In Long Day’s Journey into Night, how far and in what ways is the past presented as destructive?

Edmund’s poignant quote that encapsulates the character of Mary Tyrone shows evidence of one of the play’s main underlying themes; the destructive power of the past and the horrors that not being able to let go of it can bring. Each member of the Tyrone family will delve into their past to try and escape the hellish environment surrounding them, which they themselves have made. By delving deeper into the past to escape themselves and their family members, they only worsen the situation, paralyzed by a painful double bind that drags them into a downwards spiral of depression.

The semi autobiographical play was written by O’Neill between 1941 and 1942 but only published in 1956, 3 years after his death. The fact that he prevented the play from being published shows that the scenes are based on true scenes of pain and suffering that he and his family endured which made him feel vulnerable if out in the open. Perhaps he, just like the characters in Long Day’s Journey into Night, was afraid of his past and the destructive power that it holds. Edmund’s description of Mary Tyrone as a “ghost haunting the past” is a near perfect encapsulation of her character later in the play.

Plagued by her morphine addiction, Mary Cavan Tyrone (based on the O’Neill’s mother Mary O’Neill who faced a real morphine addiction) tries to escape into the ‘good old days’ of her past. The morphine acts as a kind of time machine that brings her back to being the “naive, happy, chattering schoolgirl of her convent days”. However by falling into the trap of the past with her own personal drug, like all the family members, she loses the will to fight against her problem in the present and takes more morphine to counter this effect, freezing herself in a deadly double bind and showing the destructive nature of longing for ‘days gone by’. In this way, the title Long Day’s Journey into Night, can be seen as a metaphor for the family’s journey into the past through the use of drugs and alcohol that act as their ‘time machines’.

The past is destroying their lives by pretending to be a place of solace. For Mary, this place of consolation is the days of her youth in the nunnery. For the real Mary this was the Ursuline Academy on Euclid Avenue where she would learn to be pious and forgiving (values she would later lose after her marriage to James Tyrone). At 15 Eugene O’Neill’s mother attended St. Mary’s Academy and graduated with honours in music. This would become the basis with Mary Tyrone’s obsession with becoming a concert pianist. This obsession culminates in Act 4 when Mary is heard playing an eerie, “forgetful, stiff fingered” version of one of Chopin’s simpler waltzes in a poetic cry to her youth.

This search into her past represents “the destruction of the family because of the family’s inability to move on, to grow, and to prosper, instead choosing to live in the past “glory days” where one no longer has to worry” as critic William Dorey puts it. After the piano playing she emerges in the living room with her wedding grown in another desperate attempt to recapture the past. This longing for things completely lost to her depresses her and her family and sends them further into their alcohol or drug fuelled hazes. Thus the past can be seen as destructive because it reminds the characters’ of their lost dreams and hopes and fuels the depression that runs throughout the text.

However the drugs don’t only plunge her into hopes dreams that have disappeared; they also give her new hope, an even more nefarious trick of the past. In a quote that can be used for many of the characters, Mary says: “I can’t have lost it forever. I would die if I thought that”. This example of Mary desperately hoping that her dreams aren’t lost forever, and her uncertainty of what those dreams even are because of the distance between herself and the days of her youth, provide even more evidence of the destructive nature of the past in Long Day’s Journey into Night.

The character of James Tyrone presents us with a very different form of the past being destructive. Although Tyrone does not lose himself in the past as much as the other characters of the play, his actions in the present are caused by how his personality was moulded by his earlier days. He gets attacked by his sons Edmund and Jamie for being a miser when he either refuses to pay for expensive bills or tries to save money when turning off lights. Jamie even calls him “old Gaspard” after the miserly farmer in Les Cloches de Corneville by Robert Planquette. However, Tyrone has been made this way by his past. He has been psychologically damaged to be fearful for money due to his obsession with the American Dream. In many ways he has succeeded with the American Dream, his father a poor Irish immigrant, James
had to work in a “machine shop” from the age of ten which he is scolded for mentioning too much to his two sons. He then climbed the ladder of society by becoming a successful actor and making himself a fortune. The fact that his new found riches bring him no satisfaction is O’Neill’s way of deriding the idea of the American Dream and America’s obsession with it at the time. O’Neill saw it as “improvement through economic means in exchange for repressing self-gratification” as Henry Manson puts it. Tyrone’s miserliness as caused by his past will then damage his family and himself by refusing him to spend enough to make his family enjoy their home or get a better doctor (Doc Hardy being the symbol of Tyrone’s miserliness).

Tyrone’s past choice to exchange fame for money and become the lead actor in the Count of Monte Cristo for years on end (another real background event) is a constant reminder to him of what he could have been. The obvious regret he feels for “that god damned play” which “ruined me with a promise of an easy fortune” is the reason for his obsessive drive to make something of his sons. He wants them to become famous and not just rich. Seeing they are neither, he clashes with them frequently and the disappointment he feels simmers on the surface throughout the whole play. His alcoholism and that of his two sons can also be blamed on his Irish heritage. Thus James Tyrone’s past can be blamed for his feeling of unfulfillment, family arguments with his sons and alcoholism which shows blatant evidence of the past being presented as a destructive force in the play.

What Drove The Sugar Trade?

Sugar is a very tempting and delightful sweetener to foods used every day, all over the world to satisfy our appetites. One year after Christopher Columbus’s first voyage in 1493, Columbus introduced cane sugar to the islands of the Caribbean. During this time sugar was not known to most people in Europe. That changed soon enough and caused the production of sugar to become a large industry. The sugar trade was driven by land and climate, consumer demand, and the economy.

Land and climate was a major factor in driving the sugar trade. Included in Document 1 is a Colonial Map of the Caribbean. The map presents that most Caribbean land are colonized by the British, French, and Spanish. Referring the map to Document 2, explains that an ideal climate average for the growth of cane sugar is sixty-eight degrees Fahrenheit to ninety degrees Fahrenheit which slaves are forcefully working and growing sugar out in the heat.

It is an evident fact the British, French, and Spanish bought this land using slaves in an undesirable climate to grow lots of sugar on their land which pushed the sugar trade. Displayed in Document 6, are requirements of what a sugar plantation of five hundred acres should require. A few of the requirements are a boiling house, distilling house, rum house, and salt provisions. All of these houses on this one large piece of land help advance the sugar trade by the production of sugar all being done in one place. Land and climate drove the sugar trade by having great geography, weather, location, and temperature.

Consumer demand was another main component of advancing the sugar trade. In Document 4, the author Sidney W. Mintz stated, “…all contain stimulants and can be properly classified as drugs (together with tobacco and rum, though clearly different both in effects and addictiveness).” In this quote, the author is referring to tea, coffee, and chocolate, and the use of sugar in them. It is evident that Mintz is using her own opinion which is incorrect.

Mintz is alleging tropical products are as harmful as drugs and alcohol and comparing drugs and alcohol to these tropical products, tropical products are absolutely not as damaging to health. Also, while alcohol and drugs are illegal in some places, tropical products should not be compared to drugs and alcohol like that. The tropical products which include sugar in them despite being addictive, will have a high demand to all consumers. Furthermore, the image shown in Document 3A show children eating sugar out of hogsheads which impound between 700 and 1200 pounds of sugar that trade to the West Indies, displaying demands for the sugar were high.

Also, in Document 3B, Benjamin Mosely states, “…The increased consumption of sugar, and increasing demand for it, exceed all comparison… the influence of sugar, that once touching the nerves of taste no person was ever known to have the power of relinquishing the desire for it.” The addictiveness for sugar was booming. In Document 5 also, the British Sugar Consumption chart shows that as the population was increasing, consumption continued to rise also revealing demand was high being complementary to other products. Consumer demand drove the sugar trade by sugar being an enhancement, sweet, and a complementary to other products.

Furthermore, the economy was one more factor out of the many that helped push the sugar trade. In Document 6, William Belgrove wrote a list of what a sugar plantation of five hundred acres of land required. One of the bias requirements he wrote was, “A proper room to confine disorderly Negroes”. That statement clearly shows racism to innocent slaves. It is evident that Belgrove does not think of slaves as human. Instead of having a room to confine them, he should let them go and should not have brought them to the land in the beginning.

It could be a waste of time and money when you can just grow more sugar to earn money without using slaves. Corresponding with Document 8, a picture is shown displaying slaves working in a boiling house and on a plantation. Just like in Document 6, these slaves are not needed. It is a fact the English believed in life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and that all men are created equal which is stated in the Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

This effects the economy in the sugar trade by using these slaves when buying them for a one time purchase and earning more money out of them growing sugar. Also, in Document 12, author Phillip Roden explains the mercantile system which are laws that let English merchants and manufacturers buy raw materials from the colonies at low prices and then sold them for higher prices, causing to affect their economy remarkably by England gaining more money than losing. The economy drove the sugar trade by mercantilism, slave labor, and demand cost.

Many factors drove the sugar trade such as, land and climate, consumer demand, and economy. The sugar trade and what drove it is significant because sugar is an additive people use and consume every day and the factors of it are what result in everyone having sugar for use in countries everywhere today. Starting from the 1400’s to now, sugar will always be common and important to our world.

“Emotion is stronger than reason.”To what extent is this true in Human Science

People will make lots of decisions in their life, some of the decisions are emotional , and some are intellectual. From my point of view, I think emotion and reason are all important, and it’s depends on a specific situation and specific person to decide if it’s stronger or not.So my stance is neutral. If a person is very intellectual, most of his decision will be reasonable, but if he is a very emotional person, most of his decision would be emotional. For instance, smoking , which is a very emotional decision , because everyone knows cigarette is bad for our health , but some people still can not quit smoking .

The reason of this is when they smoke , cigarette will bring them pleasant sensation, and those smokers will want more cigarette , in their mind , emotion is stronger than reason.However, on the other hand, there also have some people who quit smoking successfully or don’t start smoking in the first place. From their perspective, reason is stronger than emotion .

Another example, Apple, a very large company in the world, the founder of it is Steve Jobs,who is also a emotional person, because his objective is to make better electronic devices for customs and have more creative ideas to make people’s life better.that might cause company run out if money , because better quality design will cause more money to produce it .But, Apple’s shareholders don’t think that way, they want to make more money, increase the profit ,lower the input and keep this company running , did not think of if the product is creative, they think more about the future of Apple , so that’s reasonable and intellectual.

Cover Letter. What is it?

It is generally accepted practice to include a cover (or covering) letter, together with your resume and any other documentation that you forward to the employer as part of a job application.

Your covering letter essentially provides an explanation of why you are communicating with the employer. Imagine a prospective employer’s confusion if they received your resume without a covering letter explaining why you have sent it to them, or what position you were applying for.

A well written covering letter however can achieve much, much more in assisting you to gain employment. It represents a significant opportunity to create a positive impression with the employer, and to further market your skills and qualifications. Often your cover letter alone can influence an employer to include you in the next stage of the selection process, which is meeting you in an interview.

When should I send a cover letter?
What is the purpose of a cover letter?
Write about benefits to the employer
General guidelines for preparing a cover letter
Suggested content for specific types of cover letters
Job advertisement response – private enterprise position
Job advertisement response – roles in government departments/organisations Speculative or cold call letters
Writing to a recruitment agency
Email cover letters
Keep good records

When should I send a cover letter?
Always include a cover letter when sending your resume to:

An employer, or a recruitment agency, in response to an advertised position. A recruitment agency seeking their assistance in finding employment. Prospective individual employers as part of a self-marketing exercise, or when enquiring about employment opportunities in their organisation. Send a cover letter even if a job advertisement doesn’t specifically request that you do so. Remember, a cover letter provides another opportunity, in addition to your resume, to make a positive impression with prospective employers.

Note: The only exception to this would be an employer’s on-line application process which does not enable or allow for a cover letter to be included.


What is the purpose of a cover letter?
The cover letter is an obvious means of introducing yourself to a potential employer, or, to an employer’s agent if you are writing to a recruitment agency.

Beyond this however, you should use a cover letter to:

Explain clearly and concisely who you are, what job you are applying for, and why you applying. Summarise your key strengths, attributes, qualifications and motivations. Convey that you are professional, competent and enthusiastic about the employment opportunity through the language, content and overall layout of the letter.

Tip: Never send a ‘generic’ cover letter to employers. As with your resume, it is essential that every cover letter you send to an employer is tailored to either the specific selection criteria appearing in the job advertisement, and/or to your specific purpose in writing to that employer.

A final thought about the importance of your cover letter: The cover letter and the resume should both be stand alone documents and have sufficient impact on the employer to take your application to the next stage. Don’t assume that an employer will take the time to read both the cover letter and resume when deciding which applications to accept or reject.


Write about the benefits to the employer
Your cover letter is a sales letter; you want the employer to “buy” what you have to offer. To encourage them to do this, it is essential that you explain how the employer will benefit if they offer you a position.

For example, if you have well developed interpersonal communication skills and you know these skills are important to the employer, then say you have these skills in your letter. Then go one step further and point out a benefit, for instance:

“I have highly developed interpersonal communication skills which means that I able to rapidly form effective working relationships with both co-workers and customers”.

Avoid doing what inexperienced job candidates do which is usually to point out to an employer how a position with their organisation meets their career goals or other needs, such as:

“This is my ideal position”, or “this role will give me the opportunity to get started/gain important experience in this field”.

Employers will rarely be impressed by this; they much prefer to know about the contribution you can make, or the benefits you can bring to their organisation.


General guidelines for preparing a cover letter
Following are some guidelines to assist you to write cover letters that make a positive impact on employers:

Ideally keep the length of your letter to a single A4 page, and no more than a page and a half. Keep your message clear and succinct. Address your letter to a person, not a position. The job advertisement might say to address your letter to the “The Human Resources Manager” or other job title. Contact the organisation to find out the name of the person to whom the letter should be addressed.

In this way you can differentiate yourself from other candidates, and increase the chances that your application will get noticed. Ensure your name, address, phone number/s and email address are at the very top of the letter and aligned to the right hand margin. Also at the top of the letter, on the next line after the greeting “Dear Ms …”, quote any employer reference information and/or number appearing in the job advertisement. Set out your letter so that it is easy to read, and that essential information about you can be seen at a glance.

The reader will probably spend no more than 30 seconds or so reading your letter before deciding if you qualify for further consideration. It is quite acceptable to use bold or underlined sub-headings in the main body of your letter with information relevant to the sub heading in dot point form. Make the tone of your letter lively by commencing bullet point sentences with action words such as ‘led’, ‘designed’, ‘planned and organised’, ‘implemented’ etc as appropriate.

Close the letter with “Yours sincerely” if you know the person to whom you are writing, otherwise close with “Yours faithfully”. Sign the letter in your own hand writing, and type your name underneath the signature. Always proof read your letter. Spelling and grammar must be correct. Having a friend or colleague proof read your letter is also helpful. The next topic provides suggestions about the content of specific types of cover letters.


Suggested content for specific types of cover letter
What you write about in your letter will depend on your purpose. Following are some additional, more specific guidelines for each of the most common situations where you should send a cover letter. These situations are:

A position in private enterprise. Here you are responding to a job advertisement placed either by the employer, or a recruitment agency, where you are not required to also submit a separate document addressing the selection criteria. A role in a government department, local government and some not for profit organisations.

This type of job application usually requires you to prepare and submit, in addition to your resume and cover letter, a separate document which addresses the selection criteria contained in the person specification for the role. Writing a speculative letter (or cold call) to an employer enquiring about employment opportunities. Writing to introduce yourself to a recruitment agency and requesting them to assist you to find employment, rather than the situation where you are writing in response to a job advertisement. top^

Job advertisement response – private enterprises Carefully analyse the job advertisement to determine the content of this type of letter. In your letter you should describe succinctly and clearly how you meet that criteria.

Advertisements for graduate positions most often appear in the large display advertisements in the careers or professional section of the newspaper, not in the positions vacant section.

A display advertisement will usually consist of three parts – a description of the employer organisation, an overview of the job role and then the selection criteria. The selection criteria part of an advertisement usually starts with a sentence like “The successful candidate will demonstrate/possess …” or “To be successful in this role you will …”

The focus and main content of your letter should be about how you meet the selection criteria. This is because the decision to hire will be based on how well candidates meet the selection criteria.

In your introductory paragraph:

Refer to the position, including a reference number, if applicable, and where you saw it advertised. Say that you are interested in the role, and express confidence in your ability to perform the role to the standard required. Then write a sentence introducing the reader to the main body of the letter, for example, “Following is a summary of my qualifications and experience based on your selection criteria: …” In the main body of your letter:

Use sub headings, either in bold font or underlined, for each of the selection criteria, and then detail under each heading the information in dot point summary form about how you meet the criteria. Indicate that you have enclosed your resume which contains further information about your skills and qualifications in relation to the position. The concluding paragraph:

Indicate that you look forward to meeting the person to whom you are writing in the interview, at which time you will be able to further demonstrate your suitability for the role and outline the contribution you can make to the organisation.

Avoid a weak closing sentence which states that you “hope to hear” from them – indicate in the tone of the letter that you are confident about your capabilities and that an interview is expected! Tip: Avoid doing what inexperienced job seekers tend to do, which is to write about their ability to carry out the described role, rather than attempting to match their skills and experience against the selection criteria.

Job advertisement response – roles in government departments/ organisations The content of your cover letter for a position in a federal, state or local government organisation or department will be set out in a similar style to a letter which you might send for a role outside government.

You will need to outline in the letter the position for which you are applying and why you believe you are the best candidate for the role. When applying for most government roles you will need to complete a separate, and usually quite extensive document which contains evidence about how you meet the selection criteria. Because you will need to restrict the length of your cover letter to a page or so, your major challenge will to condense and summarise in your letter, information that you will have already provided in this separate document.

In the main body of the letter therefore, using the same sub heading and
bullet point format as for a private enterprise position, select and write about how you meet 3 or 4 of the most important ‘essential’ selection criteria.

Speculative or cold call letter
This is an option for finding employment which is sometimes successful. The approach is to write to an employer, or employers, and recruitment agents who operate in your field of career interest, either to enquire about employment opportunities, or to offer your services.

This type of letter is often called a speculative or cold call letter because you are not responding to an advertisement, and you may not know if the employer is looking to hire staff.

Some suggested approaches for preparing this type of letter are:

If you know the organisation recruits graduates for various types of employment, work experience or project work, explain the arrangement you are seeking. This could be for example to seek full time employment, undertake casual, contract or voluntary work, vacation employment, or as part of a university assignment or project which has application to the organisation or industry. If, as a result of your research into the organisation, you are aware that they have a need that you are able to help them meet, outline in the letter your understanding of their need.

Then explain how, through your specific skills, knowledge or experience, you can assist. Outline your action plan in your closing paragraph. For example, explain that you will make a follow up phone call seeking an interview and give a time frame for when you will be doing this. Do not expect the employer to contact you. Address your letter to a person. Identify who appropriate person/s might be through research and through networking. You can then ask for this person by name when you make your follow up phone call. top^

Writing to a recruitment agency
It is recommended that you include two or three recruitment agencies as part of your job search strategy, asking their assistance in finding you a job. You do not have to wait for an advertisement to appear before contacting a recruitment agency. Write to them as soon as you start your job search.

Be sure to select recruitment agencies that specialise in the industry or occupations that you are targeting.

Recruitment agencies often do not advertise all the positions they are attempting to fill for the employers who are their clients. Instead they will attempt to fill these positions from candidates whose details they already have on their data base. In order to get onto their data base you will probably need to write to them and include your resume.

As with other employment applications you will need to explain in your letter the type of role you are seeking, and outline the skills, knowledge and experience you would bring to such a role. Your approach in the letter is to assist the agency to sell your services to an employer.

Be aware that most recruitment agencies are pleased to work with candidates who are seeking employment under various conditions. This includes permanent, full time roles, full time, fixed term contracts, part time and casual work. You will need to indicate in your cover letter what your preferences are in this regard.

Tip: It sometimes helps to be flexible about the basis on which you might be employed by an organisation. There are many examples of people commencing their career with an organisation on a contract basis, or even as a part time or casual employee who have subsequently been offered a full time, permanent position.


Email cover letters
With the increasing use of employment advertising on the internet and electronic job application processes it is quite likely that you will be using an email in which to write a covering letter.

If you are writing an email cover letter it is even more important to be clear and concise in what you write. Generally the reader will not want to have to work their way through large blocks of text to find out why you are writing and what you have to offer. This means you should aim to confine the content of your email into a single screen sized page.

Some guidelines to follow:

Use the subject line to clearly convey your purpose in writing. Explain in the first sentence why you are writing. In dot point form provide a very brief summary of your key selling points – your relevant skills, knowledge and experience. In your closing sentence indicate that you are looking forward to meeting them in the interview where you can further demonstrate your capabilities. top^

Keep good records When you begin to seriously look for employment it is possible that you will prepare numerous, and different versions of cover letters, your resume and other documentation associated with your application.

Should you be invited to attend an interview, or an employer contacts you by telephone (with or without notice) to conduct a screening interview, it will be imperative that you are able to quickly locate and refer to the information you have given that employer.

A good filing system will assist you to do this. Keep a separate file for each job application. Include in this file:

The job advertisement.
Job or person specifications.
Any notes or worksheets associated with the position.
A copy of the cover letter, resume and any other documentation you send to
the employer.

What is Alim?

Chapter 9 — Test 1
Note: Most questions can be placed in more than one of the four achievement categories. The achievement chart designation provided here indicates the category that is predominant within the question.

1.For each of the following, choose the most appropriate response.
1)A one-year insurance policy was purchased for $960 on July 1, 20-1. On December 31, 20-1, it had an unexpired value of:
e.none of the above.
2)The accountant did not prepare an entry to adjust the Supplies account at the end of the accounting period and, as a result:
a.the Supplies account was overstated.
b.the total expenses were understated.
c.the net income was overstated.
d.the owner’s equity was overstated.
e.all of the above are true.
3)On the basis of the following data, what is the proper adjusting entry for June 30, the end of the fiscal year?
•Supplies account balance before adjustment, $1 900
•Supplies physical inventory on June 30, $750
a.Debit Supplies $750; credit Supplies Expense $750.
b.Debit Supplies Expense $750; credit Supplies $750.
c.Debit Supplies Expense $1 900; credit Supplies $1 900.
d.Debit Supplies $1 900; credit Supplies Expense $1 900.
e.Debit Supplies Expense $1 150; credit Supplies $1 150.
4)The source of data for preparing closing entries is:
a.the trial balance.
b.the work sheet.
c.the general ledger.
d.all of the above.
5)Before the Income Summary account is closed, a credit balance represents
the: expenses for the accounting period. loss for the accounting period. income for the accounting period. assets for the accounting period.
6)When all closing entries have been posted, a net income will be shown on the: side of the Drawings account.
b.debit side of the Capital account. side of the Capital account.
d.debit side of the Drawings account.
7)The net income or net loss figure shown in the Income Summary account will also appear on:
a.the income statement.
b.the worksheet.
c.the balance sheet.
d.all of the above.
8)Which of the following accounts is not closed out at the end of the accounting period?
a.Wages Expense
b.Accounts Receivable
c.Bank Charges
9)The last step in the basic accounting cycle is the: statements. trial balance.
c.closing journal entries.
d.adjusting journal entries.
2.An accountant neglects to calculate the yearly depreciation for an electric pencil sharpener, which cost $30 and has an expected useful life of five years. That is because the accountant charged the entire $30 to the Office Expense account at the time of purchase. Explain whether the accountant has violated the consistency, materiality, or full disclosure principle and state why.

3.In the chart below, write in the numbers of the accounts that are debited and credited when the given adjustments are made. For items b), c), and d), assume that accounting clerks debited asset accounts when they received the appropriate invoices. Adjustments

a)Adjust for late-arriving telephone bill

b)Adjust for insurance used

c)Adjust for prepaid licence

d)Adjust for supplies used


Accounts Payable
Customer’s Account
Prepaid Insurance
Licence Expense
Prepaid Licences
Insurance Expense
Supplies Expense
Insurance Assets
Telephone Expense
Merchandise Inventory

4.Kathy Morris owns a small decorating business called Premium Decorating. A partially completed work sheet for Premium Decorating and additional information follow directly.
Additional Information
1.Purchase invoices received in January 20-3, which pertain to goods or services received in 20-2, are for the following:
Telephone Expense$102
Car Expense389
2.The supplies counted and valued as of December 31, 20-2, are $980.
3.The unexpired insurance at December 31, 20-2, amounted to $1 040.
4.a)Using the additional information above, complete the eight-column work sheet. GST accounts are not to be considered. 
b)Prepare the four closing journal entries for Premium Decorating as of December 31, 20-2. Omit explanations.

4.c)Assuming all entries have been posted, calculate the ending Capital balance for Premium Decorating as of December 31, 20-2, in the account provided below.

d)Prepare a post-closing trial balance for Premium Decorating as of December 31, 20-2.

5.A company purchases equipment costing $50 000, which it expects to last for 12 years and to have a salvage value of $2 000.
a)Prepare a schedule of depreciation for the first five years using the straight-line method. Year
Straight-line Depreciation


$50 000





b)For the same equipment, prepare a schedule of depreciation for the first five years using the declining-balance method. Canada Customs and Revenue Agency’s prescribed rate for depreciation is 30%. Year

Declining Balance


$50 000.00





c)Repeat the same type of calculations as in b) above, but this time
assume CCRA’s “50% rule” is in effect.
Declining Balance with 50% Rule


$50 000.00





6.Indicate which of the accounts below are nominal accounts by placing a check mark () in the space provided.
a)Accounts Receivable
b)Bank Charges
g)Chris Vella, Capital
c)Miscellaneous Expense
h)Fees Earned
i)Chris Vella, Drawings
e)Accounts Payable
j)Bank Loan
7.The information below is related to adjustments to the accounts as of June 30, 20—, the end of the current fiscal period.
Prepare the appropriate adjusting entries to be made as of June 30, 20-1. Leave one blank line between entries. Omit explanations.
1.The $50 000 balance in Advertising Expense at June 30, 20-1, represents the amount paid for advertising. Analysis indicates that $7 500 of this amount is for radio ads to be aired in July.
2.The $4 800 balance in Prepaid Maintenance on June 30, 20-1, represents an advance payment, effective September 30, 20-1, for maintenance on computers for one year at $400 per month. This regular maintenance service has been performed for nine months, October through June, of the year just ended.

3.A bill for supplies purchased on June 29, 20-1, for $400 was not received until July 8, 20-1.

What to Consider When Creating a Memorial

A memorial is a materialistic piece that is intended to make people remember and have an emotional relationship with the event that took place, or person that accomplished a goal or made a great sacrifice that made an impact. What deems something or someone worthy of having a monument created? What should be considered when planning and constructing the monument? There are several factors that should be taking into consideration when preparing to erect a monument; such things are as follows: where could it be located to have the greatest effect, what impact something or someone had, and to make the piece extraordinary and authorative. When preparing to create a monument, location is imperative. “Why make a pilgrimage to a site with no historical significance to read a text that was already everywhere?” (Savage)

What Savage means by this is that it is asinine to build a memorial in a location that has no historical significance to the event, or person that the monument is symbolizing. For example, the statue of Paul “Bear” Bryant, former coach at the University of Alabama, is located outside of Bryant-Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa where the university is located. Why is it located there instead of somewhere like Florida University, or Georgia? Well, at any other college, the monument would not have as big as an impact as it does. Even though location plays a big part in planning and creating a monument, it is not the only factor that must be considered. Another thing to consider when contemplating a new monument is what event took place. A monument should be created well enough to where someone can look at it and immediately know what it is memorializing. The photo in Source B is a statue of Christopher Columbus.

Most people who see this monument will know who the statue is of, and what he did. This is an imperative quality to incorporate when creating a monument. If people have to think deeply and try and find a reason behind the monument, it was not well made. The last thing that needs to be considered when creating a monument is to make sure the build is extraordinary and makes an impact. If the piece does not seem to be well made and thought through, then it will have a negative impact on people. Nobody is going to care about something if it appears the people responsible of the monument did not care. “It’s a slow job. After all this time, only his face is complete.” (Downes) Downes is referring to the statue of Crazy Horse, a famous chief for the Native Americans, that was started in 1948, and has yet to be finished.

Most of the work was done by one man who worked on the piece until he died; when he died, the only people left who cared enough to work on it was his family. The ones who know how long this piece has been a work in progress can’t really appreciate the statue because why should they care if nobody else cares enough to finish it? When creating a monument, people should consider where to build it, how to incorporate the event into the piece, and to make the monument authorative and extraordinary. It is extremely important for the creators of a monument to plan and build to the best of their ability, taking these factors into consideration. If the piece is poorly made, erected in a place of no significance to the memorial, or is not clearly presenting the significance of the event or person, then the monument was just a waste of time and could even be taken to the extent of being a disgrace to the person or event that the memorial symbolizes.

“Globalisation is a good thing” to what extent do you agree with this statement?

Globalisation is the growth to a global or worldwide scale. It is the increase of trade around the world, especially by large companies producing and trading goods in many different countries. When available goods and services, or social and cultural influences, gradually become similar in all parts of the world. Examples of globalisation are Companies such as Toyota, a Japanese company that has become globalised and is now a worldwide company. Another example is Nike which was originated in Beaverton, Oregon, United States and is now a worldwide company.

MEDC’s and LEDC’s are linked through trade. The poorer countries produce and import products and merchandise to MEDC’s at a very low salary. Primark is an example of trading with other countries for unfair prices. From the clothes being made and brought many different countries have been involved Many other clothes companies to this as well. This is known as world trade system and can often be described as unfair for some.

China is located in Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam, in the Northern hemisphere. China’s climate is Humid, sticky, dry and hot. Some major crops that are grown in China are rice, wheat, corn, soybeans and tuber crops. China has an extremely high population, just over 1.3 billion people with a birth rate of 12.17 births/1000. Its capital city is Beijing. One of it’s most famous landmarks is the great wall of chine, which is one of the seven wonders of the world. In recent years China has changed and developed rapidly especially economically.

It is now the fourth largest economy in the world. A lot of Asian countries are now known as “newly industrialising countries”. This means that a country whose level of economic development ranks it somewhere between the developing and first-world classifications. These countries have moved away from an agriculture-based economy and into a more industrialized, urban economy, with higher and more technology.

Globalisation is a good thing for china as it helps bring in higher profits as the products are kept extremely low as they do not need to pay people a high salary to make them. TNC’s have chosen to locate in china because employers are able to pay a lot less for a job than in the UK or a lot of other countries.
 Consumers in the UK and the rest of the developed world benefit from Chinese goods as to produce them in China rather than in the UK and then import them is a lot cheaper than to produce them in the UK as the minimum wage is a lot lower. Workers in China think globalisation is a good thing as it means employment and jobs for them, otherwise they would unemployed and couldn’t earn anything at all. This is why today most products have labelled on them “Made in China”.

Globalisation is a bad thing for China as most of the time all globalization really does is make the rich richer and the poor poorer. In most LEDC’s standards of living are dropping further behind the richest countries. The gap in incomes between the 20% of the richest and the poorest countries has grown from 30 to 1 in 1960 to 82 to 1 in 1995. The increasing interdependence of countries in a globalised world makes them more vulnerable to economic problems like the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990’s.

Many environmentalists are against globalisation because it causes a lot of transporting of exporting and importing products which cause pollution. Another reason why globalisation is a bad thing for china is that the national culture and languages can be eroded and destroyed by the modern globalised culture. China is helped a lot by globalisation as it provides many jobs which brings in money, but it is also a bad thing as it is making the difference between rich and poor a lot greater. Personally I think that globalisation is a good thing for China and helps them a lot as without it China would not make as much money as it does currently and China would not be the same country and would not be as developed either.

What changes would you like to see in your country

A newspaper may be described as a document which is printed and published regularly and consists of news reports, articles, photographs and advertisements which are on large sheets of paper folded together but not permanently joined. Newspapers may be published daily, weekly or every fortnight. Examples of newspapers are the DAILY GRAGHIC in Ghana and the WASHINGTON POST in the United States of America.

Newspapers are very important in the lives of many people in the world. As a section of the Press, newspapers have the main aims of informing, educating and entertaining the public. We the students of West Africa Senior High School at Adenta, a suburb of Accra, the capital city of Ghana, working on Learning Circle Project have found out from our research that newspapers are very important in not only educating the youth but also help in informing and entertaining them in our country, Ghana as well as in other parts of the world. Newspapers in Education:

-Articles from newspapers give facts about current affairs which may not be found in textbooks in their schools. -Students learn new or unfamiliar words, expressions and spelling which add up to their vocabulary. -Newspapers provide topics that students may use in their conversations with their friends. -The youth are educated on social, political and economic issues when they read articles in the newspapers. -Newspapers educate both the youth and adults on the opinions and feelings of people in the world on various issues.

-Newspapers educate people about new inventions, discoveries and developments in Science, Technology, Health and Diseases.

-When students read newspapers, they learn about different styles of writing. -Students who read newspapers regularly improve their reading in terms of fluency and speed as they become familiar with a lot of words.

Newspapers in the information of the public:
-Newspapers provide reports on both local news and foreign news. They provide news on crime, natural disasters, wars, the Stock Exchange, Sports, the weather and many other issues. These news are important in the lives of many people including the youth. -Newspapers give information on current and existing laws, rules, regulations and bye-laws. -The youth can easily obtain information on the problems facing their country and other countries e.g. food shortage.

-Through advertisements, information can be obtained from newspapers on types of goods one wants to buy and in which shops they can be located. These goods may be clothes, shoes, computers etc. Newspapers in Entertainment

We the youth are very much interested in entertainment.

-Newspapers provide advertisement on entertainment, that is, various forms, venue, date and time. -Some students read newspapers during their free time as a form of entertainment. -The youth find crossword puzzles and quizzes in newspapers challenging and entertaining. -Some youth also get a lot of fun from reading jokes, poems, comics and cartoons in newspapers. Although newspapers are advantageous in educating, informing and educating the youth, they also have disadvantages. Some newspapers, especially private newspapers, contain some articles that are not reliable and therefore not good or useful for the youth. From our research, about 55% of our students read newspapers regularly.

Most of them prefer reading youth newspapers especially JUNIOR GRAPHIC published by the Graphic Communications Group. The students were of the opinion that newspaper reading improves their reading. The students said the youth-focused newspapers write articles that are suited to their needs. Headlines of ten youth-related articles we selected from March 2008 editions of major newspapers are: NGO introduces new methodology for English; Social welfare looks for parents of missing children; Catholic Church announces new youth programme; Dadebo stresses the need for teaching ICT in schools; Child Protection committees set up in 11 districts;

Queen advises youth to be self-dependent; Academic excellence goes with discipline; President’s lifeline for BECE failures; NCCE expresses concern about child labour; ENO Environment members mark Day. We cannot imagine a world without newspapers. In view of the great importance of newspapers, we suggest that all youth should be encouraged to read newspapers especially those written for the youth. Schools should also be encouraged to publish their own newspapers where it is possible. All the youth are invited to the educative world of newspapers. Let us cultivate the habit of reading newspapers.

What is the future of English as a global language?

What is the future of English as a global language? The world is changing so rapidly, from national politics to people’s livelihood. Definitely, language is one of the most important characteristic among there. English, which is considered as the world language at present, facing with sophisticated problems. Actually, the situation could persist on till the future. In my view, the future of English as a global language may be as the concave and convex sides of a nutshell, it is hard to foresee that. Someone hold the opinion that the future of English to be a global language is of a high possibility, they think that English has a bright future. Others have a different point that with the development of the world, English may have a tough way to go through, the future of English is tortured.

A major reason of the future of English could be a global language is that the trend of speaking English will continue going on. First of all, all the people from different non-native-English countries know that learning English at a very early age is very important because they think English could be a cornerstone of their later life. In China, lots of parents send their children to the English learning agencies since the children even can’t say Chinese fluently.

It is an interesting phenomena in a country which was an ancient civilization in the past thousands of years. Chinese people put the same attentions to English as well as Chinese. That means English has been a basic skill than a curriculum, it is the same important as their native language. Another phenomena is that large amounts of youth go abroad to study in native-English countries like UK, US and Canada.

The cost of studying in foreign countries could be very expensive and the life in a totally strange place could not be easy, but they go to these English countries without hesitation. What are they seeking for? Because they think that the experiences of studying abroad could be a highlight when they apply for employment. And the training in English environment could give them more opportunities especially for those who want to work for foreign enterprises, they could be more competitive. Last but not the least, the world has becoming more and more integrated because of the globalization. In the morning we could be at Russia, in the afternoon we can be at Brazil.

As the globalization is happening in every corner of the world, nowadays, our planet is more like a village, people from different continents, different cultures and different countries all come together. The scientists exchange their ideas and technologies, the businessmen trade all kinds of goods over the world, governments talk with each other. English as the best communication tool has been used widely. With these phenomenon, we can see that in the future, English could be the global language and everyone in the world could say some English words or sentences.

Other people hold an opinion that the future of English could be tough as they look in this argument a different way. As lots of race have their own language, so these race would not see their languages become extinction without doing anything, they will protect their own culture and languages like the protection of the endangered animals. For example, in Shanghai, China. As the rapid development of urbanization, lots people come from different areas and settle down in Shanghai. The children growing up in Shanghai are not able to say any Shanghainese but Mandarin. So, other languages will be still exist with English. This will cause a result that if someone who can say the local language and both English will be more competitive than the persons who can only speak English. Even we have to admit that English is very popular around the world, the future of English is hard to say.

Meanwhile, the influences of different cultures are also can’t be ignored. Nowadays, many people in western countries like the cultures from Asia or some other places like lots of immigrants from Asia settle down in the US who also brought their own cultures an languages. So when the people of native-language countries prefer the Asian culture which they think is very cool that they may learn some Asian language as well. We can see that lots of American can say some Mandarin or Cantonese. As a result, no one can forecast that which language could be the global language in the future, maybe, 100years later, Chinese or Spanish will control the world as lots of people use this kind of language. So, some people think that the future of English to be a global language is hard to say.

For my perspective that the future of English is still unknown. For one thing, English future as a global language may be optimistic. No matter adults or children, they are willing to pay more attention on English learning. The other way, it could be pessimistic of the future of English. Kinds of factors may influence the future of English as cultural influence, protection of local language. As a conclusion, the future of English is still unsure, no one can assert whether a bright future or a tortured way.

What Led to the Civil War

During the 1800’s, slavery in America became a bigger and bigger issue and discussion. The North opposed slavery and thought everything about it was wrong. Whereas the South felt slavery was an essential part of their lives, and that without it they would not survive. In April of 1861, during the first month of the Civil War Alfred M. Green delivered a speech to his fellow African Americans to join the Union forces of the North.

Green uses allusions in his speech to help persuade his fellow African Americans to join the Union forces. Green felt that if anyone should be fighting in a war for freedom from slavery, it should be African Americans. He states, “My country, right or wrong, I love thee still!” Meaning regardless how wrong the South’s actions were or could be at times, Green and his people would still love them and fight for what was right. African Americans needed the extra boost of confidence, and Green was just that. He says, “Let us, take up the sword, trusting in God, who will defend the right…”

By bringing in this statement of faith this made the tone more comfortable and reassuring, as if God was on his side, and would do the right thing in the end. The passion and drive of Green would overall have a great impact on African Americans. Green says, “Remember, too, that your very presence among the troops of the North would inspire your oppressed brethren of the South…living God the God of truth, justice and equality to all men.” This created a new confidence for the North and slaves that wanted to make a difference in how they were being treated. Given these points, Green uses personal experiences and emotion to help

What is K12 Program :)

The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

What is K to 12?
K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum. Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education Secondary education refers to high school.

How are we planning to implement the K to 12 program?
After considering various proposals and studies, the model that is currently being proposed by DepEd is the K-6-4-2 Model. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. Features of K 6-4-2

(1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided by government and will be free. (2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2 years). (3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now).

An open and consultative process will be adopted in the development and implementation of K to 12. Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transition management.
What is Senior High School?

2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue Skills and competencies relevant to the job market
The 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship.

What is the proposed implementation plan of DepEd?
Phases of Implementation:
(1) Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012. (2) DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013. (3) The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013. (4) Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-voch..etc)

In implementing the K-6-4-2 proposal, DepEd will take into account the issues and concerns of all stakeholders, including the high school graduates before 2016. This will be done through regional consultations to begin early 2011. The mechanics and other details of the transition plan will be threshed out with HEIs in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other critical stakeholders.

Why add two more years?
To decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum
To provide better quality education for all

The Philippines is the only remaining country in Asia with a 10-year basic education program K to 12 is not new. The proposal to expand the basic education dates back to 1925. Studies in the Philippines have shown that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7.5%. Studies validate that improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by 2% to 2.2%. Minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still wish to have their children find a good paying job.

Right now, parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. In our model, parents will not pay for 2 years of basic education that will give them an employable child. In effect, we are saving parents 2 years of expenses. The plan is not “Plus 2 years before graduation” but “Minus 2 years before work To inspire a shift in attitude that completion of high school education is more than just preparation for college but can be sufficient for a gainful employment or career.

How much will this cost?
The immediate cost for the program will not be needed until 2016 when the first year of the two additional years is implemented. Meanwhile, we will continue to close the resource gaps in basic education – the President ordered DepEd to its close resource gaps in 2 years. At this time, we estimate the total funding requirement to procure all needed resources at P150 billion for: 152,569 new classrooms

103,599 more teachers
95.6 million more books
13.2 million seats
What will society gain from K to 12
K to 12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth.

K to 12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society. Are private schools obliged to follow?

While we enjoy the support of private school associations, we are yet to discuss with them the implementation of the program. Where are we at now? Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years. High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship / employment. Other countries view
the 10-year education cycle as insufficient. K to 12 Education Vision

Graduates of Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program will:
Acquire mastery of basic competencies.
Be more emotionally mature.
Be socially aware, pro-active, involved in public and civic affairs. Be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. Be legally employable with potential for better earnings.

Be globally competitive. Every graduate of the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self. Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are given the means to slowly adjust to formal education.

Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary education. Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a human being, from 0 to 6 years, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size..[Ref: K to 12 Toolkit] In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue.

Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners (Contextualization and Enhancement)

Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history, and reality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand. Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency across all levels and subjects. Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum. Building Proficiency through Language (Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education)

Students are able to learn best through their first language, their Mother Tongue (MT). Twelve (12) MT languages have been introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol, Cebuano, Chabacano, Hiligaynon, Iloko, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Meranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray. Other local languages will be added in succeeding school years. Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are taught as subjects starting Grade 1, with a focus on oral fluency. From Grades 4 to 6, English and Filipino are gradually introduced as languages of instruction. Both will become primary languages of instruction in Junior High School (JHS) and Senior High School (SHS). After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother Tongue. Learning in Mother Tongue also serves as the foundation for students to learn Filipino and English easily. Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression)

Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in spiral progression. As early as elementary, students gain knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry, Earth Science, Chemistry, and Algebra. This ensures a mastery of knowledge and skills after each level. For example, currently in High School, Biology is taught in 2nd Year, Chemistry in 3rd Year, and Physics in 4th Year. In K to 12, these subjects are connected and integrated from Grades 7 to 10. This same method is used in other Learning Areas like Math. Gearing Up for the Future (Senior High School)

Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. SHS subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific Tracks. CORE CURRICULUM

There are seven Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum. TRACKS

Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM). Students undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant exposure and actual experience in their chosen track. TVET (TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING) NATIONAL CERTIFICATE

After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade. MODELING BEST PRACTICES FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

In SY 2012-2013, there are 33 public high schools, public technical-vocational high schools, and higher education institutions (HEIs) that have implemented Grade 11. This is a Research and Design (R&D) program to simulate different aspects of Senior High School in preparation for full nationwide implementation in SY 2016-2017. Modeling programs offered by these schools are based on students’ interests, community needs, and their respective capacities. NURTURING THE HOLISTICALLY DEVELOPED FILIPINO (COLLEGE AND LIVELIHOOD READINESS, 21ST CENTURY SKILLS) After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate will be ready to go into different paths – may it be further education, employment, or entrepreneurship. Every graduate will be equipped with:

Information, media and technology skills,
Learning and innovation skills,
Effective communication skills, and
Life and career skills.

What Does It Mean to be Free

“O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!” When Francis Scott Key wrote these closing lyrics to our national anthem in 1814, he clearly understood what it meant to be free. But do we know what freedom really means? Webster’s dictionary defines freedom as a state in which somebody is able to act and live as he or she chooses, without being subject to any undue restraints or restrictions. When the founding fathers wrote the Declaration of Independence, they used this definition to establish three basic rights to all Americans which were the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Each of these principles defines what it means for me to be free.

To me, the right to life allows me to be free and not be under the control of another. It allows me to act or do things as I wish. Being free means that I have the right to speak up about how I feel about a situation. It allows me to say what is on my mind in a conversation. Our country fought for freedom of speech as well as our freedom and I believe we should stand up and say what we believe. As Americans we have the right to disagree with our government and engage in political debate and discussion. To me, freedom means having freedom of choice. I believe everyone has the right to make a choice on their own, whether it’s easy, hard, good or bad. Everyone, no matter who they are has the right to make their own choices because it’s their life.

The right of liberty protects one’s ability to think and act on their own. To me, this means being treated equally and that everyone is just as good as everybody else. For centuries, African- Americans suffered extreme racism and oppression in this country and did not have the same privileges as others. Today, although racism still exists, freedom helps to create a better society where all can be treated more fairly and equally. All Americans understand that no matter your race or ethnicity, everyone is just as unique as everybody else. The pursuit of happiness protects one’s ability to live for their own sake, rather than for the sake of society.

What is My Happiness

Happiness seems to be the thing that everyone searches for and desires. These days there are so many different things that can make a person happy. Happiness to me is a sort of inner contentment that deep down I desire just as much as any other person. The word happiness is a complex one and comes in many definitions with every different person. Through searching for happiness, I find my happiness in three major areas in my life; material objects, physical health, and spiritual events. We live in a very materialistic world these days, and I seem to get caught up in all the different objects that I can own. This sometimes cannot bring happiness, but most of the times it tends to. The feeling of buying something that you really wanted and knowing that it is yours seems to be the best feeling. One of those days was the day I got my car. I can remember it perfectly. My dad and I had been test driving cars for weeks straight, but none seemed to be the right one. We found an older man that lived in Athens that had just what I wanted.

So a couple of days before my sixteenth birthday my dad, my mom, and I drove out to Athens and bought my very own car. This day was thrilling. I had my very own white Cadillac CTS. The feeling of watching my dad write this man a check and be able to get in the car and drive away knowing that it was mine and no one else’s felt amazing. Another example is my cell phone. As a teenager, I think cell phones were created for pure enjoyment and to make a young teen happy. When you hear your cell phone ring or you get a text message it makes you happy. These are just some of the times that material objects truly made me happy and kept me happy for a long time. Material objects can make anyone happy; I mean who does not love to get a new car or the latest and greatest cell phone on the market. Relying on having material things to fill my life and make me happy is not necessarily a good thing, I really do not need any of those objects to make myself happy, but it is one of those things that in the long run really does make me happy. Who does not want to be healthy? Being healthy is a very crucial part of life. I am glad that I am fortunate enough to be healthy and to have all my family members healthy too.

When I think about being healthy I do not necessarily think that this brings happiness to my life, but it really does. If I was not healthy then I would not be able to do all the things that I am able to do. I am able to walk, run, dance, and so much more. There are so many people these days that are not truly healthy. They either have poor conditions to live in, they have an eating disorder, or many more other things. For a girl these days being happy with one’s body is typically a hard thing to come by. There are so many things that make us hate the way we look and everything about our own bodies. This is not true happiness and the true inner contentment that we should have. I am blessed to say that I am happy with the way I look and everything about my body, and to a girl this can bring true happiness and the contentment with our lives that we all need. My spiritual life truly brings me happiness. I know that no matter what I do I will always have God to love me. I can remember the day I decided to get baptized and the actual day I got baptized. Those two days were the definition of happiness.

I remember talking to my youth minister and telling him that I wanted to be baptized and the feeling of exhilaration was put through my body. The actual day I got baptized was a day I have never forgotten. We had just arrived back at the church building from Impact, a church event that was hosted at Lipscomb University. Everyone walked into the building and walked to the baptistery, where they all were awaiting me to enter the water. The water was warm, everyone that knew me was there and they all were proud. This feeling of going under the water and coming back up was like no other feeling that I have had in my entire life. I was peaceful and pure, I had true happiness. This renewal was the start of happiness and my love for helping people. I then started getting involved in activities in my Anchor Club, a student organization for young ladies in my high school. I would sign up to go help with different events, and one of those being our schools Spiritual Emphasis Day, this day was a day when we would throw a carnival for people that had mental disabilities.

This day was a day that I very much enjoyed. It brought happiness to me and especially to the buddy that I was paired with. This day not only brought happiness throughout the gym, it brought contentment with myself, which I feel happiness is somewhat of a form of contentment. My dad and I also started going to the Downtown Rescue Mission, a place where they feed the homeless in downtown Huntsville. I enjoyed this too, this made me happy. I was surrounded with those that did not have close to what I had, and the feeling of helping those people was a true passion of mine. I think all of these reasons are part of the reason why I decided to pursue a career in nursing. Helping others and doing nice things to maybe make someone else’s life a little better brings me true happiness. Happiness is something that comes within.

So knowing that I have helped just one person and knowing that I will be in Heaven one day is an amazing feeling. The reality is that everyone’s true happiness is viewed differently. I find my own happiness in my material possessions, my healthy body, and the spiritual part of my life. Besides being spiritually set, happiness is the ultimate thing that I have desired and searched for. Happiness is the way you live your life, the activities you participate in, the person you are in love with, being around your friends, and so much more, the lists never stops. True happiness is being happy with the way you live your life and the contentment with how everything has work out for yourself.

Explain what Plato meant by the Form of the Good

Plato was an Ancient Greek philosopher whose writings and theories have greatly influenced the development of Western philosophy. Perhaps his most famous theory is that of the Forms – pure ideas or concepts of what a THING is. It was Plato’s belief that as well as this world, the material world – or the world of Appearances, as he called it – there exists another dimension, where the true Forms of everything in the material world reside; Reality, or the realm of the Forms. A Form, by Plato’s reckoning, is eternal, perfect and unchanging, unlike the images or shadows of Forms that we see in the world of Appearances.

In the material world, nothing is perfect, everything changes and eventually everything dies. However, Plato was a dualist, so he believed that as well as our mortal body we also have an immortal soul which existed before and will exist after our time in this world of appearances. The place where our souls resided before we were born and will return to when we die is the realm of the Forms. This, according to Plato explains why we have an innate (though dim) recollection of what Forms are, and why we can recognize things like beauty and justice without being taught.

Plato believed that the true philosopher was the one who knew about the Forms and was trying to appreciate and understand the Form of the Good. The Form of the Good is the highest in Plato’s hierarchy of Forms, the highest reality. It is the source and the unity of all the other Forms, and illuminates them so that if one has understanding of the Form of the Good, they have understanding of all the Forms. In Plato’s analogy of the Cave, the Good is represented by the Sun, which is the source of all the objects that the escaped prisoner finds above ground. The Sun makes all the things above ground visible, just like the Form of the Good makes all the other Forms understandable.

The Analogy of the Sun by Plato tells us more about the Form of the Good. Plato believed that sight was the “most noble” of the five senses, because the other four require only two things, a sensor and a sensed (eg. an ear and a sound, a nose and a smell). Sight, however, requires three: an eye, a thing to be seen and the sun to provide light and make it possible for the eye to see it. Plato likens sight to reason; reason requires somebody to understand/to be enlightened, a thing to understand, and the Good to make it possible to understand it. The Form of the Good cannot ever be wholly present in the world of Appearances; however it can, like the other Forms, be reflected in a variety of ways.

This, Plato argues, is the reason why we can call so many different things “good” – because they all correspond to the true reality of goodness at least in part. A cake can be called “good” if it satisfies someone’s hunger and pleases their taste buds; a chair can be called “good” if it is comfortable and doesn’t break when you sit on it; a person can be called “good” if they are kind to others, or if they volunteer in developing countries.

But the Form of Good is all of these things, and more than all of these things, says Plato, and because all the Forms come from the Form of Good, every time Truth or Beauty or Justice is reflected in the world of Appearances, Good is being reflected too. Some people think that Plato’s theory of the Form of the Good doesn’t work, because, they argue, around the world and through the ages there are different concepts and understandings of what it means to be good or what a good thing is, so there cannot possibly be a perfect singular Good to which all these different actions and people agree with. These people are known as moral relativists and they do not believe there is absolute morality, rather one must decide what is right and wrong from the particular situation they are in.

For example, in some cultures, it is never a good thing to take a life, even if that person has done terrible things including taking lives themselves. However, in other cultures, if the person has done terrible things society will agree that they should be executed for the good of the rest of society and to protect them from future crimes that the person could commit in the future. Plato was a moral absolutist, someone who does believe in a total, unchanging good. Moral absolutists would argue that just because not every culture recognizes the true goodness for what it is, that doesn’t make it any less good.

What is the Beck Anxiety Inventory

The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of an individual’sanxiety. The BAI consists of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last month, expressed as common symptoms of anxiety (such as numbness and tingling, sweating not due to heat, and fear of the worst happening). It is designed for an age range of 17–80 years old. Each question has the same set of four possible answer choices, which are arranged in columns and are answered by marking the appropriate one with a cross. These are: NOT AT ALL (0 points)

MILDLY: It did not bother me much. (1 point)
MODERATELY: It was very unpleasant, but I could stand it. (2 points) SEVERELY: I could barely stand it. (3 points)
The BAI has a maximum score of 63.
0-7: minimal level of anxiety
8-15: mild anxiety
16-25: moderate anxiety
26-63: severe anxiety

Note: women with anxiety disorders tend to score 4 points higher than men with anxiety disorders[1] Two factor approach to anxiety[edit source | editbeta]
Though anxiety can be thought of as having several components, including cognitive, somatic, affective, and behavioral components, Beck et al. included only two components in the BAI’s original proposal: cognitive and somatic.[2] The cognitive subscale provides a measure of fearful thoughts and impaired cognitive functioning, and the somatic subscale measures the symptoms of physiological arousal.[3] Since the introduction of the BAI, other factor structures have been implemented, including a four factor structure used by Beck and Steer with anxious outpatients that included neurophysiological, autonomic symptoms, subjective, and panic components of anxiety.[4]

In 1993, Beck, Steer, and Beck used a three factor structure including subjective, somatic, and panic subscale scores to differentiate among a sample of clinically anxious outpatients[5] Because the somatic subscale is emphasized on the BAI, with 15 out of 21 items measuring physiological symptoms, perhaps the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of anxiety are being deemphasized. Therefore, the BAI functions more adequately in anxiety disorders with a high somatic component, such as panic disorder. On the other hand, the BAI won’t function as adequately for disorders such as social phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder, which have a stronger cognitive or behavioral component.[6] Clinical use[edit source | editbeta]

The BAI was specifically designed as “an inventory for measuring clinical anxiety” that minimizes the overlap between depression and anxiety scales.[2] While several studies have shown that anxiety measures, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), are either highly correlated or indistinguishable from depression,[7][8][9] the BAI is shown to be less contaminated by depressive content[2][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] Since the BAI does only questions symptoms occurring over the last month, it is not a measure of trait anxiety or state anxiety. The BAI can be described as a measure of “prolonged state anxiety,” which, in a clinical setting, is an important assessment. A recently created version of the BAI, the Beck Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), was developed to assess trait anxiety rather than immediate or prolonged state anxiety, much like the STAI.

However, unlike the STAI, the BAIT was developed to minimize the overlap between anxiety and depression.[18] A 1999 review found that the BAI was the third most used research measure of anxiety, behind the STAI and the Fear Survey Schedule,[19] which provides quantitative information about how clients react to possible sources of maladaptive emotional reactions. The BAI has been used in a variety of different patient groups, including adolescents. Though support exists for using the BAI with high-school students and psychiatric inpatient samples of ages 14 to 18 years,[20] the recently developed diagnostic tool, Beck Youth Inventories, Second Edition, contains a anxiety inventory of 20 questions specifically designed for children and adolescents ages 7 to 18 years old.[21] Limitations[edit source | editbeta]

Though the BAI was developed to minimize its overlap with the depression scale as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, acorrelation of r=.66 (p

What is Finance 4300?

Question 1
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Chua Chang & Wu Inc. is planning its operations for next year, and the CEO wants you to forecast the firm’s additional funds needed (AFN). The firm is operating at full capacity. Data for use in your forecast are shown below. Based on the AFN equation, what is the AFN for the coming year? Last year’s sales = S0$200,000Last year’s accounts payable$50,000 Sales growth rate = g40%Last year’s notes payable$15,000

Last year’s total assets = A0*$135,000Last year’s accruals$20,000 Last year’s profit margin = PM20.0%Target payout ratio25.0%

Selected Answer:

•Question 2
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
Selected Answer:
A negative AFN indicates that retained earnings and spontaneous liabilities are far more than sufficient to finance the additional assets needed.

•Question 3
7.692 out of 7.692 points

A company forecasts the free cash flows (in millions) shown below. The weighted average cost of capital is 13%, and the FCFs are expected to continue growing at a 5% rate after Year 3. Assuming that the ROIC is expected to remain constant in Year 3 and beyond, what is the Year 0 value of operations, in millions? Year:123

Free cash flow:$15$10$40

Selected Answer:

•Question 4
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Based on the corporate valuation model, Bernile Inc.’s value of operations is $750 million. Its balance sheet shows $50 million of short-term investments that are unrelated to operations, $100 million of accounts payable, $100 million of notes payable, $200 million of long-term debt, $40 million of common stock (par plus paid-in-capital), and $160 million of retained earnings. What is the best estimate for the firm’s value of equity, in millions? Answer

Selected Answer:

•Question 5
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Based on the corporate valuation model, the value of a company’s operations is $900 million. Its balance sheet shows $70 million in accounts receivable, $50 million in inventory, $30 million in short-term investments that are unrelated to operations, $20 million in accounts payable, $110 million in notes payable, $90 million in long-term debt, $20 million in preferred stock, $140 million in retained earnings, and $280 million in total common equity. If the company has 25 million shares of stock outstanding, what is the best estimate of the stock’s price per share? Answer

Selected Answer:

•Question 6
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Leak Inc. forecasts the free cash flows (in millions) shown below. If the weighted average cost of capital is 11% and FCF is expected to grow at a rate of 5% after Year 2, what is the Year 0 value of operations, in millions? Assume that the ROIC is expected to remain constant in Year 2 and beyond (and do not make any half-year adjustments). Year:12

Free cash flow:$50$100

Selected Answer:

•Question 7
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Suppose Leonard, Nixon, & Shull Corporation’s projected free cash flow for next year is $100,000, and FCF is expected to grow at a constant rate of 6%. If the company’s weighted average cost of capital is 11%, what is the value of its operations? Answer

Selected Answer:

•Question 8
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Which of the following does NOT always increase a company’s market value? Answer
Selected Answer:
Increasing the expected growth rate of sales.

•Question 9
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Zhdanov Inc. forecasts that its free cash flow in the coming year, i.e., at t = 1, will be $10 million, but its FCF at t = 2 will be $20 million. After Year 2, FCF is expected to grow at a constant rate of 4% forever. If the weighted average cost of capital is 14%, what is the firm’s value of operations, in millions? Answer

Selected Answer:

•Question 10
7.692 out of 7.692 points

The first, and most critical, step in constructing a set of forecasted financial statements is the sales forecast.
Selected Answer:

•Question 11
7.692 out of 7.692 points

As long as a firm does not pay out 100% of its earnings, the firm’s annual profit that is retained in the business (i.e., the addition to retained earnings) is another source of funds for a firm’s expansion.

Selected Answer: True

•Question 12
7.692 out of 7.692 points

To determine the amount of additional funds needed (AFN), you may subtract the expected increase in liabilities, which represents a source of funds, from the sum of the expected increases in retained earnings and assets, both of which are uses of funds.

Selected Answer: False

•Question 13
7.692 out of 7.692 points

Expected free cash flows should be discounted at the ________ to find the value of a company’s value of operations.
Selected Answer:
Weighted average cost of capital

How important is that we are certain about what we claim as knowledge?

How important is that we are certain about what we claim as knowledge? According to my opinion, it is crucial to identify what we claim as knowledge. The world has a lot of information but not all of them can be claimed as knowledge that is suitable to. Everything from your opinion to the life changing decisions you make are dependent on the knowledge that you identify as your own through your own perspectives and also through your experiences. To me, unnecessary knowledge is something a person does not have to have and does not need to be claimed by a person. To distinguish between necessary and unnecessary knowledge one must know what he or she believes in and would need to be steadfast to that topic.

By doing this your knowledge will be refined, rather than flooded. By saying this, it does not mean that the knowledge you can collect should not be collected it is just that the knowledge that is refined to your stature is definitely going to help you better than any other knowledge that you collect that does not come under your scope. The importance of what we claim as knowledge differs from person to person and in the end the basic background and culture the person is from, will determine what knowledge he identifies and adores. All in all the knowledge that you have does not merely state what you know, it describes what kind of a person you are and how your life has been and will be!

How important is that we are certain about what we claim as knowledge? According to my opinion, it is crucial to identify what we claim as knowledge. The world has a lot of information but not all of them can be claimed as knowledge that is suitable to. Everything from your opinion to the life changing decisions you make are dependent on the knowledge that you identify as your own through your own perspectives and also through your experiences. To me, unnecessary knowledge is something a person does not have to have and does not need to be claimed by a person. To distinguish between necessary and unnecessary knowledge one must know what he or she believes in and would need to be steadfast to that topic.

What are the benefits of establishing solid financial acumen in a company?

After few investment lessons and cases in the organization, according to President and Founder of Leadership for International Finance Blythe McGarvie, people start to think why and how to make investment decisions, instead of simply giving number that others want to hear (Video: Financial management: Creating financial acumen within your company, 2004-2007). By establishing solid financial acumen in a company, it makes everyone, no matter the employee is in HR department or marketing department, understands how the company makes money, and why, why-not, when, or what-if behind a financial decision-making process. “Even those with years of experience, cannot perform to their maximum without applying financial analysis to decision making” (2006, p. 34), Hynes states. In my personal work experience, financial acumen is part of the company’s culture.

One small example is each staff has to know how tax works in mainland China and Hong Kong when we have to explain to our customers. We have to be more sensitive about free zone news that is related to gemstones, which is what we do. When we do our market research in a new area, we have to know what kind of customer can be a potential customer. I always treat myself as business woman instead of a sales person, even though part of my job is selling. In the organization, it is important that we all interact with each other in financial terms to better understand each other. Financial training would be really necessary for the success of the company, which will not only give us more confidence, but also allow us to be more professional and efficient with our work.

Training lessons such as “analyze a company’s financial health by describing the relationship between return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), net income percent and financial leverage; calculate the NPV, internal rate of return (IRR) and benefit/ cost ratio of major capital investment…” (Hynes, 2006, p. 39) can let us get a general idea of the expenses and profitability in the company. With this information, we can better understand what strategies can drive the company’s decision to success.


Hynes, J. M. (2006), The power of financial acumen. Financial Management, 34-40, Retrieved from Business Source Complete database. Video: Fifty Lessons. (Producer). (2004–2007). Financial management: Creating financial acumen within your company. London: Author.

What Qualities A Teacher Should Have

 Teachers play an important role in the education of every student. There are many who think that a teacher have a certain skill in teaching their students. I think that a teacher should obtain multiple qualities to be able to have the skill in teaching. In my view, a teacher must enjoy their job. They should do this because if they do not then they will become unhappy. Once a teacher is unhappy, they will not be able to perform well for their job. If a teacher is not able to perform well; how will a student be able to learn the proper skills for their subject? A teacher should have knowledge about their subject. If a teacher does not have the knowledge; how will he be able to guide his students towards the right path?

The teacher should have knowledge because he will be able to share his knowledge with his students, which enables his students to learn more. I strongly believe that a teacher should present his subject in an interesting manner. If a subject is not presented in an interesting manner; how will students be able to obtain the information given to them? Students these days have very limited attention spans. If very vital information is being presented in a boring monotone voice; do you think students will remember this information? A teacher should be hardworking, caring, responsible and must like children. If a teacher is none these; how do you think a student will react? If a teacher is not hardworking; will he be able to actually teach a student something?

If a teacher is not caring; will he able to gain the trust of a student? If a teacher is not responsible; will he be able to handle the welfare of a student? If a teacher dislikes children; will he be able to achieve in getting any information towards a student? In conclusion, I think in order to obtain a certain skill in teaching; a teacher must be able to have certain qualities such as the ability to appreciate his job, the knowledge of a subject, the ability to present their subject in an interesting manner, the ability to be hardworking, caring, responsible and the ability to like children. Teachers are counted as a noble profession as they shape the minds of tomorrow.

What is Professionalism

Essentially we like to think that it just means to be professional in a professional environment. Although that may be true, there a lot more that goes into it. Honestly the focus is how to be professional in the military and what it means to be a Soldier. The reason being is that we often forget that the army is also a business and with the army being a business we need to present our selves in a professional manner. But to answer the question of “what is professionalism?” Professionalism is the skill, competence, and behaviors that are expected of someone in a profession. Now the next question is, what is a professional? In my eyes a professional is someone who is skilled, polished, and proficient that there job. Also a professional will hold himself or herself to a higher standard than everyone else. They do this because they know that they not only represent themselves but also their companies that they work for. As a professional they must follow the rules and ethics of the organization you represent or are a part of. Also a professional must maintain a sense of professionalism no matter if he or she is on duty or off duty. Now just because the profession may change doesn’t mean that the professional completely changes how that act because they still have to maintain a level of professionalism.

But I cant only define what a professional is without defining what a profession is. A profession is an occupation that requires educational training. Although you must go to school for most jobs that doesn’t mean that they are professions, they may just be trade. The profession was a trade that required education and qualifications that needed to be met. The main difference is a profession is mostly mental work while a trade is just physical work. But this is not always ways the case because the army is a profession but we also do both physical and mental work. The skills and knowledge a Soldier holds is always being put to the test as we go on field missions or go to ranges. When on a field problem we hone our skills, get batter, and better at our job or M.O.S. That’s the field of expertise that each soldier holds and sharpens their skills on. The acronym M.O.S stands for Military Occupational Specialty. So with being a professional and being and experts you would think that’s the army a profession. Then that brings up the question “how is the army a profession and what makes it a profession?” I feel like the army is a profession because as a Soldier we are required to think and make decisions for the mission to be a success.

Also we must complete missions the best way possible, which means coming up with numerous plans and decide which is the best course of action. The fact that we think about what goes on doesn’t make the army a profession. It’s the structure and the professionalism that also makes the army a profession. But often we forget, as a Soldier we must stay professional because we don’t completely understand or realize that we’re not only represent ourselves but our fellow battle buddies, our leaders and our army as a whole. Therefore we must always keep a sense of professionalism no matter what. That means on and off duty. We are 24/7 Soldiers and 24/7 professionals and there’s not a day off for those two things. What does it mean to be a Soldier though? Is it just living the 7-army values? Or is it just following orders? Being a Soldier for the U.S. Army is a combination of things. We are told to always follow the 7 Army values but were also encouraged to go above and beyond just your average Soldier. We’re pushed to become great leaders that’s not only live the army values but also lead Soldiers and help them become great leaders. But to become a great leader you must fully understand each army value and what it means to live the army values everyday. Now army defines loyalty as such. “

Loyalty: Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit and other Soldiers. Bearing true faith and allegiance is a matter of believing in and devoting yourself to something or someone. A loyal Soldier is one who supports the leadership and stands up for fellow Soldiers. By wearing the uniform of the U.S. Army you are expressing your loyalty. And by doing your share, you show your loyalty to your unit.” To me there’s a lot more to it and it has a lot more meaning than just that. Bearing true faith trusts your fellow Soldiers no matter the situation. Also it’s the fact that just because we all know what it takes to be a true Solider and we go through that everyday. Each and last one of the Untied States Soldiers volunteered to be apart of this great military force. To protect the freedom the U.S constitution has provided and ways of life the untied states citizens live. The army is more than just a profession, it’s a brotherhood because we form a bond with the people around us because if it wasn’t we wouldn’t be the best army in the world to protect those freedoms, beliefs, and ways of life.

The loyalty stretches all they way from having loyalty to the constitution to just simple things as having trust and loyalty in your leadership in your unit. Loyalty is extremely important because we must have the trust and loyalty to be willing our life down for our fellow Soldiers. You want to know that when your down range and you’re engaging the enemy that your fellow Soldiers to your right and life cherishes your life and theirs enough to make sure that all of y’all make it back to y’all families. But although loyalty is very important it isn’t the most important values in my eyes. “Duty: Fulfill your obligations. Doing your duty means more than carrying out your assigned tasks.

Duty means being able to accomplish tasks as part of a team. The work of the U.S. Army is a complex combination of missions, tasks and responsibilities — all in constant motion. Our work entails building one assignment onto another. You fulfill your obligations as a part of your unit every time you resist the temptation to take “shortcuts” that might undermine the integrity of the final product.” Although duty is kind of self-explanatory but the definition did miss a couple important points. Duty is pretty much just fulfilling your obligations. You want to make sure that when fulfilling your duties that you have a plan to complete the mission with the least amount of injuries or casualties and the most effectiveness. Like the definition says above you want to make sure that you complete your task to contribute to the completion of the mission. No matter how little of the task everything counts to make the mission effective.

For example doing PMCS on your equipment over and over makes sure that you don’t miss any deficiencies that have occurred. So that your equipment can ether be fixed or is good to go for the mission. Everyone plays a part for the greater good. Everyone is a part of the mission and with that comes the respect you must give to your fellow Soldiers so that everyone feels apart of the mission. “Respect: Treat people as they should be treated. In the Soldier’s Code, we pledge to “treat others with dignity and respect while expecting others to do the same.” Respect is what allows us to appreciate the best in other people. Respect is trusting that all people have done their jobs and fulfilled their duty. And self-respect is a vital ingredient with the Army value of respect, which results from knowing you have put forth your best effort. The Army is one team and each of us has something to contribute.” In the army respect is the upmost important because without it everything else fails. Without respect missions can’t be completed effectively. The reason it can’t be completed effectively is that there will be conflict between Soldiers, between Soldiers and leaders, and between leaders and leaders not respecting each other’s decisions.

Also respect is very important because nowadays people think just because they are older they are wiser and that’s not the case. In the army age doesn’t mean anything. That’s because there will be higher rank but also younger than you. You have to respect them because they are your superiors. Respect should be given because we all raised our right hand and took the oath. We all knew that we would be taken from our homes and could possibly be deployed and taken away from our families for deployments or just training. “Selfless Service: Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates before your own. Selfless service is larger than just one person. In serving your country, you are doing your duty loyally without thought of recognition or gain. The basic building block of selfless service is the commitment of each team member to go a little further, endure a little longer, and look a little closer to see how he or she can add to the effort.”

When we all took the oath it was the start of our selfless service that was the first act of selfless service we preformed in our military career. At that moment we vowed to protect our country no matter what. Everything we do is in someway shape or form for the citizens of the United States. When in combat we put our leaders and fellow Soldiers safety before our own and our leaders put our safety before their own. We make sure we protect our fellow Soldiers and families. Our own safety is the last one were concerned with. As Soldiers we’re taught to put others needs in front of our own to make sure things get done. Especially during a mission because lets say that I’m done with my task for the mission but someone else is not. I could go over and help them finish their task or take one of their tasks that they have to do after their done with that one so that they have less to do. It makes us a better team and a better army. “Honor: Live up to Army values. The nation’s highest military award is The Medal of Honor. This award goes to Soldiers who make honor a matter of daily living — Soldiers who develop the habit of being honorable, and solidify that habit with every value choice they make.

Honor is a matter of carrying out, acting, and living the values of respect, duty, loyalty, selfless service, integrity and personal courage in everything you do.” Honor is living the other 6-army values everyday and encouraging others to do so as well. Doing so will get you a medal of honor but it’s not about the medal. Someone that lives the armory vales do it because it has become their way of life. By doing so you become the most looked up to. Everyone who should strive to be the best Soldier that they can be. We never want to do the bear minimum because the great Soldiers in the past that have honorably over achieved. They made huge sacrifices to get our country and our army in the place we are at today. Some even have given their life for our country and it’s freedoms. Those men and women that have given their life should be honored and remembered everyday and not just at times where there are ceremonies and we recognize those men and women. So to honor them everyday we should be giving our all to live the army values. We should strive for greatness in our jobs and journey to be the greatest Solider we can be, also while becoming a better leader.

One thing that goes hand and hand with honor is integrity, having the ability to do the right thing sat all times when no one is looking or around. “Integrity: Do what’s right, legally and morally. Integrity is a quality you develop by adhering to moral principles. It requires that you do and say nothing that deceives others. As your integrity grows, so does the trust others place in you. The more choices you make based on integrity, the more this highly prized value will affect your relationships with family and friends, and, finally, the fundamental acceptance of yourself.” Integrity is also another self-explanatory army value but the definition can be expanded upon. Integrity is very important because you want to trust and believe a fellow Soldier when they tell you something. Or you want that Soldier to be truthful when you ask them something. But it’s not just important in the military but also in daily civilian life too. You wouldn’t want to even talk to someone who is know for having no integrity or just lies a lot because as soon as they begin to talk everything that they are telling you, you believe that it is a lie so you stop listening. We don’t need people we can’t trust in the army because trust is what builds a team. When we go down range we trust our fellow Soldiers to protect us. Also we just trust each other to do something as simple as completing a task like setting up a tent for everyone to sleep in. Integrity gives us the trust that makes us a stronger and better army.

Also it’s having the ability to tell the truth even when you’ve done something wrong. It’s accepting the consequences for your actions and understanding that every action has a consequence. Also integrity ties into the last army value perfectly because integrity has to do with trust in other and trust in you and the last army value goes with that. “Personal Courage: Face fear, danger or adversity (physical or moral). Personal courage has long been associated with our Army. With physical courage, it is a matter of enduring physical duress and at times risking personal safety. Facing moral fear or adversity may be a long, slow process of continuing forward on the right path, especially if taking those actions is not popular with others. You can build your personal courage by daily standing up for and acting upon the things that you know are honorable.” Personal courage ranges from many things. From being able to have the courage to take charge of a formation to having the courage to go down range and taking out the enemy it all takes personal courage. Basic training itself took a lot of courage and effort to push yourself through things that you had never experienced before. I know that in basic training I was afraid to march a formation or even just talking in front of one.

Also in AIT I didn’t like speaking up in front of the class. It took some digging deep inside myself and finding some courage to be okay at talking in front of crowds. Now when I have to speak in front of a crowd I still get a little nervous and may stumble over words but I know that is only talking in front of my peers. The army helps you a lot with personal courage because your leaders my put you in a leadership position and you have to have the courage to give commands and lead your fellow Soldiers to success on whatever tasks you were given to complete. As a Soldier in the United States Army its important to live the army values not only because it helps us be the greatest Solider we can be but also helps us be a better person. The army is teaching me to be a better leader more and more. With each day is not just another day at work it because you’re always learn something that helps you understand the army way of life.

Also it helps you improve my knowledge for when you get out the army and live my life in the civilian world. This is because you learn things here in the army that you cant learn out in the civilian world. You develop habits and skills for doing them so much over the years of you being in the army. A couple examples are time management and equipment readiness. I know for my self that before the army I had no time management skills at all. Now that the army has taught me to be 15 minuets early I will carry that to my civilian life and never be late for a job. Also backwards planning night before helps improve time management. That’s because if you plan the night before of all the things you starting with how long is each thing going to take. Than think how much time you need for travel and to set up every thing that needs to be set up than you are good to go for the next day. Equipment readiness is just making sure you that you PMCS your equipment before you set out on your mission or task that you need to complete.

The army makes you build skills for your future so that you’re a well rounded and also an expert in your field. So right now as I am new to the army and have much to learn. My main focus is to live the army values, follow the guidance from my great leaders and strive to be a great leader myself. And I strive for that greatness I will encourage and push my battle buddies to do the same. As I strive for greatness I ponder what it means to be a soldier. Is being a soldier just being able to take orders and execute what is told or is it more to that? I believe that being a soldier has much more to do with it than just following orders. Even though we’re told to carry out a mission or task does not mean that we shouldn’t check to see what the plan is or even check to see the mission is. Also never be afraid to give your opinion to your leaders because your idea just might be the best ideas that your leader decided to go with. Being a Soldier means rising to any occasion and giving 100% to completing any task or mission given. It doesn’t matter what obstacles are in your way, you will complete the mission because it’s the upmost important.

Also not only is the mission the most important but also the personnel is also a very important aspect of the mission. Putting others before yourself is always important in the army because you will not progress very far in your army career. You need people to count on and people will need to count on you. Also if your being selfish and you don’t help someone out in their time of need in return they wont help you out in your time of need. You also never want to be that person that no one can count on to do anything. You want to be reliable and willing as possible but of course you don’t want people to take advantage of your willingness to help with any tasks. The more reliable you are the more your looked at for tasks that need to be done. Then it helps you look good as a soldier when you are more reliable. Another good trait to have as compatibility and by compatibility I mean simply working with others. Its good to be able to work with every one because it’s easier to get the task done. You don’t have to worry about if you like the person next to you or not.

Also it just eliminates issues that can occur while working on the mission or task. Also men women and children look up to U.S. Army Soldiers across the globe. With that being said we must present a professional appearance and manner at all times. When we’re in other countries we have to remember we are ambassadors for the United States and we must act as such. But sadly some of the Soldiers often forget that and act horribly therefore making the United States look bad to the foreign nationals. To appear professional we as Soldiers we must make sure that our uniform is up standard because our uniform is more than just a uniform. As we wake up everyday and put on this uniform we carry the heritage of the brave men and women that have served before us. To be a part of that 1% with those men and women is truly and honor. For a lot of Soldiers it’s a tradition that they want to be apart of and continue. For others it’s just to serve their county and protect the ones they love and hold dear. So doing something as simple as keeping my uniform presentable and clean is the least I can do to pay my respects to our veterans and our fallen heroes. Everything we do as Soldiers is a direct refection of our leadership and ourselves.

So with that being said it is imperative that we don’t let our leaders and ourselves down by presenting a bad representation. Even though the uniform has changed over the years it has never changed its meaning and never will lose it’s meaning. And everyone in this uniform is equal because we all are brothers and sisters in arms. No matter the rank on our chest, background, or M.O.S we are all equal. Before I go more in-depth about what it means to be a soldier, appropriate attire, the seven arm values, and professionalism we should first understand what it a solider is. By definition a soldier is a person who serves in an army. Also it could be defined, as “one who fights as part of an organized land-based armed force”. Solders are a rare breed of human beings that give everything they have to protect the county they serve. Also soldier is to stand up for this country and all that it stands for. When you are willing to give your life to defend life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Some believe that superheroes are people flying around fighting crime but to me a soldier is a hero. They fight for millions of people and never ask for a word of thanks. Just simply knowing that the people are free and safe because of what they are doing makes them all the better heroes in my book.

People think that soldiers are just a bunch of people running around shooting things, blowing stuff up, and anything war related when in fact that is not even close to being true, yes some have to do that but there is a lot of other things soldiers do that has nothing to do with fighting but instead helping someone. Although there are five branches of the US military and they all have to do with different aspects of something; they may even despise one another but they all have one mission and one goal so despite their specialties they will fight to defend the country. I am proud to call myself a soldier since it will mean that I will be able to serve my country. To honor those who have fallen and guide those who will follow behind me. As I guide those who will follow behind me I also guide those next to me to success. Making myself a better leader and them better soldiers. Although I am only a PV2 and I am not yet in a leader position. I still am looking for every opportunity that is available to take a leadership position of a task or a mission.

When there are no opportunities available I look at my leaders, learn from them, and look at how they lead. Doing so allows me to hone my leadership skills and incorporate some of their style of leading into my own. As a private just making it out of basic training I learned how to be a better individual and a team player. All the army values are important but only two that really drilled into my head during basic combat training was integrity and discipline. Being an honest person and doing the right thing. This helps in professionalism. Helps you act, walk, and talk in a professional manner. The more I type this essay the more I come to understand that being a soldier isn’t simple to explain and it isn’t easy to be one. Although we are given the tools to become better soldiers, some choose not to follow the guidance. And that’s not the road that you want to go down. Because the army has so much to offer you as far as education, skill building, and life lessons.

Everything in the army is here to set you up for success. There are a vast amount of thing you can do and classes you can take to send you down the career path you want to go so that your ready for that new career once you leave the army. I feel like the army offers that because to give the soldiers more options and a chance to better themselves as Soldiers and just as people. Military bearing is the biggest part of what it means to be a soldier. In which every soldier practice and maintain it to carry good discipline and ethics through their military career. Military bearing is one way that we stay professional. No matter how unprofessional the environment you must always maintain your military bearing. We must keep our military bearing no matter what. That includes on and off duty. It should be stressed about how much we need to keep our military bearing off duty because it seems like that’s when it fades a little. I am not sure why that is, maybe its because we feel like we can act like civilians but that’s not the case. We must maintain professional at all time. We are always soldiers 24/7.

What Factors Should I Consider When Choosing a Career

Some people spend their entire lives asking themselves what they want to be when they grow up. Other people know from childhood and by following an interior compass, they end up in a career that never feels like going to work. If you’re somewhere in the middle, you might consider several factors that may help you make a choice that’s right for you. Read on to discover some road signs that can help you choose a career.

What Interests You?

If you love archaeology but you feel more at home with the number-crunching work of an accountant, you don’t have to rule out your first love. Museums, schools and historical foundations need accountants, too. Perhaps you enjoy caring for animals, but the idea of becoming a veterinarian is not right for you. You don’t have to be a veterinarian to work in one of the many occupations that keep a zoo running, for example. Check out job boards related to your interests, and you may find some alternative points of entry that work for you.

Your interests may be broader. If, for example, you enjoy science but aren’t sure what you want to do, many universities have websites you can browse, and they include program descriptions that give you an idea of where different majors can lead. You can also find career placement and assessment tools online that help you find varieties of jobs within your interest field.

What Are Your Priorities?

Do you have the time and money to spend on an education, or are you determined to begin a career as soon as possible? Are you more interested in finding a career that becomes a lifelong passion, or would you rather make a ton of money quickly and retire early? You can find out how much education is needed for different types of careers by reading through the occupational outlook pages on the website for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics ( For example, you might find that you can earn high wages as a doctor, but you’ll have to go through 7-8 years of school and complete a residency before you start bringing home paychecks.

Are You a Pioneer?

Because technology is advancing so rapidly, you may find yourself hearing job titles tossed around that didn’t even exist ten years ago. Engineering and medicine are joining forces to create new diagnostic tools. The film industry is embracing computer graphics. You can discover emerging careers by reading articles from U.S. News and World Report and industry-relevant publications.

How You Can Combine Dreams and Reality

No goal is too distant if you’re armed with a roadmap. Once you have an idea about what type of career moves you, examine what you’ll need to do in order to get through the door. Starting at the end and working your way back by reading job postings, explore possible answers to these questions:

What are employers looking for regarding education and experience? What do entry-level jobs ask for in these positions? What are common admission requirements for degree programs in the field? What kinds of scholarship programs are available?

What true love is

If we base our idea of what true love is on fairy tales, we might think that finding prince charming or an enchanting princess and living happily ever after is the ultimate goal. But for most mortals, striving for such ideals is unrealistic, and may even leave us feeling unfulfilled or let down. The reality is that being and staying in love takes continual work and patience, even though this might not seem utterly romantic, in that storybook sense. Couples who have healthy relationships find ways of working together, and this in and of itself could be considered a sign of true love.

It’s true that in many cultures, people who are “in love” create long-term partnerships and/or get married. We may hear of the high divorce rates, but lots of these couples do actually stay together. Yes, there are couples that have been married for 60 years and still feel passionately in love, and there are others who care deeply for one another even though the lust is gone (or maybe never existed!). Of course, sometimes we may not even want to hear about the happy, lovey-dovey couples because we’re feeling romantically unlucky or lovelorn ourselves.

Keep in mind that the reasons why some relationships don’t last are as varied as the different kinds of people we are; in many cases, the partners simply grow apart because they have grown and changed as individuals, and seek different, more fulfilling opportunities for love. If a particular couple “falls out of love,” yet each partner goes on to seek a more satisfying love with another person, could this be an example of “true love” in action?

Love can also vary by degrees: some couples feel deeply intense and passionate, while others appreciate one another for intellectual reasons or admire one another’s ambition, dedication, or creativity. When is the last time you read a fairy tale where the main characters appreciated each other’s brilliant musicianship, eloquent writing, or compassion for humanity? (Well, maybe in Shakespeare’s writings….)

Love is not an easily definable concept but it may be helpful to try to spell it out. A psychologist, Richard Sternberg proposed that love is the result of three components — intimacy, passion and commitment. The love is strongest when all three of these components are strong. John Lee proposed an alternate theory by identifying six styles (or colors) of love. How do you define love?

Perhaps, just for fun though, it might help to look at this elusive “true love” in another light. Look around you and see all of the expressions of love in our world: people devoting huge chunks of their lives for the human rights of others, people setting aside time to volunteer in their community, parents and caregivers protecting and nurturing their children and families, young people learning from and sharing things with their grandparents. Or, how about giving and receiving unconditional love to and from the animals in our lives?

So, are humans capable of staying in love? Sure they are, as there are lots of models around us of people who love and care deeply about one another. Some people follow the philosophy of “better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all.” Instead of looking at all the heartaches around us, why not look to all of the examples of the different types of love in the world? Perhaps if we think of love as a broadly defined term, it’s possible to see “true love” all around us.

What does the fox say

Billboard might have already christened Robin Thicke’s Blurred Lines as the song of the summer, but Norwegian duo Ylvis might have something more to say on the matter before the equinox hits.

The Fox, by brothers Bård and Vegard Ylvisåker, has gathered more than 17 million hits after a week on YouTube. It was released in the lead up to the newest season of the band’s Norwegian television talk show,Tonight with Ylvis. They don’t have an album out yet, but after the overwhelming response several songs will be available on iTunes in North America next week.

The catchy tune is paired with the most absurd lyrics this side of the theme song to DuckTales. The brothers muse on the sounds animals make (“Dog goes woof, cat goes meow”) before asking, “What does the fox say?”

The answer is a series of horrific shrieks such as “Wa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pow!” and “Chacha-chacha-chacha-chow!” The brothers Ylvisåker dance in a forest at night dressed in fox costumes the likes of the Bloodhound Gang.

Ylvis isn’t new to the comedy music scene – they’ve been around since 2000 and have five other songs in English. Check out the arguably better Stonehenge, which begins as a mopey power ballad where a successful television show host is kept up at night ruminating on the ancient stone formation.

In the past six days Ylvis have received offers for tours and record deals “from all the biggest companies,” a bewildered Bård Ylvisåker told Billboard, saying he and his brother had no idea how The Fox ended up on the viral radar.

“Normally, you know we get some hits and we get some comments, but they’re all about the actual contents of the songs. But this was mostly about the phenomenon, which was really strange, even when it was only at 100,000 views.”

What is Same Sex Marriage?

Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex and/or gender identity. Legal recognition of same-sex marriage or the possibility to perform a same-sex marriage is sometimes referred to as marriage equality or equal marriage, particularly by supporters.

The first laws in modern times enabling same-sex marriage were enacted during the first decade of the 21st century. As of May 2013, thirteen countries (Argentina, Belgium,Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Sweden), and several sub-national jurisdictions (parts of Mexico and the United States), allow same-sex couples to marry. Uruguay and New Zealand have both enacted laws to legalize same-sex marriage which will come into force in August 2013. Bills allowing legal recognition of same-sex marriage have been proposed, are pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in Andorra, England and Wales, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Nepal, Scotland, and Taiwan, as well as in parts of Australia, Mexico, and the United States.

Introduction of same-sex marriage laws has varied by jurisdiction, being variously accomplished through a legislative change to marriage laws, a court ruling based on constitutional guarantees of equality, or by direct popular vote (via a ballot initiative or a referendum). The recognition of same-sex marriage is a political, social, human rights and civil rights issue, as well as a religious issue in many nations and around the world, and debates continue to arise over whether same-sex couples should be allowed marriage, be required to hold a different status (a civil union), or be denied recognition of such rights. Allowing same-gender couples to legally marry is considered to be one of the most important of all LGBT rights.

Same-sex marriages can be performed in a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting. Various faith communities around the world support allowing same-sex couples to marry or conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies; for example: Church of Sweden, Quakers, U.S. Episcopalians, the Metropolitan Community Church, the United Church of Christ, the United Church of Canada, Buddhism in Australia, Reform and Conservative Jews, Wiccans, Druids, Unitarian Universalists, and Native American religions with a two-spirit tradition, as well as various progressive and modern Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, and Jewish groups and various minor religions and other denominations.

Studies conducted in several countries indicate that support for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage increases with higher levels of education and that support is strong among younger people. Additionally, polls in various countries show that there is rising support for legally recognizing same-sex marriage across race, ethnicity, age, religion, political affiliation, and socioeconomic status.

Literature Review:

During the Ancient Civilization, there was already a record of a same-sex relationship but theykept it secretly. Even now, they still prefer to keep it secret. In our modern world, this kind of relationship still exist and continuous spreading around the globe. Recently some of the countries,known to be liberated, they already accepted the same-sex relationship and implemented a law wherein they give permission to same-sex marriage as known as the civil union.

The movement to open civil marriage to same-sex couples achieved its first temporary success in 1993 with the decision of the Hawaii Supreme Court that the restriction of marriage to opposite-sex couples would be presumed unconstitutional unless the state could demonstrate that it furthered a compelling state interest. In response to this decision the state constitution was amended to allow the legislature to preserve that restriction.

A similar court decision in Alaska in 1998 led to an even stronger constitutional amendment, itself defining marriage as between one man and one woman. In further reaction to the Hawaii case, the federal Defense of Marriage Act (1996) provided that no state would be required to recognize a same-sex marriage from another state, and also defined marriage for federal-law purposes as opposite-sex. The majority of the states also passed their own “marriage protection acts.” (In November 2004, eleven more U.S. states amended their constitutions to prohibit same-sex marriage.)

In Vermont, after that state’s Supreme Court held in 1999 that the state must extend to same- sex couples the same benefits that married couples receive, the legislature in 2000 created the status of “civil union” to fulfill that mandate. Connecticut adopted a similar civil union law in 2005. In 2001, the Netherlands became the first country to open civil marriage to same-sex couples. Belgium became the second in 2003. In 2002 through 2004, courts in six Canadian provinces held that the opposite-sex definition of marriage was contrary to Canada’s Charter of Rights, and in 2005 federal legislation extended same-sex marriage to all of Canada. Same-sex marriage was also legalized in Spain in 2005 , in South Africa in 2006, in Norway and Sweden effective in 2009, and in Portugal, Iceland, and Argentina effective in 2010.

In November 2003, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court held that excluding same-sex couples from the benefits of civil marriage violated the state constitution, and in February 2004 that court further held that a “civil union” law would not be sufficient, and on May 17, 2004 Massachusetts became the first state in the United States where same-sex marriage per se is legal.

In July 2006, opposite-sex definitions of marriage were upheld by the highest courts of both New York and Washington; likewise in Maryland in 2007.

In October 2006, the New Jersey Supreme Court held that same-sex couples were entitled to the same rights and benefits enjoyed by opposite-sex couples under the civil marriage statutes. The Legislature complied with that decision by enacting a civil union act in December 2006.

In May 2008, California became the second state to legalize same-sex marriage
when the California Supreme Court held that laws restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples were unconstitutional. Connecticut followed suit in October 2008. In California, the Supreme Court decision was overturned by voter initiative in the November 2008 election, but that initiative was held unconstitutional by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in February 2012.

In 2009, same-sex marriage was legalized in Iowa by decision of its Supreme Court, and in Vermont, New Hampshire, and the District of Columbia by legislation. New York’s Marriage Equality Act was enacted in June 2011. The states of Maryland and Washington legalized same-sex marriage by statute in 2012.

To what extent did the american revolution influence the French revolution


My Research question: To what extent did the American Revolution influence the French revolution?

1. Look at several different pages to get a better understanding of topic. 2. Transfer data you have found out onto word document into your own words, for you to understand. 3. Search influences of the French revolution.

4. Note down any thing that has to do with the American Revolution as well. 5. Note down why the French wanted to help the American and how this influenced the Revolution of the French.

My 3 sources: A website, a video and a book! I will use a website as a source, because it is the most common and will be fairly easy to find something. A video, because they are informative in an understanding way and a book because there a several different books about the French Revolution, finding the different causes and connecting those with the American Revolution.

This topic is significant, because due to several causes of the American Revolution the French occurred, changing history of the French completely. The Americans saw the French for inspiration, changing the entire system of how France was run and giving power to not just the king. And Americans protesting and rebelling against the British Monarchy, fighting for life and liberty inspired the French. What would’ve happened if the French didn’t help the Americans? There would be fewer reasons for the revolution and what would’ve happened then?

What Is Perception?

Part -1
Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. Among the most important perceptions that influence organizational behaviour are the perceptions that organizational members have of each other.

Components of Perception
Perception has three components –

A. The Perceiver
The perceiver’s experience, motives, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions.

Experience. One of the most important influences on perception is experience – our past experiences lead us to develop expectations and these affect current perceptions –

Motivational State. Differences in our needs at a given moment and our motivational state can also be a source of conflict within organizations.

Emotional State. Emotional state refers to the particular emotions that an individual feels at a given time. Emotions such as anger, happiness, or fear

B. The Target
Our perceptions are also influenced by the target’s social status and ambiguity. Ambiguity or lack of information about a target leads to a greater need for interpretation and addition.

C. The Situation
The context of the situation can greatly influence our perceptions by adding information about the target.


Common perceptual distortions include:

1. Selective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience, and attitudes.

2. Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.

3. Contrast Effects: Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

4. Projection: Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

5. Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.


Impact of judgmental error on perception interpretation
Employment interview
Early impressions are very important. Error on Perceptual judgments may often lead to non-selection of the candidate in spite of having required qualification.

Performance Expectation
Due to error of perception people expect better performance from those who are not capable of doing it.

Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion Effect)
It is based on the notion that expectations can determine behavior – this is
a very powerful managerial technique!

Ethnic Profiling
There are cases of wrong ethnic profiling of employees within organization as a result of judgmental error on perception. Performance Evaluations
Many perceptions are used in the evaluation of employees, which may not be always right.

Employee Effort
How is “effort of employee” perceived by the management? It is often a “reason” for terminations of employee. Thus employee can be fired due wrong perception.

What Belonging Is

Belonging is a way of having acceptance, security, fulfilment and a connection in association to people, places, groups, communities, and the world itself. There are different notions of belonging, however, they are recognising in cultural, historical, personal and social contexts. New experiences and changes in relationships affect our sense of belonging, in which explored through family relationships, connections with land, and into a new society world. These themes can be seen in Alice Pung’s Asian-Australian memoir ‘Unpolished Gem’ and the film ‘Rabbit Proof Fence’ directed by Philip Noyce. Another related film ‘The Blind Side’ written and directed by John Lee Hancock, which also explores the same concept of belonging. The novel ‘Unpolished Gem’ and two films ‘Rabbit Proof Fence’ and ‘The Blind Side’ are stories of telling ones journey to find a sense of belonging. The main character Alice Pung in Unpolished Gem narrates her childhood and adolescence through the use of anecdotes, reflections and re-told memories.

Just as Alice Pung, three young half-caste Aboriginal girls, Molly, Daisy and Gracie explore the difficulties, challenges experienced and success on their journey across the vast and lonely Australian Outback. And the main character Michael Oher in the film ‘The Blind Side’ also explores the difficulties and challenges in life as he grows up experiencing new things into a new society. To begin with, the sense of belonging arises from a family Relationship. Alice Pung recounts a series of memories from her childhood and adolescence as she grows up Asian-Australian straddling two worlds and about her parents and extended family, who once lived in Cambodia but the harsh treatments they’ve been experience in Cambodia forced them to migrate to Australia. Alice recounted her memories in first person, ‘We begin our story in a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, in a market swarming with fat pigs and thin people’. This shows that it is the author’s personal story/journey.

Through these retellings of remembered conversations between Alice and her paternal grandmother, Alice uses Vivid writing descriptions of her childhood feelings and imagination. Alice describes the series of emotions she went through as she was really shocked when she found out that her grandmother had stroke and passed away. As the quote says, ‘My grandmother was not meant to die. She meant to be part of me forever, so that I would always know that there was a life before me, and a life after me. My grandmother and her stories. What would I do without them? She asserted my existence before I knew I had one. Soon after the death, Alice became depressed and had a breakdown. Alice’s grandmother is the whom she is closest at her young age. Her relationship with her grandmother seemed to give her a life focus and direction, but now sore. The purpose of using vivid is to entice us into her painful experiences and happiness.

Similarly, in the film ‘Rabbit Proof Fence’ by Philip Noyce explores the same concept of sense of belonging to a family relationship through the uses of plot and camera shots. Camera shots represent the theme of family bonds when there is a close up shot of a mother Maude and daughter Molly looking up to the Spirit Bird. This shows both the physical and emotional closeness of the two, as well as the strong relationship they have with the land. One of the most literal ways family relationship is shown in the film, is in the scene when the policeman Riggs arrived, where the three young half-caste girls, Molly, Gracie and Daisy are being taken away from their mother. The director uses a tracking shot to follow the girl’s flight from the policeman Riggs. This technique makes the viewer feel empathy for the girls, as their panic is obvious to even the least sympathetic viewer. Their mother is desperately fighting for her grasp over the girls, and we can really see the emotional she portrays both physically, and mentally.

Furthermore, a sense of belonging arises from a connection with land in the film “Rabbit-Proof Fence” which presents a strong sense of Aboriginal identity and the three young girls’ connection with land through the spirit bird and the Rabbit Proof Fence to their way back home. This is evident in the scenes where it shows the motifs of the “Spirit Bird” and how it gives Molly inspiration, when she sees it her dreams when at Moore River Settlement, which made her want to run away back home. This is such a symbolic connection between her and her home land. Also near the end of the long journey where they are struggling to get home, a long shot of girls collapsed on ground juxtaposed with close up of their mother’s concerned face, with the sound of an Aboriginal chant- sense of belonging-willing the girls home. And an extreme close up of Molly’s eyes slowly open as she sees the Spirit Bird fly over her, which gives her the determination to keep going to get home to her family, and not to give up. Culture plays an important role for the indigenous people, and their love and care for their land. Lastly, a sense of belonging also arises from a new society world.

In a novel Unpolished Gem, Alice reveals the anxiety of her mother experiencing. Alice’s mother finds the adjustments in her new life difficult to bear. She falls into depression seeing as she does not have ability to work in Australia because she does not know the ‘English’. Other reason as why she is in depressed state because she struggles to communicate with her family and other people. Alice’s mother confesses all her troubles in work to Alice. She states that her unfair treatment at work is causing her to crumble. “I can’t wok there any longer! I can’t work at home I cant work anywhere.” Showing her confidence to be very low, lack self-esteem and self-worth. This is an evident that the barrier of cultural background preventing Alice’s mother to belong. Unpolished Gem is a small peek into the complex world of people who have to adapt. Not just to the country they have come to but to their own selves as they change over time. Alice’s mother is similar to the character of Michael Oher in the film ‘The Blind Side’ as who initially showed uneasiness in moving into a new world. Every time he is placed in a new home, he runs away. This shows early-signs of response towards not belonging.

His short story entitled ‘White Walls’ is an evidenced of his emotional detachment towards the school. He recounts his first-impression towards the school and describes it as ‘Everything I see is White’. This adjective is an evidence of Michael Oher’s struggle from feeling a sense of belonging which reveals his anxiety and discomfort. The voiceover emphasizes his character while he confesses his struggle and difficulties in adjusting into a new environment.` Therefore, belonging is an instinctive need of every living organism and a process affected by an individual’s perspective influenced by one’ context. In all of these texts, we can see that belonging is a fundamental and important aspect of life inevitably intertwined with notions of acceptance, identity, understanding and relationships. Differences in terms of religion, value, opinion, appearance, race, gender to name a few is what makes us unique individuals and assist’s us in determining who we really want to be and where we really want to belong.

What is the role of Ethics in the Management

Ethical management refers to corporate management that not only fulfills economic goals and legal responsibilities, but also meets the ethical expectations imposed by social norms in conducting business.

There are 5 specific functional areas of management which is covered by business ethics : 1) Ethical management in the workplace. Ethical management is the foundation of CSR (voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner) in the workplace, which covers those ethical issues of the employer-employee relationship. Ethical management assures all policies in the workplace are legal. This will prevent moral issues and discriminating practices such as harassment, child labor, discriminating practices based on age, gender, race and physical attractiveness.

2) Ethical management regarding intellectual property rights. This may take account on issues regarding bio prospecting and bio piracy, copyright, patent, trademark infringement, business intelligence, employee trading & industrial espionage.

– the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources. Biopiracy
– the commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advancedcountry or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nationsin whose territory the materials were originally discovered.

3) Ethical management in sales, advertising and marketing.
These are business ethics and ethical management that deals with issues on pricing, anti-trust and anti-cartel law, bait and switch, viral marketing, pyramid scandal and sex in advertising.

Anti-Trust and Anti-Cartel Law
laws that are designed to keep free competition in the marketplace. Competition encourages corporations to have lower pricing and better products for consumers. Without these laws in place, businesses could merge to create monopolies or engage in exclusivity contracts that can drive market prices. Bait and Switch

a sales tactic in which a customer is attracted by the advertisement of a low-priced item but is then encouraged to buy a higher-priced one. Viral Marketing (marketing buzz) referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking services and other technologies to try to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives.

Pyramid Scandal
which involves promising participants payment or services, primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, rather than supplying any real investment or sale of products or services to the public

Benneton Case
Benetton Group S.p.A (Benetton), a leading Italian clothing company, is famous, or rather, infamous for its outrageous promotional campaigns.

4) Ethical management production.
This deals with duties of companies to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm. Most discussions includes moral relations between business and environment. Ethical programs between the organization and the environment that are concerned with practices that may lead to pollution, global warming, increase in water toxicity and diminishing natural resources. (example: waste management, ford pinto case)

Ford Pinto Case
The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car produced by the Ford Motor Company, that is offered as a two-door sedan, then the Pinto added hatchback and wagon models the following year. With over 3 million sold over a 10-year production run, the Pinto competed in the U.S. market. But in 1972, reports of explosions in low-speed collisions involving Pintos struck from the rear started to come in to the National Highway Safety and Trans­portation Admin­istration. Accident investigations in many of the cases revealed that victims had few, if any, trauma injuries as a result of the impacts, but had burned to death when the cars exploded into flames. Some had been trapped inside the cars due to the body buckling and doors becoming jammed shut.

5) Ethical management in finance, accounting and auditing.
Issues within these areas comprise executive compensation, manipulation of financial markets, bribery, fraud (wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain) and false reporting.

What Makes A Civilization Successful?

There are many factors that make a civilization great. Some of the factors that make a civilization successful do not only include an efficient government, but a flourished environment. It must contain a great source of food. Which is very crucial to the sustaining of a civilization being a necessity. A good geographical area is key. A good area would include availability to water, which in turn would help with the growing of crops. When water is available a source of food should be constant. Water is a necessity when it comes to growing crops or any plants. Plants use most of the water they get form the soil for transpiration, but a portion of the water taken in is used during photosynthesis for producing the sugar and glucose necessary for plant to grow. A prime example of this would be in Sumer where the people would use a process know as irrigation to water their crops.

They would dig ditches from a river to their crops to make sure they got water to grow. Another important key to a successful civilization is government, ability to keep a social order and balance; division of labor and communication. The government is there for the people, to protect them. Division of labor, because when there are multiply doing different jobs a project getting completed more efficiently, opposed to multitude of people on one job. A good example of this would be Sumer in Mesopotamia. Not only did the Sumerians, have a complete understanding of trading they had some-what of a social structure by 2500 B.C. By 5000 B.C. the Sumerians were in the process of developing a writing system witch had evolved into pictograms and kept records by means of scribes.

Sumer reached its height in civilization in its third millennium. But like most things good, it began to decline. Water that was used to water the crops was poisoned through a process known as salinization. Crops didn’t grow as well and as often. Without water and a steady source of food, within 500 years to the food production dropped to an all time low. Nonetheless the legacy left by the Sumerians created, the default idea of civilization they left, would be used in the years to come.

What is statistics?

Statistics is mathematical analysis involving the use of quantitative, models and summaries for a given set of tested data or observations. Statistical analysis involves the process of collecting and analyzing data and then summarizing the data into a numerical form. Today there is no social ,commercial or even governmental activities not dependent on statistics from the beginning of the project until its end. When you start planning any new project must be the work of, for example, a study on the product and the need of people and past experiences and the suitability of the product with the nature of the area and people, etc.. There are tow types of Statistics are Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics :

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics includes statistical procedures that we use to describe the population we are studying. The data could be collected from either a sample or a population, but the results help us organize and describe data. Descriptive statistics can only be used to describe the group that is being studying. That is, the results cannot be generalized to any larger group.

Inferential Statistics
Inferential statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses of a sample. That is, we can take the results of an analysis using a sample and can generalize it to the larger population that the sample represents. In order to do this, however, it is imperative that the sample is representative of the group to which it is being generalized.

The statistics was in the ancient times the scope of statistics was few and limited. With the passage of time the scope of statistics became wider and wider. Thus the statistical methods were used in physical and then in other social sciences. Today, there is hardly a phase of human activity does not find Statistical scope at least occasionally useful and necessary. Economics ,anthropology psychology, Agriculture, business, education and natural phenomenons all heavily based on statistics. It is clear that statistical analysis is very important for all quantitative analysis to whatever field of inquiry they might relate and it intervenes in all the different areas of life.

The limitation of statistics:
The statistics despite its power, essential use fullness and universal applicability statistics has its own limitation and imperfections like:
1. Statistics does not study individual.
2. Statistics does not study qualitative phenomena.
3. Statistics data do not reveal the story
4. Statistical results are not always unquestionable
5. Statistical laws are true on the average or in the long run 6. Statistical data are liable to be misused easily.