Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Environmental Sciences Essay

Drip Irrigation is todays want as a result of H2O is natures present to the world and it is non limitless and free forever. Worlds H2O resources are fastly disappearing. The one and merely one solution to this job is automated Drip Irrigation system. In the sector of agribusiness, utilization of proper methodology of irrigation is of import and it’s good identified that irrigation by trickle is actually economical and efficient. In the standard trickle irrigation system, the husbandman has to maintain ticker on irrigation timetable, which is different for different harvests.

In Automatic microcontroller based trickle irrigation system irrigation will take topographic level merely when there might be intense demand of H2O. Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and OFF. These valves may be simple automated by utilizing accountants and solenoids. The intent of this paper is to produce extra set up in agribusiness area by utilizing radio detector internet along with additive scheduling. Paper describes an software of a radio detector net for low-cost radio managed and monitored irrigation solution.

The developed irrigation methodology removes the demand for craft for deluging irrigation every bit good as trickle irrigation. usage of additive scheduling help us to manage available H2O to the harvests if and merely if there is huge demand of H2O to the harvest in order to acquire maximal net revenue with minimal value. Besides additive Programming helps us to make correct direction of obtainable H2O.

Keywords – Irrigation- Surface, Drip, Wireless Sensor Network, Real Time Monitoring, Automation.

Introduction

Agricultural irrigation is extremely of import in harvest production everyplace in the universe. In India, the place the economic system is chiefly base on agribusiness and the climatic conditions are isotropous and are non in a position to do full utilization of agricultural assets. The chief ground is the deficiency of rains and scarify of land reservoir H2O. so efficient H2O direction plays an of import perform in the irrigated agricultural cropping methods. The demand for new H2O salvaging methods in irrigation is rising shortly proper now. In order to deliver forth “ more harvest per bead ” , agriculturists in ( semi ) waterless components presently discover irrigation method [ 1 ] . In the trendy trickle irrigation techniques, the most important benefit is that H2O is equipped near the basis zone of the workss drip by trickle as a result of which a big measure of H2O is saved, at the present epoch, the husbandmans have been using irrigation method in India by way of the manual management by which the husbandmans irrigate the land on the common intervals. This process generally consumes extra H2O or sometimes the H2O reaches tardily because of which the harvests get dried. This job can be completely rectified if husbandmans use machine-controlled clever radio trickle irrigation system by utilizing additive Programming [ 2 ] .

Aim

To salvage H2O, vitality and grownup male energy within the agribusiness sector

Handle the system manually each bit good as automatically

Detect H2O degree

To plan, which might be environment friendly and try discount of the former.

Need OF THE PROJECT

Irrigation is an unreal utility of H2O to the dust. An irrigation system is a system that delivers H2O to an nation where H2O is required but non usually present in the wanted sums. By and huge, it’s used for agribusiness and landscape gardening intents. The effectivity of the irrigation is determined by a determine of different elements, including the kind of irrigation system and the circumstances at its clip of utilization. Additionally, irrigation apart from has different utilizations in harvest manufacturing, which embrace protecting workss towards hoar, stamp downing weed turning in addition Fieldss and assisting in forestalling dust consideration. In contrast, agribusiness that depends merely on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry and farming. [ 2 ]

Types of Irrigation: Surface Irrigation: – Surface irrigation is defined because the group of software techniques where H2O is applied and distributed over the filth surface by gravitation. It is by far the commonest signifier of irrigation all through the universe. Surface irrigation is incessantly referred to as inundation irrigation.

Drip Irrigation: – Drip irrigation, apart from generally recognized as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method which saves H2O and fertiliser by leting H2O to drip easy to the roots of workss, either onto the filth surface or straight onto the root zone, by way of an internet of valves, pipes, tube, and emitter. It is completed with the help of slender tubings which delivers H2O straight to the base of the works

EXISTING AUTOMATED DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM:

In Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it’s non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on particular person dirt circumstances like dirt wet, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip like if we utilizing soil wet detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so every time dirt moist diploma is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to change its place from OFF to ON, and if soil moist degree is go to the right pre-setted diploma at that clip system is purchase OFF mechanically. This drip irrigation was performed by photo voltaic powered pumps. One of them ( pump-1 ) carries H2O from Dam Lake to H2O armored combat car, one other one ( pump-2 ) is used for accomplishing the needed force per unit area for irrigation.

Figure: Overview of the Existing Automated Drip Irrigation System

Relay Soil Moistr

Drip Temperature Valve Unit Sensor Unit

Farm Limit

Internet Base Station Unit Remote Unit LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING IRRIGATION SYSTEM:

In Current / Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it is non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on individual dust situations like dirt moist, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip

PROPOSED AUTOMATED INTELLIGENT WIRELESS DRIP IRRIGATION USING LINEAR Scheduling:

It is slightly just like the bing automated drip irrigation system, however together with that my purpose is to do my proposed system to be more clever that ‘s why I am touring to utilize additive scheduling in my proposed system. In Current/ Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it’s non potential to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on particular person filth situations like filth moist, ph_value, and temperature, seen radiation. It operates on merely one standing at a clip like if we using soil moist detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so each time filth moist diploma is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to alter its place from OFF to ON, and if soil moist degree is go to the correct pre-setted degree at that clip system is acquire OFF mechanically. Here it is non traveling to look into handiness of H2O and demand of H2O. But my system is traveling to look into that and on that footing it’s get operated. For that intent I ‘m utilizing additive programming attack to be able to make correct utilization of obtainable H2O all of the available harvests in the subject the place our system is get implemented to accumulate maximal net earnings and besides with assistance from additive scheduling we simple place available H2O and wanted H2O for the harvests.

PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Actuator

XBee

Detector

ADC

uC

Driver

Remote Monitor Control

XBee

Personal laptop / Server

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

The function is to plan a micro-controlled and Personal laptop driven automated drip irrigation system. This system must be ready to command the valve timings of trickles mechanically based mostly on pre-programmed timings. The clip intervals for all the valves can be fed into Personal pc for an full hebdomad or month. Regional linguistic communication primarily based GUI should be developed so that novice customers should have the power to feed in the timings or plan the hardware. An ADC connected to microcontroller should garner the humidness values for filth at assorted points. These values must be visualized in package using 3D secret plans to assist the consumer in make up one’s minding valve timings.

A Personal pc interface is provided for straightforward scheduling of the hardware ( No conventional keypad-LCD interface for square informations entry ) .The 3D graphs generated from detector values situated across the complete subject helps us to visualise, construe and take decisive actions for the peculiar state of affairs.

Figure: – Radio Sensor Network for Drip Irrigation System

Detectors ( Light, Temperature, PH_Value, Humidity ) : Detector Sense the different bodily parametric portions like seen radiation, ph_value of dirt, temperature and humidness and converts these sense informations into electrical alerts ( both electromotive drive or current )

Signal Array: It is aggregation of assorted detectors fundamentally it took enter from detector and Federal that information as an enter for the sign conditioning.

Signal Conditioning: It is actually indispensable. By and large the signal obtained from detectors are weak hence we uses signal conditioning to be able to maintain sign in to its authentic province. That means it actually works as like amplifier.

ADC ( Analog to Digital Converter ) : It Converts linear signal into digital sign and Federal that digital signal to the micro accountant as an enter.

Micro-Controller: It is bosom of the entire system, means it controls the all activities of the system. It has reminiscence during which control plans are saved.

Sensor Unit: The SU acquires informations given by the ADC, and the data sent to BSU. Value of ADC enter which comes from the detector is stored in a 10-bit registry. Different sort of detectors can be added easy for future developments.

Base Station Unit: The BSU is a maestro device that’s programmed to learn and to measure detectors informations, to command valves and to cross on with different models.

Personal pc ( Personal Computer / Server ) : Basically for Data Acquisition every bit good as logging intent we are touring to utilize personal. The graphical visual picture shows 3D Graphs generated from detector values situated throughout the sector.

Darlington Drivers: It is management unit which controls relays, fan, hotter and H2O pump harmonizing to the filth circumstances and provides needed situations to the dust means humidness, ph_value, seen radiation, temperature.

Valve Unit: Valve unit has the same connexion with radio school and the same belongingss with SU. It has an end product for commanding the valve. This valve was operated digital finish products on the microcontroller by transistor.

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

A radio detector internet ( WSN ) consists of spatially distributed independent detectors to supervise bodily or environmental circumstances, similar to temperature, sound, quiver, drive per unit area, gesture or pollution and handy in glove undergo their informations by way of the online to a chief location. The extra modern webs are bi-directional, in addition to enabling management of detector exercise. The development of radio detector webs was motivated by army purposes such as battlefield surveillance ; right now such webs are utilized in many industrial and client applications, similar to industrial procedure monitoring and control, machine wellness monitoring, and so forth. Wireless detector webs ( WSN ) have late been proposed for an enormous scope of purposes in place and industrial mechanization. It consists of many bantam nodes, which have a number of detectors and a wireless interface that is decided by the IEEE 802.15.four criterion that helps massive figure of embedded units in one internet. WSN can be used for a lot of functions similar to setting monitoring, medical applications, robotic techniques and place and industrial mechanization.

Use OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING IN SYSTEM

Linear scheduling ( LP or additive optimisation ) is a mathematical methodology for locating a way to accomplish one of the best end result ( such as maximal net income or lowest value ) in a given mathematical theoretical account for some listing of calls for represented as additive relationships. Linear scheduling is a particular occasion of mathematical scheduling ( mathematical optimisation ) .

To measure control parametric portions like how much complete H2O we’ve and what measures of various harvests have to be used to provide optimal throughput ( manufacturing )

E.g. tips on how to cut up drip H2O timings to find a way to achieve best possible throughput.

Problem: – one thousand litres of H2O

Net revenue: – 4 Rs/Liter for Crop 1

5 Rs/Liter for Crop 2

Let ‘x ‘ = litres for harvest 1

‘y ‘ = litres for harvest 2

Then PROFIT ( P ) = four x + 5 Y ( to maximise )

ten + y & lt ; = a thousand — — — — — — — — — — — ( 1 )

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 1 = 2 Watts

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 2 = 3 Watts

Max power available = 2400 Watts

2x + 3y & lt ; = 2400 — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

Solution: –

Constraints x & gt ; =0, y & gt ; =0

x+y & lt ; =1000 — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 1 ) 2x+3y & lt ; =2400 — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

For Equation ( 1 ) put x=0 we get y=1000 and set y=0 we get x=1000 and for equation ( 2 ) put x=0 we get y=800 and put y=0 we get x=1200

Now remedy these 2 equations we get the purpose where we get maximal internet income

2x + 3y = 2400 — — — — — — — ( 2 )

-2x- 2y = -2000 — — — — — — — ( 1 ) multiplies by -2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – Y = 400

So put y=400 in equation ( 1 ) we get x=600

So now we’ve 4 points in graph

i.e. ( zero,0 ) , ( a thousand,zero ) , ( 0,800 ) , ( 600,400 )

Now we’ve to cipher net income for that intent we’ve to set these Valuess in equation ( P = 4x + 5y )

For ( 0, 0 ) we get profit P = 0,

For ( 1000,zero ) we get revenue P = 4000

For ( 0,800 ) we get revenue P = 4000

For ( 600,400 ) we get profit P = 2400 + 2000 = 4400 = maximal internet income

Hence

600 litres of H2O for harvest 1

And

400 litres of H2O for harvest 2

Use OF INTERPOLATION IN SYSTEM

To map the physical parametric amount readings for nations in farm the place taking handbook readings is non attainable. E.g. If we’ve a reading at 1 level and so straight at 2nd level 25 metres off. Then we shall extrapolate the values for factors at every metre between the 2 measured points

Interpolation: -Interpolation is a method of constructing new informations points throughout the scope of a definite set of identified info points.

Extrapolation: – The time period extrapolation is used if we wish to happen knowledge points exterior the scope of recognized data points.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

System could be acknowledged as set S that consists of S = { N, Pr, Po, C, LP, X } ;

Where N = figure of harvests Pr = { pr1, pr2aˆ¦n } ; Set of internet incomes generated per litre for harvest 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) Po = { po1, po2aˆ¦n } ; Set of values of power required to direct 1 Liter of H2O to reap 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) C = { c1, c2aˆ¦ } ; Set of restraints the system must observe. ( Predefined ) LP = Liner Programming map that takes input Pr, Po and C and generates unknowns X= { x1, x2, aˆ¦xn } ; the place x1, x2, aˆ¦xn are optimum values of H2O that should be supplied to each harvest 1,2, ..n

Ten = LP ( Pr, Po, C ) ;

Advantage

Are comparatively easy to plan and put in

This makes addition in productiveness and reduces H2O ingestion

This is safest.

No work drive is required

Reduce dirt eroding and alimentary leaching.

Here we’re using additive scheduling. it has apart from some advantages which are as follows: –

LP is nice for optimisation jobs affecting maximising internet incomes and minimising costs.

The additive scheduling approach helps to do the absolute best utilization of available productive resources ( corresponding to clip, labour, machines and so forth. )

In a manufacturing process, bottle cervixs may happen. For e.g. in a mill some machines could additionally be in great demand whereas others may lie tick over for some clip. A important advantage of additive scheduling is foregrounding of such bottle cervixs.

Relatively speedy.

Guaranteed to happen optimum solution

Provides natural sensitiveness analysis ( shadow financial values )

Disadvantage

As compared to Conventional Irrigation system equipments are costlier.

Require frequent take care of efficient operation

Have restricted life after installing as a result of impairment of the fictile constituents in a hot, waterless clime when uncovered to ultraviolet visible radiation.

Linear scheduling is applicable merely to jobs where the restraints and nonsubjective map are additive. In existent life state of affairss, when restraints or nonsubjective maps are non additive, this technique can non be used.

Factors such as uncertainness, weather conditions etc. are non considered.

Reducing the universe to a set of additive equations is normally actually hard

CONCLUSION AND FEATURE WORK

The Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation System Using Linear Programming provides to be a existent clip feedback control system which proctors and controls all of the actions of trickle irrigation system expeditiously every bit good as it helps us for to make the efficient H2O path in order to purchase more web income with less value. Using this method, one can salvage manpower, every bit good as H2O to better productiveness and at last the net revenue.

In future when you modify it decently so this technique can in addition to present agricultural chemicals like Ca, Na, ammonium, Zn to the field together with Fertilizers with adding new detectors and valves.

Besides it’s potential to registered husbandman to obtain trickle management timings from agricultural universities website and management ain trickle irrigation system harmonizing to university

Hope Wireless HR Proposal

In support of launching a total reorganization of Hope Wireless, the third leading wireless company in the United States, the Human Resource Department will review and enhance several processes to include but not limited to staffing, performance appraisal, training and development, total rewards, and organizational behavior and processes. The goal is to transition Hope Wireless from good to great; from not only being an American company but a global company. The goal of this strategic organization proposal is to attract and retain the most qualified employees, improved company performance, customer satisfaction, prevent churn and increase revenue. Employees are Hope Wireless number one resource and a long term investment in employees is a long-term investment for the organization.

Part I – Hope Wireless HR Proposal Plan
Hope Wireless offers a broad range of wireless and wire line communications services encouraging mobile freedom to consumers, business and government users. By the end of the first quarter 2013, Hope Wireless had served more than 55 million customers with an employee base of approximately 60, 000 people. This is over 15 million more customer than one year ago. Hope Wireless is widely recognized for offering the most innovative technology and cutting edge devices and the most sophisticated network of all mobile carriers. Hope Wireless’s business objective is to position the organization to be the leading wireless company in the telecommunications industry. Hope Wireless is striving to offer world-class customer service, proactively identifying and meeting the wireless needs of customers and to offer benefits unlike any other organization.

“Organizations in which people work affect their thoughts, feelings, and actions in the workplace and away from it. Likewise, people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions affect the organizations in which they work” (Brief & Weiss, 2002). Over the past five years, Hope Wireless has progressively earned numerous customer service awards but most importantly the American Customer Satisfaction Index award. The American Customer Satisfaction Index group rated Hope Wireless No. 1 amongst all national carriers in most improved customer service particularly over the last four years. “Customer satisfaction is an important goal for providers of both services and products, and customer surveys are a commonly used instrument for evaluating that satisfaction” (Ammar, Moore & Wright, 2008).

Approximately five years ago, Hope Wireless was failing customer service surveys miserably and the customer satisfaction rate was fluctuating between anywhere from 65% to Part I – Hope Wireless HR Proposal Plan

72%. The telecommunications industry customer satisfaction goal is 85% or better. It was obvious across sites, states and countries that employees were not satisfied with their work environment and conditions. A supervisor task force proposed ideas to incite change across the organization. “Operation Smile” became a nationwide Hope Wireless initiative in addition to the “Go Fish” campaign. Operation Smile all employees to smile whether it was towards another employee or customer.

Everyone in the organization was presented 20 SMILE cards of which agreements were electronically signed that each employee would award any employee they “caught” smiling. The quality analyst were charge to give a SMILE cards to employees they heard SMILING through the phone. The Operation Smile initiative alone increased the overall customer satisfaction rate by 9%, sometimes higher. Any employee who accumulated increments of 10 or more cards could earn exciting gifts. This was a six-month initiative that cumulated with a grand-prize drawing that varied depending upon the site and locality.

The next morale boosting initiative which would have a direct positive impact on organization effectiveness was implementing the “GO Fish” campaign. Seattle’s Pike Fish market was the source of this idea as they are a living example of the principles supported by this initiative….”being present” and “making someone’s day”. If an employee was present for the customer or peer, they were awarded a fish by their supervisor or manager. The receiving employee would solicit a fish for their peer from a supervisor or manager. The quality analyst would award the fish if they witness an employee “being present” and “making someone’s day” towards their customer. Part I – Hope Wireless HR Proposal Plan

Each team was also given a stuffed fish to throw to the person who received a fish. Whenever the random bell tolled, the person holding the fish would receive an immediate reward, most often a gift card. Just as the SMILE initiative, any employee who accumulated increments of 10 or more fish could earn very exciting prizes. This was also a six month morale boosting plan. Customer satisfaction results have continually progressed and have been maintaining ratings of 85% or better on a monthly basis. Hope Wireless began and continues to see a decrease in churn, decrease in employee turnover, increase in employee relations and retention and a dramatic increase in customer satisfaction. The aforementioned action plans greatly influenced employee morale and encourage positive customer behavior while increasing the effectiveness of the organization.

“The loss of employees is a disruptive event. Organizations often pursue innovative ways to reduce employee turnover, often with limited success” (Murphy & Taylor, 2006). In addition to random initiatives, Hope Wireless offers on-going employee relation and retention resources such as the manager, site director open door policy, human resource specialist, employee assistance hotline, anonymous corporate security hotline and email address and a on-line suggestion box is set up in each site.

Hope Wireless needs to supports diversity management by “ensuring that factors are in place to provide for and encourage the continued development of a diverse workforce by melding these actual and perceived differences among workers to achieve maximum productivity” (Mondy & Mondy, 2008). Hope Wireless needs to offer various employee resource groups in support of sexual preference, gender, race, veteran status, etc. The employee

Part I – Hope Wireless HR Proposal Plan
resource groups will be voluntary, open to all employees with them not being limited to having access to only one group.

The Employee Resource Groups (ERG) will offer many benefits to employees such as unique development and networking opportunities, acquisition of practical skills and mentoring programs. In addition, ERG offers connections with people and information not generally accessible. The aforementioned connections to aid employees in positively impacting the organization by become part of the solution. Association with ERG provides allows employees exposure to company leaders, to serve and volunteer in the community as a representative of the organization and most importantly exposure to and learning about different cultures. Hope Wireless has utilized both internal staffing processes and temporary staffing agencies.

Research has suggested employees that were hired on a permanent basis out-performed temporary worker. The permanent workers demonstrated ownership and allegiance to the company coupled with documented higher customer satisfaction ratings. The recommendation is to maintain the internal hiring practice. Hope Wireless is successfully trending in the right direction. The aforementioned initiatives, processes and resources, customer service ratings and referenced awards have aided and proven that Hope Wireless is now offering world-class customer service. In addition, the number of net-adds in one year’s time, demonstrates Hope Wireless’s ability to meet and exceed the mobile needs of customer base. Hope Wireless continues to strive for on-going growth and success.

REFERENCES
Ammar, S., Moore, D., & Wright, R. (2008). Analyzing customer satisfaction surveys using a fuzzy rule-based decision support system: Enhancing customer relationship management. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15(2), 91-105. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/dbm.2008.2 Brief, Arthur P., & Weiss Howard M., “Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace”, (2002), pp. 279-307. Mondy, R. W., & Mondy, J. B. (200*) Human Resource Management (10th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Taylor, Lloyd J., I., II, Murphy, B., & Price, W. (2006). Goldratt’s thinking process applied to employee retention. Business Process Management Journal, 12(5), 646-670. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14637150610691055

Part II – Hope Wireless Performance Appraisal
Hope Wireless offers a broad range of wireless and wire line communications services encouraging mobile freedom to consumers, business, and government users. Performance appraisal methods are essential in support of “Human Resource planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, career planning and development, compensation programs, internal employee relations and assessment of employee potential” (Mondy & Mondy, 2008). The appropriate performance appraisal method for Hope Wireless, considering the type of organization and the number of employees is the rating scales method. “The rating scales method is a performance appraisal method that rates employees according to defined factors” (Mondy & Mondy, 2008).

“Performance management systems are effective when they are based on goals that are jointly set and are driven by an organization’s business strategy” (“What Makes Performance Appraisals Effective?” 2012). Performance appraisal imperatives for Hope Wireless will include: Do It Now (resolve); Delegate & Empower (engage appropriate resource/make a decision); Be Accountable (ownership); Focus on Customers (attentive); Teamwork & Camaraderie (work and win as a team); Compete like Winners (always strive for the top); Develop Yourself & Others (stay abreast of the business policies/procedures; peer-to-peer coaching); Acting with Integrity (adhere to code of conduct) and Have Fun (enjoy what you do).

The advantage of the rating scales method is that the process is controlled and uniform. With the large number of individuals employed by Hope Wireless, the rating scales method allow for easy comparison and contrast. ‘The rating scales method allows each employee to be subjected to the same appraisal process and rating criteria, with the same range of responses.

Part II – Hope Wireless Performance Appraisal
Rating scale methods are easy to use and understand. The concept of the rating scale makes obvious sense; both appraisers and evaluated employees have an intuitive appreciation for the simple and efficient logic of the bipolar scale. The result is widespread acceptance and popularity for this approach” (“Appraisal Methods”, n.d.).

“Organizational culture change is dynamic and depends on leadership and management. The concepts of organizational change focusing on process, culture change and leadership, and organizational culture change and the learning organization are central to organizational transformation and will be addressed next” (Conceição & Altman, 2011). “Training and development is the heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance” (Mondy & Mondy, 2008). The training and development program projected for Hope Wireless will be inclusive of intense focus on the position of the front line employee. The front-line employee is the customer-interfacing employee which directly impacts the organization’s bottom line revenue.

While training for the management team and other integral positions is very important, it is the customer interaction of which the organization thrives and allows the other positions to be vital and necessary. Taking into consideration the organization’s mission, goals and corporate plan, the training and development will be created to support the company’s culture. It is also important for Hope Wireless’s training and development plan to support the various job description tasks to include both internal and external customers. The final attribute in the training and development process is each employee’s personal training needs. This can be assessed by compiling knowledge, skills and abilities checklist and having each supervisor/manager administer the survey. Establishing training goals specific to each Part II – Hope Wireless Performance Appraisal

Position will ensure effective training in support of expected execution. Goals should include purpose and objectives. Hope Wireless offers 60% instructor led training and development while 40% of the training is via on-line classes for all level of employees. The management staff will also receive enhanced development via team builders, instructor led leadership courses and off-site leadership classes.

Career pathing at Hope Wireless will be facilitated through Hope University (HU). Hope University’s goal is to improve business performance innovative tools and resource to ensure on-going learning and development in support organizational success and employee career enhancement. “As a leader in learning and development, HU creates support tools that effectively facilitate performer tasks while on the job (such as desktop decision-making tools) and knowledge-management solutions which allow organizations to capture and share their collective knowledge (like discussion forums, blogs, pod casts and case studies).

These less traditional solutions are in addition to its more than 3,000 skills and knowledge development offerings and over 2.5 million hours of training delivered annually”(“Sprint”, n.d.) At Hope Wireless each employee is ultimately responsible for their career plan, with their manager’s and leader’s support. With expertise in performance support, development, and delivery, the HR staff has the knowledge and hands-on experience to help each employee reach their full potential through innovative and engaging solutions. On-line job development courses and interactive training classes are optional and available to any employee to be scheduled at Part II – Hope Wireless Performance Appraisal

their leisure. The HR staff will provide assistance in identifying the appropriate classes in support reaching one’s career goals. Effective succession planning is the reward of training and development and career pathing. Both training and development and career pathing should be developed and executed with succession planning in the blueprint. Hope Wireless succession plan would include promoting from within as the potential candidate will be prepared to transition into the open position fully armed with the organization’s mission, goals and expectations. It will be important to focus on those individual who demonstrate the ethics, value and integrity of which the Hope Wireless culture represents.

Potential leaders will be identified, partnered with existing leadership and provided the resources to enhance strong skillsets and enhance areas of opportunity. Company career goals will be identified along with the potential candidate identifying their personal career goals. Hope Wireless will extend every effort to fill key positions from within to enhance employee morale, avoid negative business impact and ensure continual career advancement.

Part II – REFERENCES
Appraisal Methods. Retrieved from http://www.performance-appraisal.com/ratings.htm Conceição, S., C.O., &
Altman, B. A. (2011). Training and development process and organizational culture change. Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 33-43. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/862094636?accountid=35812 http://linked2leadership.com/2013/04/01/10-steps-to-create-a-killer-succession-plan/ Mondy, R. W., & Mondy, J. B. (2008) Human Resource Management (10th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Sprint. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sprint.com

What Makes Performance Appraisals Effective? (2012, October). Sage Journals, 44(4), 191-200. Retrieved from http://cbr.sagepub.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/content/44/4/191

Part III – Hope Wireless Compensation Plan
“Compensation is the total of all rewards provided employees in return for their services” (Mondy and Mondy, 2008). In support of meeting and exceeding Hope Wireless’ business objectives, a comprehensive compensation and incentive plan will be outlined as follows for the front line customer-interfacing employees. Hourly rate for customer service (CS) agents is $12.00 per hour based on the average industry hourly pay of $10 per hour. Overtime will be paid at one and one half hours for every hour worked over 40 hours.

This does not include vacation hours, specifically worked hours. Bonus compensation will be paid when the criteria has been met as outlined in the bonus plan for each group. Paid time off (PTO) will accrue at the follow rate: tenure of one to three years will accrue two weeks of PTO; tenure of four to six years will accrue three weeks of PTO and tenure of six plus years will accrue five weeks of PTO. Each employee will only be able to carry-over 40 hours of PTO at the end of each calendar year. Every year each employee will accrue two eight hour floating holidays for personal use, which are not transferrable.

CS agents will begin with a balance of 140 HAP (Hope Attendance Points) to be used for unscheduled absences. A five to eight hour unscheduled absence will result in deduction of 10 HAP. An unscheduled absence of four or less hours will result in a deduction of five HAP. Business impact days that are designated by Workforce, will have a double point deduction. Those days will be identified at least two weeks prior to applicable timeframe. The aforementioned benefits and compensation are in support of employee satisfaction, retention and securing employees commitment to the organization. The CS agents will be

Part III – Hope Wireless Compensation Plan
provided a comprehensive outline of the PTO/HAP policies to include unacceptable HAP balances, the consequences of exhausting all balances including PTO and HAP, etc. The CS agents will also have the option of enrolling in medical insurance of which Hope Wireless will remit 70% of the premium. The CS agents will also have the option of dental and optical insurance where Hope Wireless will remit 70% of the premium. Employees will also have the option to participate in pre-tax flex-spending accounts. A self- initiated pre-tax monetary amount will be deducted from each paycheck and placed in a fund for medical/co-pay expenses for the employee and covered relations enrolled in the medical insurance program.

This is a great savings and perks for the employees. Hope Wireless offers all employees an exciting 401K plan of which Hope Wireless matches dollar for dollar up to five dollars per pay period. Stock options are also available in addition to the 401K plan, both of which will be outline on the company’s intranet benefit site. Enrollment in 401K and stock options are available year-round. Tuition reimbursement is available for courses applicable to customer service/leadership/management and will be paid up to 90% for two courses annually after outlined criteria is met and approved by his/her manager. Criteria can be found on Hope Wireless’ intranet benefit site. Base pay increases are performance based and will be determined yearly once the employee has been rated by Supervisor via the annual performance review. The pay increases will be based on current rate per hour, performance rating and active corrective actions and performance action plans. Pay increases will be commensurate with current industry standards at the time of the rating.

Part III – Hope Wireless Compensation Plan
The Human Resource team has rendered extensive research of surrounding call centers, conducted surveys of sister sites and concluded the outlined compensation plan is inclusive of the most desired benefits of the most tenured employees who consistently exceed performance goals. The targeted employees also have consistently exceeded customer expectations per customer surveys.

HR’s partnership with middle management is also a key element to successful operations and employee retention. HR will also outline a process of which middle management can execute separate and apart from the aforementioned proposal. “Practical strategies for supervisors include clearly identifying role responsibilities, implementing flexible scheduling, supporting role integration, applying job sharing principles, and remembering to reward and recognize employees”(Winterstein, Mazerolle & Pitney, 2011).

Hope Wireless’ mission is to exceed the expectations of every customer who is in contact with the site. In order to enjoy such a reputation, every employee has to be engaged, empowered, committed, satisfied in their role and have allegiance to the organization and their team leads. Meeting performance expectations will allow each employee their hourly base pay. Surpassing performance expectations invites the opportunity to earn a bonus. WOWING every customer, owning the business, caring about your co-worker, volunteering in the community on behalf of the organization, etc. earns rewards and recognition.

Recognizing employees for a job well done is more important than many leaders realize. Employees often times provide feedback via company surveys that their manager only meet with them to share/discuss poor performance. Being “caught in the act” of outstanding performance/behavior is a pay-off for the organization that is immeasurable. Great behavior Part III – Hope Wireless Compensation Plan

breeds great behavior. Receipt of recognition in front of an employee’s peers not only enhances one self-esteem but often times deem an employee a subject matter expert. A go to person. “Since managers prefer to keep their good performers and employees that they like, it is important to understand their treatment of those individuals in promoting their desired continued personal development” (Adams, 2005). Hope Wireless will not only engage in on the spot “Caught in the Act” positive feedback cards issued by an employee’s manager, the use of “Caught in the Act” certificates, posters and emails will also be initiated.

Certificates will be presented in team meetings; posters will be posted in the team work area and emails will be sent to recognized employee with the entire team copied. Hope Wireless Trinkets will also be available to the management team in addition to the creation of the Hope Wireless Fun committee. The Hope Wireless Fun committee will be charged with engaging a mix of employees to create and execute fun activities for the site to reward and motivate employees such as team prizes for the best performers, best customer service surveys, etc. Hope Wireless is committed to working and winning as a team and to have the best team of employees in the wireless industry.

REFERENCES
Adams, S. M. (2005). Positive Affect and Feedback-Giving Behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(1), 24-42. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview Mondy, R. W., & Mondy, J. B. (2008) Human Resource Management (10th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Winterstein, A. P., Mazerolle, S. M., & Pitney, W. A. (2011). Workplace environment: Strategies to promote and enhance the quality of life of an athletic trainer. Athletic Training & Sports Health Care, 3(2), 59-62. doi:http://dx.doi.org

Part IV – The Cultural Change
The senior leaders of Hope Wireless prides themselves on being one of the top three wireless leaders. Hope Wireless has won sundry service awards and achieve many honors for most improved customer service. In addition, Hope Wireless offers innovative and competitive wireless devices of which the other wireless providers have been unable to match. While many of Hope Wireless’s policies and procedures will be addressed and enhanced as a result of this proposal, the last enhancement proposal is in support of the internal culture of the organization. The previous site director allowed employees to dress down daily.

Dressing down allows denim, flip-flops, shorts, hats, etc. Employees who are dressed down are more relaxed and come across as such when speaking to customers lending to an unprofessional environment and poor customer service interactions. A recent event involving an employee who had placed their sweatshirt hood on and laid their head on the desk while waiting on a call is the final motivation for the proposed change. While sleep, several customers came onto the sleeping employee’s line and dropped when no one responded. This resulted in an impact in customer service and service level.

The news of the termination of the employee was wide-spread amongst the agent’s peers. This was the first step towards awareness that the organization will take immediate reaction to negative impact caused by an employee. “When people in an organization realize and recognize that their current organizational culture needs to transform to support the organization’s success and progress, change can occur. But change is not pretty and change is not easy” (Heathfield, n.d.).

Part IV – The Cultural Change
The first cultural change proposal is to initiate a change to the current dress code policy from daily dress down to dress down Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays ONLY, unless otherwise specified. Currently, employees are only required to wear professional business attire when corporate visitors are expected on-site. The proposed normal day to day dress requirement will be business casual. Business casual dress guidelines will require men to wear collared shirts, khaki or dress pants and no tennis shoes or sandals. Business casual dress guidelines will require women to wear non- provocative, non-tight-fitting clothing void of denim and stretch material. Denim will not be allowed for either women or men. Women or men will not be permitted to wear shorts on business casual days. Women’s skirts and dresses must be knee length and the women’s shoe requirement will require dress shoes, no tennis shoes or flip flops.

“Top-down attempts to change organization culture have a number of unintended consequences, amongst which is an emotional fall-out that becomes manifested in higher rates of absenteeism” (Carr, 2002). Human Resource has elected to release management of the task of owning and communicating this change. Employee focus groups will be formed to access to proactive strategize the most effective communication and reaction to opposition toavoid  negative impact to business. Agent dissatisfaction often translate to poor performance and reliability in call centers.

Severe opposition is expected in response to this proposed change. The tentative initial communication to employees will be socialized to employees in team meetings by members of the employee focus group. Often times, peer buy-in lends to continued peer buy-in to change in an organization. In support of the opposition, Human Resources will also partner Part IV – The Cultural Change

With the Communication team to begin sending out catchy, funny emails and launch internal television advertisements of the dress code change to occur in 30 days. The “why” documents will be drafted to include the goal of delivering superior, professional customer service. Anonymous pictures will be included of relaxed desk posture of agents who are dressed down versus those who are dressed business casual. Relaxed posture translate to relaxed conversations. Human Resources will also be prepared to hold optional brown bag meetings to share “relaxed” remote quality observations where unprofessional customer service was rendered versus calls observed on a professional dress day.

Human Resources will set the expectation that the Management team will be held accountable to execute this change and maintain application and consistency of the policy change. All policy amendments are supported by 30 day adaptation grace period after which the following reaction will be instituted. Management will render a documented verbal warning for the 1st dress code violation. The 2nd dress code violation will result in the employee being sent home to change with an impact to pay for the time missed and documented warning. The 3rd dress violation will result in a 1st written warning and will continue to progress to termination.

Human Resources will be open for feedback will be open to negotiate with employees holistically to encourage receptiveness to the dress code change. “Timing can be crucial. Conflict tends to develop through stages, from awareness that differences exist to a hardening of attitudes and, possibly, open hostility” (“Abc of Conflict and Disaster: Approaches to Conflict Resolution,” 2005). The employee focus group will be the first reaction to conflict of which employees will be encouraged to provide open and honest feedback to and amongst their peers. Part IV – The Cultural Change

This will provide an immediate forum for employees to react versus allowing dissatisfaction and conflict fester and result in unnecessary and avoidable conflict. The aforementioned changes outlined in this proposal outline a cultural change that lends to effective start-up, encourage growth, prevent decline, encourage renewal and upward mobility and prevent death of the organization.
CONCLUSION
The Human Resource planning and partnership outlined in the aforementioned proposal will institute efficient, effective, consistent, and revenue impacting operations. The Human Resource team for Hope Wireless has prepared the blueprint to propel the organization to becoming the #1 wireless leader in the industry.

REFERENCES

Abc Of Conflict And Disaster: Approaches To Conflict Resolution. (2005, August). BMJ: British Medical Journal , 331(7512), 344-346. Retrieved from http://av4kc7fg4g.search.serialssolutions.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com

Carr, A. (2002). Organisational culture: Organisational change? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(4), 425. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197601624?accountid=458 Heathfield, S. (n.d.). How to Change Your Culture: Organizational CultChange. About.com Guide, (), Retrieved from http://humanresources.about.com/od/organizationalculture/a/culture change.htm

Impacts of Wireless Technologies on Education

Abstract Education is can be defined as a reflection of the development of a society and as the foundation stone of the bright future of a nation whether 1st world or 3rd world has undergone drastic changes in the last fifty years. The advancement of the education sector is due to the fact that people have become creative and very innovative and are coming up with various technologies that are creating impacts in all spheres of life and education is no exception. Mind blowing wireless technologies are being developed every year geared to making living easier and more comfortable.

Wireless technology has greatly revolutionized the field of education and its importance in learning institutions is noticeable and cannot be ignored. With the introduction of wireless technologies in education system it has become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire the knowledge. Thus the use of wireless technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. The aim of this term paper is to explore the importance, the negative and the positive impacts of wireless technology in the education system.

The positive impacts of technology on education have been phenomenal; actively using wireless internet and computers and wireless devices such as mobile phones as an effective means of establishing communication has seen educational institutions being able to deal with many issues that were previously not handled with ease due to long distances and geographical limitations or lack of adequate training technologies. Technology has also negatively impacted the education sector for example by creating poor teachers students relationship, as teachers just like students find it easier to share and circulate study materials by using wireless internet as a communication tool.

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Importance of Wireless Technology in Education Institutions The need to introduce wireless technology at an early age in life shows the importance of this technology in schools. Since wireless technology is being embraced as a way of life presently and it certain to be the future way of life, it is therefore good if students can obtain knowledge of the technological changes as early as possible. Children learn faster and can adapt to changes relatively easily.

If children are trained during their school years, they have greater chances of becoming experts in technology at a later stage in life. Introducing wireless technology early to students is always beneficial in the long run. Since wireless technology is bound to be a part of their future, it is best to introduce them to it during school life as otherwise they will have to struggle learning it later in life. It is advisable to give them a basic idea of the wireless technological changes.

The inclusion of wireless technology in the process of learning makes learning an enjoyable activity, thus inviting greater interest from the students. The vast knowledge from all around the world can be better brought about for the students and can be better adapted by them. The administration processes which involve the official procedures of school can be simplified by the means of wireless technology.

School records (the information about all the students and the teachers as well as other school employees) can efficiently be maintained by means of the advanced digital wireless technology such as a digital library system. A digital library system holding school records or a website can be maintained effectively through wireless technology

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Importance of Wireless Technology in the Classroom The importance of using wireless technology in education system especially within the classroom setup is as explained below; Active Participation Students learning through technology use the wireless internet to search for information. They then make their own decisions regarding the information i.e. whether it is relevant or irrelevant. Students have control over how to use or present this information.

Thus, one of the main benefits of using technology for classrooms is that unlike a classroom led by a teacher, where students passively receive whatever information the teacher is providing, in tech savvy classrooms, students are active participants. In-depth Knowledge By using the wireless internet technology, obtaining information on all kinds of subjects has become very easy. A student sitting in his classroom can learn how people in a small village in Africa live life.

Thus, Internet is a kind of digital library which is at the disposal of a student with just a click. A student can acquire in-depth knowledge on any subject using this vast resource and acquire diverse knowledge in the process. Real life work experience The use of wireless technology in the classroom offers experience to students similar to the working environment such as working in an office. In the wireless technology savvy classrooms, a teacher acts as a facilitator who sets project goals for the students and provides them with the necessary resources and guidelines to reach those goals.

The student themselves makes decisions with regards to the design choices, the information they want to use and display, the resources that they will use. In addition, currently, students themselves are very tech savvy

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and may sometimes even know more than the teacher himself. So, there is a constant exchange of information between the students and the teachers. Such an environment prepares a student to work in business organizations in the future. Increased motivation Studies have shown that there is great importance of integrating wireless technology in the classroom. When students are taught through slide shows or by showing digitized films, it makes the lessons very easy and interesting for them. It helps in their learning, at the same time motivates them to attend school every day.

Thus, another importance of technology in schools is that it brings down the drop-out rates. Technical skills Students using wireless technologies on a daily basis develop an understanding of the various wireless tools and software. This kind of education prepares the students and makes it easier for them to learn about the various software applications in future.

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Importance Of Wireless Technologies On Education Wireless technology plays a vital role in every sphere of life and education is no exception. The advent of this technology has deeply impacted the educational sector and also changed the way we live by impacting different facets of life and redefined living as a whole. Wireless technology has automated many boring manual tasks and also made it possible for many complex and critical processes to be carried out with ease and greater efficiency. Wireless technology has revolutionized the field of education and this importance in schools cannot be ignored. It has made it easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it.

The use of wireless technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. Below are some of the importances of wireless technology. Wireless Technology has made student life easy Student can use wireless technology to help them express themselves more clearly i.e. they can use much more than just pen and paper to express themselves or present what they have learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects.

This makes them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention of information. With technological aids, they can make easy-to-remember notes and a creative presentation of the information they have acquired. It won’t be wrong to say that application of wireless technology has made a student’s life easy. It’s easier for students to carry a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) than carrying big fat books to school. More so an iPad is less bulkier than a pile of notebooks or an eBook reader much lighter than a book.

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Wireless Technology has made it easier to store information Wireless gadget that come with extended internal memory or Micro SD cards have enabled better and more robust storage of information. If you weigh chalk, board, books and notebooks against wireless technology, you find that wireless technology can substitute for any and all of these. Wireless technology has replaced chalk and board; the teacher can even use gadgets that can even do the talking sometimes while the teacher takes a step back and lets the presentations ‘speak’.

Gadgets such as digital libraries require no physical space and students and teachers sitting in different parts of the world can access the same library at the same time. Compacted memory devices have replaced notebooks and a keyboard and computer mouse are the new writing devices. What may have required hundred pages of a book can be compacted into a tiny memory chip. It can take hours to write, but it takes only seconds to type.

Sharing and storing data has become much easier, owing to wireless technology. Wireless Technology has enhanced easy access of information The Internet is a huge information base that can be used an effective tool for acquiring knowledge. Users of the web just key in queries to search engines and are presented with thousands of search results. There are several websites and web directories that offer information on literally everything in the world. And all this is just a few clicks away. Both teachers and students can benefit from this.

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Wireless Technology has eliminated space and time constraints Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to education and higher learning. Even if students are geographically far away from each other, they can be a part of one classroom virtually i.e. not physically but virtually. Many educational institutes offer online courses, which eliminates time and space constraints in acquiring education.

Universities offer online educational programs wherein students can interact with their teachers over the Internet, access reference material from the University website and earn degrees online. Wireless Technology has enhanced teaching and sharing Wireless technology has made education has become more collaborative. With surplus information so easily available to students, they can be a part of the process; they don’t need to remain at the receiving end.

Owing to the use of technology, subject experts can come together to formulate courses, design assessments and better the process of teaching. Students who have relocated to different parts of the world are able to seek advice from experts spread across the globe through the use of technologies such as the mobile telephones. Wireless Technology has enhanced teaching Wireless devices offer an interactive audio-visual medium.

PowerPoint presentations and animation software can be used to present information in an interactive way. Owing to the audiovisual effects, this way of teaching invites greater interest from students. The method is equally helpful for teachers. Projectors and screens facilitate simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. Addressing systems using microphones and speakers make it possible for teachers to reach a larger number of students simultaneously. These teaching aids have led to improvements in student attendance and their attentiveness in class.

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Wireless Technology on mutual impact Currently, wireless technology is a part of school and college curricula. Considering the wide range of applications of wireless technology, it is thus necessary for everyone familiarize themselves with this technology. Considering the advantages of Internet technology, it is important for each of us to gain basic knowledge of Internet access and web research.

We live in a technology-age and hence, it is important for us to be up-to-date with the latest inventions in the field. With education, we acquire knowledge of the functioning and use of different pieces of technology. And with the application of technology, we can educate ourselves better. This is the impact technology and education has on each other. Education boosts use of technology and technology aids education.

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Impacts Of Wireless Technology On Education Technology brings positive or negative impacts depending on how and for what purpose it’s being used. Positive Effects of Wireless Technology on Education Talking in a positive sense, the impact of wireless technology on education has been phenomenal.

Using wireless internet and digital computers as en effective medium to establish communication between schools, teachers, students and parents; educational institutes have been able to handle many issues that were previously not handled with ease due to geographical limitations or lack of adequate training technologies. Enhanced Teaching and Learning Technological developments like digital cameras, projectors, mind training software, computers, PowerPoint presentations, 3D visualization tools; all these have become great sources for teachers to help students grasp a concept easily, as learning has become fun and enjoyable for students.

They’re able to participate more in the classroom and even teachers get a chance to make their classes more interactive and interesting. The importance of wireless technology in schools can be understood from the fact that it empowers the educational system and produces better students. Reduced Drop Out Rates Technology has also contributed to the decrease in dropout rates, improvement in student attendance and enhancement in their learning abilities.

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Confidence Booster Students being exposed to wireless technological wonders like digital computers and mobile phones, WI-FI internet and learning to operate. This helps them create their own special world and this gives them a feeling of being special. This makes them believe that they stand strong in global competition. Increased Cooperation Amongst Peers A majority of teachers have stated a very surprising fact that introducing wireless technologies in classroom has increased peer to peer interaction. Many students who’re comfortable in handling digital computers come out to lend a helping hand to students, who face problems in working on computers or any other wireless device.

The importance of technology in the classroom goes beyond computers and Internet. Increased Knowledge Students who sincerely complete their assignments by referring to the surplus of information available on the Internet are able to develop good analytical and research skills. By referring to a large number of resources, a serious student utilizes his or her common sense and judgment skills to choose the best material and use it as an advantage to complete the project. By getting exposed to numerous ideas for their assignments and the creative ways to finish them, students develop excellent research abilities.

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No Geographical Limitations Wireless technologies have made it possible for the adoption of online degree programs offered both locally and internationally. Students don’t have to be present physically in the classroom to acquire degree. Distance learning and online education has become an integral part of the education system nowadays. These online courses can be of great advantage to those students who are far away from these institutions of higher learning.

Negative Effects of Technology on Education Poor Teacher – Student Relationship Wireless technologies don’t encourage strong teacher-student relationship. Students using wireless technologies tend to behave badly towards their teachers especially when it comes to communication since there are not one on one. Teacher – student interaction is something that is vital to understand intricate topics. The trend of blackboards wherein, teachers post online notes, lectures, assignments and other information has cultivated the habit of skipping college lectures amongst students.

The use of the internet has made students disorganized and impatient. A lot of copying and pasting of information is done so that they can finish their assignment. Use of the school’s library is no longer relevant as searching for information from books or even online library facilities seems to be an overwhelming task for students. Its been observed that students are not productively utilizing technology for their growth. Students also don’t seek the teacher’s advice on difficult questions or about a difficult subject.

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Increasing Incidents of Cheating Wireless technological developments like graphing calculators, high tech mobile phones, high tech digital watches, mini cameras and similar equipment have become great sources to cheat in exams. It has now become easier for students to write formulas and notes on graphing calculators, with least chances of being caught. Lack of Focus Short Message Service (SMS) or text messaging has become a favorite pastime of many students. Students are seen playing with their cell phone, iPhones day and night, right from crossing a street, or driving and very often even between lectures. Students being everconnected to the internet world have

View as multi-pages

Wireless Technologies Proposal

Wireless technologies include both wireless devices, such as smart phones, and wireless transmission media, such as microwave, satellite, and radio. These technologies are fundamentally changing the ways organizations operate and do business. Individuals are finding it convenient and productive to use wireless devices for several reasons. First, they can make productive use of time that was formerly wasted (for example, while commuting to work on public transportation). Second, because they can take these devices with them, their work locations are becoming much more flexible. Third, wireless technology enables them to allocate their working time around personal and professional obligations. The first recommendation will be Wireless Fidelity (or Wi-Fi), which is a medium-range wireless local area network (WLAN), which is basically a wired LAN but without the cables. In a typical configuration, a transmitter with an antenna, called a wireless access point, connects to a wired LAN or to satellite dishes that provide an Internet connection.

A wireless access point provides service to a number of users within a small geographical perimeter. Wi-Fi will provide fast and easy Internet or intranet broadband access from anywhere in the office offices. Users can access the Internet while walking around the office. In addition, users can access Wi-Fi with their laptops, desktops, or PDAs by adding a wireless network card. Most PC and laptop manufacturers incorporate these cards directly in their PCs. Second recommendation will be cellular telephones or smart phones, and tablets; cellular telephones use radio waves to provide two-way communication. The cell phone communicates with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic areas called cells. A telephone message is transmitted to the local cell by the cell phone and then is passed from cell to cell until it reaches the cell of its destination. At this final cell, the message is either transmitted to the receiving cell phone or is transferred to the public switched telephone system to be transmitted to a wireless telephone.

This is why you can use a cell phone to call both other cell phones and standard wireless phones. Cell phones a great way to for your employee to communicate around the office and as well outside during business sales. Smart phones supports videos; web browsing, and instant messaging. Some disadvantage will be that some plans are relatively expensive, and most carriers’ limit how much you can download and what the service can be used for. For instance, some carriers prohibit downloading or streaming audio or video. If you go beyond the limits, the carriers reserve the right to cut off your service. Smart phone are good for on the go. When in-between meets or at work, with a smart phone are can access emails, the internet, and just about anything else. Smart phones can have access to banking, calendars, and other app that is needed. Smart phone come in different sizes and colors.

With a tablet you can have it with internet services or not. Tablet can do just about anything you want it do. There are programs that allow you to type papers, read, and recorded any video that is needed. Tablets are small and weigh just about nothing, so there easy to travel with. Tablet can range from any size on the screen to any size for memoir. We believe these two devices would work for a small company, because they are cost effective simple to work on the go. The risks that you take in wireless technologies is if you use a network that is not security enabled there is a chance of somebody else being able to access your information. It also gives the owner of the network to see what pages and different activities that have been being done on that network. There are risks like that, but that would mostly happen when using a hotspot or WiFi that has an open connection to the public.

Wireless Technologies and Services

My project will be saeting up a wireless campus area network ,but I had to choose form radio frequency or free space optics and use to connect on five buildings in a small rural town. I choose free space optic because it transmits data from point-to-point and multipoint using low-powered infrared lasers. Unlike traditional copper wires or fiber-optic technology, which transmits data by light across glass, FSO uses laser technology to send optical signals through the air using lenses and mirrors to focus and redirect the beams and send data from one chip to another. And unlike radio frequencies, FSO technology does not require a spectrum license. An FSO system uses optical amplifiers and a telescope that sends multiple wavelengths of light in direct line of sight through the atmosphere to another telescope waiting to receive the information. The receiving telescope is connected to a highly sensitive receiver through an optical fiber and a DWDM demultiplexer. Since the system is bidirectional, each telescope can simultaneously send and receive information. The only weather condition that affects an FSO transmission is fog. Fog can corrupt the direct line of sight between the two telescopes because the moisture particles in the air are so small and dense that they act as millions of tiny prisms dissipating the band of light sent from the laser.

Free space optics provides a higher bandwidth to the end user at a faster speed. The photons transmitted by the laser are much quicker than electrons moving along a wire and they can pass straight through each other, which charge-bearing electrons cannot do. Because of this, large amounts of data, such as IP -based voice and video, can be transmitted through a narrow corridor of space. Optical wireless, based on FSO-technology, is an outdoor wireless product category that provides the speed of fiber, with the flexibility of wireless. It enables optical transmission at speeds of up to 1.25 Gbps and, in the future, is capable of speeds of 10 Gbps using WDM. This is not possible with any fixed wireless or RF technology. Optical wireless also eliminates the need to buy expensive spectrum (it requires no FCC or municipal license approvals worldwide), which further distinguishes it from fixed wireless technologies. Moreover, FSO technology’s narrow beam transmission is typically two meters versus 20 meters and more for traditional, even newer radio-based technologies such as millimeter-wave radio. Optical wireless products’ similarities with conventional wired optical solutions enable the seamless integration of access networks with optical core networks and helps to realize the vision of an all-optical network.

Manufacturer: SONA

Manufacturer: Canon

10 Gbit/s ARTOLINK model
Only one wireless communication system on the world market which can transfer data with speed 10 Gbit/s in the full-duplex mode at distances up to 2500m! Auto tracking
Narrow beams of emission – secure data
Wavelength 1550 nm
Special interface optimized for transmission in the atmosphere Double channel technology with backup supply
Automatic emitting control
Built-in service channel
Built-in telescope for easy targeting
Built-in defroster
IP monitoring
SNMP alerts
Manufacturer: ArtoLink

AT&T Wireless Case

1. [10 points] Describe the cost behavior in the wireless industry. What are the implications of this cost behavior for cost-volume-profit (CVP) relationships?

Cost behavior is how a company’s costs change given a change in that company’s activities. Variable costs are costs that change proportionately with the changes in a company’s activities. In contrast, the costs that do not change with a change in a company’s activities are known as fixed costs. In the case of AT&T, costs are focused primarily into the fixed category. This means that as the company’s activities shift, its costs remain relatively unchanged. This combination of high fixed costs and low cost variable costs gives AT&T and the rest of the industry a large amount of operating leverage. The high operating leverage of AT&T means that the company utilizes a higher risk strategy which leads to higher profits as volumes increase. Essentially, as long as AT&T maintains a volume that covers at least its fixed costs, any additional volume translates into profit. This works both ways however, if volume decreases below the threshold for covering fixed costs then every decrease in volume yields proportionately equal losses. According to the case, there is little cost associated with text messaging. The case states that text messaging has an incredibly low variable cost, estimated at only a few cents per text. So basically, once AT&T has covered the cost of the required infrastructure to facilitate text messages, any revenues garnered from text message and virtually pure profit.

2. [5 points] What are the key cost drivers? Can a cost driver be used to continually raise prices?

A cost driver is the root cause of why a cost occurs. For AT&T and the wireless industry there are several cost drivers. The most obvious ones in this case would be the number of texts sent per minute and the number of customers handled by the carrier. However, there are many more. These include the number of cell towers in the area and the amount of database storage needed for handle the messages. In addition, individual cell phone plans and how many devices that are currently handled by a carrier in a given area are cost drivers. The primary cost driver used for the purpose of determining costs in this case is the amount of texts per minute.

In this case, with its high fixed costs and low variable costs, any given change in volume will have little effect on costs. So, for AT&T, the cost drivers are unlikely to raise prices. However, this is not the case for all industries. If a company has high variable prices and low fixed prices we would expect the opposite.

3. [15 points] What does it cost AT&T to send a text message?[Consider costs of the channel, billing cost, storage cost] Based on this cost, what is AT&T’s profit margin as a percentage of its short message service (SMS) text messaging business? [Consider per-use pricing and package pricing]

The case states that the average cost per voice minute is $0.07. From this the case determines that the equivalent amount of texts that can be sent, given the data transmission rates, is eighty-one. Thus the cost per text can be calculated as:

$0.07 / 81 = $0.0008641 per text

This, however, is not the total cost of a text. We must also factor in the costs of billing, databases, and storage. The case estimates the cost of billing at twice that of the wireless costs. Therefore we calculate the cost of billing as:

$0.0008641 x 2 = $0.0017283 per text

Database costs are estimated to be $10 million and AT&T is expected to carry 1% of the 3.5 trillion in world traffic. Knowing this we calculate the cost of storage as:

$10 million / ( 3.5 trillion x .01) = $10 million / 35 billion = $.0002857 per text

The cost of storage is assumed to be negligible in the case. However, I felt that it would still be interesting to calculate the cost. The case states the cost of storage to be $1,000 per terabyte and that worldwide traffic requires 1,343 terabytes of storage. Given that AT&T carries only 1% of the traffic storage costs can be calculated as:

($1,000 x (1343 Tb x .01) / 35 billion = $13,430 / 35 billion = $0.0000003837

The combined cost of sending a text is thus:

$0.0008641 + $0.0017283 + $0.0002857 + $0.0000003737 = $0.002878

To calculate the profit margin, we simply divide gross profit by total revenue. We will take into account the profit margins for three of AT&T’s data plans. The per message plan which charge $0.20 per text, the $5.00 for 200 messages plan, and the $15 for 1500 messages plan.

Per message plan: ($0.20 – $0.002878) / $0.20 = 98.56%
$5 plan: (($5.00 / 200) – $0.002878) / ($5.00 / 200) = 88.49% $15 plan: (($15.00 / 1500) – $0.002878) / ($15.00 / 1500) = 71.22%

4. [5 points] How strong a relationship should exist between the price charged to a customer for a good or service and the cost of providing that good or service? Explain.

It depends largely on the profit goals of any given company and can vary wildly depending on a number of factors such as whether a company is nonprofit or not. In the case of AT&T, the price should at least cover the cost of the product in order for the company to break even. Any amount greater than that will translate into profits. AT&T should price their products based on the supply and demand of the given products. For text messaging, the demand is massive and AT&T gauges their prices accordingly. However, I feel that a degree of morality should be taken into account. I
know that in the business world morality is generally ignored in search of profits. But with text messaging, they are metaphorically printing money for themselves. The cost of sending a text message is infinitesimal compared to what they charge their customers. The sad truth is that as long as we remain willing to pay their price for the service they will continue to charge it.

5. [5 points] Why is the price that AT&T charges to transmit a kilobyte of data via text message so much higher than the price charged to transmit a kilobyte of data via a Smartphone?

The price of text messaging is higher than simply transmitting data by smartphone largely because of supply and demand. The wireless industry prices their products based on demand. Currently, the demand for text messaging is high and still growing. Because of this prices remain high. Perhaps if the average consumer was more aware of the cost of texting this would change their preferences and cause the price to ultimately drop. Texts are not the only source of revenue for the wireless industry. For example, the industry also experiences revenues from sales of devices such as cell phones. The industry prices their devices in order to compete with others in the industry and this leads to low prices in the device market. The revenue from texts is used to offset the loss of potential revenues in the device market.

6. [10 points] What should the management of wireless firms seek to do now?

Wireless firms should seek to improve their infrastructure to increase the capacity and efficiency of their networks. This would allow the firms to handle a larger amount of data and improved rates. This would, in turn, increase the amount of customers that the firms could service and would increase the firm’s revenues. In the case of the wireless industry, an increase in revenues would likely lead to proportionately large increases in profits. The most efficient ways to improve the wireless infrastructure is to add additional towers and storage capabilities. According to the PCIA, revisions in networking policies would also help to achieve this goal. By allowing the wireless industry access to existing support structures such as towers, buildings, water tanks, and utility poles, the need for constructing expensive cell towers could be eliminated. In fact, the new generation of antenna systems no longer require the construction of older cell towers and are designed to be attached to the previously mentioned pre-existing support structures.

AT&T Wireless Case

1. [10 points] Describe the cost behavior in the wireless industry. What are the implications of this cost behavior for cost-volume-profit (CVP) relationships?

Cost behavior is how a company’s costs change given a change in that company’s activities. Variable costs are costs that change proportionately with the changes in a company’s activities. In contrast, the costs that do not change with a change in a company’s activities are known as fixed costs. In the case of AT&T, costs are focused primarily into the fixed category. This means that as the company’s activities shift, its costs remain relatively unchanged. This combination of high fixed costs and low cost variable costs gives AT&T and the rest of the industry a large amount of operating leverage. The high operating leverage of AT&T means that the company utilizes a higher risk strategy which leads to higher profits as volumes increase. Essentially, as long as AT&T maintains a volume that covers at least its fixed costs, any additional volume translates into profit. This works both ways however, if volume decreases below the threshold for covering fixed costs then every decrease in volume yields proportionately equal losses. According to the case, there is little cost associated with text messaging. The case states that text messaging has an incredibly low variable cost, estimated at only a few cents per text. So basically, once AT&T has covered the cost of the required infrastructure to facilitate text messages, any revenues garnered from text message and virtually pure profit.

2. [5 points] What are the key cost drivers? Can a cost driver be used to continually raise prices?

A cost driver is the root cause of why a cost occurs. For AT&T and the wireless industry there are several cost drivers. The most obvious ones in this case would be the number of texts sent per minute and the number of customers handled by the carrier. However, there are many more. These include the number of cell towers in the area and the amount of database storage needed for handle the messages. In addition, individual cell phone plans and how many devices that are currently handled by a carrier in a given area are cost drivers. The primary cost driver used for the purpose of determining costs in this case is the amount of texts per minute.

In this case, with its high fixed costs and low variable costs, any given change in volume will have little effect on costs. So, for AT&T, the cost drivers are unlikely to raise prices. However, this is not the case for all industries. If a company has high variable prices and low fixed prices we would expect the opposite.

3. [15 points] What does it cost AT&T to send a text message?[Consider costs of the channel, billing cost, storage cost] Based on this cost, what is AT&T’s profit margin as a percentage of its short message service (SMS) text messaging business? [Consider per-use pricing and package pricing]

The case states that the average cost per voice minute is $0.07. From this the case determines that the equivalent amount of texts that can be sent, given the data transmission rates, is eighty-one. Thus the cost per text can be calculated as:

$0.07 / 81 = $0.0008641 per text

This, however, is not the total cost of a text. We must also factor in the costs of billing, databases, and storage. The case estimates the cost of billing at twice that of the wireless costs. Therefore we calculate the cost of billing as:

$0.0008641 x 2 = $0.0017283 per text

Database costs are estimated to be $10 million and AT&T is expected to carry 1% of the 3.5 trillion in world traffic. Knowing this we calculate the cost of storage as:

$10 million / ( 3.5 trillion x .01) = $10 million / 35 billion = $.0002857 per text

The cost of storage is assumed to be negligible in the case. However, I felt that it would still be interesting to calculate the cost. The case states the cost of storage to be $1,000 per terabyte and that worldwide traffic requires 1,343 terabytes of storage. Given that AT&T carries only 1% of the traffic storage costs can be calculated as:

($1,000 x (1343 Tb x .01) / 35 billion = $13,430 / 35 billion = $0.0000003837

The combined cost of sending a text is thus:

$0.0008641 + $0.0017283 + $0.0002857 + $0.0000003737 = $0.002878

To calculate the profit margin, we simply divide gross profit by total revenue. We will take into account the profit margins for three of AT&T’s data plans. The per message plan which charge $0.20 per text, the $5.00 for 200 messages plan, and the $15 for 1500 messages plan.

Per message plan: ($0.20 – $0.002878) / $0.20 = 98.56%
$5 plan: (($5.00 / 200) – $0.002878) / ($5.00 / 200) = 88.49% $15 plan: (($15.00 / 1500) – $0.002878) / ($15.00 / 1500) = 71.22%

4. [5 points] How strong a relationship should exist between the price charged to a customer for a good or service and the cost of providing that good or service? Explain.

It depends largely on the profit goals of any given company and can vary wildly depending on a number of factors such as whether a company is nonprofit or not. In the case of AT&T, the price should at least cover the cost of the product in order for the company to break even. Any amount greater than that will translate into profits. AT&T should price their products based on the supply and demand of the given products. For text messaging, the demand is massive and AT&T gauges their prices accordingly. However, I feel that a degree of morality should be taken into account. I
know that in the business world morality is generally ignored in search of profits. But with text messaging, they are metaphorically printing money for themselves. The cost of sending a text message is infinitesimal compared to what they charge their customers. The sad truth is that as long as we remain willing to pay their price for the service they will continue to charge it.

5. [5 points] Why is the price that AT&T charges to transmit a kilobyte of data via text message so much higher than the price charged to transmit a kilobyte of data via a Smartphone?

The price of text messaging is higher than simply transmitting data by smartphone largely because of supply and demand. The wireless industry prices their products based on demand. Currently, the demand for text messaging is high and still growing. Because of this prices remain high. Perhaps if the average consumer was more aware of the cost of texting this would change their preferences and cause the price to ultimately drop. Texts are not the only source of revenue for the wireless industry. For example, the industry also experiences revenues from sales of devices such as cell phones. The industry prices their devices in order to compete with others in the industry and this leads to low prices in the device market. The revenue from texts is used to offset the loss of potential revenues in the device market.

6. [10 points] What should the management of wireless firms seek to do now?

Wireless firms should seek to improve their infrastructure to increase the capacity and efficiency of their networks. This would allow the firms to handle a larger amount of data and improved rates. This would, in turn, increase the amount of customers that the firms could service and would increase the firm’s revenues. In the case of the wireless industry, an increase in revenues would likely lead to proportionately large increases in profits. The most efficient ways to improve the wireless infrastructure is to add additional towers and storage capabilities. According to the PCIA, revisions in networking policies would also help to achieve this goal. By allowing the wireless industry access to existing support structures such as towers, buildings, water tanks, and utility poles, the need for constructing expensive cell towers could be eliminated. In fact, the new generation of antenna systems no longer require the construction of older cell towers and are designed to be attached to the previously mentioned pre-existing support structures.