job and better person interactivity, other advantages by utilizing Ajax-style scheduling is much less Bandwidth demands. This is as a end result of merely the requested info from consumer will be transferred and merely the peculiar subdivision will necessitate being refreshed, while consumer are nonetheless can interact with the web page. This will apart from take down the ingestion of the waiter ‘s assets ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

Besides that, dynamic informations filtering may work will with Ajax. Example like T-shirt telling application, when customers select a peculiar size of a shirt, it will filtrate out the available coloring material for the chosen dimension of the T-shirt and each choice do non necessitate the page refresh ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

Last, Ajax apart from recommended using in signifier entries. Each proof checking may be accomplished before person submitted the signifier. For illustration, a member enrollment signifier, when person enter the watchword, the application will look into whether or not the watchword is fulfil the application demand or non and so intimation to user when it does non carry via the demand ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

Disadvantages of Ajax

The major disadvantages of using Ajax in an online web page are when consumer bookmarks an internet web page. Users are confused when unfastened the bookmarked Ajax web page, the web page may get down at first get downing level of the Ajax web page but non the web page the person desired. The resolution to get the better of this job is the books of creating a bookmark Cam dynamically add a section to the URL to take care of the province info. So user can return to the page that they’re desired ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

For illustration, in SHISEIDO website, when user undergo the farther stairss similar to in search of group of merchandise based on the classs as proven in Figure three.2.1, and e-book marked it. The following clip when consumer is unfastened the bookmark, the same location as Figure three.2.1 is non being shown, whereas the page being proven is in Figure 3.2.2 because of the guide marker does merely hive away the URL reference of the page person breaker alternatively of hive awaying both reference and the location the place person guide marked it.

Figure three.2.1

Figure three.2.2

Besides that, another disadvantages when utilizing Ajax in an internet page is when user imperativeness the back button on the browser, the browser could confound the consumer, it will take person again to the old page alternatively of the old measure within the software. Google maps have overcome this job by utilizing the guide to infix the data into the browser history record, so when person presses the again button, the application is return to the old measure throughout the application ( Zucker, 2007 ) .

Besides, Ajax is dependence on JavaScript. Not all the browser can back up JavaScript illustration like Ajax is non suited to planing nomadic software as a outcome of nomadic browser do non again up JavaScript. Again, the execution of JavaScript is different in assorted browsers, illustration like Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and etc ( Kanjilal, 2010 ) .

With the execution of Ajax, the size of the codification will increase and this will be onerous to debug and will do of the security menace ( Kanjilal, 2010 ) .


Consideration When Using Ajax

Linkage with Final Year Report

In my concluding twelvemonth enterprise I am making a tegument attention gross revenues system which consists of two functions, that are frontend and back-end purposes. Both of the functions are using C # programming linguistic communication to implement. Besides, these two purposes are Web-based application.

The frontend system is an unfastened public web software to the cyberspace. Many users will try to make the most of this utility. So the design of the applying have to be engaging a lot to pull the person. Therefore I use Ajax for the person interface designing. For illustration, a brassy bill of fare saloon used in frontend system. There is a few life when user strikes the mouse hover on the bill of fare.

Furthermore, type in a position tabular array usage in both of the appliance the intent is I can display screen the tabular array without page refreshes. A versatile and extensile day of the month chooser is utilized in day of the month field, in order that user can take to choose on the day of the month from the day of the month chooser or manually enter in to the textual content subject and so Accordion might be use as aspect invoice of fare saloon, when users select on the bill of fare heading, it’s going to skid and the bomber college will expose within the panel for person to choose. These Ajax constituents utilized in each of the application in my concluding twelvemonth undertaking.

Besides, I used tooltip as a assist tool in each of my purposes each bit good, when mouse over a symbol like ‘ ? ‘ , some assist info will expose to the consumer inside a panel. Others Ajax constituent like grid, tab saloon, Carousel and combo field may in addition to used into my functions.

Back-end System

For my back-end system, Ajax is utilized in gross revenues, stock list and care schools. The intent it to do the applying more like a desktop application, do it attainable to less web page refreshing. Beside that implement Ajax into my back-end system can enhance the consumer interactivity and reduce down the web latency by much less of page refreshing.

Ajax applied in maintains inventory listing, member, workers and provider faculty which is insert and replace. The intent is to formalize the user enter and intimations to the person. For illustration, infix a new employees record. If consumer enter invalid electronic mail reference, it’ll give a intimation to user how is the illustration of a valid piece of email reference with out reviewing the web page.

For the gross revenues faculty, the web page is non necessitate to evaluation when a new point it added into the order listing, merely the order listing will be up to date. If there’s a page refreshing require for each new point added within the user may thwart when utilizing this software.

Frontend System

For my frontend system, Ajax is applied in member, provider, reserve, on-line gross revenues and payment schools.

In member school, Ajax utilized in member enrollment signifier and update member inside informations signifier. The intent is to formalize user input and intimations to consumer. For illustration, when user enter their username, it’ll look into whether the username is out there or non and can give consumer the intimation. Besides that, if consumer does non make full within the compulsory area, it’ll give person a intimation each bit good. After user crammed up the signifier with a validate info and imperativeness the submit button, the online page will deal with the signifier entry. After accomplished the enrollment process, the page will non evaluate and merely the enrollment signifier country might be updated.

For the supplier school, Ajax is used for proof intent that’s utilized in provider inside informations signifier. For illustration, when supplier input an invalid electronic message reference, it’s going to give supplier a intimation how is the illustration of a valid electronic message reference with out reviewing the page.

For the reserve college, in measure 1 after user had chosen a day of the month for intervention, it will expose the clip agenda of the chosen day of the month. And so person can choose the out there clip and process to the measure 2 which in replenish the reserve inside informations form. From stairss 1 to step 2 there aren’t any require web page reviewing with the execution of Ajax.

For the on-line gross revenues school, Carousel is utilized in this faculty which user can scroll and see the merchandise, in other method to see the large picture without reviewing the web page. Besides that, consumer can take to see the merchandise in a grid position or table place every bit good.


In my sentiment, Ajax is sweet for execution in Web-based application. The ground why usage Ajax is because it’s quick response and it talk with server-side asynchronously, the waiter merely process the informations require by the shopper brand and so direct again to the shopper. Besides, it buffering the knowledge before the consumer requires it, so client no demands to direct the petition to the waiter once they want the knowledge. Furthermore consumer can portion the waiter work load, there are tons of issues could be done in client facet. For illustration signifier proof can make in consumer aspect before it uploads to the waiter.

Another floor why utilization Ajax, is as a outcome of it’s a good interior decorator for Web-based utility. Ajax is highly effective and it could do a Web-based application expression and really feel like a desktop application. Because reviewing full web page is non require by an Ajax web page, merely portion of the web page are require reloaded when it get so response from the waiter.

Ajax do really supply us the benefit for consumer interplay decrease the traffic of net, but merely require simple surveies so as to implement it. Besides of straightforward surveies, the codification are easy to grasp and execution. I do strongly again up the use of Ajax as a outcome of it brings a batch of profit to user.

From what I read from these article that written in mentions chapter, with the execution of Ajax, it do help in bettering the website online engineering with commanding the informations exchange by executing the data transmittal for those essential informations merely alternatively of entire web page informations transmittal.


As the decision, the engineerings of Ajax is a good engineerings that used to better the designing of software and interface due to the system to make asynchronously in time period of interaction between person and the system.

Although Ajax has some disadvantages however the advantages for utilizing Ajax is greater than the disadvantages and that is the floor why a batch of internet applications are using Ajax within the website. Ajax can minimize down the online latency and this might enable the application to execute quicker to raised consumer expertise when using it. Besides that, user can hold extra interaction with the web web page in term of Ajax are refresh and process the mandatory nation of the web page alternatively the entire web page.

With the benefits that overcome the disadvantages, Ajax is strongly supported to make the most of because by utilizing Ajax, it improves user satisfaction by using the web site because of the desktop-like utility by the execution of Ajax.


Artificial Intelligence Technology

Alpha, the Pilot

The yr of 2016 ushered in an fascinating growth within the area of Artificial Intelligence when Alpha, the Artificial Intelligence energy computer pilot was pitted in opposition to a human pilot in simulated situations on the Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in USA. Alpha, the Artificial Intelligence induced pilot, was created utilizing a Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) system, which involves breeding’ of a quantity of algorithms to allow self-learning amongst the systems. Instructions on engagement utilizing weapons have been taught using linguistic classifications, which is identical means as we resolve and act.

The results of the simulated fights between Alpha, the Artificial Intelligence pilot and the human pilot surprised everybody. Alpha, the Artificial Intelligence induced pilot received each simulated state of affairs.

In subsequent simulated runs, gradual limitations in terms of an inferior aircraft, decrease speeds, shorter missile range and inferior sensors have been induced into Alpha, the Artificial Intelligence pilot as in comparison with the human pilot. The outcomes nonetheless, didn’t change and Alpha was able to both evade and attack the human pilot making the change between offensive and defensive modes seamlessly.

This take a look at has prompted the AFRL to explore the feasibility of using Alpha for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs). In order to additional perceive the technology, you will want to grasp the fundamental ideas.

The Definition

The definition of Artificial Intelligence is continuously evolving with the speedy advance of the technology itself and therefore, only an approximate boundary may be outlined around the idea of Artificial Intelligence. In the 80s, Artificial Intelligence was defined as the study of how to make computers do issues which at the moment people did better .

The modern day definition of Artificial Intelligence has developed with research and the phrases Artificial Intelligence and Machine Language are getting used interchangeably. The research in Artificial Intelligence is defined because the research of intelligent agents; any gadget that perceives its actions that maximize its chances of successfully achieving its goals . In the overall open source, the term Artificial Intelligence can also be applied when machines mimic cognitive features that humans associate with different human minds, similar to learning’ and drawback solving’. In order to raised respect the present day applications of Artificial Intelligence, it’s prudent to grasp the expansion of this technology.

Growth of Artificial Intelligence

The invention of the programmable digital pc, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning inspired a handful of scientists to think about the possibility of a digital mind. A workshop within the campus of Dartsmouth College in the summer of 1954 paved method for future research in addition to the setting up of an Artificial Intelligence Lab in Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The limitations by method of computing power, storage capacities and hardware limitations brought about a lull within the research of Artificial Intelligence which is broadly considered the AI Winters’. Ms Elaine Rich and Mr Kevin Knight have highlighted in their e-book titled Artificial Intelligence’ that the principle reason resulting in AI Winters’ was the method of the researchers to make the computer systems learn language talent and common sense reasoning. Since there was no database just like the human mind where computers may retailer a large amount of data to construct up data, natural language understanding and customary sense emerged to be a serious hurdle.

However, research in the field of expert tasks comprising of applications that could be bound throughout the confines of algorithms to link objects to the tasks required to be undertaken, flourished with wide ranging functions within the field of engineering, medical and monetary streams. The next breakthrough arrived with the advancement within the area of semiconductors, that brought in quicker processing speeds coupled with higher knowledge storage capacity. This led to the emergence of Machine Learning and Deep Learning (also known as Artificial Neural Networks).

Machine Learning

Machine Learning is the apply of utilizing algorithms to resolve a press release into its element parts and describe their roles, learn from it after which make a dedication or a prediction about one thing on the earth. Therefore, instead of writing a particular software code with a set of instructions to perform a particular task, the machine is trained using giant quantities of knowledge (which translates into a data base for the computer system) and algorithms that accord the system to learn how to perform the task. Statistics and chance theory are the major instruments that machine learning is modelled on and therefore, the higher the information obtainable throughout the system, the higher the predictions from a Machine Learning system. However, the widely acknowledged flip aspect of Machine Learning is the fact that even small variations within the information (or the data base) of the system can deliver forth large variations in the predictions from the Machine Learning system. The flower crown selfies’ of the mobile app Snapchat’, journey time and really helpful routes on the mobile app Uber’, autospam filtering of Gmail’ and the content material suggestions of NetFlix’ are some of the most typical applications of Machine Learning techniques.

Deep Learning

Deep Learning is a subset of Machine Learning Technology and is also known as the Artificial Neural Network’ know-how. Research within the area of Artificial Neural Network has been in progress for decades, nonetheless the actual breakthrough that was implementable happened in 2006. The know-how is inspired by neurons within the human brain and their interconnections to one another and the nervous system utilizing synapses. Each neuron has an enter and primarily based on an assigned weightage, the output can be an affirmatory i.e one or a worthless i.e zero. The output of the neuron can be managed by controlling the assigned weightage. Networks of such artificial neurons are made and thereafter, many such networks are made that are layered one on high of the other community. Any information enter into the neural network passes by way of a quantity of layers with adjusted weightages to make sense of the input data and evaluate with the output. The self-learning side is achieved as the system itself adjusts the weightage issue to attain an output that’s most suitable. In less complicated terms, the Deep Learning system first learns the attributes required to carry out a task by itself and then proceeds to undertake the duty.

Deep Learning techniques are known to give very correct predictions as nicely as draw correlations which might be unimaginable for human brains to foretell. Since the system learns on its own, it does take extra time within the initial learning phases. However, the Deep Learning system does not present any insight into the method in which the prediction has been made and this remains probably the most regarding facet of this technology. In the event of an incorrect or a dangerous outcome from a Deep Learning system, there can be no methodology to ascertain the explanations since it isn’t attainable to hint the firing of the neurons in the system . Some everyday applications include product suggestions on Amazon, voice to text and voice search in Google, Siri from Apple and Alexa from Kindle. The capacity of the Artificial Intelligence powered techniques to show fast choice making skills post the preliminary self-learning’ process opens up its purposes within the systems that assist the Commander of a warship at sea in decision making processes considering the threats or targets in the working setting.


Aerial Threats

Surface to Surface Missiles (SSMs), Anti-Ship Missiles (AShMs) and enemy Aircraft are the standard aerial threats that a warship or a fleet faces whilst at sea. Measures to mitigate these threats are both obtainable on a warship or in the task pressure that the warship is half of. However, the modern day missiles adopt several detection evasion measure coupled with very high pace. The velocity that modern day missiles can achieve is five (05) Mach and growth of missiles attainting speeds up to eight (08) Mach is probably going earlier than the tip of this decade itself. Such high speeds translate to a really small reaction time obtainable with the ship’s crew. Therefore, early detection of aerial threats to enable launching threat mitigation measures by a warship or a fleet is necessary considering the inherent low speeds of a warship or the fleet itself. Launching missile decoy systems and Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) as part of the Area Defense System or the Point Defense System supplies the warship or the fleet the one measure for self-protection against the threats highlighted above. Therefore, it is important that a warship detects the incoming threat within the lowest possible timeframe in order that self-protection measures can be initiated and the ship has a high chance of survival.

Underwater Threats

A warship at sea is at all times prone to attacks from torpedoes launched by enemy warship or submarines and the completely different sorts of mines. Supercavitating torpedoes present very insufficient time for the warship to launch counter measures in addition to take evasive action. In this case also, early detection turns into probably the most critical factor adopted by instant self-protection measures within the lowest timeframe. As iterated earlier, establishing credible MDA is the only solution in opposition to these threats.

Argument Essay: Technology and Children

This know-how revolution sparked a debate on children’s use of know-how. Children are continually utilizing iPads, iPhones, tablets, and different computerized units. By over exposing kids to technology, they’re being robbed of the psychological stimulation that comes from doing actual, non computerized, activities. It has gotten to the purpose the place one can see a two-year-old navigate an iPhone with ease but battle to speak. Sixty-nine percent of kids aged two to 5 can use a computer mouse, but solely eleven p.c can tie their very own shoelaces (Generation Tech More Kids Can Play Computer Games than Ride a Bike).

Also, youngsters are at an all time low within the creativity division because of the lack of possibilities to apply their creativeness. The social interactions worsen due to the fact that kids would somewhat talk over the internet and via textual content message than communicate head to head. In order to be certain that youngsters get the correct building blocks for his or her future training, we must restrict children’s use to technology.

Today, technology is extra geared towards the youth than another age group. More researches about it in argumentative essay examples. About seventy five p.c of iTunes prime promoting video games are the educational apps designed for preschoolers and elementary school kids (Strauss). Adults, suppose that as a end result of it’s made for kids that it is okay for a child to take a seat for hours on finish enjoying the ‘educational’ recreation, when actually they’re inflicting extra harm than good.

Unfortunately, youngsters now not are seeing the want to communicate face to face with one another; kids aren’t learning simple expertise that those of before the technological outbreak realized as second nature.

Children are connected to their devices, whilst they’re strolling down the road. In the morning when kids are leaving for school, you see a line of kids strolling down the street all plugged in. No one says good morning as the cross one other individual, they stumble upon people with out an “excuse me”, or “sorry”. These are beneath appreciated, simple task that the kids of today lack. One might argue that that is the parent’s job to show their youngsters social talent, but if the mother or father lets the child attach themselves to and electronic device, when and the way would they’ve the chance?

Also, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in a examine in 2004, 16 percent of youngsters that are between the ages of six and nineteen years of age are overweight or obese. This is a quantity that has practically tripled since 1980, mostly due to technological usage. Being chubby can deliver with it great well being concerns. Many of those children have a chance of developing Type II Diabetes, bronchial asthma, sleep apnea, social discrimination, high ldl cholesterol and/or blood strain. Moreover, based on a Stanford University of Medicine study, elementary college students consume 20 percent of their day by day calorie intake while watching television, which often contains unhealthy snacks, largely as a outcome of advertisements for junk meals and tedium. Coincidently, youngsters usually are not burning off any of those energy while they’re plopped in entrance of the television. When it comes all the way down to a child’s creativity, it is being drained by the pre-generated creative artwork studios on computer systems.

Before if a toddler wanted to level out how creative they could be, they would pull out a box of crayons or makers and draw a picture straight from their imagination. Now, we’ve coloring templates with preset colours that make youngsters colour inside the strains. The pseudo creativity has parents fooled into believing that their youngster is become extra artistic eve time they hand them the digital artwork pad. All that is really occurring is that the child is now turning into more reliant on premade sketches to create, no actual thought involved. There is little question that technology goes to be tremendous part of the future, extra particularly, children’s future. We cannot deprive them of know-how, but we are in a position to restrict them. Everyone wants their kids to develop up inventive, intelligent, and properly rounded; nonetheless, with an excessive quantity of technological affect it will be a distant dream to attain. As an older era, we need to take steps toward determining the way to save the children from changing into computer dependent, unhealthy, and unable to think on their very own.

Works Cited
“Childhood Obesity Prevention – Stanford University School of Medicine.” Childhood Obesity Prevention – Stanford University School of Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. “Children and Technology – The Statistics.”
TechAddiction. N.p., n.d. Web. four Dec. 2012. “Generation Tech More Kids Can Play Computer Games than Ride a Bike.” VentureBeat. N.p., 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. Henry1966. “Children: Technology Killed Creativity.” Newsvine. N.p., 4 Apr. 2010. Web. four Dec. 2012. Pelling, Rowan. “How Technology Is Taking Hold of Our Children’s Lives.” Telegraph. The Telegraph, 22 May 2012. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. Strauss, Valerie. “Is Technology Sapping Children’s Creativity?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. four Dec. 2012. “Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences.” Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2012.

Are we too depending on technology?

Our ever-advancing technological world is subjected to both amazement and criticism. Technology has manifested itself right into a type like a virus imprinted into us. As a result of which a question is posed to all of society, or these mainly in use of expertise, are we too dependent on technology? There are those that imagine that technology has taken over our daily lives, those who think that it only stands to benefit us and a few who don’t suppose or care about its results.

The consensus that we are becoming too depending on know-how is one not so unbelievable. We all know for probably the most part that expertise has built-in itself to only about every little thing that we do. For instance, what quantity of times do you examine your phone, or go online to examine your email and even play a online game. These are common examples of issues we do daily with out even realizing that these applied sciences have taken over our lives.

Read more: People Have Become Overly Dependent on Technology

Technology can be seen as a beneficiary to our lives rather than monster waiting to bear its fangs. It goes with out saying that know-how has each tremendously improved our lives by making it less complicated. Yes, know-how has deprived us of some expertise such as doing easy chore but the benefits outweigh its value. For occasion, the invention of the phone has revolutionized the finest way we talk with others worldwide. Technology is just meant to make our lives simpler.

Being on the fence is a straightforward concept to know, merely simply can’t pick a side or don’t.

Simply there are those that get pleasure from the usage of expertise, those that find it deprives us of mental development and those who don’t care what occurs when it’s used. Though expertise can have a robust grip on our lives we aren’t stupefied with out it. The matters of whether or not technology controls us or advantages us shouldn’t make a distinction on how we reside. We choose to stay life like this and may or may not have known what might need happened, however as quickly as chosen there is not any turning back.

Overall, society right now has accepted all applied sciences in one type or another.

AR System New Technology for Maintenance and Repair

We are dealing with many issues in our actual life. Now we live in the era of science and we are attempting to give any problem’s solution through the use of science and technology. I select this topic for some causes. A few months ago my cell phone just isn’t working. Everything was okay but incoming and outgoing calls are not allowed simply due to networking problem. I go to a mobile repairing shop and they charged me 1000tk to solve this issue.

But after some hours they mentioned me my phone is okay and networking system is also okay. They mentioned me to switch my sim card from buyer care. And they took 1000tk from me. On that time I was not something to say. And I waste my 1000tk. Not only I waste my money but additionally waste my time. I am a scholar of computer science and engineering so after a couple of days on that incident I heard about augmented actuality system in my artificial intelligence class.

My course instructor showed us a video where an electronic device is repaired by utilizing augmented actuality. It was like after we take our mobile phone in front the electrical swap board the mobile phone provides instruction how to solve the issue step by step. Then I thought it is going to be useful if we use this idea for repairing mobile phone then we are in a position to save our money, time, power and so on. Then I examine on this matter and give interest.

Already we now have a system which can read words from a book. Actually my involved field is synthetic intelligence and I wish to take my greater examine from this sector. If we are able to restore our digital devices through the use of AR then will most likely be very helpful for us.

The thought is fascinating however not totally applied. There are many works associated marker primarily based AR but when we will use marker less AR then it will be efficient for us. By using this we may be self-independent.


Suppose, any of our digital gadgets like TV, fan, gentle, laptop, espresso maker and so on. doesn’t work. Then what is going to we do? We need to seek the guidance of with an skilled who can repair that. This is time consuming and expensive. Actually I assume tips on how to save time and money for repairing and maintenance. If there might be an augmented restore system which supplies us guidance about repairing then life turns into more easy. The system shows us all the steps the means to repair the issues. By using this method we can restore our digital devices. Current vision-based trackers are based mostly on tracking of markers. The use of markers increases robustness and reduces computational necessities. However, their use can be very sophisticated, as they require sure upkeep. Direct use of scene features for monitoring, therefore, is desirable. To this finish, we describe a basic system that tracks the place and orientation of a digicam observing a scene without any visual markers. Our method is predicated on a two-stage course of. In the primary stage, a set of features is realized with the assistance of an external tracking system whereas in motion. The second stage makes use of these learned features for digital camera monitoring when the system in the first stage decides that it is attainable to take action.

The system could be very general so that it can employ any out there characteristic tracking and pose estimation system for studying and tracking. Direct use of scene options for tracking as a substitute of the markers is way desirable, particularly when certain parts of the workspace don’t change in time. For example, a management panel has fixed buttons and knobs that stay the identical over its lifetime. The use of these rigid and unchanging options for tracking simplifies the preparation of the situations for scene augmentation as well. The developed AR system has been evaluated in quite a few checks in a real industrial context and demonstrated sturdy and secure conduct. Our system is based upon well-known ideas and algorithms and it is our opinion that it’s the right mixture of algorithms that led to a successful AR system. The second stage uses these discovered options for camera monitoring when the system in the first stage decides that it’s possible to do so. The system may be very basic so that it can make use of any obtainable feature tracking and pose estimation system for learning and tracking. We experimentally reveal the viability of the method in real-life examples.

Related work

In order to gauge the methods, earlier than going via the direct experiment we want to assess them for relative setups. Among two kinds of motion capture

Marker less is more comforting in accordance Ashish Shingade and Archana Ghotkar (2014). Because in Marker much less movement seize no character must put on go nicely with and digicam dealing with is little easier. From their survey of different motion capture strategies using Kinect digicam, it was observed that detecting skeleton joints and monitoring is important drawback to use the strategy.

To get depth data of human physique for reference Kinect Camera is preferable resolution. . P. Gerard and A. Gagalowicz(2000) mentioned In the latest years, many Industrial Augmented Reality (IAR) functions are shifting from video to nonetheless photographs to create a combined view. Since using AR in industrial applications is a promising and at the similar time difficult issue, several prototypical systems have already been developed. For this system marker less AR is used as a end result of markers could occlude elements of the workspace and have to be correctly calibrated to the tracked reference body. In addition, marker based monitoring techniques want a free line of sight between the camera and the marker which can not always be guaranteed in repair situations the place partial occlusions by worker’s hands and tools are common.

P.J. Huber. Robust Statistics(1981) found that Initialization and 2D feature tracking: In an initial step, a set of salient 2D depth corners are detected in the rst picture of the sequence. These 2D options are then tracked all through the image sequence by native feature matching with the KLT operator. If characteristic tracks are misplaced, new tracks are continuously reinitialized. The new tracks are merged with previous tracks in the 3D stage to avoid drift. 3D function monitoring and pose estimation: From the given2D function tracks, a SfM method may be utilized toestimatethemetriccameraposeand3Dfeaturepositions simultaneously.

Takashi Okuma, Takeshi Kurata, and Katsuhiko Sakau(2004) invented The problem of marker less AR has two elements:I) Tracking: If the edge worth is (‰€20) all options are deleted and the entire procedure is repeated by using the last estimated pose.Ii) Initialization: The part of initialization relates with the issue of figuring out a camera’s projection matrix without any constraints to the pose and with none knowledge of the earlier poses. The only constraint given the case is that the working with a calibrated camera and thus a recognized intrinsic matrix K.This drawback is solved when a sufciently large set of 2D-3D correspondences may be established. Given the 2D-3D level matches, the pose of the camera is computed using the algorithm by Tsai .An inner calibration is carried out for the camera earlier than the coaching to account for radial distortion up to 6th diploma.

A.J. Davison(2003) found that An online AR system that enables strong 3D digital camera tracking in complicated and uncooperative scenes the place parts of the scene could move independently. It is predicated on the SfM approach from computer vision. The 3D monitoring is based on robust digicam pose estimation utilizing structure from movement algorithms which are optimized for real time performance. These algorithms can handle measurement outliers from the 2D tracking using strong statistics.

Vincent Lepetit, and Pascal Fua(2004) stated Once the markers are calibrated, i.e., their positions are calculated, the entire cameras used within the experiments are internally calibrated utilizing these markers. We use Tsai’s technique [25] to permit radial distortion correction up to 6th diploma, which ensures a very good pose estimation for the digital camera when the proper correspondences are offered.

K. Pentenrieder, C. Bade, F. Doil, and P. Meier(2007) mentioned To improve the efficiency of the initialization process, we introducedatrainingproceduretoeliminateunreliablefeaturesduringthekeyframelearningstage. After the user provides a key frame to the storage, he’s asked to move the digital camera somewhat bit within the vicinity of the pose used to create the key body. As the user moves the camera, 2D features extracted from the key frame are tracked with KLT into each video frame. All features for which the monitoring fails are rejected and never saved in the key frame structure. As a consequence we obtain a more robust initialization, as the chance of a profitable tracking of a function that was saved with the necessary thing frame, will increase.

Since the usage of AR in industrial applications is a promising and on the identical time difficult concern, a number of prototypical techniques have already been developed. The system developed during the greatest GermanAR-Project-ARVIKA[2]aswellassystem[1]usemarkersforposeestimationwhichisnotpracticalinmanyrealindustrial scenarios because of the line of sight downside. On the other hand there are quite a few makes an attempt to unravel the pose estimation drawback with out using ducials (e.g., [6], [7], [9], [15]). Most of those attempts lack testing in real industrial purposes. An overview of the AR technology in manufacturing may be present in [4]. Most of the work associated to our tracking strategy has been described in [17]. We nevertheless use different feature detection and tracking algorithm as will be described in successive sections. Furthermore we do not use the native bundle adjustment method proposed in [17] but we do not experience a noticeable jitter. We use a restrictive function rejection technique which eliminates potential outliers throughout the tracking stage and abandons the necessity for RANSAC pre-processing of 2D-3D correspondences. In addition we use an enhanced algorithm for the training of key frames, which already permits the rejection of malign features during the studying stage making the initialization procedure more reliable.

To conduct this analysis, the potential answered questions would be

  1. How applicable your chosen methodology is for the research?
  2. What is augmented reality?
  3. Why we use marker less AR instead of marker based AR?
  4. What is the advantages of marker much less AR?
  5. How the person use the system?
  6. How would be the data collected?
  7. What sort of research methodology shall be followed?
  8. How would be the information analyzed?

Proposed Methodology

This research follows the experimental method as a outcome of it generates statically analyzable knowledge. As we’d like correct data so this methodology is ideal for this. In this work we introduce a complete AR system for upkeep and restore purposes. In the previous there have been a couple of makes an attempt to develop an AR system for industrial purposes. The resolution developed through the ARVIKA project [2] used marker based mostly optical monitoring together with a video-see-through setup worn by a technician. In some situations nevertheless this method turned out to be not relevant because markers may occlude parts of the workspace and must be properly calibrated to the tracked reference body. In addition, marker based mostly tracking methods want a free line of sight between the camera and the marker which cannot all the time be guaranteed in restore eventualities the place partial occlusions by worker’s palms and instruments are frequent.

Former hardware solutions compelled the user both to put on cumbersome computing units or to be related to them through a ‚exible cable. Our expertise confirmed that both options are sometimes not accepted in business for ergonomic causes and because of the threat of injuries. To overcome these problems we developed a marker much less monitoring system combined with a light weight cellular setup. In the proposed Given a camera’s pose Pt€’1 at some time t€’1, video pictures I t€’1 and It taken at time t€’1 and t, as nicely as a 3D work area mannequin M, estimate the present digital camera pose P.for this particular characteristic, becomes a combined 2D2D and 3D-2D matching and bundle adjustment downside. The system evaluates every set of feature correspondences to find a way to define whether or not this function is a steady one, which means that:.Over time the 3D function doesn’t move independently from the observer (i.e., static place on the earth coordinate system),.

The distribution of the intensity characteristics of the function doesn’t change considerably over time,.The characteristic is powerful enough that the system may find the best detection algorithm to extract it under the conventional changes in lighting conditions i.e., changes which usually occur within the workspace),.The feature is reconstructed and again projected, utilizing the motion estimated by the external tracker, with acceptable again projection error,.The subset of the steady options chosen want to permit correct localization, in comparison with the ground reality from the external tracker.The second set of experiments is performed to see if monitoring may be achieved utilizing cameras apart from the one used in training. Even with a really different tracker and studying digital camera, the system yields excellent pose during tracking. High radial distortion as a end result of larger field-of-view does not effect the accuracy and performance of the markerless tracking system.


  1. AR Toolkit. YakupGenc, S.Riedel, FabriceSouvannavong, C.Akinlar, andNassir Nava. Marker-less monitoring for artwork: A learning-based strategy. In ISMAR, pages 295″304, 2002.
  2. Reinhardt Koch, Kevin Kosher, Birger Stracke, and Jan-Frisco EversSenne. Markerless image-based 3d monitoring for real-time augmented actuality functions. WIAMIS 2005, April 2005.
  3. Takashi Okuma, Takeshi Kurata, and Katsuhiko Sakaue. A natural feature-based 3d object monitoring methodology for wearable augmented reality. In The 8th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC’04), pages 451″456, 2004.
  4. Donald W. Marquardt. An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters. Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 11(2):431″441, June 1963.
  5. Luca Vacchetti, Vincent Lepetit, and Pascal Fua. Stable real-time 3d monitoring using on-line and of‚ine info. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 26(10):1385″1391, 2004.
  6. P. Georgel, P. Schroeder, S. Benhimane, S. Hinterstoisser, M. Appel, and N. Navb. An Industrial Augmented Reality Solution For Discrepancy Check. ISMAR, 2007.
  7. K. Pentenrieder, C. Bade, F. Doil, and P. Meier. Augmented Reality primarily based Factory Planning – an Application Tailored to Industrial Needs. ISMAR, 2007.
  8. A.J. Davison. Real-time simultaneous localization and mapping with a single digicam. In Proceedings International Conference Computer Vision, Nice, 2003.
  9. A. J. Davison, Y. G. Cid, and N. Kita. Real-time 3D SLAM with wide-angle vision. In Proc. IFAC Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, Lisbon, July 2004.
  10. G. Ou, Y. Gao and Y. Liu, “Real- TimeVehicularTrafficViolationDetectioninTrafficMonitoringStream,” in 2012 IEEE/WIC/ACM , Beijing, China , 2012.
  11. Velastin S.A, J.H. Yin, A.c. Davies, M.A. Vicencio-Silva, R.E. AlIsop, and A. Penn (1994): “Automated Measurement of Crowd Density and Motion using Image Processing”, lEE 7th International Conference on Road Traffic Monitoring and Control, 26-28 April 1994, London, UK
  12. U. Neumann and Y. Cho. A selft racking augmented actuality system. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality and Applications, pages 109-115, July 1996.
  13. U. Neumann and S. You. Natural characteristic tracking for augmented actuality. IEEE 1lransactions on Multimedia, 1(1):53-64, March 1999.
  14. S. Gupte, O. Masoud, R. F. K. Martin, and N. P. Papanikolopoulos, Detection and classification of vehicles, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transport. Syst., vol. 3, pp. 37″47, Mar. 2002.
  15. M. Kimachi, K. Kanayama, and K. Teramoto, Incident prediction by fuzzy picture sequence analysis, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. VNIS, 1994, pp. 51″57.[1] Kamijo, S., Matsushita, Y., Ikeuchi, K., & Sakauchi, M. (2000). Traffic monitoring and accident detection at intersections. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 1(2), 108″118. doi:10.1109/6979.880968
  16. K. Meyer, H.L. Applewhite, and F.A. Biocca. A survey of position trackers. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Vol. 1, No.2, pages 173-200, August 1992
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  19. Vlahakis, V., Ioannidis, N., Karigiannis, J., Tsotros, M., Gounaris, M., Stricker, D., Gleue, T., Daehne, P., and Almaida, L. 2002. Archeoguide: An augmented reality guide for archaeological sites. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22(5):52″59

Antenna Technology And Uses Computer Science Essay


Looking back to the history of nomadic communicating, aerial engineering has made development along with advancement in nomadic communicating methods, and plenty of assortments of antenna techniques have been developed and used for nomadic methods. Inside speedy addition telephone techniques originated on early 1990, the place digital engineering was introduced [ 1 ] . In the nomadic speaking for the past few decennaries, the scale of the aerial is altering. In the yesteryear, the aerial was build outside the nomadic cellphone.

Now, due to the technological development, the aerial could be build contained in the nomadic telephone. But, the infinite is restricted for aerial inside the shell of a nomadic. So, aerial with little measurement as potential are needed however their public presentation need to be maintained.


The aims of this undertaking are:

To develop a little dimension of nomadic aerial.

To develop a low cost Mobile aerial.

To larn concerning the antenna simulation.

Chapter 2


2.1. What is an aerial?

AnA antennaA orA aerialA is an digital system designed to direct or have signals which have particular frequence.

Some electronic gadgets likeA wireless, A telecasting, A radio detection and ranging, A radio LANA need aerials to work. Antennas work decently in air orA outer infinite. Antenna ‘s length is normally as much as theA wavelengthA it makes use of.

The easy dictionary significance of an aerial is that it’s usually metallic system ( as a rod or wire ) for radiating or having wi-fi transferring ridges. The IEEE Standard Definitions of Footings for Antennas ( IEEE Std. 145-1983 ) defines the aerial as “ a company for radiating or having wireless moving ridges ” [ 2 ] .

In other phrases, the aerial is the transitional development between free infinite and a guiding system. The aerial is apart from referred to as aerial. Uniting all these definitions, we are ready to pull out an first-class definition of aerial as “ a metallic ( usually ) system used for radiating or having electromagnetic transferring ridges which acts as the passage part between free infinites and steering building like a transmittal line to have the ability to pass on even in an extended distance. ”

2.2 History of nomadic communicating

The first nomadic communicating system was developed by Thomas Edison on 1885 with wireless telegraph between trains and Stationss [ 1 ] . Telegraph indicators had been conveyed via the streetcar wires, which had been electrostatically coupled with a metallic house base put in on the ceiling of the prepare. Edison in addition to experimented with speaking on a vehicle in 1901, using a thick cylindrical aerial positioned on the roof of the vehicle.

Real nomadic communicating services developed in 1898 by Guglielmo Marconi began with radio telegraph on ships, using lengthy perpendicular wire aerials in assorted signifiers similar to T, inverted L, and umbrella types. Portable equipment appeared in 1910 [ 1 ] .

Advanced antenna design and the push of engineering advancement was offered throughout World Wars I and II were steadfastly established in the Twenties, while contemporary microwave antenna design and engineering were platitude within the Nineteen Fifties [ 1 ] . In the Nineteen Sixties a new aerial epoch emerged due to the unconventional advancement in semiconducting material incorporate circuits, attributed ab initio to the Cold War defence trade but nicely carried frontward into the business tools sector. Quite merely, the demand opened up interior decorators to the possibilities of redesign, diversion, and transmutation of known aerial varieties into less cumbersome, lightweight, low-priced, easy-to-manufacture radiating constructions, suitable with the freshly conceived built-in digital bundles. Most noteworthy has been the inventive activity of the printed aerial engineering, which lends itself to multifunction antenna gadgets.

2.3 Types of aerial

2.three.1 Isotropic aerial

An isotropic aerial is a conjectural lossless antenna holding equal radiation in all waies. It radiates its energy each bit in all the finest way in infinite coordinate system.

Figure 2.1: An illustration of isotropic aerial

2.three.2 Directional aerial

AA directional antennaA orA beam antennaA is anA antennaA which radiates larger energy in a number of waies leting for increased public presentation on transmit and obtain and decreased intervention from unwanted beginnings. Directional aerials like Yagi antennas provide increased public presentation over dipole aerials when a greater concentration of radiation in a sure means is desired.

All practical aerials are a minimal of barely directional, though normally merely the means in which within the aircraft analogue to the Earth is considered, and sensible aerials can easy beA omni-directionalA in a single aircraft.

For lengthy and mediumA wavelengthA frequences, A tower arraysA are used in most instances as directional aerials.

Figure 2.2: An illustration of directional aerial

2.three.3 Omni-directional aerial

AnA omni-directional antennaA is anA antennaA system which radiates energy uniformly in one aircraft with a directing form type in a perpendicular plane. This type is frequently described as “ doughnut shaped ” . Omni-directional aerial can be utilized to associate multipleA directional antennasA in out-of-door pointA techniques including cellular phone connexions and Television broadcasts.

Figure 2.3: An illustration of omni-directional aerial

2.4 Tendencies

Mobile methods are soon being superior toward 4th coevals ( 4G ) techniques.

There are 5 main tendencies in fashionable nomadic methods:

1. Advancement of personalization.

2. Promotion of globalisation.

3. Addition of multimedia companies.

4. Deployment of multidimensional internet.

5. Edification of nomadic methods by implementing package deal processing.

The typical tendencies in modern nomadic techniques are listed in Figure 2.four, in which related demands and antenna building are illustrated, and these are discussed within the undermentioned subdivisions.

Figure 2.four Tendency in nomadic communicating and aerial construction.

2.four.1 Personalization

Remarkable personalization has been seen in recent nomadic terminuss. This has been spurred non merely by tools retrenchment, but in addition to by the sweetening of maps of nomadic terminuss, notably of nomadic cellphone techniques. Modern nomadic phones are equipped with maps to acquire assorted content material, including maps of private amusement such as games, films, Television broadcast medium, and music, in add-on to private telephone utilization. Some nomadic telephones have the capableness of fining, banking, pilotage with GPS, e-mailing, and connexion to the Internet for having info providers. These nomadic phones ought to be recognized as being not merely ”telephones, ” but as refined information terminuss.

The retrenchment of Mobile terminuss has apart from given drift to the personalization of nomadic techniques as a result of the smaller terminuss are more handy to move and simpler to run. There was a clip when Mobile telephone makers had been viing on downsizing dimensions and cut downing weight and quantity of nomadic telephones. Downsizing gave rise to extreme jobs for antenna inside decorators: the demand of smaller aerial for downsized terminuss with out debasement of the antenna public presentation, and conversely with sweetening of antenna maps, and realisation of wideband and multiband operation.

On the opposite, nomadic broadband systems similar to WMAN and world-wide interoperability for microwave entree ( WiMAX ) , which take care of high informations fee signals, employ by and enormous useful aerials similar to adaptative arrays and MIMO methods.

2.four.2 Globalization

Globalization of speaking techniques, including nomadic methods, has progressed with satellite methods, that are classified by their orbits: low Earth orbit ( LEO ) , average Earth orbit ( MEO ) , and geostationary orbit ( GEO ) . However, the planetary speaking services do non rely upon satellite techniques completely, but in addition to on wired techniques like Internet Protocol ( IP ) -based webs, which have worldwide linkage and besides connexions to wireless nomadic webs. In add-on, there are in addition to wi-fi methods during which nomadic terminuss can roll from state to state, the place the same internet providers can be found.

The typical methods are GSM techniques, which have deployed their webs worldwide, and some 3G methods, including WCDMA and CDMA2000 methods. Double and ternary set aerials are mounted on Mobile terminuss for these techniques. Some nomadic phones put in a pentaband aerial and may run in countries the place both 2G and 3G services in numerous frequence sets can be found, in add-on to having GPS data at the same clip.

2.four.3 Multidimensional Networks

A typical illustration is the combination of communicating methods and airing techniques ; one is the Television broadcast medium by way of communicating orbiter systems and one other is the tellurian digital Television broadcast medium for nomadic terminuss, including nomadic telephone French telephones. The latter is known as ”one part broadcast medium, ” as a result of one section of the thirteen extraneous frequence division multiplexing ( OFDM ) sections is totally designed for airing to nomadic terminuss.

Furthermore, a system referred to as fastened nomadic convergence ( FMC ) has been in sensible utilization late. The nomadic internet is mixed with a wired web at a spot or office surroundings ; subsequently, customers use a nomadic phone merely as a wire line endorser ‘s phone at place, while as an alternative utilizing it as an ordinary Mobile telephone within the out-of-door surroundings.

2.5 Brief Historical Review of Design Concept

Advancement of aerial engineering had reached along with advancement portable telephones and assorted WMS. Essential factors to be thought of in antenna design are as follows:

Small size.

Light weight.


Low profile.





Integration with close by stuffs.

Two of the last factors, multiband and built-in, are included harmonizing to the latest tendency.

2.6 System Design and Antennas

Antennas can non be designed in isolation from their host tools, and system design is an indispensable technological assault in the realisation of high-performance wireless equipment runing to a crucial specification.

The components that a system inside decorator would name embody the undermentioned:

Zone constellations: specifying sign protection and aerial types.

Base station aerials: retrenchment, tallness, bodily restraints, and demands for beam defining, adaptative management, and multiband.

Noise degrees: thermal, intervention, and environmental.

Intervention: its diploma and nature and co-channel and subsequent channel results.

Signal demands: optimum frequence of operation, bandwidth, inter transition effects, and effectual use of frequence spectrum.

Mobile terminuss: retrenchment, planar construction, multiband, constitutional development, adaptative control.

Cost of development and subsequent business.

Dependability: service required and easiness of entree, and costs.

Vulnerability to wreck: exposure to endure, corrosion, and lastingness towards environmental circumstances, operator ‘s unsmooth handling.

Network operation calls for: connectivity to IP internet WAS, and so forth.

Customer entreaty.

2.7 Some cardinal issues of little terminal aerials

2.7.1 Downsizing strategies for terminal aerial

The little aerial sorts could be categorised harmonizing to their geometry: dipoles, slots, and pits. From these cardinal aerial varieties more complex geometries can be developed.

The simplest omni-directional sort of aerial is the dipole. The exterior aerial on a nomadic terminus can be thought of as an imbalanced dipole. Normally we name it a monopole aerial, because the antenna component is much smaller than the existent French phone human body measurement. Slot aerial, apart from called magnetic dipoles, can be seen from an extended, slim hole on a metallic floor. Notch aerial and IFA aerials are kind of slot aerials. The two-dimensional inverted-F aerial ( PIFA ) could be thought-about as a assorted dipole and slot aerial. The pit aerial in its easiest situations is usually a spot aerial or a DRA aerial.

Many measurement lower methods for little aerials have been proposed. The common techniques utilized to chop down antenna measurement are turn uping constellations, surface etching, shorting walls or pins, or using excessive dielectric stuff burden. However, there is ever some public presentation debasement when minimize downing the scale.

2.7.2 Physical Limits of a Mobile Terminal Antenna

The public presentation of an electromagnetic inactive device is delicate to its electrical size compared to the wavelength, that’s, given an operating wavelength and certain public presentation calls for, somewhat aerial can non be made randomly little. The bandwidth, losingss, and dimensions of the aerial are carefully interrelated. When the aerial dimension is smaller than a half shifting ridge dipole, the public presentation ( bandwidth and effectivity ) might be reduced when size is reduced.

Another parametric quantity for little aerials is the bandwidth, which is related to the quality issue ( Q ) . The quality factor Q is defined as the ratio of the time-average, non propagating vitality to the radiated energy of an aerial. This parametric amount is a measure of super involvement when planing little aerials due to its lower edge, which offers cognition of how little an aerial could be constructed for a given certain bandwidth.

2.7.3 Impact of the Ground Plane Size and Phone Form

When sing aerials for nomadic communications terminuss within the practical instance, the entire terminuss, and even the human organic construction, have their half to the radiation and losingss. The effectual aerial dimension should be tantamount to the antenna element dimension plus a portion of the land plane ( handset human body ) . It is non a simple endeavor to cipher the tantamount dimension of the aerial in a existent instance. It is of import to search out the fact that incorporating an aerial in a terminus will impression its existent behaviour sing each bandwidth and radiation word photos. Figure 2.2 shows an illustration of present distributions at high and low units of a PIFA aerial mounted on a 100 A- 40-mm PWB of a saloon telephone. The radiation types of the French telephone at 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz are proven in Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4. It has a about omni-directional type at 900 MHz, and has an irregular directive kind at 1,800 MHz.

The land aircraft sizes have influence upon the matching options, the electric resistance bandwidth, the radiation types and the interplay with the person. Different phone signifiers have completely different land plane traits, which is in a position to impression the antenna public presentation.

( a ) ( B ) ( diploma Celsius ) ( vitamin D )

Figure 2.5: The present distribution of a PIFA French telephone aerial on a finite land plane: currents at the ( a ) dorsum and ( B ) forepart sides of French phone at 900 MHz ; and currents on the ( degree Celsius ) again and ( vitamin D ) forepart sides of French phone at 1,800 MHz. The PWB contributes greatly to radiation from the entire French phone. The present at the entrance facet is less than at the back side. It has totally different distributions in low and high units.

Figure 2.6: The radiation form of a French phone at 900-MHz set of the aerial shown in determine 2.2. It has a unvarying omni-directional and about linearly polarized kind.

Figure 2.7: The radiation form of the French phone at 1,800 MHz of the aerial in Figure 2.2 has some irregular type, the shape is more directional, it has more lower limits, and the shape usually has high cross-polarization.

2.7.4 Extendible Antenna

In all instances the close area is a concern when the human organic structure is included. Less present on the human body is desired on this instance. To get the higher of the little aerial restriction and reduce down the human natural construction absorbing and the close subject results, an extendible aerial was usually used, significantly on lower cellular frequence units. In the retracted manner, the underside aerial, similar to a spiral or a meander, acts as a stubby aerial. In the drawn-out method, the whip aerial can significantly reduce down the induced present on the phone human physique ; and it has larger radiation effectivity in the speaking place. The user soaking up can be significantly reduced. An illustration of an extendible aerial is shown in figure 2.5.

Figure 2.eight: An illustration of an drawn-out whip aerial for a nomadic phone.

Chapter 3


3.1 Design of Antenna

Planar Inverted-F Antenna ( PIFA )

Compact size, light weight, conformance built in, omni-directional, multi-band operation and low fiction cost are required for contemporary nomadic telephone aerial [ 3 ] . Conventional aerials such as coiling and monopole aerials do non run into such calls for. The perfect choose for nomadic cellphone is PIFA aerial due to the belongings of operating at multi-band, and could be included into nomadic cellphone human body with no widening elements [ four ] .

The Inverted F Antenna ( IFA ) typically consists of an oblong planar part situated above a land airplane, a brief circuiting house base or pin, and a eating mechanism for the planar component [ 4 ] . The Inverted F aerial is a discrepancy of the monopole the place the top subdivision has been folded down in order to be parallel with the land aircraft. This is finished to cut down the tallness of the aerial, while preserving a resonating hint size. This parallel subdivision introduces electrical capability to the input electrical resistance of the aerial, which is compensated by implementing a short-circuit stub. The stub ‘s terminal is linked to the land aircraft.

PIFA is a combination of micro strip aerial ( MSA ) and Wired Inverted-F Antenna [ three ] . It begins with the thought of lading the aerial with high dielectric bed. MSA is a type of low profile aerial with a excessive insulator changeless substrate. This constellation can do the resonating dimension of the antenna smaller.

Figure 3.1: Planar Inverted-F Antenna

Figure three.2: Inverted-F Antenna

3.2 Advantages of PIFA.

The benefits of PIFA are:

It can be concealing into the lodging of the nomadic comparison with whip/rod/helix aerials.

Having lowered backward radiation toward the user ‘s caput, minimising the electromagnetic moving ridge power absorbing ( SAR ) and improve antenna public presentation.

PIFA it exhibits reasonable to high addition in each perpendicular and horizontal provinces of polarisation.

3.three Antenna Simulation

3.3.1 Overview

This antenna simulation for this undertaking will make the most of AWR Television ‘s Microwave Office. In this chapter, I will discourse about the simulation package deal.

3.3.2 AWR Television ‘s Microwave Office

Microwave Office design suite is the trade ‘s fastest turning microwave design platform and has wholly revolutionized the communications design universe by supplying customers with a superior choose. Built on the alone AWR high-frequency platform with its unfastened design environment and unified informations theoretical account, Microwave Office design suite provides alone easiness of usage, highly effective engineerings, and unprecedented openness and interoperability, enabling integrating with best-in-class instruments for every portion of the design process [ 5 ] . Microwave Office package deal includes all the indispensable engineering: additive and non-linear circuit simulators, EM analysis tools, integrated standard and layout, statistical design capablenesss, and parametric cell libraries with constitutional design regulation checking ( DRC ) . The 2006 merchandise release continues to current cardinal productiveness betterments, such as sooner EM simulation, sooner and higher capacity structure, and a extra incorporate EM editor, that shorten design rhythm clip and rush time-to-market for RF/microwave merchandises.

An evaluation of the problem of violence and the position of technology in schools

In this essay my focus is on the ideology of existentialism, one might wish to know what this word means, the method it impacts our every day lives and how it will help us in addressing points that we find our self’s facing such as the Zeerust incident (Gous, 2018) . According to (Crabbadon, 2007) existentialism is a philosophical method during which emphasizes the existence of the individual particular person as a free and accountable agent figuring out their very own development via acts of the need. Which in my very own understanding is having the liberty to do and carry out what you suppose is greatest for you as a person, doing what you imagine in and sticking to your own opinions, figuring out and understanding that as much as our focus is on existentialism we do have nihilists and we’re both expected to live together and accept one another, to ensure that us to stay in peace.

The Zeerust incident (Gous, 2018) is our primary issue because it resulted in one shedding their reside however to name a quantity of we might be talking concerning the three other incidents have been a learner was discovered witha dangerous weapon within the faculty premises (Jordaan & Nkululeko Njilo, 2018), the opposite incident was a mother or father attacked a teacher (Anon.

, A mother or father attacked a teacher at Leema Primary school) and lastlya pupil found with stab w ounds in a bathroom in North West (ANA, 2019) . A lot has modified through the years, violence has become a half of our daily lives, it occurs in giant numbers and it has even extended and unfold to our colleges where else up to now year’s faculties have been recognized to be a place where children are secure the place everyone knew one another and the older revered the young and the young revered the old no matter what.

1iolence occurring in massive numbers, completely different upbringings and acceptance of Nihilists.

But because a la rge number of people has turn into nihilists, individuals stopped caring about others, life and residing turn into meaningless folks kill folks like they’re nothing, we all see life in one other way and all of us have our personal unique that means of life. In so saying there are h undreds of learners in one faculty all different and all raised differently by totally different individuals, the upbringing of a kid does not solely focus on the mother and father alone however a community that a child lives in additionally contribute largely to the upbringing of a kid an d how a baby will see life. Violent incident happens many occasions in this kids daily lives that it has become a norm it’s now not scary to see an individual die and because of expertise this occasions are recorded no one has it in them to stop the event from hap pening at that instant second. People have accepted nihilists behaviour in our communities, they see it pointless attempting to reside a great or worthwhile life.


behaviour, the utilization of know-how and the impression of violence in schools. We shouldn’t solely focus on learners however academics as nicely as a outcome of a behaviour is a results of an action that pushed a specific behaviour to happen. As lecturers we now have our lives outdoors college, we’re dad and mom and we face completely different every day challenges. You may find that a trainer mocks a learner in -class for low performance trying to incarnate the learner to work hard and excel in their college work. This learner then grows hatred in course of the instructor, for instance looking at the incident that happened at Zeerust North West a ccording to source (Gous, 2018) it occurred in full view of a category that was in process of writing an examination, Mokolobate allegedly reprimanded the learner on Wednesday for skipping the queue at the faculties feeding programme and similar learner who was re primanded killed the teacher on Thursday, In other phrases, it was planned as a outcome of it happened a day later. This occasion was recorded by the learners, how? as a end result of no learner is allowed to convey technological gadgets throughout an examination, which means the teache rs aren’t completely following the foundations and doing what is predicted of them as the leaders. Some are ignorant they ignore this little issues, unaware of the massive impression it has on the learner’s schooling.

Loss of that means of life

Learners don’t respect their academics nor observe their rules, but who is responsible as a outcome of the same teachers do not comply with their very own guidelines, that’s the reason their learners are in possession of technological gadgets during examinations. Learners carry harmful weapons on the faculties, the place was the safety when this occured? This occasions happen within the open, were different learners and academics see and witness this scary events, how are they anticipated to perform to their full potential when the teachers are scared for their lives. This doesn’t solely have a unfavorable impact on the teachers as a result of if the lecturers are not performing learners are negatively affected, cancelling will then be wanted. It is alleged that lecturers, learners and fogeys have to work collectively however how will we do this if the dad and mom turn and beat up a teacher, based on a supply (Anon., A parent attacked a trainer at Leema Primary school) a mother or father attacked a trainer at Lemma Primary School in Tlhatlhanyane outdoors Rustenburg on February 22. Itumeleng L izbeth Letsepe allegedly beat grade three teacher Mpuseng Sepotokele with an umbrella at the college gate as she wanted to teach her a lesson, Letsepe was arrested for assault with intention to cause grievous bodily hurt.


With the assistance o f existentialism the teachings of humanity and content material might be combined to guide and change peoples views about the meaning of life. Through existentialism education rule setters may re -evaluate their set guidelines and support teachers and learners e qually. They must allow academics to freely solve conditions as they see match and lastly there should be regular sudden visits in schools. With the usage of existentialism on a regular basis challenges of lecturers might be stored to the minimal.


  • ANA, 2019. Pupil stabbed in a college bathroom in North West, s.l.: The citizen.
  • Anon., A mother or father attacked a trainer at Leema Primary faculty. s.l.: The citizen .
  • Crabbadon, 2007. Exstentialism, s.l.: s.n.
  • Gous, N., 2018. Zeerust high school pupil arrested for stabbing his teacher to demise, s.l.: s.n.
  • Jordaan, N. & Nkululeko Njilo, 2018. Police arrested Eldorado park secondary school pupil for pointing gun at instructor, s.l.: s.n.

Altec Technology

ALTEC Technology is an data & advertising firm that provides its company prospects with a big selection of IT services including new know-how design and implementation, custom software creation, technology updating, and IT networking. Recently, a big company client has given the organisation a new deal to configure the introduction of a contemporary Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) technique to increase profitability. The organisation used this chance to seek to implement a model new collaborative technique throughout the organisation, as an alternative of allocating the duty to an unbiased specialist.

Goals & Objectives

The finest approach to boost the gross sales and manufacturing industry will proceed to expand and prosper. Organizations would have to develop and implement unique plans designed to give in new shoppers to succeed in the overall region. Key objectives and achievements are


Enhance gadget growth by 85% by the tip of this year

Implement a brand new business resource planning program

Maximise the company’s share holder wealth


Classify productive employees by KPI

Improve operational performance by eliminating time delays Maintain financial consistency

Boost overall business visibility

Maximize client satisfaction

Key Stakeholders:

Within a company, a shareholder is a representative of “groups without whose help the entity will simply disappear, ” external shareholders are organisations exterior a business or people that do not perform throughout the business however are indirectly influenced by the business ’decisions and actions.

And inner shareholders are associations or individuals who operate directly throughout the company.

External stakeholders

Customers: An enterprise’s purpose is to build prospects. The enterprise can’t exist with out shoppers and the buyer wants had to come first in practically all circumstances.

The shopper can nonetheless opt to take his firm to a rival so it is necessary that we keep innovating, delivering revolutionary goods as well as a reasonably priced.

Founders: The Company is owned by shareholders. We may properly have put forward the seed capital we have to get going in order that their wants are essential. At the tip, a board will take away the CEO and the administration team acting in the pursuits of the shareholders. Suppliers, distributors, and other enterprise companions: Working with our partners to run the business is important. Many of us lack the mandatory abilities. Creating nice, lengthy lasting relationships is finest.

The native group: We want to be a responsible citizen with protected and government ties. We wish to be seen as a responsible employer that provides an excellent place to work. It is critical but clearly a decrease precedence than above. National authorities and regulatory authorities: These are much less essential stakeholders but keeping everyone on the correct aspect is crucial. We need to comply with laws, and prevent lawsuits and conviction.

Internal stakeholders

Employees: The workers are the ones who build and produce the products or providers utilized by the purchasers. When we lose the most effective expertise or antagonise them in any other case customer satisfaction will fail so we have to look after them. When we wish to attract and maintain top expertise at all ranges then we’ve to supply competitive phrases and circumstances.

Managers: Shaping the cycle of growth. To optimise productivity they keep monitor of all of the transferring components and function as the purpose of contact for different stakeholders. CEOs: the CEO and his administration group shouldn’t have to fulfill stakeholders requests their job is solely to fulfil shareholders’ rights that they will then have the ability to determine how investment positive aspects can be used to help people.

Project Overview: Introduction

Enterprise useful resource planning (ERP) is an automatic management of the core market operations, mostly in actual time and by info and infrastructure mediation. ERP is commonly known as a enterprise administration software framework generally as a collection of interconnected instruments that an company can use to seize, course of, handle and analyse data from multiple business operations. It is often easier to execute and construct a lean working ambiance and increase earnings and profitability with an enterprise resource planning platform (ERP) in place.


ERP software increases the effectivity of organisations by coordinating and centralising the information that is necessary for business in one area. As a outcome, workers have access to all enterprise information as required to ensure that duties are carried out successfully. A simple, centralised ERP working framework usable in the firm eliminates the necessity for divisions and individuals to construct departmental spreadsheets or information with actions to be accomplished. Cutting down the labour-intensive and handbook operations demand would save time in all businesses, growing competitiveness, and boosting workers ’morale anywhere they are located.

Improved productivity: the ability to attach with vendors, shoppers and distant workers is built into ERP programmes, making it much simpler to remain involved with employees working somewhere else and to remain customers and vendors up to date of the model new shipment particulars and inventory modifications. Long manufacturing occasions and pointless acquisitions of products are a thing of the past whereas an ERP programme is in operation, and manufacturing points and errors are instantly conveyed via the entire market neighborhood through an integrated ERP programme. Cohesive environments: the whole organisation of headquarters and processing amenities of quite a few locations would discover it convenient to connect details to a minimal of one community and guarantee a consistent method to work. Growing dimension of production planning is clear and controlled when actions are handled by a single framework.

Final Result

Evaluate the ERP system: ERP Collection will be entirely dealt with by the IT team. The IT workers would more than likely expend essentially the most time doing evaluation and introducing it, but the entire organisation would enjoy some nice benefits of the ERP programme. In addition to your IT department, it is crucial that your ERP choice group includes stakeholders out of your key enterprise operations. A nice code squad and discovering out about the errors and this diligent review is a very critical step in the application of the ERP. The basic progress of the enterprise is concentrated on the effective introduction of ERP.

Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology

The day and the life of a youngsters, is consumed with textual content messages, Face time, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, and Face e-book messages. Many of us watch TV, hearken to music, and “live chat” with our associates by method of the “smart phone”. I’m sure our dad and mom wished for once, we would “look up” from our phones and have an precise conversation with them, but we can’t. We’re addicted to our telephones. And sadly, that is typical dwelling for contemporary people to “deal with” this hurried and fast-paced society.

Nevertheless, plainly we’ve less and fewer time to face the real world round as “technology” owns us. Is this new type of communication doing us good or bad? In chapter eight of the guide “Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other,” the writer Sherry Turkle, emphasize that individuals favor technology over face-to-face communication and therefore, as generally known as “cyborgs”.

It seems unimaginable for individuals to a second without technological devices similar to webcams, cell telephones or laptops.

We love the best of staying connected with others by means of our handheld or lap gadgets. As stated by the writer, “cyberspace” provide teenagers a place to create and discover identity. Additionally, digital communities, such as the web, allow us an opportunity at forming a “Second Life”. By creating an avatar, we are ready to edit our lives as we all know it by creating a profile that will appeal to “followers, friend requests, and likes”. We actually have our relationships in the “palm” of our palms.

But, is this real? Can we sustain these sort of relationships? As noted within the chapter, “Virtual locations presents reference to uncertain claims to commitment…People speak about digital life as the “place for hope,” the place the place something new will come to them” (Turkle 153). I can admit to checking my cellphone just about every 5 minutes for a new pictures or messages from my “friends”.

Social media supplies prompt updates and permit us to stay attune with what’s occurring in the world – my world. However, Turkle’s stance stays neutral, yet depicts each the benefits and downsides being tethered to the internet offers us. We are likely to take away ourselves from society by speaking on telephones or glancing down at screens of their cell gadgets. We “log out” of the “real world” and “log in” the virtual house and due to this fact, cease the interaction or human reference to people surrounding us. In Chapter 1, Turkle states “…Whether or not our gadgets are in use, without them we feel disconnected, adrift. Gradually, we come to see our on-line life as life itself. … Technology reshapes the panorama of our emotional lives, however is it providing the lives we want to lead?” (16, 17). We’re unable to reside without technology. We have conditioned ourselves to never depart residence with out our units. Gone are the days of keep in mind essential contact info. Our handheld device home all of this info, so ought to we lose the smart telephone, we’re fully misplaced.

Moreover, individuals really feel like their talents are enhanced and effectivity are increased whereas multitasking. As noted in chapter eight, “…We have moved from multitasking to multi-lifing.” (160). In reality, we’re unable to perform fundamental tasks without some type of technological system close to us – streaming music, TV, or live chats. It seems that we acquire extra time from the technological gadgets than we gain from picking up the phone or having a face-to-face meeting. Turkel, acknowledged, “The on-line life could additionally be gratifying and fulfilling, making one even less satisfied with life at home. Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of one another that we are in a position to really feel utterly alone. And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed–and just for the components we find helpful, comforting, or amusing.” (154).

Our expectations have “dimmed” as a outcome of our reliance on textual content messages, emails, and different social media retailers. We accept cryptic messages as a substitute of organized, well throughout communications or agenda. Is there such a thing as social media overload? Can we escape from our devices lengthy enough to simply “breathe”? One of the examples from the guide, a museum curator Diane, she can barely sustain with the pace of know-how. It’s her aim to stay “offline” in order to take pleasure in her life during her scheduled trip and never feel inclined to response to the “unread” messages. The creator suggests to us that to be able to have more time to assume, we have to the networked gadgets away, especially our youth.

The creator, Sherry Turkle, doesn’t clearly categorical whether she encourage or discourages using networked devices, however, through her phrases, we will see that she implies that it’s important for that we take a break from the digital world and try to get again to the basics. As for my opinion, I take pleasure in my smart phone and the entry that I even have, nonetheless, understand after reading this book, I have to develop “real” friendships and never rely on my “followers” on the popular social media shops to deliver me prompt gratification. However, I agree with the creator, folks have a tough time relaxing as a outcome of we’re at all times “on” and in receipt of news, be it good or dangerous. Yet, I select the virtual world.

Works Cited
Turkle, Sherry. Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Print.

Advantages Of Metro Technology Today

Every from time to time i see one or the opposite organisation opposing the metro. No doubt they entitled to their views, however do they ever see the benefits any metro brings to cities,(especillay the crowded ones like bangalore, mumbai etc) Let me quote a number of points from PIB concerning the delhi metro, i am certain such advantages will accrue to bangalore additionally once the metro is full:

  • Fuel price saving: The annual saving on account of decreased gasoline consumption shall be Rs.

    180.89 crore in 2009, greater than double from Rs.seventy three.22 crore two years in the past.

  • Number of automobiles off the street: Since the Metro started operations in December 2002, there has been a progressive reduction in daily automobile demand as a end result of individuals shifting to Metro for commuting. In 2009, the Metro will take the every day share of fifty seven,953 vehicles for all different modes of journey such as vehicles, buses, two-wheelers, auto-rickshaws, and so on.
  • Vehicle price saving: The annual vehicle (capital and operating) cost saving will nearly triple from Rs.


    93.21 crore in 2007 to Rs.276.24 crore this 12 months.

  • Reduction in emission of greenhouse gases: The increasing use of the Metro will result in prevention of emission of 131,395.34 tonnes of greenhouse gases corresponding to carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide from being emitted into Delhi¡¦s environment upto 2009. This is a five-time enhance from 27,614.34 tonnes in 2007.
  • Emission cost saving: The emission cost saving may also increase almost three times from Rs.14.29 crore in 2007 to Rs.forty one.04 crore in 2009.
  • Number of Road accidents prevented: The Metro will assist keep away from a complete of 255 accidents, including fifty one fatalities, in 2009.

    In 2007, the respective figures were 196 and 21.

Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) has carried out a examine which says that the annual value saved by Metro passengers on account of decreased journey time will go up thrice from Rs.310.thirteen crore in 2007 to Rs.947.07 crore in 2009. And additionally Delhi Metro has become the first Railway project on the earth to be registered by the United Nations under the clear development mechanism which is able to allow it to claim carbon credits. Best to eradicate site visitors + footway points when population hits a certain level (more than 2million). Allows for future increase. Increase property value in less developed areas. quantity of passengers it could carry. On time nearly always. Use much less space climate on the road or underground (good for well-developed cities). Faster. Good safety record.

Tourism friendly. Residential pleasant (if reside means out however work in the city). Good for obvious commercial causes. The record goes on! Best to eradicate traffic + footway issues when population hits a certain level (more than 2million). Allows for future improve. Increase property value in less developed areas. Amount of passengers it can carry. On time almost always. Use less space climate on the street or underground (good for well-developed cities). Faster. Good security record. Tourism friendly. Residential pleasant (if reside method out however work within the city).

Good for apparent commercial reasons. the listing goes on! Best to eradicate traffic + footway points when inhabitants hits a sure level(more than 2million). Allows for future enhance. Increase property worth in less developed areas. quantity of passengers it can carry. on time nearly at all times. use less area weather on the street or underground (good for well-developed cities). faster. good security record. tourism pleasant. residential pleasant (if reside means out but work within the city). good for obvious business causes. the list goes on! As I see it, there are some fantastic benefits of public transportation. Some are as follows:

  • reliability. Since rail rides are on schedules, as lengthy as you plan appropriately, you should be succesful of get to your vacation spot on time. Additionally, since there isn’t a visitors on a rail line, you aren’t effected by how many other persons are touring in the identical course as you.
  • ease and luxury. Since you wouldn’t have to drive yourself, you are ready to complete different activities whereas using a train. This contains taking care of different enterprise or homework, or even catching up on sleep.
  • environmental considerations. Cutting down on individual waste helps do wonders for the setting. The sheer number of folks that take the same trains decreases the quantity of pollution every particular person is creating at one time. Great for minimizing an individual’s carbon footprint.
  • cost. As petrol / gasoline costs proceed to extend, the worth of taking a train is a fraction of what you would spend on your own to drive all over the place.
  • community. Riding the rail might help you create friendships with in any other case strangers. If you take the identical prepare daily from the identical station, you get to know the people round you, which may foster new friendships. It’s at all times great to fulfill new people and turn into a part of their lives. Also, extra persons are in a position to travel together when you take a train, than in a automobile.

Hope this helps! Perhaps now you’ve thought of some more examples of your personal as nicely. 🙂 Advantages and Disadvantages of Riding in the Metro Railway Posted by geeze on Jul twelfth, 2010 and filed under Infrastructure, Photo Gallery, Readable Analysis Of Transportation Issues, Secrets for Navigating the Traffic World. You can observe any responses to this entry by way of the RSS 2.0. You can leave a response or trackback to this entry

Sometimes it’s quite a hassle to bring your individual automobile when going to work or wherever you have to go. Driving into traffic is sort of aggravating. You are in a hurry and getting to your appointment on time is pointless due to that. That’s why some people opt and select to journey the subway when going to work and to their vacation spot as a outcome of they need a hassle-free expertise and just wish to arrive with a smile on their faces instead of a frown and a headache.

Either they experience the bus, metro, taxi and other public modes of transportation which is simpler. A few benefits of riding the metro railway, above the bottom and under ground are:

  • Cheap – Money saving as a result of the cost of ticket for driving the metro is definitely decrease in comparability with gas, car upkeep and amortization/ insurance of your automotive.
  • Environment-Friendly – Less site visitors on the streets and your share in saving the earth from air pollution emitted out of your automotive.
  • Convenience – You can attain your vacation spot on time and without any issues with visitors which makes driving the metro an excellent thing to do. Some disadvantages of riding the metro alone are:
    Noise – Noise coming from the train itself and from the crowd.
    Overcrowding – There are tons of individuals who journey the subway, and in case you are claustrophobic, driving the metro isn’t definitely for you.
    Rise in crime – Sometimes mugging and physical assaults when using the metro above and beneath floor is rampant in plenty of areas which makes it scary.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology Progress

One of the nowadays controversies is expertise advances. We can’t think about our lives without a mobile phone or a washer. However, what concerning the pace of technology development, isn’t is scary? If we consider how a lot time it was required to create the primary laptop, we’ll understand that at present scientists don’t must spend years to achieve tremendous success. Over the last 20 years, we now have been witnessing the creation of remote-controlled contraceptive chips, GPS-enabled devices, fuel-efficient hybrid cars – know-how certainly has developed at a price faster than ever.

Innovations are a huge advantage for humanity, however then again, it could pose a risk to its shoppers. Let’s analyze two sides of the identical coin.

To begin with, people can benefit from know-how in all spheres of their lives. Education, as an example. Schools are using computer systems to access information simply which gives college students an opportunity to learn about global points and think about potential options.

If learning turns into boring, computers could make students alive and what is extra, make them interested in courses. Computers are used all over the place, due to this fact in order to get a job college students will need to have required pc expertise and know tips on how to operate the PC. Plus, web opened the door to on-line training. Students can apply and research in any university that has an internet program being hundreds of miles away from campus in a condition they have an internet connection. Let’s take a look at health business. Thanks to advances in expertise research course of have turn out to be easier and are for probably the most half extra efficient than beforehand.

Modern equipment in hospitals helps docs to cure illnesses that gave the impression to be untreatable before. Cognitive analytics and computing result in extra accurate and faster data transfers, which implies improved patient care. Nuclear drugs permits doctors to make an accurate analysis with the help of diagnostics. The improvement of devices and more advanced know-how have allowed surgeons to carry out procedures in minimally invasive ways in which simply wasn’t possible a couple of years in the past. Mobile apps in healthcare appear to be pretty simple innovation. However, everyone who whats to be wholesome and keep match can basically download a cell software and monitor their health and weight. One extra benefit is better communication. Smartphones and social networking give a risk to folks to keep up a correspondence with their household and associates irrespective of the place they are by having a video name or brief chat. Convenient housing and favorable life-style can be a merit of scientific know-how. Vacuum cleaners, washing machines, TV’s – a lot of the gear that we have in our houses today are automated. The brand new problem for scientists is the creation of synthetic intelligence and smart home devices. People should buy robots to clean the home or to make their lives easier by having hands-free speaker Amazon Echo or Siri App. Hands-free audio system can play music, make calls, ship and obtain messages, provide data, news, sports activities scores, weather, and extra. They are managed by the human voice.

Altogether, scientist applied nearly all the dreams of humanity in terms of comfort.

Now, let’s have a look at the drawbacks of such an immense leap of scientific development. People can say a massive thanks to the technologies they have in schools and universities, and there’s nothing incorrect with that. However, together with its advantages, they encounter some shortcomings. While having entry to info, college students can cheat on exams and be easily distracted within the classroom by taking half in video games, searching social networks and doing no matter is feasible. One of the biggest issues about utilizing smartphones, tablets or computers in school is access to the totally different kinds of forbidden content. Additionally, students are caught to the screens. They actually spend almost the entire life within the front of their devices. It is not solely damaging their well being it additionally brings social anxieties when it comes to person to person interplay. Another problem is cyber bullying. When children or students have a chance to contact with nameless accounts, it might possibly lead to cyber bullying which has dangerous consequences. Students can even start suffering from loneliness by isolating themselves of their digital worlds. One more drawback is a dependency. People get addicted to every piece of technology they have and feel helpless if the computer or any other device breaks. Indeed, technological progress helped enterprise homeowners to reduce their expenditures on a workforce. Here, the bad facet is job losses. There is much less value in human staff, as machines can do the work quicker and extra efficient. According to scientific analysis, such jobs as agricultural workers, mail carriers, flight attendants, fast-food cooks, tax examiners and reporters can disappear in the subsequent 25 years. And what about highly effective weapons created by scientists? People can’t even imagine what number of populations died in the last 70 years because of infinite wars. Taking into consideration the entire disadvantages talked about, it is apparent that nearly behind every plus, an enormous minus is hidden.

All issues considered, we reside in a world of nice progress. Furthermore, we benefit from the benefits and comfort improvements convey. However, the question is, whether or not persons are able to sacrifice their kid’s safety in faculties, free job vacancies for unemployed which have left or the lives of those that endure because of the war. As for me, scientists should pay more attention on tips on how to reduce the harm expertise already left and then strive to develop new technology.


  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology –
  • Top 20 disappearing Jobs –
  • The Impact of Technology on Healthcare –

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Modern Technology

Skills: Library resources and services
The library at C.O.M Yap campus is an important place the place students might get help from once they really wanted help on their assignments or something they may want to know more about. It is a place the place college students may discover many issues and learn about instances up to now and will help in answering some mysterious questions that may occurred of their minds. Therefore, the library is offering assets and companies in which are free to the scholars to discover them when they needed help.

In the library, the resources contain many things which are very fascinating and helpful to students. In addition, the library is offering six objects beneath the sources. These objects are; books, archives, authorities documents, periodicals, audio-visual, and Internet access and online databases. In this case, the sources help us perceive what is occurring around the world via newspapers, magazines, and of course the Internet.

Read extra: Modern Technology Advantages and Disadvantages

These resources are very useful for they are the sources of our learning.

The library additionally presents providers that had given to college students who ask for it and in need of. These companies includes borrowing of books, computer systems for research, printing, media services, collection growth, reference and analysis assistance, and library orientation. The library orientation service has at all times given to freshmen particularly on the first week of the semester. Other service like printing is one that always serves students every day. Students use this to print their papers.

Research on the opposite hand is always onerous for students because of the lack of knowledge on tips on how to research.

In this case, the librarian is the right particular person to give college students the data. In other word, college students are to ask the librarian for help. The librarian then may help every particular person in using these services within the library appropriately. In conclusion, the resources and companies are the principle expertise that make the library so essential. Because of these two abilities, the library welcomes increasingly college students every single day. These two abilities help college students to find reply on their very own and by the assistance of the librarian.

Advanced Technology

For roughly the final one hundred years, folks lived without any superior conveniences. I cannot think about how depressing and sad people’s lives had been. Since the first pc was invented fifty years in the past, our quality of life and happiness have elevated. In reality, the appearance of Internet helps us find information a lot simpler. Furthermore, the people that have a mental and physical disabilities would have more painful experiences with out advanced medical methods. Finally, the cellphone helps us to have better communication.

Without computer systems, medical know-how, and cell phones, trendy life would not be as wonderful as now.

The opposition may consider that the weaknesses of these innovations also can trigger deadly results. For instance, the looks of Internet provides those ridiculous individuals a chance to make viruses or unhealthy websites. It could also be true that many teenagers and adults went to jail for misuse of the Internet, and triggered themselves and others unhappiness. Nevertheless, each new invention usually causes two outcomes, constructive and negative.

We mustn’t overlook the benefits of Internet, additionally.

Secondly, the opposition also believes that the medical expertise can kill patients by chance. However, we cannot forget the lives it has saved. In addition, those medical tools assist patients to have a happier life. Lastly, the opposition erroneously believes that the radiation of the cell phone affects us alot. On the opposite hand, if there have been no cell phones in this world, we probably would waste more time locating and communicating with others. In one other phrases, if we waste extra time on finding associates, our lifetime is shorter.

The opposition believes that my three conveniences could trigger hassle for us, but we should not neglect we are additionally the beneficiaries.

The most successful convenience in the world is the computer as a outcome of it is fast, and it is straightforward for us to make use of. For example, the unbelievable speed of Internet helps us to seek for data quicker. It is a great software to help us save time. In addition, Internet is another communication tool, and we will create our personal website online for others to remark. Moreover, the software program within the computer does a lot of the work for us. That helps us to avoid wasting material and time. For instance, “Microsoft Word” helps us handle our essays simpler. In my private life, it helps me to fix my grammar errors. Furthermore, “Peachtree” and “QuickBooks” helps my mother to handle her payments and tax. Equally important, the email helps us ship letters and greeting playing cards to others extra typically. Chatting on-line is a standard interest; due to this fact, the computer is another tool for us to make associates. Computers are great instruments to help us search, work, and communicate.

Medical technology decreases the deaths of people from illness or physique impairment. For instance, few years in the past, if an individual with sight disabilities, that was an issue for him. The poor know-how in the early time was not ok to deal with people completely. On the other hand, we’ve our advanced medical methods now. People are no more in ache, and they’re all joyful. Furthermore, the tools that have been invented help sufferers to have an easier life. Audio telephones, glasses, and wheelchair can help the people that have a bodily disability reside better. If somebody has a mental impairment, we even have psychotherapy medicine to heal him or her. Finally, medical know-how gives some faculty students an opportunity to check it. They can advance it, or even invent some new techniques. In addition, they get an opportunity to help folks and earn cash. Therefore, to enhance our medical expertise is necessary for us to have a wholesome life.

The cellphone is one of the best and smallest software to communicate in this world. First, computers and cell telephones both can help us talk with others, however the cellphone is smaller than laptop. Cell telephones usually are not only advantageous on size; it also has a greater voicing quality. Secondly, cell phones could be of more help in an emergency. It connects to the line quicker than all the opposite communication instruments. Furthermore, cell telephones are needed for students as a outcome of we can talk with dad and mom and friends. Lastly, cell phones look cool, and it has many options. Some wireless companies provide you with free telephones every year, and you’ll decorate it with ornaments. Cell phone’s fanciful choices additionally allow you to show off yourself. Therefore, cellular phone is a greater tool to assist our communication, and it’s helpful.

Computer, medical technology, and cell phones are needed for us to have. “One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary males. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man.” This is a quote by Elbert Hubbard. From the quote, I see that know-how not only soothes people’s pain, it also helps us to work sooner. I insist my position that, every convenience’s look makes our life high quality higher than earlier than.

Advantages and Disadvantages in Sport Technology

Technology in sports activities is continually altering in today’s period. This change is making a huge impact, whether or not the expertise is a drawback to the game and slows down the velocity of the sport or uses the expertise to an advantage and speeds the sport as much as assist make correct calls. People are all the time in search of the technology to have the flexibility to get forward of other opponents. The use of technology has crept into the athletes’ video games. Technology is in all probability not a drug but a considerable amount of individuals use it.

It is difficult to say whether or not the utilization of know-how is more of an advantage or drawback.

One of the principle causes technology compromise a sport expertise is that individuals are watching the video games at home as an alternative of watching the games that are played stay. Some individuals would rather keep at residence than spend the cash to go to the sport. With the games being proven on tv meaning fewer supporters in attendance.

Fewer supporters imply much less money for the teams by way of revenue and earnings. The improve expertise of expertise has made it easy for groups to know and study about the reverse teams. Some folks imagine that it was essential for know-how.

The know-how used in the National Football League has come a long way. For instance, the “1st and Ten” graphics system has enhanced the soccer sport to another degree. The function of the “1st and Ten” line is displayed in a yellow shade that exhibits the yards needed to make a first down.

This system shows stay to the tv viewers only, it does not bodily present on the field of play. The instance I chose that enhances or compromises the sport with expertise is in football with using immediate replay, throughout a National Football League sport.

Everyone knows that the umpire or the referee just isn’t at all times right. With soccer, the coaches are allowed to throw out a flag of their very own and challenge the call on the field. The challenges are made toward the disputed name made by the on-field referee and so they move it on to the tv official. If the official did not get the call proper and the instant replay exhibits it as such, the staff retains the time out and wins the decision. If the instant replay shows what the official known as, the group loses the decision and a time out.

The screens are positioned in a quantity of spots on the field so the digital camera can capture the play at different angles whether it’s in slow motion or game pace. The know-how of immediate replay sounds good to the viewers on the game or at house, but there may be lots of strain for the official to get the call proper. The prompt replay can distract the gamers from the sport or make them lost momentum if the method takes too lengthy. Some challenges are thought of thoughtless or in vain as a distraction.

There are problems with the instant replay system that needs to be leveled out, however the system permits the game to get a stage future in expertise in sport. Possible pointers for using technology in spot are first of all the instant replay. The officials in the booth ought to have the flexibility to make the choice in regards to the disputed play to save lots of time and keep the sport going easily. As far as garments goes, the Haptic Sports Garment is a clothes line that should not be used throughout sport time. The garment helps the athlete to uphold essentially the most advantageous pace.

In relevance to the Internet, the functions Venuing and Twackle are utilized by followers the place they become involved with the players and teams to much. Next is the usage of the DVD. The player’s highlights are being displayed to the scouts to make use of them to their benefit. A scout should not be allowed to get a highlighted DVD of a player unless they have the player’s permission. Finally, the swimming designer Speedo’s that bonds seams ultrasonically and reduce drags with the fabric manufactured from water-repellent should not be used if all the swimmers usually are not utilizing them through the race.

Advances in Technology

This world goes through a lot of modifications as time goes on. Changes in know-how can make a brighter future for individuals. Because of advances in expertise, this world is turning into extra environment friendly and saving us cash in the long-run with fuel, electricity, communication, etc. The social life-style of a person involves technology indirectly. Technology has turn into a necessity in these trendy days and it’s going to become extra superior as time goes on. With these advances in technology, the social life of individuals can be easier.

Technology strikes our world forward into a model new and advanced era.

Without know-how, we would all be stuck in the identical time as our ancestors. Technology is an excellent factor for folks anywhere and in all places, regardless of how old, it helps us in each facet of our day by day lives, and it is a factor that can not be lived without. Technology has many branches and levels, from cell telephones to the internet and even for medical purposes.

However, cell phones and the web have taken the main function in altering our society. I find it really superb that an individual from China is prepared to talk to a person from the United States, all by way of the web.

Programs similar to facebook make discovering an old childhood good friend extremely straightforward, all that is to be done is type of their name. The benefits of expertise embody higher well being amenities as a end result of increased disease analysis utilizing technology and faster as nicely as more accurate business results and solutions by way of expertise.

Technology has additionally enabled the automation of handbook work thus saving time and money. It has boosted the leisure by way of games and pc packages as properly as increase in economy progress as a outcome of quicker and easier enterprise.

Without know-how in our lives, our world we be a very completely different place. Not only does expertise present us with a model new and improved way to communicate, is provides us new and exciting methods to analysis and get concepts out to the world quicker. Technology is simply going to get better and higher as each day progresses and with the appropriate efforts and integrating it into the classroom will improve training forever. Our advance in technology has and always might be a good factor that may at all times profit our world. People’s lives have gotten easier.

Advanced Medical Technology Solution

Would you, as Mr. Winter, advocate a mortgage to AMT? If so, on what basis? As Mr. Winter, I would advocate a loan to Advanced Medical Technology Corporation (AMT). There are a quantity of explanation why I would suggest a mortgage to AMT. The largest factor is that this company continues to be in the growth / infancy stage of its life cycle. They have invested massive quantities of capital into the research and improvement, and marketing of its merchandise, and it is too soon to see the rewards from these investments.

Some of the adjustments that must be made in order for a loan to be approved for AMT embrace improving manufacturing efficencies, short-term loans, operations, and managing their accounts recieveables. The manufacturing operations of AMT could be streamlined which can allow AMT to see greater earnings. Right now they are constructing in ten to twelve week lot sizes, and they are not always making the merchandise they need. With the funding into a information system, they will streamline this course of.

This was put in in 1984, and they’re making progress. I would suggest reshuffling some positions (i. e. , MRP, planning, master data) in order to obtain the full good factor about the information system. They can construct bigger lot sizes of some merchandise which is ready to minimize down on the direct labor prices for the supplies. Making only the products they know they have demand on will decrease the excess and obsolesnce quantity they’ve to order for every quarter.

AMT can also enhance its accounts receivable days outstanding ratio by having extra management over it’s A/R.

Having somebody do background checks on new customers as a substitute of granting all new clients the same 30 days. Some prospects with poor credit historical past should be given no credit score, and must pay COD or earlier than the merchandise are shipped to minimize risk of default. Well-known customers or customers with great credit score could be given more than 30 days. Also, assortment of past-due accounts should be pursued more aggressively.

Based on the criteria mentioned, and the financial statements, I would give AMT the full $8 million line of credit. The company has had great progress in its revenues. Although this company has not been profitable over the last three years, if it needed to flip a profit, it may do so by eliminating analysis and improvement. Just by promoting present merchandise, it would have had a internet earnings of $3. eight million in 1985 if it did not have the research and development expense. I am not advising the removal of R&D, I am just providing a worst case state of affairs for the corporate.

Ending the R&D division would cause no new products, and new enhancements to existing merchandise in an ever altering evenronment. This company has the potential to turn out to be worthwhile in 1986, and pay down important quantities to its debt by the tip of 1987. And they need to pay down some debt to be able to improve their working capital which was fine in 1983, but because of bills (possibly related to the set up of the information system) in 1984 its working capital has soured.

Accounting Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd.,

Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd., beforehand often recognized as Goyo Corporation (M) Sdn. Bhd. was incorporated in 1982 and is based in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia. It manufactures and distributes high-quality versatile packaging materials to each native and overseas markets however focuses mainly in Malaysia. The present major Board of Directors consist of Datuk Ismail bin Ahmad (Chairman), Tjin Kiat at Tan Cheng Keat (Managing Director) and Yeo Tek Ling (Finance Director).

To keep up with this ever-changing world, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd.

have been in search of methods to produce packaging with higher and better quality. It is currently creating and producing Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) film for its internal consumption, exterior sales as well as for merchandise which makes contact with food. According to the financial assertion ratio evaluation conducted primarily based on the Annual Report of Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. 2017, the evaluation could be segregated into three parts, particularly profitability, solvency and liquidity of the corporate. It was found that Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. is a not as worthwhile in the 12 months 2017 as compared to 2016. This can be seen with the revenue margin of 10.61% in 2016 and solely four.73% in 2017. Looking on the company’s liquidity facet, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. has a four.eighty two current ratio. It means that the corporate is four.eighty two times capable of meet its brief time period obligations. Not solely that, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. is said to be a extra financially secured firm in short time period with the excessive acid-test ratio of three.eighty three. It is also contemplate to have a excessive effectivity based on the accounts receivable turnover of 4.

35 instances. Several comparability of current (2017) to previous (2016) performances corresponding to for accounts receivables, accounts payables,property, liabilities and shareholders’ equity had been conducted.

There was a decrease in accounts receivables by 12.3% from the year 2016 to 2017. Moreover, accounts payables have additionally decreased by 35.5%. Not only that, the assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity in comparison with previous performance have additionally decreased by 4.54%, 7.94% and 3.71% each. After analysing Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd., it may be seen that they have a quantity of strengths and weaknesses that makes them who they are right now. Some of their strengths encompass their versatile and multilayer packaging materials, strategic location, strict quality control and so forth; whereas, some of their weaknesses are small factory measurement they usually rely closely on their main customer for revenue. Not to mention, every firm will certainly face some threats from their peer competitors, and theirs includes sluggish economy, excessive raw material costs, like crude oil in addition to forex fluctuation.

Despite dealing with threats, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. also have their very own opportunities in expanding, bettering and advancing their company. The opportunities involves making use of empty lands to expand their factories and offices. Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd was founded and included in 1982 by Kiat Tjin, Hock Seng Eu, Sah Lim Law and Sam Fatt Chee. Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd started their enterprise on 31st March 1982 in Malaysia. It relies at Lot 2, Jalan P/2A Kawasan MIEL Bangi Industrial Estate Bandar Baru Bangi, 43650, Malaysia. The warehouse, manufacturing facility and workplace is on a eight,903 square metre 99 year leasehold land.

The firm first integrated as a personal limited firm beneath the name of Goyo Corporation (M) Bhd on 31 March 1982. On ninth June 1982, the corporate modified its name to Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd and became a public firm on twenty seventh May 1993. They have been then listed on the Main Market of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad on twenty seventh May 1994. Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd produces top quality flexible packaging supplies for both native and abroad markets. Based on Flexible Packaging Association, versatile packaging materials is named any bundle or any single a half of a package whose form, dimension and color could be readily modified. It offers single and multi-layers of flexible packaging supplies in both roll or pouch/bag forms to varied industries for example, foods, drinks, spices, liquids, medical and surgical merchandise and tons of extra. The firm focuses on providing environment friendly packaging as it is a must for every.

The board of directors of Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd. consists of their chairman Datuk Ismail bin Ahmad, their managing director, Tan Cheng Keat, finance Director Yeo Tek Ling, Senior Independent Non-Executive Director Mah Siew Seng and Senior Independent Non-Executive Director Ng Choo Tim, Law Mong Yong and Chee Chin Hung. Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd manufactures and distributes versatile packaging materials. Flexible packaging supplies are often made with a composite of varied base films, foil or paper which are laminated. The finish product would have extra enhanced properties in comparison with its original substances. The primary materials used includes oriented polypropylene (OPP) movie, polyester movie, polypropylene resin, cellulosic movie, nylon movie, specialty movies, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) film, metallised movies, aluminium foil, poster paper and polyethylene.

Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd. manufactures many types of packaging supplies for a wide selection of merchandise that swimsuit both native and overseas markets. The merchandise embody snack foods, sweets and confectionery, frozen food, immediate noodles, spices, liquid condiments, drinks, medical and surgical products and pharmaceuticals and so forth. Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd. work with clients to customize the designs to suit every packaging. The flexible packaging material used may tackle the shape of the product, change its color and dimension easily when needed. The materials is comprised of both single and multi-layers in roll or pouch/bag varieties. To ensure one of the best is supplied to their clients, Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd’s quality management system was analysed by Zurich Certification Limited, United Kingdom. ISO 9002 is an industry standard created by the International Organization for Standardization. It requires businesses to a practice of creating a system to trace and ensure documents are documented correctly and audit by an independent third celebration. The company was certified to have comply with the BS EN ISO 9002:1994, normal on December 2000. Then, they have been also licensed ISO 9001:2000 on December 2003. It was later recertified BS EN ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 9001:2008 in 2010 and 2012 respectively. The certification scope covers Design, Manufacturing and Supply of Flexible Packaging Materials and Blown Film.

To keep up with this ever-changing modern world, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. have been constantly using specialised information and abilities, along with particular machinery and amenities to deliver excellence in high quality and service to their purchasers. Eventually, in search of ways to effectively produce packaging with higher and better quality. It is presently creating and producing Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) movie for its internal consumption, exterior sales in addition to for products which makes contact with meals. This is because LLDPE has greater tensile power, greater impression resistance, excessive flexibility and elongates under stress. LLDPE has a higher softening level compared to others which makes it attainable to use for pre-packaging of hot foods. It has better efficiency traits at each excessive and low temperatures.It was additionally a cloth that was approved by FDA as meals secure back in 2013. LLDPE has good chemical resistance, water and vapor barrier and resistance which makes it appropriate for packaging products. LLDPE is also essentially the most flexible of plastic sheeting films. It allows manufacturers to make thinner movies without sacrificing strength, decreasing price and saving material.Therefore, making it a better possibility for packaging merchandise. These efforts in continuous advancement to provide better materials for packaging is to ensure secure delivery of the product especially consumable goods to the end-user in good situation at an affordable and economical cost. With LLDPE, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. can continue to increase their packaging providers not only to their present shoppers but additionally to a wider selection.

Advanced Packaging Technology (M) Bhd is an organization with many strong options. They are famously recognized for their versatile and multilayer packaging of products. Due to that , it has a very low danger of damaging products which might be packaged by this firm. When merchandise are in good condition , customers might be happy and may have an excellent impression of both the corporate that manufactured the product and packed the product. Thus , it’ll enhance the status of each the company and should result in extra business with other market produces who need help with packaging their merchandise. Furthermore , the manufacturing unit of Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd is located in a super and strategic location the place companies who wants to package deal their product can simply discover the manufacturing unit and office of Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. Since the office and manufacturing facility are located in an urban area , prospects may have simpler entry to their location rather than it being in the outskirts. This may even easily cut back the transportation fees whereas transporting the products to and from the manufacturing facility. Moreover , the essential materials that are used to fabricate the packages are oriented polypropylene (OPP) film , cellulosic film , polyester , nylon, aluminium foil, metallised movies , specialty movies , linear low density polyethylene film , polyethylene and polypropylene resin. These basic materials are very easily found , therefore, they will manufacture their packages continually.

Other than that , this company could be very particular on their high quality assurance and high quality control. They guarantee to produce the highest high quality packaging persistently as they particularly have high quality assurance and quality control procedures all through the manufacturing course of. Overseeing these processes are experienced personnel who’ve subtle laboratory gear at their disposal. In addition, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. manufactures and sells prime quality flexible packaging materials primarily to reliable and reputable firms and niche market quite than competing for enterprise on mass volume at low pricing. This reveals that they’re extremely loyal to their present clients, not attempting to take advantage in every potential means. Not solely that, Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. has been financing its operations in the course of the yr fully via internally generated funds as it has no bank borrowings. This is among the explanation why its liquidity has been very good.Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd just isn’t an ideal firm , it does have some flaws and weaknesses. Few of the weaknesses of this firm is that the scale of their manufacturing facility and workplace is small ; to be particular , 8903 square meters only. This will trigger them to have much less area for extra machineries and equipments and factory staff , hence , their manufacturing unit can’t produce the packaging for many products without delay. Besides, since Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. manufactures and sells prime quality flexible packaging supplies mainly to reliable and reputable companies and area of interest market, their revenue is heavily relying on their major clients.

To illustrate, within the yr 2017, there have been lower gross sales orders of RM24.91 million from their major clients compared to 2016 of RM27.15 million. There was a lower in revenue by RM2.24 million or eight.25%; however, the Advanced Packaging Technology materials packaging are principally made out of plastic. People are getting concerned concerning the setting because of air pollution from plastic waste. It is thought that plastics take centuries to decompose and breakdown in a landfill and ocean. Therefore, harming marine life since many people still don’t practice recycling, reusing and lowering. A good instance Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd can follow and copy is that in Bangkok , Thailand , suppliers have started to follow the usage of banana leaves in replacement of plastics. This may also benefit the setting and status of firm if Advanced Packaging Material (M) Bhd can reduce or stop their use of plastic to fabricate their packaging product.Sluggish economy of the euro zero as well as slowdown in certain massive creating international locations like China also turned a threat to Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. as they do manufactures and sells to overseas too. When the worldwide economic system is slowing down, it’s most probably firms like Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd shall be negatively affected. To add on, recent high crude oil worth and currency fluctuation have also added more stress and threatening the operation of the corporate. This is as a end result of larger crude oil price will have an effect on the resin costs and imported items and companies which will then have an effect on the plastic packaging business.


To sum up, the financial statement analysis of Advanced Packaging Technology may be segregated into three main parts that are profitability, liquidity and solvency. It was found that Advanced Packaging Technology is a not as worthwhile in the year 2017 as in comparability with 2016. This could be seen with the profit margin of 10.61% in 2016 and only 4.73% in 2017. Looking at the company’s liquidity side, a super current ratio is normally between 1.5 to; nevertheless, Advanced Packaging Technology has a 4.82 present ratio. It signifies that the corporate is 4.eighty two times able to meet its short time period obligations. When the present ratio is simply too high, the company might have not been utilizing its present property or its short-term financing facilities effectively. This might also indicate the presence of problems in capital administration. Advanced Packaging Technology’s liquidity has been very good and it has no financial institution borrowings. Not solely that, Advanced Packaging Technology is claimed to be a extra financially secured firm briefly term with the excessive acid-test ratio of three.eighty three. The higher the acid-test ratio, the extra financially safe an organization is within the quick term, it offers a more rigorous assessment of a company’s capability to repay its current liabilities. Advance Packaging Technology can additionally be thought-about to have a excessive efficiency primarily based on the accounts receivable turnover of 4.35 occasions. This indicated that Advance Packaging Technology just isn’t facing any difficulties in collecting from their customers

Several comparability of current (2017) to past (2016) performances such as for accounts receivables, accounts payables, whole assets, complete liabilities and shareholders’ equity have been performed. There was a lower in accounts receivables by 12.3%. This reveals that Advanced Packaging Technology is having more collections from their customers than credit gross sales. Moreover, accounts payables have additionally decreased by 35.5%. This implies that Advanced Packaging Technology has paid off extra of its credit score purchases than the purchases made all through the fiscal interval. This reduces the operating cash circulate. Not only that, the total property, complete liabilities and whole shareholders’ equity compared to past efficiency have additionally decreased by 4.54%, 7.94% and 3.71% each. Every company together with Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. will certainly have their strengths, weaknesses, alternatives and threats. Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. strengths includes versatile and multilayer packaging materials, strategic location, strict high quality control and so forth; whereas, a few of their weaknesses are small manufacturing facility size they usually rely heavily on their major buyer for income. Some of the opportunities they can make use of to increase, improve and advance their company are ( ). Lastly, a few of the important threats faced by Advanced Packaging Technologies (M) Bhd. consists of sluggish economy, excessive uncooked materials costs, like crude oil as nicely as currency fluctuation.

Abstract Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology

Statement of the Problem

This research sought to establish the benefits and drawbacks of contemporary expertise based mostly on the perception of 2nd yr BSAMT students. Specifically it answers the next questions

1. What are the explanations of the students in using trendy technology?

2. What are the effects of using modern technology within the learning of students?

3. How can the scholars maximize the utilization of know-how in learning?

Research Design

The design of this research is a survey method which refers to a descriptive method.

It has the intention to discover out the correlation between subtopics. Included in this study’s sample inhabitants of tons of respondents to ensure the validity of the estimate of the general relationship between the variables obtained.


1. The complete number of respondents that comprised our knowledge gathering is 168 2nd yr BS Aircraft Maintenance Technology from different sections.

2. Most 2nd yr AMT college students take 1-2 hours/day of WIFI usage for Educational functions pointing out that utilizing expertise students can reduce their time in doing their homework.

Though some takes greater than 3 to 5 or much more hours in utilizing it indicating that they’re principally utilizing the web these days somewhat than books.

3. If WIFI was ever attainable within the school the respondents largely answered that they will use it usually for learning not like the opposite respondents you answered to use it for taking half in and socializing. WIFI connection brings us the world broad web to the palm of our arms it could be advantages for learning it’s still open disadvantages such as gaming and socializing which is a distraction in a students studying.

4. Ever since technology integrated purposes in our cellphones it has helped us every single day from private and faculty activities indicating that it’s now essentials in our life-style for the rationale that respondents answered mostly that cell phones and their apps is the most important advantage of utilizing digital media in the classroom.

5. PATTS is on the verge in bettering and incorporating know-how in its services and from the respondents they’ve chosen that the varsity ought to concentrate on mounting projectors in every classroom along with speakers to combine audio visual studying which is ready to benefit the scholars properly as a result of through using projectors instructors can now PowerPoint their lessons, play videos to know sophisticated issues like (e.g. “how a rocket works?”)

6. The school has supplied its library with computer systems so it can assist college students research matters and classes within the school with web. Though it lacks efficiency in phrases of the computer systems being used that it wants enchancment as said by the respondents that the web connection is sometimes not working and the computers efficiency is slow and laggy subsequently lowering its value and performance in the college.

7. Respondents answered that projectors is neither agree nor disagree in making them more active and attentive at school. Agree as a result of they are in a position to understand the lessons very properly and disagree as a outcome of they are usually sleepier as a result of some instructors simply learn their displays.

8. Internet/online is better than books is neither agree nor disagree. Agree because they are so much simpler to find by simply using a pc and simply copy paste and printing it. While others answered disagreeing as a end result of some online e references are opinionated due to this fact not good sources for getting information.

9. Taking photos of classes written on the board is healthier than writing notes is neither agree nor disagree. Agree since you don’t have to write down anymore and just saved photographs and just view it later and also you don’t should convey notebooks anymore. Disagree as a outcome of they don’t have high pixeled digital camera to take photos from their telephones or higher yet they still favor writing in notebooks.

10. Respondents answered neither agree nor disagree in taking notes by utilizing digicam, it will be difficult to recollect and perceive the subject discussed. Agree as a end result of they will just lean to their picture notes due to this fact not studying and even finding out it. Disagree as a result of with their notes they’ll study them on their telephones. 11. Using laptops and projectors in class make studying extra environment friendly is neither agree nor disagree. Agree because they can use laptops to assist them of their studying habits, disagree as a result of they tend to use notebooks and just favor to hearken to their instructors.


Based on the respondents answer and the researchers findings and interpretations. The researchers has derived conclusions that would give clarity to what this thesis is in search of to reply.

1. The the reason why students use trendy know-how in learning because it helps them of their learning habits and even doing their homework with ease. It also is a software within the classroom by way of projectors which additionally helps the instructors deliver their lessons clearly. Through the web we can analysis information obtained from google understanding issues extra gaining more concepts.

2. The effects of using fashionable know-how in studying of the students have its good and unhealthy sides. Good as a outcome of the research time span for researching will lower and it could assist in discovering extra information in a short time. With that we can achieve extra ideas concerning the matter to make class discussions extra fascinating in school. Making the scholar extra prepared for school. The dangerous side when it is not used correctly and it’s merely used for gaming and socializing quite than studying it can create might distractions for students and it can also be a cause for them to fail their classes. Therefore it is still in the college students alternative whether or not he’ll use it wisely.

3. Students can maximize their studying when their school technology incorporated already using fashionable expertise of their curriculum. Like WIFI connections and computer systems with applications to assist every scholar of their college activities. Also we now have to boost consciousness to college students on how expertise be capable of assist them of their research subsequently maximizing their studying capabilities and concepts.


According to the carried out research, survey and statement by the researchers, Modern technology is neither benefit nor disadvantage but, if PATTS is prepared to put money on enhancing its facilities will most likely be a bonus.

1. In order for the PATTS to cope up with colleges, PATTS should incorporate trendy know-how of their curriculum to enhance the schooling of its courses to have a name particularly in the aviation trade. An aviation college like PATTS needs a significant upgrade particularly in its enrollment system college these days use online enrollment they usually can even view their grades at house.

2. Researchers suggest that PATTS should strive M-LEARNING (what is M-Learning? Is a model new academic paradigm, that creates an setting during which college students access to course materials, instructions and functions anytime and anywhere) taking the school’s curriculum to a technology based mostly studying bring plenty of alternatives in a single students studying for example with M-Learning a scholar can examine wherever as lengthy as there might be access to an web connection, can work at personal pace and can accommodate different learning styles via different activities.

3. Given the concept that 2nd yr AMT students in PATTS have neither agreed nor disagreed in regards to the benefits and disadvantages of recent technology in their studying we want to recommend the examine be carried out once more. Given the altering nature of know-how a collection of studies, based mostly on our model, would doc enhancements and thereby increase the potential that selections regarding the composition of recent expertise in studying would lessen bias and reply the question whether or not fashionable know-how is a neither benefit nor drawback in learning.

A Valuation of Linear Technology Corporation”s Share Price

Linear Technology Corporation (LTC) designs, manufactures and markets a broad line of analog built-in circuits. The last commerce value of LTC’s inventory was $30. 14 (November 27, 2007). The evaluation herein initiatives a $42. 28 intrinsic worth for LTC’s stock by the top of Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 (Exhibit 1). The market’s low valuation of LTC’s share worth, mixed with favorable macro financial developments provides a wonderful investment opportunity.

Thesis: LTC reported FY 2008 first-quarter EPS of $0.forty, which was up 9% year-over-year and $0. 02 above the market expectation.

Revenue of $281. 5 million elevated 5% sequentially however decreased 4% year-over-year. I estimate LTC’s revenue and EPS for FY 2008 will attain $1. 24 billion and $1. eighty two respectively, i. e. revenue will develop 14. 6% and EPS will grow 31. 1%, sequentially (Exhibits 2 through 5). The global semiconductors market grew by eight. 8% in 2006 and is predicted to develop at an average-annual-rate of 7. 7% by 12 months 2010 (Exhibit 6).

Sustained growth of the whole markets will translate into sturdy high line progress for LTC. Mobile cellphone gross sales are anticipated to be around 1. 2billion units a yr in 2008 as they become the most typical client electronics gadget (Exhibit 7).

LTC producers many cell telephones inputs together with mixers, modulators, demodulators, amplifiers, drivers, and power detectors and controllers. The company’s merchandise get pleasure from an excellent reputation of supporting numerous multimedia platforms, thus being nicely positioned for the way forward for the cell phone market.

With the global demand for cellphones forecasted to develop astronomically, LTC ought to be ready to leverage its sturdy market place and product portfolio to drive its revenue growth1. The company is a leader within the rising Power over Ethernet (PoE) market.

The development in PoE is expected to be fueled by increasing adoption of VoIP, the proliferation of wi-fi local-area networks, and the increased use of security cameras. Sales of PoE ports are expected to develop at a Compound-Annual-Growth-Rate (CAGR) of 54%2 through 2008, as deployment advantages including value, space savings, and adaptability take hold.

Again, LTC would benefits directly from the rising PoE market. LTC’s merchandise have quite lots of functions together with the mixing of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Just because the case with mobile phones, global demand for LCDs is growing at a quick pace. Demand for LCD TVs surged over 150% in 2006. Sales quantity of LCD TVs is expected to grow 20% in 2008 as compared to 2007 (Exhibit 8). With the upturn in the LCD market, a spur in the demand for LTC products is anticipated.

Lastly, the sturdy demand pattern for PCs (estimated progress of 12% in 2007 and eleven. 1% in 20083), the increasing automotive electronics market (estimate 8% CAGR via 20104) and the fast evolution of commercial equipment sector (estimated 10% growth in 20085) toward higher precision and rising portability would enhance LTC’s sales as well. My interview with one of LTC’s key distributors6 and OEM clients7 confirmed my revenue and progress forecast for communications and laptop segments.


A SURVEY ON APPLICATION OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY BEYOND CRYPTOCURRENCY ABSTRACT- Blockchain(BC),The know-how behind the Bitcoin Crypto-currency system is taken into account to be each alluring and critical for ensuring enhanced safety and privacy for various applications in many different Domians including within the Internet-of-Things eco-system. Crypto-currency functions of Distributed ledger methods such as blockchain at the second are properly established, But their implications for more general topics are just beginning to be appreciated. The Financial Technology (FinTech) sector sees excessive potential value in cryptocurrency blockchain protocol or Distributed-ledger technology(DLT).

While initially conceived as a system for cryptocurrency transactions validation among untrusted events, Blockchain expertise has gained momentum as a device that can theoretically be utilized to many domains beyond the meant one. Among these domains one of the largest and most promising within the Internet-of-Things. As an rising decentralized structure and distributed computing paradigm underlying Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, Blockchain has attracted intensive consideration in each analysis and applications in latest times.

In this paper, We offered a survey of utility of blockchain expertise past the cryptocurrency. INTRODUCTIONThe objective of this research paper is to summarise the literature of the Blockchain techniques in numerous other domains beyond its application to crypto-currency and to draw acceptable conclusions. Blockchain is the basic expertise underlying the emerging crypto-currencies including bitcoin. The key benefit of blockchain is broadly thought-about to be decentralization and it could help establish disintermediary peer-to-peer transactions , co-ordination, and co0operation in distributed techniques without mutual trust and centralized control amongst particular person nodes , primarily based on such techniques as knowledge encryption , time-stamping ,distributed consensus algorithm, and financial incentive mechanisms.

The fast rising pattern of Blockchain has attracted a large spectrum of interest from governments, financial establishments, high-technology enterprise and likewise the capital markets. Furthermore , each bitcoin is associated with a pair of keys, and if someone desires to deals with transactions on completely different units, they should keep the copies of the non-public keys for each bitcoin handle on each devices overall although bitcoin and different crypto-currencies have attracted significant consideration and influenced the entire world, These has not been a safe and efficient key administration mechanism to faultlessly bridge the hole between the limited memory of people and the complex key structures of cryptp-currencies. Therefore proposing an effective and safe blockchain presently is the key facet in making crypto-currency extra relevant to every day funds by people. APPLICATION1.Financial Services ApplicationMany of the industry’s processes are overdue for an improve or in some cases complete substitute so as to stand up to new volumes, hacks and safety threats. Blockchain is much firmer and recoverable as non centralized model of this data exists. Blockchain could make these transfers visible securely immediately, which different expertise can’t. Blockchain may even enable further disruption of the traditional banks by monetary expertise and non-bank technology gamers. New entrants, free of legacy issues, could utilize blockchain to create a radically cheaper platform for innovation. Banks want to start work with blockchain know-how now in order not to be disintermediated by new entrants. Blockchain is a database, a large community, often identified as a distributed ledger, which data ownership and worth, and allows anyone with access to view and take part. A community is up to date and verified via consensus of all the parties concerned. The validated block of transactions is then time stamped and added to a series in a linear, chronological order. New blocks of validated transactions are linked to older blocks, making a chain of blocks that present each transaction made in the history of that blockchain. The complete chain is regularly updated so that every ledger within the network is the same, giving every member the ability to prove who owns what at any given time. It is also important to know that all individuals within a network can have their own identical copy of the ledger. Any adjustments to the ledger are reflected in all copies, just like a Google doc. It is an excellent option to retains information of digital transactions. Blockchain networks could be non-public with restricted membership just like an intranet, or public, like the Internet, accessible to any person in the world.2. Smart Contract (Property) ApplicationsAutonomy ” You’re the one making the settlement; there’s no must rely on a dealer, lawyer or other intermediaries to substantiate. Incidentally, this additionally knocks out the danger of manipulation by a third celebration, since execution is managed mechanically by the network, somewhat than by one or more, possibly biased, people who may error.Trust ” Your paperwork are encrypted on a shared ledger. There’s no means that someone can say they misplaced it.Backup ” Imagine if your financial institution misplaced your financial savings account. On the blockchain, each one of your mates has your back. Your documents are duplicated many times over.Safety ” Cryptography, the encryption of websites, retains your documents safe. There isn’t any hacking. In fact, it will take an abnormally good hacker to crack the code and infiltrate.Speed ” You’d ordinarily have to spend chunks of time and paperwork to manually course of documents. Smart contracts use software program code to automate duties, thereby shaving hours off a range of business processes.Savings ” Smart contracts save you money since they knock out the presence of an middleman. You would, as an example, need to pay a notary to witness your transaction.Accuracy ” Automated contracts usually are not solely faster and cheaper but additionally avoid the errors that come from manually filling out heaps of types. 3.Internet-of-things ApplicationsWe think about a typical good house setting the place a person, Alice has geared up her home with a quantity of IoT gadgets including a wise thermostat, smart bulbs, an IP digicam and several other sensors. The proposed architecture includes three tiers, namely the smart home (or extra typically the native network), the overlay network, and the cloud storage. We consider information retailer and access use instances: Alice should be able to access the info from her sensible home, e.g., the present temperature in her bedroom, remotely. Moreover, sensible devices should be capable of retailer information on storages to be used by a third celebration (e.g., the sensible thermostat provider) to avail of some services. Prior to discussing the details of the proposed structure, we briefly introduce the community tiers: Smart Home: The good house is comprised of the following three parts: Devices: All smart units situated in the home. Local BC: A safe and personal BC that is mined and saved by one (or more) resource-capable device(s), which is all the time online.Overlay Network : The overlay network is akin to the peer-to-peer network in Bitcoin. The constituent nodes could presumably be good house miners, other high resource gadgets within the house, or the user’s smartphone or private laptop. Each node uses Tor [10] to join with overlay network for extra anonymity at IP-layer. A specific consumer might have multiple node in the overlay community. To decrease network overhead and delay, nodes within the overlay network are grouped in clusters and every cluster elects a Cluster Head (CH).Cloud Storage : In some instances, devices in the good home (e.g. a smart thermostat) might want to retailer their knowledge within the cloud storage, so that a third get together Service Provider (SP) can entry the stored information and provide sure smart companies (e.g. intelligent temperature adjustment). The cloud storage groups user’s data in identical blocks associated with a novel block-number. Block quantity and hash of saved data are used by the consumer for authentication. If the storage can successfully find knowledge with given block-number and hash, then the person is authenticated. four. Government ApplicationsThere are very key uses of blockchain in governments and listed right here are a few of the situations during which the technology could be applied to make things higher. Blockchain can be used to facilitate authorized enforcementGovernments can use data from public blockchains to track the monetary dealings much like how fiat cash transactions are monitored to ensure that the system doesn’t facilitate unlawful dealings. The implementation of blockchain for a authorities can be a key device in the direction of ensuring that financial transactions in the digital area remain legal. Fixing the taxation problemTaxation can be one of the major points which were heavily talked about in phrases of cryptocurrencies particularly due to using digital currencies to keep away from taxation. While that may be controlled by way of the use of public blockchains and non-private coins, Blockchain may help governments to take issues a notch greater. Blockchain could presumably be the long-awaited resolution for fixing double taxation. Governments can use blockchain to protect important authorities infrastructureBlockchain purposes within the public sector might help governments to make sure better safety over their important infrastructure, thus maintaining cyber attacks at bay. Most of the important systems used by governments all over the world to facilitate service supply are connected to the web. This stresses the importance of security for critical techniques and since blockchain can’t be hacked, then it is doubtlessly the best answer. Blockchain expertise can be utilized to spice up the effectivity of welfare distributionDecentralized ledger technology can considerably improve the metho
d of registration as properly as payment thus permitting governments to handle matters related to welfare with extra efficiency. Blockchain can, therefore, be used to deploy sooner service supply allowing citizens to profit directly. CONCLUSIONThe software of the Blockchain idea and technology has grown beyond its use for Bitcoin generation and transactions. The properties of its safety, privacy, traceability, inherent knowledge provenance and time-stamping has seen its adoption beyond its preliminary software areas. The Blockchain itself and its variants are now used to secure any type of transactions, whether it’s human-to-human communications or machine-to-machine. Its adoption seems to be safe especially with the global emergence of the Internet-of-Things. Its decentralized software throughout the already established international Internet is also very appealing in terms of ensuring knowledge redundancy and hence survivability. The Blockchain has been particularly identified to be suitable in creating nations the place ensuring belief is of a major concern. Thus the invention of the Blockchain could be seen to be an important and far wanted extra element of the Internet that was lacking in safety and trust earlier than. BC technology still has not reached its maturity with a prediction of five years as novel applications proceed to be implemented globally.REFERENCES[1] Ashiq Anjum ; Manu Sporny ; Alan Sill Blockchain Standards for Compliance and Trust IEEE Cloud ComputingYear:2017 , Volume:4 , Issue: four Page s: eighty four ” ninety Cited by: IEEE Journals & Magazines. [2] Ittay Eyal Blockchain Technology: Transforming Libertarian CryptocurrencyDreams to Finance and Banking Realities Computer Year: 2017 , Volume: 50 , Issue: 9 Page s: 38 ” forty nine Cited by: Papers (4)IEEE Journals & Magazines.[3] Alessio Meloni ; Syam Madanapalli ; Sanil Kumar Divakaran ; Steven F. Browdy ; Ambika Paranthaman ; Ajay Jasti ; Nishant Krishna ; Deepak Kumar Exploiting the IoT Potential of Blockchain within the IEEE P1931.1 ROOF Standard IEEE Communications Standards Magazine Year: 2018 , Volume: 2 , Issue: three Page s: 38 ” forty four IEEE Journals & Magazines.[4] Yong Yuan ; Fei-Yue Wang IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies: Model, Techniques, and Applications Year: 2018 , Volume: 48 , Issue: 9 Page s: 1421 ” 1428 Cited by: Papers (4) IEEE Journals & Magazines.[5] Shuangyu He ; Qianhong Wu ; Xizhao Luo ; Zhi Liang ; Dawei Li ; Hanwen Feng ; Haibin Zheng ; Yanan Li IEEE Access A Social-Network-Based Cryptocurrency Wallet-Management Scheme Year: 2018Volume:Page s: 7654 ” 7663 IEEE Journals & Magazines.

A day without technology

How would you feel a day with out utilizing any technology? Living without technology shall be completely inconceivable as this has turn out to be every day’s software as increasingly people are gaining data on how to make use of the communication instruments to enhance their methods of dwelling and staying informed on the present technology to avoid being left behind. New applied sciences are being developed daily which reveals that the industry will continue to develop and increase. People will proceed using these technologies to improve their standards and to remain informed.

Technology has influenced us in so many positive methods, from providing cellphones that can be used in the house, to around the world and supply so many other great options. With know-how advancing every day the Market comes out with new telephones with the most recent kinds. Now days a flip cellphone could be thought-about maybe the plainest phone there is out there. When I was in elementary school I remember the first cellphone I noticed was a medium grey cellphone that has a easy green background display with black font.

Couple months later, I recall my uncle shopping for a grey flip telephone. This cellular phone had a digicam and had colour.

I thought it was means nicer then the primary phone I had seen. As we see now flip telephones are out, and the market hits us with increasingly more superior phones. Like for example the touchscreens, androids, and the iPhone’s. As all this know-how advances we want to get the most recent and ask for extra.

Around the early 2000’s center faculty students had been uncommon to have cellphones. If we have a look now we see the elementary kids even have cell phones. This has modified a lot throughout the years. My older sister which is now 23 years old by no means had a cell phone while living at home. I obtained my first phone after I was in ninth grade. My youthful sister which is simply 12 years old received her cellphone when she was began 6th grade. As we are in a position to see even the youthful ones want the newest. thanks

3D Scanning Technology And 3D Modeling Computer Science Essay

1.0 Introduction

This seminar rubric is discussed about 3D Scanning Technology and 3D Modeling. At the terminal, I will apart from take essentially the most suited technique to make the most of in my Concluding Year Undertaking.

Presents, 3D engineering was nearing us step by measure. However, the common public nonetheless do non cognize that, what is 3D and the way they do it? Well, as a good illustration what sort of 3D that seem in our existent life and is so celebrated late is 3D film.

I assume that a lot of the child or movie pursuer ticker 3D movie earlier than for sure. For illustration Avatar 3D, Ice Age 2 3D, Resident Evil: After Life 3D and lots of others.

However, most of the people do non understand that how does 3D vegetation, and the way they create 3D theoretical account. In my seminar I would wish to current several varieties of 3D mold, can comparability between them. But for certain, totally different kind of 3D mould method are uses in numerous nation.

So, I will present most of them in this seminar.

About all 3D theoretical accounts may be divided into two classs.

Solid – These theoretical accounts outline the quantity of the thing they symbolize ( like a stone ) . These are extra sensible, but extra onerous to assemble. Solid theoretical accounts are largely used for nonvisual simulations similar to medical and technology simulations, for CAD and specialised ocular purposes corresponding to beam tracing and constructive strong geometry

Shell/boundary – These theoretical accounts symbolize the surface. These are simpler to work with than solid theoretical accounts.

Almost all ocular theoretical accounts utilized in games and movie are shell theoretical accounts.

Technology was improved and alterations shortly twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. A new engineering name 3D Digitizing which is ready to utilize specific equipment such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner, 3D Scanner and others was invented. These machines can offers extremely correct, three-dimensional photographs enabling inside decorators to see and work straight with real-world circumstances by sing and pull stringsing rich point-clouds in computer-aided design package deal. In the chapter beneath we will travel deeper about this engineering which was broadly utilized in those Fieldss that involved 3D.

Even many new and superior type of patterning technique was found, many inside decorator, constructing, and others will nonetheless utilize the fundamental mold technique, corresponding to Polygonal mold, NURBS, Splines & A ; Patches mold, Primitives patterning and Sculpt mould. In the chapter below, we are going to analysis extra about these techniques that are nonetheless broadly used for those interior decorators and the ground.

Main Body

3D Digitizing

3D Digitizing may be specifying as transform the existent object ( such as a edifice ) to a digitized format. It besides can be outline as a artworks enter system that information x, Y and omega co-ordinates of a existent object. Contact is made with assorted points on the item ‘s surface by a lightweight detector, sound detector, robotic instrument or pen.

The chief device for 3D Digitizing is 3D Scanner which was so well-liked and commonest device that utilization for 3D Digitizing. 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or surroundings to roll up informations on its kind and perchance its visible side. The gathered informations can so be used to build digital, three dimensional theoretical accounts utile for a broad assortment of applications

There were three forms of 3D Scanner:

– Contact

– Non-contact Active

– Non-contact Passive.

Contact 3D Scanner

As the definition of “ contact ” which means the 3D Scanner which have physical contact with the object that have to be scan. A CMM ( organize mensurating machine ) is a most typical illustration for contact 3D scanner. It is used largely in fabrication and may be actually precise.

CMM consists of three axes, an Ten, Y and Z. These axes are extraneous to each other in a typical three dimensional co-ordinate system. Each axis has a graduated desk system that signifies the situation of that axis. The machine will learn the input from the contact investigation, as directed by the operator or coder. The machine so uses the X, Y, Z co-ordinates of each of these points to search out size and place. Typical preciseness of a co-ordinate measurement machine is measured in Microns.

The disadvantage of CMMs though, is that it requires contact with the item being scanned. Therefore, the act of scanning the thing might modify or injury it. It was a extremely serious job when demand to scan with those useful old-timer or those artefacts. The different disadvantage of CMMs was clip devouring. It could take a long clip to complete scan an enormous or refinement object.

Figure 1 – CMM to scan little object Figure 2 CMM to scan massive object

Critical Evaluation on Contact 3D Scanner

Basically, the biggest job for Contact 3D Scanner is it requires holding bodily contact with the object throughout scanning procedure, and sometimes it might damage the thing needed to scan. Furthermore, if the object was an artefact or old-timer, one time have hurt there is not a other changing or might be really dearly-won.

Another job for Contact 3D scanner, CMM as reference above is the scanning velocity. CMM need to hold bodily contact with the item and a lot of the object has totally different kind and completely different surface. So scanning the item using CMM was a very clip devouring undertaking.

However, thanks to the disadvantages of CMM which is holding bodily contact with object, the benefit of CMM is it may possibly bring forth a very exact and accurate consequence.

So, as my concluding ranking on Contact 3D Scanner, it’s a actually precise and correct 3D scanner yet, I suggest that keep away from from scan on these artifact and valuable object. Nowadays, velocity in addition to is a cardinal point of success, the velocity for Contact 3D Scanner was a biggest rock for it. So, if can extinguish the rate job of Contact 3D Scanner, it will be a greatest scanning machine of all time.

Non-contact Active Scanner

Non-contact lively scanners emit some sort of radiation or seen radiation and observe its contemplation to find a way to examine an object or surroundings. Possible forms of emanations used embrace gentle, ultrasound or x-ray. Non-contact Active Scanner does non maintain any bodily touch with the thing to scan.

There is few sort of Non-Contact Active Scanner, such as



Structured Light

Each of them is usage in different area, however their map was similar. The illustration I record was merely a few, it could be a batch of other Non-contact Active Scanner exist.


Time-of-flight 3D optical maser scanner uses laser seen radiation to scan the object. At the bosom of this sort of scanner is a time-of-flight optical maser range finder. The optical maser range finder works like reverberation, but in gentle non in sound. It will breathe a visible radiation to an object that want to scan, and finds the space of a surface by clocking the round-trip clip of a pulsation of seen radiation and the sum of clip earlier than the mirrored visible radiation is seen by a sensor is timed.

The optical maser vary finder merely detects the gap of 1 point in its means of place. Therefore, the scanner scans its full subject of place one point at a clip by altering the scope finder ‘s way of position to scan totally different points. The place way of the optical maser vary finder may be modified both by revolving the scope finder itself, or by utilizing a system of revolving mirrors.

For those that were difficult to understand how Time-of-Flight vegetation, I strongly advocate that individuals go search a vocal call House of Card by Radiohead and watch their MV. This MV was utilizing Time-of-Flight technique to make. Hopefully I can assist people to more understanding the way it works.

Figure 3- This is the design for Time-of-Flight device


The triangulation 3D optical maser scanner makes use of laser visible radiation to look at the surroundings. Triangulation will breathe a optical maser that will reflect on the topic and exploits a digicam to search for the location of the optical maser level. Depending on how far off the optical maser strikes a surface, the optical maser point seems at different topographic points in the camera ‘s subject of place. The optical maser level, the digicam and the optical maser emitter signifier a trigon, and that ‘s how this system named. The size of one aspect of the trigon, the distance between the camera and the optical maser emitter is thought. The angle of the optical maser emitter corner is apart from identified. The angle of the digicam nook can be determined by wanting on the location of the optical maser level in the digicam ‘s area of position. These three items of knowledge to the complete determine the form and measurement of the trigon and gives the placement of the optical maser level corner of the trigon. Figure four show how Triangulation 3D optical maser scanner crops.

Figure 4

Structured Light 3D Scanner

Structured gentle 3D scanners project a type of visible radiation on the thing and observe the distortion of the shape on the item. They are essentially non-contact optical techniques, primarily based about wholly on the principles of photogrammetry in order to transform image braces to come back up info. They are capable of accomplish data of really excessive denseness and of really high reality. [ 1 ]

The benefit of structured-light 3D scanners is pace. Structured Light Scanner scan multiple factors or whole object in one clip merely, so it was actually fast to digitise the scanned picture in computing machine. This will cut down or eliminates the job of deformation from gesture. But the engineering was so beforehand today there were some bing techniques are capable of scan a touring object in a real-time.

A real-time scanner a using digital periphery projection and phase-shifting approach or in addition to can cognize as Assorted Structured Light Method was developed, to capture, reconstruct, and render high-density inside informations of dynamically deformable objects at forty frames per second. Recently, another scanner is developed. This scanner can capture and treating achieves as much as a hundred and twenty frames per second.

Figure 5- Way Structured Light 3D Scanner work.

Critical Evaluation on Non-contact Active 3D Scanner


The disadvantage of Time-of-Flight scanners is that they can merely scan an object one level at a clip. Furthermore, the truth of Time-of-Flight scanner was non good plenty. This is as a outcome of it’s utilizing gentle and the speed of visible radiation was highly quick, it is going to be actually hard the calculate the unit of ammunition trip for the sunshine travels and this can do the reality of the gap between object and scanner turn out to be actually low.

Yet, it still has its benefit. As we all know, velocity of seen radiation was actually quick so Time-of-Flight scanner can run over a extremely lengthy distance.

As a consequence, Time-of-Flight was perfect to utilize during scan object like hill, palace or others.


Unlike Time-of-Flight scanners, Triangulation scanners had been merely just like the antonym for Time-of-Flight scanners. Pro of Triangulation scanners is the reality when scanning the object is actually high. Furthermore, the pro of triangulation scanners is their ability to finish low declaration scans in a affair of seconds.

Yet, the con of Triangulation Scanner is restricted scope. Different with Time-of-Flight scanners, Triangulation scanners use digital camera alternatively of using optical maser finder, so the scope to scan object was brief.

As a choice, Triangulation was good in scanning smaller object like cup, tabular array or others.

Structured Light 3D Scanner

Structured Light 3D scanners in a position to scan a quantity of factors or the full object at a identical clip, as a consequence of that, the velocity for Structured Light 3D Scanner was quick.

Structured Light 3D Scanner was a great choose to implement in 3D Fieldss.It may give the consequence in actually quick. But, I do n’t believe that it was good when we want to scan an big image or object, if utilization Structured Light 3D Scanner to scan huge object, it would will lose the preciseness and the reality.

Structured Light 3D Scanner is utilizing identical theory or rule with Triangulation Scanner. In details, Structured Light 3D Scanner was merely suited to these smaller object but non for large object.

Non-contact Passive 3D Scanner

The chief totally different between Active and Passive Scanners is Passive Scanners do non breathe any sort of radiation themselves, but alternatively it detect alterations in mirrored ambient vitality such as seeable or infrared visible radiation. Passive methods may be inexpensive as a outcome of they do non necessitate emitters.

Basically, there was 2 sort of Non-contact Passive 3D Scanner, such as

Stereoscopic system

Photometric system

All the system and technique above merely necessitate camera to procedure, so it will be cheaper comparison to Non-contact Active 3D Scanner.

Stereoscopic System

Stereoscopic normally make use of two image cameras, considerably aside, looking at the similar scene. By analysing the little variations between the pictures seen by each digicam, it is possible to search out the distance at every point in the pictures. This methodology was actually acquainted for these individuals who love to watch 3D movie.

This system actually was based mostly on the same rule with Human Stereoscopic Vision. Cameras in Stereoscopic System had been act like human eyes. As we know, human eyes can choose the distance of the object by seeing the item and human left oculus and right oculus will deliver forth different picture even is trying a identical picture. A really good illustration is, near your right oculus and see an object after try to shut your left oculus and see the object as quickly as extra. You will purchase a unique image between left oculus and proper oculus.

Merely the same manner how the stereoscopic glass and cameras plants, two cameras put at completely different place and they’re going to see different thing. By combine the picture that recorded by the two cameras and judging the distance in between it’s going to convey forth a 3D picture.

Figure 6- Stereoscopic Image

Photometric Systems

Alternatively of using two cameras in Stereoscopic, this method makes use of a particular person camera, however takes multiple images under totally different lighting circumstances. These strategies try to invert the picture formation theoretical account so as to retrieve the floor orientation at every pel.

Figure 7 Figure 8

Figure 7 present the digicam will take the image however in different method visible radiation beginning. The image taken will be completely different which present in Figure 8, so after that they may make the most of system to calculate all images taken from totally different way of light starting and convey forth a 3D image.

Critical Evaluation on Non-contact Passive Scanner

Basically, Stereoscopic and Photometric system does non breathe any radiation ; alternatively they usually will make the most of a digital camera. Stereoscopic System features merely like when we go watch 3D movie. However, Stereoscopic system requires specific spectacless such because the 3D spectacless when watching 3D film to hold the 3D effects.

Photometric System was good as a end result of by supplying a different way of light beginnings, the surface of the thing wished to scan might be gaining control in inside informations, as a consequence of that, a precise and perfect 3D object could be present.

Last however non less, essentially the most of import benefit of Non-contact Passive Scanner is value. It does non necessitate any gadgets or machines but merely necessitate digicam. So, it could be a great decide if the price range was tight however wished to hunt how to make 3D object.

3D Modeling

3D Scanning was an progress engineering to make 3D object, but nil is perfect even with all these high tech devices. For illustration in movie subject, folks will critics these object or photographs even they already using most excessive tech engineering and approach. So to chop down these critics, we’ve to minimise those defects. By using 3D mildew, we are ready to make 3D object by ain manus and besides can do the item each bit excellent as attainable. This is as a outcome of 3D patterning techniques can pull or alter the item of the object. User might apart from can maximise or whizz in the object to change even slightly atom.

3D patterning refers again to the inventive exercise of 3D objects which would possibly be defined mathematically and geometrically. There were some illustration or templet can establish in that 3D patterning package corresponding to 3D Max, Lightwave, MAYA and others.

There was few sort of patterning methods, such as

Polygonal Mold

NURBS Modeling

Crude Mold

Polygonal Mold

Polygons are straight-sided varieties, defined by three-dimensional factors and the consecutive line that connect them. The interior part of the polygon is known as the face. Vertexs, Edges and faces are the basic constituents of polygons as present in Figure 9. User can select and modify polygons using these fundamental constituents.

An single polygon usually call as Face, and it was outline as the country of three or extra vertices and nexus with the borders. When many faces are linked together, it’ll organize as polygon mesh. Polygon mesh will portion the vertices and borders that nexus with one other polygon mesh. These polygons mesh that portion vertices and borders are known as shared vertices or shared borders. Figure 10 present sample for portion vertices.

Figure 9 Figure 10

NURBS Modeling

NURBS was often known as Non-uniform Rational B-spline, it uses mathematical representations of 3-D geometry that can precisely depict any type from a easy 2-D line, circle, discharge, or curve to probably the most advanced 3-D organic free-form floor or stable. Because of their flexibleness and truth, NURBS theoretical accounts can be utilized in any procedure from illustration and life to fabrication.

NURBS utilization spline curves, which are influenced by leaden Control Points. The curve are follows the point by growing the load for some extent will draw the curve closer to that point. NURBS are genuinely smooth surfaces, non estimates utilizing little degree surfaces, and so are peculiarly suited for natural mold.

Control Points is the chief portion for NURBS mold, it decide the type of the curve. Each level of the curve is computed by taking a leaden quantity of a figure of management points. The smoothness is set by the grade of the multinomial.

The knot vector is a sequence of parametric amount values that determines the place and how the management factors have an result on the NURBS curve. A knot may be inserted into a NURBS curve without altering the form of the curve. The coveted side consequence of this operation is an additional management level that provides finer management of the associated a half of the NURBS curve or floor.

Figure 11- Control Point and Control Polygon when utilizing NURBS

Crude Mold

Another properly know method in 3D mildew. Cubes, Pyramid, Cone, Sphere, Cylinder and Torus are known as 3D crude objects. Crude object is a base or basic to make more advanced objects.

All primary crude objects could probably be prolonged to different type and known as “ prolonged ” 3D primitives. By utilizing drawn-out 3D crude objects it could make extra advanced object. Another method to make advanced object is combine two or extra fundamental crude object. Figure thirteen show the illustration of advanced object that created from fundamental crude object.

Figure 12- Basic Primitive Objects for Primitive Modeling

Figure 13- Complex Objects

Critical Evaluation on 3D Modeling

Polygonal Mold

The chief benefit for Polygonal Modeling is the Details or Branched theoretical account is really easy. As we all know Polygonal Modeling 3 chief constituents are vertices, border and face, it was very easy to associate or make the theoretical account. For illustration when manus must unify with the fingers, they merely must associate or interrupt the purpose that’s related in order that it may be merge. Another benefit is all of the polygonal theoretical accounts are being recognized by about all the 3D life package or rendering package, so it could reassign the theoretical account to any package.

Data dimension of a posh polygon theoretical account might be larger comparison with Primitive theoretical accounts, and this is the chief disadvantages of Polygon Modeling. Polygonal Modeling merely use polygon to make an object, in contrast to Primitive it have many other basic object that may alter into complex object. For illustration, make a sq. field by utilizing Polygonal Modeling will wanted more informations size compare Primitive Modeling, because Polygonal Modeling must set probably a 1000 of polygon ( or face ) and combine in a single sq. box.

NURBS Modeling

Well, NURBS Modeling was so troublesome to command. it’s as a outcome of user demand to be manage the control point. The management point is locate the curve of the thing, it the control level does non cipher or manage in good, it will do the entire object go bogus or non good.

However, if the control point was management and calculate with excellent, the theoretical account created shall be ace smooth. Furthermore, the declaration for NURBS mould is independency. No affair how near the digicam speedy climb in to NURBS theoretical account, it ‘s surface will still stay smooth.

Crude Mold

Crude Modeling could be really speedy and simple to build and the signifiers are outline by mathematically. So it can be really precise and in addition to can make totally different kind of theoretical accounts by utilizing the fundamental theoretical account obtainable.

But, Crude Mold does non suited to patterning organic construction. It is as a end result of from the fundamental theoretical account that obtainable, is tough to change it to organic development similar to human natural structure.


3D Scanners was a complicated engineering to scan the picture, but the fee to implement 3D Scanners might be a small spot high. In the other manus, 3D mold was a low price however clip devouring to make a 3D theoretical account.

Yet, even the 3D theoretical account scan by using 3D scanner apart from need to redact or modify using 3D patterning package deal to do the theoretical account good and nice. Unlike 3D Scanner, 3D Modeling ca n’t be able to make a precise and perfect theoretical account if without a set of informations that in regards to the theoretical account that must be patterning.

3D Scanners have their ain professionals and cons merely like 3D Modeling. As for my Concluding Year Undertaking I needed to take 3D Modeling approach to make the 3D theoretical accounts. This is as a end result of 3D Scanners methods was excessively beforehand for me, even it may possibly make a 3D theoretical account with really quick however I think that 3D mildew is merely plenty for me. Furthermore, 3D Scanners are extra are inclined to industrial area.

Yet, if the finances is permit, I would be really pleasure if can utilize 3D scanners in my Concluding Year Undertaking. It non merely can salvage the clip, it can apart from provide a extra precise of 3D theoretical account.

So, for the concluding choice, I will take 3D mold to be usage in my Concluding Year Undertaking in patterning the Sport Complex of College Tunku Abdul Rahman.

Queensland University of Technology

Consultation Times: Consultation times will be posted on the Blackboard site by the end of Week 1. As this is a 12 credit point unit, students are expected to spend 12 hours per week studying. As there are 3 hours of contact, you are expected to spend on average an extra 9 hours in your own time, studying and completing all assessment items. Mode of Offering

This unit is not offered in the form of external study. While resources such as lecture recordings and tutorial solutions may be made available, it is expected that students will attend class and participate, such that electronic resources are used in addition to attendance at scheduled classes. Blackboard

You are deemed to have full knowledge of all information posted on the unit Blackboard site It is vital that you check the Blackboard site and your QUT student email account on a regular basis for all important administrative announcements regarding this unit. All material on the unit Blackboard site will be removed on the day of the final exam for this unit.

It is your responsibility to ensure that you have copies of all materials before this date. Development of Graduate Capabilities/Assurance of Learning Goals The QUT Business School has established the Assurance of Learning Goals (AOLs) to meet contemporary industry needs and standards. Achieving these learning outcomes will assist you to meet the desired graduate outcomes set at QUT and are aligned with other internationally accredited business schools. These AOLs are described on page 8 and the specific contribution of this unit to the overall development of the learning goals in the School of Accountancy units is shown on page 9.

In response to student feedback, the content of the subject was reviewed for Semester 2, 2011 and the assessment requirements have been modified. In order to ensure that the assessment tasks more appropriately support your learning, the mid-semester exam has been removed and replaced with weekly tutorial work. The tutorial work is to be undertaken prior to the tutorial and comprise exam-related questions. The tutorial work comprises two types of questions, practical and critical thinking. The tutorial work will be collected each week and marked at random 5 times during the semester and are worth 5% each. The best 4 of 5 collections will count towards the overall 20% available for tutorial work.

The tutorial work will be corrected in class by the student and then handed in. The work will be marked for ‘accuracy’. The weekly tutorial work is designed to develop a more independent, active and deeper learning process. The overall objective is to ensure that you have the opportunity to participate in the weekly tutorial class to the best of your ability and to receive a constant level of feedback and guidance. By adopting the role of “self-marker” in you will receive a clear understanding of not only the relevant solutions but also the level of understanding required for the final exam. Critical Thinking workshops have been introduced for the first time this semester to assist students in understanding the concept of Critical Thinking and provide assistance to students in learning how to answer (and structure their answer) to Critical Thinking based questions.

Science and Technology in the 1920’s

The Roaring Twenties was a decade full of advances in many aspects. A big part of these advances were scientifically and technologically related. Medicine went through revolutionary changes during these years, so did electrification and cars. Some new inventions also became popular very quickly such as Broadcasts.

Throughout the 1920’s there were different medical discoveries. A new type of drug to fight infections and viruses was discovered called the sulfanilamide drug. This drug and its different derivatives were known as Sulfa drugs. Sulfanilamide was tested on mice first, and because of it success, it was tried on a baby dying from an infection, obtaining positive results. These drugs became very popular and useful, along with the recently discovered antibacterial drugs. Medical advances did not stop there, vitamins A, B, C, D, E, K, and V were also discovered during this period of time.

However, the most important medical discovery during the 1920’s is Insulin. Dr. Frederick Banting and Charles Best created this pancreatic extract capable of treating diabetes. They tested their discovery on diabetic dogs, and then they used it in a fourteen year old kid, making the experiment successful. Insulin is still used until this day.

In the Roaring Twenties, electrification and cars took a step forward. Windmills with airplane propellers were used to give electricity to several machines used in these time. This invention generated enough power to make washing machines, lights, refrigerators etc. work. Similar to this, AG&G introduced a plant to reheat steam, so that the amount of electricity generated from raw material would increase. Before the 1920’s, cars were not a big deal among people. However, soldiers who fought in WWI bought cars when they returned from the war; this made people realize how easy it is to travel that way, and suddenly everybody wanted one. The most popular car brand in the United States was Ford, since before their Ford model T, cars were extremely expensive.

Between 1923 and 1930 sixty percent of American families acquired radios. Families gathered around at night to hear the radio for entertainment.One of the most popular radio stations was Chicago’s first station, KYW. It begun in 1921, and It broadcasted opera six days a week. After the opera season ended, they started broadcasting many different things, such as classical music, sporting events, lectures, fictional stories, weather reports, newscasts, etc. Soon, the United States had around 600 radio stations, showing us how popular broadcasts were in the USA, and how quickly it became something huge.

The Roaring Twenties was a period of many scientific and technological developments. Without some of the discoveries made during this time, medicine would’ve not progressed, nor electrification, cars, or new inventions such as the radio.

Cybercrime technology

People rationally choose to participate in criminal  acts; in order to  prevent these acts from occurring people need to know that consequences will outweigh the benefits. If people believe that the consequences outweigh the benefits t hen they will  freely choose not to participate in the criminal behavior.

On the other hand the positive  school of criminology believes that individuals participate in crime because of forces beyond individual control and relies on the scientific method to prove  it
s theories (Cullen
& Agnew, 2006 ).

Individuals should not be held solely responsible for their actions  because not everyone is rational. Outside factors can play an important part in determining one‟s participation in crime. Now that we have exami ned the two most  dominant schools of criminological theory we can examine how two theories, self – control and routine activity, have been applied to the study of cybercrime and cybercrime victimization.

Control Theory One general crime theory that has been applied to the study of cybercrime is self – control theory. Self
– control theory was first proposed by Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson in their 1990 publication
A General Theory of Crime . Self – control theory  beli eves that criminal motivation is rampant, but that people act on this motivation only when they possess low self – control  (Cullen & Agnew, 2006) . This paper will discuss the  basic elements of self
– control theory, as well as research that has provided eviden ce to  support the validity of this theory. Then this section will review empirical studies that have applied self – control
theory to the stu dy of cybercrime and cyber victimization and  will dis cuss the benefits of applying this theory to the study of cyberc rime.
In their book,
A General Theory of Crime
, Travis Hirschi and Michael
Gottfredson describe the major characteristics that define individuals with and without self

control (1990). Individual‟s with low self


impulsive, insensitive,
l (as opposed to mental), risk
– taking, short sighted, and nonverbal, and they will  tend therefore to engage in criminal and analogous acts
.” (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990)
People with characteristics of low self
– control may be more likely to participate in deviant acts because they want immediate gratification. As compared to individuals who lack self
– control, individuals with self
– control are able to delay immediate gratification  and are more likely to be vigilant, emotional, verbal, and long – term orientat ed (Hirschi &  Gottfredson, 1990). Individuals who possess characteristics of self – control may be better  able to appreciate the consequences of participating in  deviant acts and have the control necessary to delay their gratification. In conclusion, those who lack self
– control are more  likely to possess characteristics such as impulsivity a nd short
– sightedness, that make crime and its immediate gratification more attractive to them, as compared to those who possess characteristics of high self
– control such  as being cautious and long
– term  orientated.  This brings up an important question, does an individual‟s level of self – control  develop over time or is someone born with one level of self
– control that remains the same throughout his or her lifetime . According to Hirschi and Gottfredson individuals are not born with one certain level of self
– control,  rather  they learn self
– control most often  through their parents ( Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990 ). An individual does not
have only  on e level of self
– control, as they grow older they may develop a different level of self – control then when they were younger. However, they do suggest that, “…individual Cybercrime
29 differences may have an impact on the prospects for effective socialization” ( Hirschi &
G ottfredson, 1990 ). For example, individuals with mental health problems may have a higher probability of not being effectively socialized. The authors believed that self – control is learned through life, but especially while you are a child. The authors  al so addressed why some individuals possess characteristics of self – control. They suggest that individuals develop characteristics of self – control as a result of  their upbringing (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990). While  parents do not intentionally teach  their c hildren to not have self
– control, the authors suggest that “ in order to teach the child  self
– control, someone must (1) monitor the child‟s behavior; (2) recognize deviant behavior when it occurs; and (3) punish such behavior…all that is required to activat e the  system is affection for or investment in the child .” (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990)
They  suggest that a deficiency in any one of these categories will inadvertently allow the child to develop characteristics of low self
– control (Hirschi & Gottfredson
, 1990).  Characteristics of low self
– control can be the result of ineffective parenting. Low self – control makes crime more attractive to individuals who possess learned characteristics such as impulsivity and lack of responsibility. Good parenting is impo rtant in developing  individuals who possess high levels of self
– control, however good parenting can only  occur if parents care about their children and are able to monitor, recognize, and effectively punish their children for deviant behavior.
Self – control theory has been the subject of many empirical studies, which have  attempted to test the validity of the theory in explaining crime (Pratt & Cullen 200
Pratt, Turner & Piquero 2004; Perrone, Sullivan, Pratt, & Margaryan 2004 ;
Turner,  Piquero, & Pratt 20 05; Reisig &Pratt 2011;  Deng & Zheng 1998
. In 2000, Pratt and

Benefits of technology

Grandmother Selina grew up in age where everything was made by hand. She went to school where teachers mostly used chalks and wooden boards. However, today, teachers no longer use chock boards, instead they use smart boards or overhead projector. Selina used to carry a dictionary for school every day for her English class. However, today, there are fewer students carrying dictionaries because they have an access to an Internet; which helps to find the meaning of a word in less than a minute. Technology has a tremendous impact on people’s lives. It has become part of our everyday life. People have used technology as a great source of time saver. As a society, we have witnessed how technology has affected society negatively, but the advantages the technology has given people outweigh the disadvantages. As the technology has evolved, people have noticed how technology has been a useful tool in terms of increasing employment.

According to Burnstein, “U.S. technology and business innovators recognize that robots in factories have potential to save and create more jobs than they eliminate”. The majorities of factories in the United States use machineries and robotics to produce products instead of paying someone to do it. Many people have argued that the technology evolution has increased unemployment because companies have replaced people with robotics and machineries. Even though more companies replace people with machineries; however, the good news is that the more companies replace machineries with people, the more companies will hire people with higher paying skilled jobs. People will now have to learn how to use machineries and robotics to work in companies that needs specialist on certain machineries. For example, people might get a job as a computer technician or machine operator. Also, many robotics and machineries related companies will have to hire people that design, build, and program the equipment.

Nowadays, technology is fast paced and it is becoming more advanced day by day. Today, the majority of people that work in a company with large information technology divisions need a computer to get their work done. According to Jerome, there has been a new technology invention of distant servers that can easily replace the computer hard drives. However, “the cloud is already putting Americans to work. Google’s team has more than 1,000 employees, Texas cloud company RackSpace eploys 3,700 people, and California-based provider has 235 open positions, according to The Wall Street Journal”(Jerome). Technology has made our jobs so much easier. As a society in a whole, we need to take an advantage of what technology is providing us. For example, farmers’ physical labors have disappeared because now they use machines to do the work. According to Nye, “As recently as 150 years ago, most people in Europe and the United States were farmers. Today, less than 5 percent remain on farms, and industrial work occupies only about 25 percent of workers” (Nye, 7).

Because of this, many people argue that technology has impacted the job creation negatively. It has not just made our lives easier, but it also has helped people to save time and to find a better job. Few decades ago, construction workers used to work with tool such as hammers, ladder, and ropes. However, today, people use machineries such as nail gun, paint sprayer, and cranes. As Nye mentioned, “Tedious and dangerous factory work has been replaced by robot or automatic machines, while millions of people hold jobs that did not exist 150 years ago in the industries created around new technologies, such as computing, musical recording, broadcasting, design, advertising, and research and development” (7).Technology is advancing so rapidly that we might stay behind if we don’t adapt to it. Because of this, people need to improve their technological skills. The more we familiarize with technology, the more opportunity we will have finding a job. As technology has increased in our lives, we have been able to characterize the importance of technology in our social life.

Technology has made our lives so much easier. For example, we don’t have to go to a bank to deposit checks because people can do this by simply uploading a check in their bank’s mobile application. Also, technology has provided us with Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system to travel without getting lost or asking for help; even cars are being made with GPS systems which helps drivers to comfortably drive wherever they want to. There have been many pros and cons about social media. In addition, some people say it has affected the way we communicate negatively by diminishing our social skills. However, the benefits of technology in our social life have overthrown the disadvantages that technology supposedly causes. Today, most of the people are using social media such as twitter, Facebook, Skype etc… The popularity of Facebook and twitter has increased tremendously during the past few years; it has been a great tool to keep in touch with your friends and family.

According to the psychiatrist Marley, “People who follow a lot of Twitters from diverse backgrounds could quickly build up an understanding of lots of people, and this in turn would enable them with ‘people knowledge’ that would better equip them for social interactions with people”(Marley). There are thousands of twitter users that are from different country, who speaks another language, and who shares different customs than others. Even though people are not interacting face to face with others, people can easily feel comfortable and get better understanding which can help communication. “In an age when all aspects of life are becoming increasingly electronic, social networking sites are turning into a social scene that caters young and adults, and provides for their interactive needs while connecting peers and colleagues worldwide” (Wittaker). Social networks can be a great way to look for support.

Most of the time, people find support on social network when they feel sad, lonely or bored. According to Torr: Several studies have specially countered some prior research linking Internet use with isolation or depression, showing experienced users may find a greater support online, become more satisfied with their interaction and communication, and generate new relationship through the ability to contact others more easily than they can offline (Torr, 26). Also, social media makes it easier to communicate for people who don’t feel comfortable talking in person. Today, technology has been used as new way of entertainment. The majority of teenagers carry a smartphone; some people see this as a bad thing because they only use it to play games. However, what people don’t realize is that it is becoming a game changer. The reason why cell phones are becoming a game changer is because “kids themselves are bringing the device to school, we adults brought laptops into school, and they are a yawn, as are netbooks because the kids see cell phones as their generation’s technology”(Soloway).

Today, kids are much more familiarized with technology than what we were as a kid. In addition, technology also has changed the way we entertain ourselves. For example, our parents experienced music very differently than today’s digital natives. Not so long ago, people used to buy cd’s to listen to music or take pictures in a roll of film that had to be taken to the pharmacy to be printed out. However, today people can easily take a picture, share songs, or music videos through social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Teenagers today, “expresses themselves creatively in ways that are very different from the ways their parents did at their age” (Palfrey, 6). Technology also has influenced the way people get important informations. For example, Internet provides us with great medical information such as how to cure a virus, fever or any kind of illnesses.

According to Haugen, “a survey made on March 2005, about 17 million said that Internet had played a crucial and important role in helping them with major illness or medical conations”. Sometime, people use the internet to find a recommendable doctor nearby. For all these reasons technology has positively impacted the way that people participate in a social life. Other than technology being beneficial in our social life, we have also seen how the technology has provided benefits in the field of education. The majority of school districts prohibit electronic devices in classroom because it distracts them from learning. What parents and teachers don’t realize is that mobile devices such as smartphones can help students to understand the material better. Parents, teachers, and administrators refuse to allow students to use smartphones in class because students spend their time on social networks.

However, “ ‘ significantly more students who use mobile devices in the class room express a stronger interest in subjects than students than students who do not use these devices in classroom’” (Armstrong, 39). Learning social skills through social network can be an important skill for students to thrive in the future as a professional. As Gerber mentioned, “Social networking sites offer teenagers the opportunity to navigate everyday technology, learn valuable computer and social skill, and polish their language efficiently” (Gerber).As students interact with their friends through social networking sites, they become friendlier. They have an opportunity to meet other people not only inside of school, but also outside of school.

Today’s generation are more literate, creative, and more socially skilled than their parent’s generation because of their early familiarity with the Internet. Social networking does not only improves student’s communication skills, but it also allows students to “share information and creative original work such as poetry and film” (Wittaker).College students have experienced the benefits of technology in many ways. For example, if students don’t know the meaning of any work, the first thing that they do is look it up online. This does not only give an understanding of a word, but it also gives time to look for a variety of information. Also, in many colleges, instructors provide students a website where they can submit their class works and check their current grades. Since everything is becoming electronic, we have noticed that people are no longer reading newspapers. The time when we see someone reading a newspaper, are usually elderly people.

Most of these elderly people think that digital natives are not learning effectively because they don’t read newspapers. However, this argument is completely wrong because technology allows students to access tons of information that they’re interested in. According Palfrey mentioned, “Digital natives pick up bits and pieces of news and information as they go about their day, not in a single sitting at the breakfast table or in the front of the television in the evening”. Since today’s students have an easy access to the internet, they just look up for any news that they feel interested in. Technology has not only made learning easy, but it also has trained students to improve technological skill for the future where everything is going to be electronic. Grandmother Selina would have been lucky if she was born in today’s age. She would not have had to carry heavy dictionary to her class. Technology has made our life less complicated by saving time and allowing more flexibility.

Technology has changed in a blink of an eye. As a society, we have realized that without technology our lives would be slow-paced. It has helped to improve people’s knowledge, ability to work, and greater ability to improve people’s communication. People need to be up to date with the technology because that’s what the future holds for us. In few years from now, we well depend on technology to survive; since it is becoming a part of our lives. People need to stop worrying about the negative impact of technology, and focus on what technology has to provide us.

Works Cited

Armstrong, Alice. “Technology In The Classroom It’s Not A Matter Of ‘If,’ But ‘When’ And ‘How’.” Education Digest 79.5 (2014): 39. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 25 Apr. 2014. Burnstein, Jeff. “Technology and Automation Create Jobs.” Unemployment. Ed. David Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from “Robots Can Create Jobs, Too.” Robotic Industries Association, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints in
Context. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. Gerber, Lauren. “Social Networking Sites Help Students Gain Important Skills.” Are Social Networking Sites Harmful? Ed. Stefan Kiesbye. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Rpt. from “New Discovery: Teenagers Are Actually Benefiting From Spending Too Much Time Online.” 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 5 May 2014. Haugen, David. Ed. Technology and Society. Detroit. Thomson Gale, 2007. Print. Jerome, Sara. “Cloud Technology Will Create Jobs.” Technology and the Cloud. Ed. David Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from “Cloud Computing’s Silver Lining: Jobs.” National Journal 18 (29 Oct. 2011). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 5 May 2014. Marley, Justin. “Twitter Is Transforming Social Relationships.” What Is the Impact of Twitter? Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from “Could Twitter Impact on Social Relationships?” 2009. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 5 May 2014. Nye, David E. Technology Matters: Question to Live With. Massachusetts. The MIT Press, 2006.Print Palfrey, John and Urs Gasser. Born Digital: Understand the First Generation of Digital Natives. New York. Basic Books, 2008. Print Soloway, Elliot. “Smartphones Will Benefit Classroom Learning.” Smartphones. Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from “Will Smart Phones Eliminate the Digital Divide?” THE Journal (1 Feb. 2011). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 5 May 2014. Torr, James D. ed. The Interet: Opposing Viewpoints. New York. Thomson Gale, 2005. Print. Whittaker, AnneWagner, Geraldine. “Point: Social Networking Websites Provide A Healthy Way To Improve Friendships.” Points Of View: Social Networking Sites (2013): 2. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 24 Apr. 2014

Academic performance and technology

Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of outer space by means of space technology. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the early 20th century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality.

Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries. Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War. The early era of space exploration was driven by a “Space Race” between the Soviet Union and the United States, the launch of the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, the USSR’s Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957, and the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 craft on 20 July 1969 are often taken as the boundaries for this initial period.

The Soviet space program achieved many of the first milestones, including the first living being in orbit in 1957, the first human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1) in 1961, the first spacewalk (by Aleksei Leonov) on 18 March 1965, the first automatic landing on another celestial body in 1966, and the launch of the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971. After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station (ISS). With the substantial completion of the ISS following STS-133 in March 2011, plans for space exploration by the USA remain in flux. Constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged inadequately funded and unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009.

The Obama Administration proposed a revision of Constellation in 2010 to focus on the development of the capability for crewed missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), envisioning extending the operation of the ISS beyond 2020, transferring the development of launch vehicles for human crews from NASA to the private sector, and developing technology to enable missions to beyond LEO, such as Earth/Moon L1, the Moon, Earth/Sun L2, near-earth asteroids, and Phobos or Mars orbit.[5] As of March 2011, the US Senate and House of Representatives are still working towards a compromise NASA funding bill, which will probably terminate Constellation and fund development of a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV).[6] In the 2000s, the People’s Republic of China initiated a successful manned spaceflight program, while the European Union, Japan, and India have also planned future manned space missions.

China, Russia, Japan, and India have advocated manned missions to the Moon during the 21st century, while the European Union has advocated manned missions to both the Moon and Mars during the 21st century. From the 1990s onwards, private interests began promoting space tourism and then private space exploration of the Moon (see Google Lunar X Prize).

Benefits of this to Mankind

There are critics who disagree with the expenditure on space exploration, which they claim can better be used to solve earthly problems. However, they seem to forget that this is one of the fields which tests a man’s intellect. But, how does a common man draw benefits of space exploration? The advances made in field of space exploration can be well used in other fields such as medicine, agriculture, etc. The following is the list of benefits of space exploration to mankind: Global Positioning System: The mankind depends on the sea trade for transportation of food grains, fossil fuels, metal ores, etc. Global navigation system, GPS helps in timely delivery of these essential goods by providing the ships with essential navigation information.

The GNS services are made available using networks of satellites which also enables satellite Internet and satellite phones. Weather Forecast and Agriculture: Gone are the days, when we used to take an umbrella with us while going out if there were black clouds in the sky. Now we can rely on the weather reports updated on an hourly basis. The accurate weather forecast is possible only because of the satellites in the space. The satellites also help us in predicting the crop yields, pest infestation and the area under cultivation. Natural Calamities: It is easy to predict natural calamities such as floods, storms, tornadoes, hurricanes and to locate wildfires and their extent with the help of satellites. Minerals and Mining: Minerals buried deep under the Earth’s surface can be located using satellites. Precious fossil fuels can be found with the help of satellites. Electronics: The field of electronics and computers have also benefited from the space exploration.

The astronauts have manufactured miniature electronic parts that could only be produced in the space during their experiments in the space stations and space shuttles. Asteroids: It is believed that an asteroid strike eliminated the dinosaurs on the Earth. One of the benefits of space exploration is that we know about the thousands of asteroids and we can also be vigilant about their “drifts”. May be we could prevent ‘dinosaurian death of mankind’, if and when an asteroid is positioned to repeat history. If it happens, it would be because of the knowledge which is the direct benefit of space exploration. Energy Source: The scientists and researchers all over the world are attempting to harness the power of nuclear fusion. The process which enables the Sun to produce energy in abundance. It is believed that quantity of electricity generated using 1kg of hydrogen would be equivalent to that of 11,000 metric tons of coal.

Medicine: Another field to glean the benefits of the satellite exploration is that of medicine. Metal alloys that are manufactured to be used in spacecraft and space shuttles are also used in the health care industry. Nitinol, an alloy is used to make braces. The miniature electronic components which were developed for the space program can be used in electronic pain-control device that some patients need to use. The implantable insulin pump is based on the mechanical robot arm developed for the Mars Voyager probe. The space exploration benefits also encompasses the field of communication which needs no explanation. The applications of knowledge and the technologies, that are the outcome of the man’s efforts to explore space, are making his life easier indeed!

The bad effects of technology

What are the bad effects of Technology? Technology emerged as an effective way of making things and work easier and faster.It emerged at peak of time when people were in the urge to make things much more comfortable.From generations to generations,human tried as much as possible to come out with certain way of making life easier.It started with the simple use if hunting a gathering when humans where using stones and sticks for hunting. Time after time, new ways of doing things kept on portruding.from then, it came to a time of using bows and arrows.from then, catapults and matchets.

Till this present generation that people use guns and other technological instruments. Notably, as the basic meaning of technology strikes, to make things easier and faster, this era of technological advancement that have been meant to be the best of time when people will enjoy the best of technology without haste has come to be the time when man is really suffering by the challenges of technology. Irespective of the great contributions that technology offer us, it also has made way to so many setback in our daily life activities. Moreover,technology has made possible setbacks afflicting us;political,social,economical ,psychological etc. Political

It terms of politics, technology appears a great cancer as it makes it possible fo other countries to counter attack the other and gain some pol influence on them.considering the issue of cyber surveillance ,some other highly developed countries tend to override other under developed countries’s critical information s witho the knowing.Other countries also attacks on other countries with misiles lik the nuclear weapons, jetfighters ,cannons, submarines, the war in Iraq,Afganistan etc. Social,

It terms of sici problem that technology has brought up in this era is the problems is security.Most people lack their proper safeguarding of the personal informations as some socia networking companies tes to sell out our data to a third party company for their own marketing demonstrations without our consent.Anythng could happen if this information gets in the wrng hands. Economical

This is one of the greatest platform where technology really affect our economy certain countries technology affects the economy very great as business managers or investors use technology in an unethical way there by attacking the critical informations of several countries or companies.Hackers get the chances of embarking phishing on several websites of ecommerce transactions. Psychological

Our mentality is changing rapidly without us knowing.our smart phones are taking the great spots of our books.We tend to spend longer durations with our phones rather than our books which could rather be more productive.WE somimes spend longer dutations on the pc’s which is not healthy. We even spend lesser durations with our friends and family but longer times with technoogy which inturn disrupts our relationships with others.W even sometimes cannot complete a full meal without tapping our also causes laziness among people.

An analysis of the influence of technology on contemporary interior architecture

The analysis of the articles is based on the influence of technology on interior architecture education and of employer’s expectations in the interior design industry. This also addresses the issues faced by interior designers in today’s world and how technology is hindering/fostering their creativity.

Talking about the article on “Technology Changing the Face of the Modern Fit out”, it addresses a strong point of how the interior design industry was never considered as a crucial part of the industry and was dealt with a stereotype attitude that interior designers dealt only withthe part of “decorating” the space until technology gained importance. Technology has now given a 180-degree turn to the industry because of which the industry has finally started gaining the deserved recognition.

The underlying point in the article “ is technology hindering or fostering the creativity in interior design”, although is on similar lines like the above mentioned article about the positive aspects of technology, it also talks about the pitfall side of technology on the industry. Their argument is supported with an example cited of a professor from a state university of how although he accepts that the technology has given the students, the most innovative platform to communicate their design ideas, somewhere down the lane, the students who are the prospective interior designers are lacking the basic creative skills and hand drafting techniques.

“Interior Designers’ Perceptions of the Influence 
of Technology on Workplace Performance” article gives us a different perspective of the influence of technology and how it caters to the interior designers. The statement is supported by examples cited by employees from the industry who have been interviewed of how 2D and 3D software have enabled the designers to get their work done in reduced time in comparison to how it was in the past. It also talks about what the expectations of the employers from new hires are, which includes being efficient in 2D and 3D software which will enable them to be proficient in expressing their design ideas.

The other side of the coin is that it is hindering the employers in certain ways. This point is well supported by examples they cite of how in case if the computer crashes the students are unable to come up with a hand made drawing ready for a meeting. The over dependence on the computer has led to this state where the new graduates are finding it tough to inculcate sketching and hand drafting although their competent computer skills enable them to complete a design project in no time.

The articles that we have looked at firmly state that the influence of technology has its pros and cons. The use of technology has catered to designers in various ways in terms of the time factor, design output etc. But the basic thing we have to understand is every opportunity has both sides. So technology is definitely fostering the designers but having said that it is better that we don’t become over dependent on it that it hinders our creative and innovative skills of designing.