About “One is not born a woman” by Monique Witting

Monique Wittig was born in July three, 1935 within the Haut Rhin department in Alsace. She moved to Paris in the Fifties, the place she studied at the Sorbonne. Her first novel, L’Opoponax, revealed by Minuit in 1964, immediately drew consideration to her when it was awarded the Prix Médicis by a jury that included Nathalie Sarraute, Claude Simon, and Alain Robbe-Grillet. Praised by such influential writers, the novel was quickly translated into English, the place it also received crucial acclaim.

Wittig grew to become very concerned within the events surrounding the revolt of scholars and staff in May of 1968.

Like many others, she realized that the novel males leading the revolt weren’t inclined to share management. Wittig was one of many first theoreticians and activists of the model new feminist movement.

It was on this environment of radical political motion that she completed what is commonly thought-about her most influential work — Les Guérillères – revealed in 1969. Revolutionary each in kind and content material, this novel has been extensively translated, debated, and used as a source of concepts by many major feminist and lesbian thinkers and writers around the world.


In May 1970, Wittig co-published what can be described because the manifesto of the French feminist motion. Ever since, Wittig’s works have included both fiction and non-fiction essays evolving an ongoing dialogue between concept and literary apply. Throughout the early ’70s, Wittig was a central figure within the radical lesbian and feminist actions in France. She was a founding member of such groups as the Petites Marguérites, the Gouines rouges, and the Féministes révolutionnaires.

In 1973 she published Le Corps lesbien (translated into English in 1975 as The Lesbian Body), and in 1976 Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes (translated into English in 1979 as Lesbian Peoples: Material For A Dictionary), co-authored by her companion Sande Zeig. In 1976 Wittig and Zeig moved to the United States.

From that time on, Wittig turned her consideration more and more towards theoretical works, and a variety of her most well-known essays date from the late ’70s and early 80s. In quite lots of genres starting from the philosophical essay (“The Straight Mind”) to the parable (“Les Tchiches et les Tchouches”) she explored the intersections of lesbianism, feminism, and literary kind.

Most of these essays were revealed in two journals. She grew to become a half of the editorial collective of France’s main theoretical journal, Questions féministes, and she or he was advisory editor to an American journal, Feminist Issues, founded partially to make available in English the necessary works being printed in France, notably in Questions Féministes. Her work turned really bi-lingual, as she translated her personal work from English into French, and vice-versa.

She additionally translated Djuna Barnes’s Spillway as La Passion. Earlier translations embrace Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man and the Portugese The Three Marias’ Nouvelles lettres portugaises. She was a professor in women’s studies and French at theUniversity of Arizona in Tucson, the place she died of a coronary heart assault on January three, 2003. Monique Wittig referred to as herself a “Radical lesbian.”[5] This sensibility could be discovered all through her books, where she depicted solely ladies.

To keep away from any confusion, she stated: “There is not any such factor as ladies literature for me, that does not exist. In literature, I do not separate ladies and men. One is a author, or one isn’t. This is a psychological house the place sex isn’t figuring out. One has to have some space for freedom. Language allows this. This is about constructing an idea of the impartial which could escape sexuality”.

A theorist of fabric feminism, she stigmatised the myth of “the woman”, called heterosexuality a political regime, and outlined the basis for a social contract which lesbians refuse: “…and it will be incorrect to say that lesbians affiliate, make love, live with girls, for ‘woman’ has which means solely in heterosexual systems of thought and heterosexual economic systems. Lesbians aren’t girls.” (1978)

For Wittig, the category “woman” exists only through its relation to the category “man”, and “woman” without relation to “man” would cease to exist. Wittig also developed a critical view of Marxism which obstructed the feminist battle, but also of feminism itself which doesn’t question the heterosexual dogma. Through these critiques, Wittig advocated a powerful universalist place, saying that the rise of the individual and the liberation of need require the abolition of gender categories.

Main Idea

Simone de Beauvoir said: “One is not born, but turns into a woman”. Wittig states that there is not any “natural woman” and that the concept of being feminine is created by society. She also notes that since a lesbian society does exist, this defeats the thought of “natural woman.” However, Wittig recognizes that many people nonetheless believe the oppression of girls is “biological as properly as historical”. Wittig explains further that this might never be a lesbian approach to women’s oppression as a end result of it is primarily based on the concept the start of society is heterosexuality.

Also, biology or the capability of getting youngsters just isn’t sufficient to define Woman. Wittig also discusses the concept sex is like race in the sense that it’s visible and therefore appears to belong to some sort of natural order. This results in the lesbian perspective that this notion of Woman may be very “unnatural” because it was created and based mostly before the women’s liberation movement. Wittig states: “To refuse to be a girl, however, does not mean that one has to turn out to be a man” .

Meaning, that refusing to “be a woman” is just simply refusing to just accept imposed concepts of femininity. She also clarifies: “Thus a lesbian must be something else, a not-woman, a not-man, a product of society, not a product of nature, for there isn’t any nature is society” It is not sufficient to easily promote ladies (“woman is wonderful” concept); it is the concept of being a person or a girl “which are political categories and not pure givens” that wants to be rejected.

A materialist feminist approach sees women and men as separate classes. Therefore, the goal is “to suppress men as a category, not through a genocidal, however a political struggle” . This signifies that if there was now not a class called “men,” there would no longer be a category known as “women.” The first step could be to dispel the parable of Woman. Wittig states that “‘woman’ is there to confuse us, to hide the fact ‘women’” . She believes that the new focus could be on private id.

Wittig also presents a Marxist perspective. She states that Marxism result in two results for women: the order of men and women was assumed to be pure and the conflict between women and men was hidden behind a “natural division of labor”. Also, if girls united it might threaten the energy of the folks in a Marxist society.

Wittig concludes by calling attention again to the rejection of the myth of Woman. She believes that the categories of intercourse should be destroyed and that each one sciences that use these definitions should also be rejected. She once more comes back to the mannequin of lesbianism; she states that this is the only category that goes past girl and man at present. So, in order to reject this fable of Woman we must destroy “heterosexuality as a social system which relies on the oppression of girls by males and which produces the doctrine of the distinction between the sexes to justify this oppression”

Literary Evidence

Her dialogue is predicated on Simone de Beauvoir’s quote: “One just isn’t born a lady, but becomes a lady. No organic, psychological, or financial fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society: it’s civilization as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch (a man who has been castrated), which is described as feminine”. “Not solely is that this conception still imprisoned within the classes of sex (woman and man), however it holds onto the idea that the capability to offer birth is what defines a woman”

“Before the socioeconomic actuality of black slavery, the concept of race didn’t exist, at least not in this modern that means, since it was utilized to the lineage of families” “But what we believe to be a bodily and direct notion is only a classy and mythic development, an imaginary formation, which reinterprets bodily options (in themselves as neutral but marked by the social system) via the network of relationships in which they’re perceived.

They are seen as black, due to this fact they’re black; they are seen as girls, subsequently, they are women. But earlier than being seen that method, they first needed to be made that means.” ….stated to belong to a natural order.” “To refuse to be a girl, nevertheless, doesn’t mean that one has to turn out to be a man [referring to lesbians]……. Thus a lesbian needs to be something else, a not-woman, a not-man, a product of society, not a product of nature, for there isn’t a nature in society.”

“The refusal to become (or to remain) heterosexual at all times meant to refuse to turn into a man or a lady, consciously or not. For a lesbian, this goes further…. It is the refusal of the economic, ideological and political power of a man.” “… Simone de Beauvoir underlined significantly the false consciousness which consists of choosing among the many options of the myth (that women are different from men) those which look good and using them as a definition for women….. defining women the most effective options (best in accordance with whom?) which oppression has granted us, and it doesn’t radically question the classes “man” and “woman”, that are political categories and not pure givens.”

Feminist- “Someone who fights for women as a class and for the disappearance of this class… Someone who fights for lady and her defense-for the myth, then, its reinforcement.” Early feminism – “…for them these options the place pure and biological quite than social. They adopted the Darwinist principle of evolution.

They didn’t imagine like Darwin nevertheless that girls have been much less evolved than males, however they did consider that female and male natures had diverged in the course of evolutionary development…” “Our battle aims to suppress males as a class, not via a genocidal, however a political wrestle. Once the class “men” disappears, “women” as a category will disappear as properly, for there are not any slaves with out masters”. “But to turn out to be a class we don’t have to suppress our particular person selves, and since no individual can be lowered to her/his oppression we’re also confronted with the historic necessity of constituting ourselves as the individual topics of our historical past as nicely.”

“There is no possible struggle for somebody disadvantaged of an identity…” Speaking of Marxism – “For ladies, Marxism had two results. It prevented them from being conscious that they are a category and due to this fact from constituting themselves as a class for a really very lengthy time, by leaving the relation, “women/men” exterior of the social order, by turning into a natural relation… Marxist theory does not allow ladies any greater than different lessons of oppressed folks to represent themselves as historical subjects, as a outcome of Marxism does not bear in mind the reality that a category also consists of individuals one by one.”

“The opposite can be true; without class and sophistication consciousness there are no actual subjects, solely alienated individuals….. The advent of individual subjects calls for first destroying the classes of intercourse.” “We are escapees from our own class in the same means as the American runaway slaves have been then escaping slavery and becoming free” “This can be accomplished only by the destruction of heterosexuality as a social system which relies on the oppression of girls by males and which produces the doctrine of the distinction between sexes to justify this oppression.”

Reference to previous readings

  1. Women’s Time – Julia Kristeva (giving birth as a realization of womanhood) The Laugh of the Medusa – Cixous (beauty myth)

A Woman of No Importance by Oscar Wilde

Wilde makes use of many dramatic results all through the play to shock and amuse the viewers and lots of of them may be seen in this ultimate scene. The fact that this conversation between Mrs Arbuthnot and Lord Illingworth takes place in Mrs Arbuthnot’s home, her private house and territory places her better off and it shows that Lord Illingworth is surrendering his ordinary control over his conditions By Lord Illingworth referring to Mrs Arbuthnot as ‘Rachel’ we’re again made aware that we’re listening to 2 people who have a powerful past relationship.

She calls him ‘George Harford’ whereas he makes use of her name far less often that within the persuasive Act 2. During this scene, Lord Illingworth speaks with consciousness of the authorized situation, he knows he can never make Gerald legitimate however he is prepared to leave him property “What more can a gentleman need in this world? ” and Mrs Arbuthnot’s response of “Nothing extra, I am quite sure” turns this in to a category confrontation.

When Mrs Arbuthnot says “I advised you I was not interested, and I beg you to go.” this can be a risk to conventional society and the audience would have been shocked by this.

She treats Lord Illingworth as he as soon as treated her, in purely monetary terms and she tells him that Gerald no longer needs his cash, “You come too late. My son has no need of you. You usually are not necessary.” She then goes on to explain to him that Gerald and Hester are in love and so they don’t want his money because Hester already has cash of her own.

Lord Illingworth asks where they may go and Mrs Arbuthnot’s reply “We is not going to let you know, and should you discover us we will not know you. You seem shocked.

What welcome would you get from the girl whose lips you tried to soil, from the boy whose life you’ve shamed, from the mother who dishonor comes from you? ” could be very melodramatic and it also relives the fact that Lord Illingworth tried to kiss Hester and that is when Gerald came upon that he was his father, “Lord Illingworth you may have insulted the purest factor on Gods earth”. This leaves Lord Illingworth to admit that he desires Gerald, “Rachel, I want my son. ” Wilde uses many props in this scene, the primary one being the letter Gerald has written to Lord Illingworth imploring him to marry his mom.

The audience know what is written in the letter before Lord Illingworth does and this provides drama and pressure as a end result of the audience are ready for the large reveal and to see what occurs. This letter additionally links back to the letter that Lord Illingworth sees in Act 2 and says “What a curious handwriting! It reminds me of the handwriting of a lady I used to know years in the past.” and his dismissal of it so simply. The stage direction of ‘Mrs Arbuthnot watches him all the time’ is essential as a outcome of she desires to see his reaction.

Ironically his proposal of marriage after studying Gerald’s letter uses similar language to Mrs Arbuthnot’s when explaining to Gerald why she would refuse him, for her marriage could be a ‘sacrifice’ and for Lord Illingworth it might be a ‘surrender’. For Mrs Arbuthnot to say this at this point within the play would have been very unusual for the time as a end result of the viewers would be expecting a contented ending, for the fallen women to marry the father of her youngster or for it to finish like a melodrama, in tragedy.

For the primary time, Mrs Arbuthnot is triumphant in opposition to Lord Illingworth with the repetition of his personal words when she says, “Children start by loving their parents. After a time they decide them. Rarely if ever do they forgive them. ” Lord Illingworth is clearly shocked at this response and then resorts to cruelty. His parting speech creates an thrilling climax as the censorship of the time wouldn’t enable anybody to say the word ‘bastard’ on the stage.

Wilde’s stage path of Mrs Arbuthnot’s use of the glove “Mrs Arbuthnot snatches up glove and strikes Lord Illingworth across the face with it” is an excellent use of a prop as a result of within the time this play was written a glove was a really masculine merchandise and being hit with one was a sign of violence and confrontation. The viewers is allowed a shock, due to the word about to be spoken after which they get a relief because the taboo is maintained by Mrs Arbuthnot chopping Lord Illingworth off earlier than he can end his sentence because she is not going to let him say the word as a outcome of she doesn’t need to hear him say this about her beloved son.

The villain is punished and Mrs Arbuthnot’s respectability is ma intained. All of that is typical of a melodrama and we the audience now really feel something has been achieved. Wilde’s use of stage directions are very properly positioned and are very dramatic, particularly the last few traces of this scene when Mrs Arbuthnot ‘falls sobbing on the sofa’ and it reinforces that this play is a melodrama as a outcome of individuals are not usually this dramatic in regular everyday life.

Gerald and Hester now return to Mrs Arbuthnot and we now have the image of ‘a man and a girl in a garden’ which has been mentioned beforehand all through the play and is an indication of sex and fertility and in this scene it shows the audience the picture of a new household rising. Due to Hester having modified her views from believing that women who’ve children outdoors of the laws of marriage ought to be punished, “A woman who has sinned must be punished, shouldn’t she? ” And that the youngsters must also carry this shame, “Yes, it is right that the sins of the dad and mom should be visited on the kids.

It is a just regulation. It is God’s law. ” to her now saying “I was mistaken. Gods legislation is just love.” Because she is in love with Gerald and has managed to pay attention and understand all the issues that Mrs Arbuthnot has had to face to bring up Gerald alone. At the tip of the play when Gerald sees the glove mendacity on the ground Mrs Arbuthnot picks up and changes the title line of the play and once again mirrors Lord Illingworth’s statement about seeing the letter from Mrs Arbuthnot, “Oh! o one. No one in particular. A Man of no importance. ” Unmarried and defiant she enters right into a recent and higher world although the 19th century attitudes to marriage are still upheld in a method as a outcome of despite the actual fact that she has won in opposition to Lord Illingworth and she or he has managed to keep Gerald and now has the love and respect of Hester the viewers are nonetheless left with the image of them being exiled to America, where they have much less strict views on illegitimacy and have more freedom.

A Woman Finding Her Cultural Identity

As people, we venture via life with dedication of discovering ones’ true self. This self-identity is “the recognition of one’s potential and qualities as a person, particularly in relation to social context” (Lexico Dictionaries, English, 2020). “A Pair of Tickets” by Amy Tan explores the relationship of ethnicity and self-identity and divulges the concept that culture and identification are truly complex ideas.

At first, Jing Mei finds it troublesome believing she is Chinese, though it is in her blood. Her mom mentioned, “…once you’re born Chinese, you can’t assist however feel and think Chinese… it is in your blood, waiting to be let go,” however she by no means understood the meaning behind her phrases (Tan).

Being born and raised within the United States, she was accustomed to the American tradition. At one level within the story, Jing Mei probably even felt humiliated by being Chinese when her mother was, “haggling with retailer house owners, pecking her mouth with a toothpick in public,” (Tan).

After her mom died, and after she begins her adventure to China does she start to comprehend what her mother was implying in regards to the Chinese being in her blood.

When Jing Mei arrives in China, she realizes that is the place her household historical past is. She notices that her opinion of her cultural identification is morphing into being extra accepting of her Chinese tradition. “I feel completely different, I can feel the pores and skin on my forehead tingling, my blood speeding through a brand new course, my bones aching with familiar old ache,” (Tan).

This is a turning point the place Jing Mei reveals she is adapting to her true identity, being Chinese. She even acknowledges what her mother says about being Chinese, “… I assume my mother was proper, I am changing into Chinese.” Jing Mei begins to understand what household attachment is like being Chinese when she sees her father cry. This can be proven the place May says, “…and I can’t assist myself, I also have misty eyes, as if I had seen this a long time in the past.” She felt this modification when she entered the city as a result of she realized she did not settle for herself as a Chinese person. She knew that she didn’t embrace her tradition when she was growing up as a end result of she informed herself at the age of fifteen that she was American.

“A Secret Sorrow” by Karen van der Zee and “A Sorrowful Woman” Gail Godwin

In both the excerpts from Karen van der Zee’s novel “A Secret Sorrow” and in Gail Godwin’s quick story “A Sorrowful Woman,” the plots center on ideas of marriage and household. Conversely, marriage and family are presented in very different lights within the two tales. Karen van der Zee presents marriage with youngsters as good and fully fulfilling; it is what Faye, the protagonist of “A Secret Sorrow”, desires and what’s essential to her happiness. For Godwin’s unnamed protagonist, marriage and household are nearly the antithesis of happiness; her residence life seems to suffocate hear and eventually leads her to dying.

“A Secret Sorrow” immediately endorses and encourages marriage, whereas “A Sorrowful Woman” not directly questions and discourages it.

Both of the feminine protagonists in the two tales experience a conflict. In “A Secret Sorrow” Faye’s battle comes earlier than the marriage. She is struck with distress and torment as a result of she can not have children and fears that it will stop her from marrying the person she loves.

Both she and her beloved, Kai, need marriage with kids, and van der Zee suggests that solely with these things will they really be pleased. Faye feels that her lack of ability to have children is a deadly flaw that cuts her off from Kai’s love. “Every time we see some pregnant girl, each time we’re with somebody else’s children I’ll feel I’ve failed you!” (Zee 35).

Faye’s anxiousness and worry are based on the considered shedding her beloved Kai, accompanied by never having children.

In “A Sorrowful Woman,” nevertheless, the conflict comes after the marriage, when the girl has already secured her husband and child. Unlike Faye, who could be ecstatic in this woman’s scenario, the protagonist of Godwin’s story is not. Oddly enough, her husband and son deliver her such sorrow that eventually she is unable to see them at all, speaking only by way of notes stuck underneath her bed room door. Godwin’s character has a loving husband and child, yet in spite of this, she remains to be full of grief. This sense of defeat is unimaginable when compared to a Harlequin romance because it goes towards the assumption that the remaining is fortunately ever after.

In “A Secret Sorrow”, marriage is portrayed because the decision. Van der Zee works to present the reader with the concept that solely with this aspect will Faye be fulfilled and happy; it’s what the complete story, with all the plot twists and romantic interludes, works towards. Marriage can be the tip in “A Sorrowful Woman” however not as anticipated: it is quite literally the end of the woman’s life. Though one doesn’t see what her life was like earlier than her emotional disaster, there are hints of it. When she strikes into a model new bedroom, away from her husband, she mentions seeing the streets from a whole new perspective, which suggests the previous monotony of her day by day life. In addition, when the girl bakes pies and bread and washes and folds the laundry, her son says, “She’s drained from doing all our issues again,” (Godwin 42). This gives the reader the idea of what “our things” was and what the lady did with her time before her crisis.

The monotony of marriage is absent in “A Secret Sorrow.” Faye’s inability to have youngsters doesn’t end Kai’s love for her, instead, the two go on to marry and undertake youngsters. Faye’s married life is described in a very idyllic means: she raises her son and two daughters in a “white ranch house underneath the blue skies of Texas” (Zee 37). Once she is married and has children, there is not any more anxiousness as a outcome of the plot leads one to the conclusion that marriage solves all problems and is a supply of never-ending happiness. This significantly differs from Godwin’s tale, which takes place in winter and maintains a sense of chilly.

Whenever Godwin describes the household, it’s in terms that recommend weight, guilt, or failure. The child’s trusting gaze makes the protagonist start “yelping with out tears” (Godwin 39). Any signal of life or love will increase her sorrow and makes her want solitary. One living proof is when the employed girl brings her son to visit her with a grasshopper he’s found–something both alive and from the skin world; she will get very upset and forces her husband to fireplace the lady. It would appear that the woman is an excessive quantity of of an infringement on her space, too much of a reminder of what she will be ready to no longer be.

The discrepancy between the two authors’ illustrations of marriage is most apparent when both women are viewing their families. Faye, sitting along with her husband and watching her children play, feels that “life was good and filled with love” (Zee 37). Godwin’s protagonist, on the opposite hand, articulates, “The sight of them made her so sad and sick she did not wish to see them ever again” (Godwin 38).When Kai, now her husband, embraces Faye, she feels, “There was love in his embrace and love in his phrases and in her coronary heart there was no room for doubt, no room for sorrow” (Zee 37). When Godwin’s heroine feels the loving contact of her husband’s arm and the kiss of her child, she cannot bear it any longer and cuts off all direct contact with them. The situation of her marriage forces her right into a self-imposed imprisonment and indolence.

She feels agonizingly poignant as a end result of she will no longer be who they need and want her to be. She avoids them not as a outcome of she does not love them but quite as a outcome of she loves them so much that it’s too painful to see them and too troublesome for them to feel her failure. The axiom to Godwin’s story tells us that “Once upon a time there was a wife and a mom one too many times” (Godwin 38). The addition of “one too many times” to this traditional story opening forces the concept of repetition and monotony; it means that it’s not the state of being a wife and mom that’s innately dreadful however rather the truth that that’s all Godwin’s character is. Day in and day trip, too many times over, the girl is just a spouse and a mother, and it isn’t sufficient for her.

In van der Zee’s story there could probably be no such thing as too much motherhood or an extreme quantity of of being a spouse. When Faye’s fears of dropping Kai are assuaged, and she is happily married, it’s as if an excellent weight has been lifted off her. Alternatively, Godwin’s character feels her marriage as an excellent weight urgent on her which finally ends up in her immobilization. When she leaves her room for a day and puts out freshly baked bread for her husband and son, they express their happiness in the notes they write to her that evening, and “the drive of the two joyful notes…pressed her into the nook of the little room; she hardly had area to breathe” (Godwin 42). Faye is normally a traditional spouse and mother, so her family is a supply of joy. However, in Godwin’s character’s case, she can now not be the normal spouse and mom, the illustration of her own failure, which inevitably draws her guilt to push her additional and additional into herself till she shall be ready to retreat no additional and ends her life.

The closing stages of the two stories are powerful illustrations of the variations between them. In the top of “A Secret Sorrow” the writer reveals the reader Faye’s emotions “beautiful, full, whole” (Zee 38) in her role as a spouse and mother. Godwin, then again, leaves the audience with the protagonist lifeless on her mattress. Godwin seems to provide the reader hope by displaying all that the woman has carried out when she says, “the home smelled redolently of renewal and spring” (Godwin 42). This makes the misfortune even more durable when one discovers, along with the husband and child, the woman’s death. The ambiguous means the demise of Godwin’s unnamed protagonist is handled reinforces the author’s unfavorable tone in the course of marriage. It isn’t explicitly written as suicide; nonetheless, Godwin seems to encourage her readers to see it because the inevitable consequence of her marriage.

Van der Zee creates a story filled with emotional highs and lows, however one that leads up to and ends with marriage. After the wedding the entire plot twists and traumas come to a halt, changed with peace and happiness. Faye is delivered to new life by her marriage and kids; she finds fulfillment of all of her wishes in them. Godwin’s story, nonetheless, is crammed with submit marital anguish and confusion. The character she creates is stifled and unquestionably unfulfilled by her marriage.

A burst of creative energy right before her death produces, among other issues, “a sheath of marvelous watercolor beasts accompanied by mad and fanciful tales nobody may ever make up once more, and a pill full of love sonnets addressed to the man” (Godwin 42). It is clear that the woman had skills and needs not met by the routine duties of her marital life. For Faye, the protagonist of “A Secret Sorrow”, marriage is the happily-ever-after ending she has wished all of her life; for Godwin’s protagonist, marriage is only a monotonous and interminable ever after. In any case, people can not bear too much reality.

Works Cited:

Godwin, Gail. “A Sorrowful Woman.” 38-42.

Van der Zee, Karen. “A Secret Sorrow.” 30-38.

A Respectable Woman

In A Reputable Female Mrs Baroda follows the very same course as Mildred at first her curiosity in a guy by feeling “stimulated” at his absence of curiosity in her. The easy truth of the bodily existence of the guy is as soon as again what awakens the female’s sexual interest as Gouvernail’s silences and indifference appear barely developed to attract her. Again like Mildred Mrs Baroda is puzzled by the distinction beetweeen the social function she expects her guers to play and Gouvernail’s reality.

Gouvernail doesn’t enroll either Mrs Baroda’s indifference or her imposition of her existence upon him (other expression: G. does not react to … to do smth.) Without takinf any action or perhaps participating in the social niceties, each males are the unwitting instigators of dramatic developments in the self-knowledge of others; they’re catalytic to memorable change within the lives of the ladies they experience.

Mrs Baroda ends up being powerless within the face of her own bodily need; she turns to flight and declines to have any contact with G for greater than a 12 months.

When in distance to him she shas been consumed by the dispute arising from her battle to maintain maintain on her identit as a “decent lady” while attempting to handle her recently awakened! bodily being!. An ending to the story which might convey back Mrs Baroda to her location because the embodiment of the title “A R W” is used to the reader when the invite to G is when once more extended: “Ihave overcome whatever” You will see.

This time I might be very nice to him”. What her companion taes because the overcoming of her dislike could additionally, obviously, be the conquering of her ardour or, alternatively, the conquering of the scruples which averted her from pursuinf the attraction. The 2 latter interpretations hold suspended as possibilities above the story.

However, regardless of the studying of these traces, the very fact stays that the intimacy of this couple– evidenced by their informal sharing of the dressing-room, their liking for every other’s enterprise, their “long, tender kiss!– has actually been and amy again be threatened. There isn’t any certainty, no stabiklity, no symbol of a particularly bought society such as marriaag, e which is not vulnerable to disruption by thedemands of physical need.

The story allows us to carry Mrs Baroda out of her closed studying as “A R W” ans to place her in an umber of other conditions; the possibility exists for her to continuer as that lady or to make use of her reputation to conceal a quite different existence .We have no idea what will happen but our reading of Mrs Baroda cane never be quite the same again as a end result of doubt has been planted by the ambiguous ending of the story and, having already witnessed both the facility of emotions that shake her and her decision to controla them, we are forces back into the physique of the story to have the ability to droop judgement.

A Revolutionary Woman

“Abigail Adams: A Revolutionary American Woman” is a biography by Charles W. Akers, revealed in June 2006. It chronicles the lifetime of Abigail Adams, who lived in the course of the time of the American Revolution and the birth of a brand new American nation, from her delivery in 1744 to her dying in 1818. The author’s thesis states that Abigail’s advocacy for women’s rights and her involvement in her husband’s political profession considerably influenced society through the delivery and growth of the United States.

The e-book primarily focused on Abigail’s life, her husband John Adams, the revolutionary period in which she lived.

Abigail Adams was born November 11, 1744 to William Smith and Elizabeth Quincy in Weymouth, Massachusetts. Abigail had no formal education due to her poor well being, and as a substitute obtained classes in her residence. She often visited the very spectacular library of her father, enjoying literature similar to Joseph Addison’s The Spectator. She was married on her twentieth birthday to a twenty-nine year old lawyer, John Adams, on October 25, 1764.

Akers notes many events of the Revolutionary War through the time of Abigail Adams. For instance, the birth of her son, John Quincy Adams, arrived the same year as the Townshend Acts.

Additionally, the start of her daughter Abigail, known as “Nabby”, came firstly of the Stamp Act Crisis. Abigail noticed her husband, John, defending Massachusetts’ interests during these occasions, such as when he defended troopers being accused of murder for his or her involvement within the Boston Massacre. Abigail even witnessed the Battle of Bunker Hill.

Akers did an excellent job at exhibiting how masterfully Abigail was able to raise her kids whereas the revolution was going on (virtually in her backyard), while being relatively alone as John was talked about to be frequently absent.

Abigail’s marriage to John was frequently talked about within the guide. After all, girls have been prevented from formally participating in politics. Therefore, Abigail exercised influence solely by way of her husband. She by no means campaigned for women’s suffrage or the right of a girl to hold political office, however as a substitute called for education of young ladies, rights regarding a woman’s property, action in opposition to an abusive husband, etc. She additionally had robust feelings against slavery. Although John Adams listened and heeded her advice many instances, these specific subjects had been disregarded.

Akers says by this point, she was starting to study what John and the others founders meant when they wrote “all males are created equal” (Akers 52). Akers describes how Abigail adjusted to turning into the president’s spouse. She found herself at odds with influential figures corresponding to Benjamin Franklin (whom she as soon as referred to as that “Old Sorcerer) and Thomas Jefferson, who would defeat her husband in the presidential election of 1800. She also didn’t see eye to eye together with her husband John all the time, but nonetheless was a great affect on him all through his political profession.

By the end of the guide, Akers describes Abigail’s life after her husband’s defeat within the 1800 presidential election. She obtained to spend extra time with her husband, began to correspond with Jefferson again, and noticed the rise of her son, John Quincy Adams, in politics. She suffered heartbreak: such as dropping her son Charles and her daughter Nabby. Abigail herself died October 28, 1818, after contracting typhus fever. I assume Akers did an excellent job in depicting the life of Abigail Adam, from her adolescence to her dying.

He was able to show how necessary and influential Abigail was in her own right, by showing that she was much more than a president’s spouse and a president’s mother. Akers additionally expresses an excellent deal in simply 200 pages, as he’s very easy in every chapter. Nonetheless, I felt as if Akers put in plenty of minor details that would have been ignored. For instance, what writings she enjoyed as a toddler. It provides you a sense of who she was, however I didn’t really feel it was necessary to listing them all out.

Additionally, I felt as if Akers centered too much on John Adams while describing life for Abigail throughout this time, instead of focusing on Abigail herself. What I appreciated about this guide was the reality that it defined how essential Abigail Adams was in her own right, particularly to these, like me, which have solely ever checked out her as a First Lady. It showed me how sensible, influential, and progressive Abigail Adams was. I consider Akers did show his thesis, by showing us Abigail’s affect on her husband and son was vital in the course of the interval of start and cultural development within the United States.

Woman in Black theatre review

In June 2012 I had the pleasure of watching The Woman In Black in the Fortune Theatre. A spine-chilling adaptation of the 1983 novel by Susan Hill. The story explores a tale of a ‘woman in black’ who is said to haunt the living, when a young solicitor enters a town where the villagers are reluctant to speak anything of this ghostly character he ultimately discovers why. The play was first performed in 1987 in the Saint Joseph Theatre in Scarborough as a ‘Christmas play’ only to attract profits however it attracted more attention than was expected. Critics raved about the play and it went onto become a success, eventually upgrading to its present location at the Fortune Theatre in Drury Lane.

The most remarkable thing about this play is the minimalism of it; there are just two actors throughout the whole of the play and a very minimalistic set, just a trunk, and a chair which the actors themselves have to maneuver in order to create different settings. The audience are initially introduced to the main characters; Arthur Kipps, assisted by a young actor to help him communicate the terrifying events that he faced when on a job in the small town of Crythin Gifford. This play uses the technique of a play within a play to relive Arthur Kipps’ memories. The young actor plays young Arthur Kipps whereas the old Arthur Kipps plays every other character he was faced with. The older actor was tremendous in carrying out his role and would have had to been; playing so many characters and displaying their dialect, body language etc perfectly was outstanding.

What really stood out for me was the exceptional use of such simple effects. In each scene the simplistic setting would not be able to portray a realistic one so a simple use of layering and only lighting what you want the audience to see, with the added accompaniment of sound effects would give the intended audience reaction the director (Robin Herford) wants. Sound is one of the fundamental elements of this play. To create a sense of location such as a train station there are recorded voice-overs. However when portraying the scary and shocking moments of the play, unexpected, ear piercing volumes of screams retrieved the audiences most petrified responses.

Breaking Binaries in The Odyssey: An Exploration The New Woman in The Penelopiad

In the Homeric Epic, women are cast into one of two dichotomous roles: that of the wise and faithful or that of the foolish and disloyal. However in Atwood’s The Penelopiad these roles are deconstructed such that they become fluid as opposed to concrete—such that the women do not wholly occupy one role or the other but rather move on a balance beam between the two, sometimes leaning nearer to one lateral or the other but never resting on the end points of either side.

In the unfettered world of The Penelopiad, woman are granted the voices that they are denied in The Odyssey; they are free to weave their own epic stories of cunning, captivity, danger, victory, and failure. The Penelopiad therefore gives rise to a “new” woman who is not bound by Homeric conventions that confine reader to a singular understanding of The Odyssey and its characters; rather Atwood unveils a myriad of possibilities, explanations, and motivations behind the events of The Odyssey as they are imagined by Homer.

Our minds are opened to realities and potentials either unconsidered, or considered but immediately abandoned for lack of emphasis, by the readers. We are made to ponder what seem to be obscurities and minor inconsistencies in The Odyssey that upon deeper exploration and analysis serve to completely revolutionize the conventional reading of The Odyssey in terms of the female characters. Atwood accomplishes this impressive feat by exploring the “dark alleyways” that lead us to alternate, but plausible, conclusions as evidenced by the expressions of the muted cast of The Odyssey—Penelope and the twelve hanged maids. The Odyssey presents Penelope as being wholly wise.

She is the appropriate counterpart for the wise and cunning Odysseus. She is revered by the other characters for her wisdom. She is not made to appear foolish because one cannot be both wise and unwise in a dichotomy. In The Penelopiad she exhibits an even more fierce display of her wisdom, but also admits her foolishness and poor decisions. For example, she tells us that she knew Odysseus was still alive because he had not yet appeared to her in a dream, and admits that she had recognized Odysseus upon his arrival but placed the bow to be sure. She tells also that she had asked the prettiest and most faithful of her maids to entice the suitors and learn of their plots by any means necessary. Yet she fails to consider what Odysseus would think after returning home and hearing, or worse observing, the behavior of the maids.

Moreover, when she knows that he has returned she sets her mind to proving her wisdom and faith by telling “the beggar” of her woes she had suffered in his absence and of the shroud. She also pranks him by setting Eurycleia to wash his feet knowing that she would recognize the scar and laughing to herself at how they tried to cover it up, and she tests him with the bow. But not once did she consider her maids. Nor did she think that she to tell Eurycleia of her activities with the maids knowing how faithful she was to Odysseus and how he would trust her judgment. Nor did she consider the possibility of their being raped or seduced when she set them upon the suitors to be her spies. Such folly and unwise decisions conflict with the Penelope we come to know in The Odyssey, but all is revealed in The Penelopiad.

Coral Howells notes, in her piece “Five Ways of Looking at The Penelopiad,” that, “Penelope’s is not the only voice here; her tale is frequently interrupted by the voices of her twelve hanged maids, those nameless slave girls who have nothing to say in The Odyssey” (Howells 5-6). Similar to Penelope’s plight in The Odyssey, the maids are cast in a dichotomous role—that of the whore and disloyal servant.

They are painted as scandalous, ungrateful, spiteful woman who abuse the household of their master Odysseus with their disrespect for the queen and her son, as well as their interactions with the suitors. Eurycleia is all too willing to, “report in full on the women…who are disloyal…who are guiltless” (Homer 406). And despite Odysseus dismissal, she was in fact later called upon to expose the disloyal servants for the whores that they were, according to The Odyssey that is. The possibilities are opened in The Penelopiad. For example, the women are condemned in the Odyssey for having sexual relations with the suitors. This behavior is attributed to their role as whores and unfaithful servitude without any consideration of other possibilities or circumstances.

In The Penelopiad, they maids speak of being, “dirty girls” by occupation. They say, “If our owners or the sons of our owners or a visiting nobleman or the sons of a visiting nobleman wanted to sleep with us, we could not refuse. It did us no good to weep, it did us no good to say we were in pain” (Atwood 13-14). In a later chapter Penelope remarks, “It is not unusual for guests in a large household or palace to sleep with the maids…but it was irregular for servants to be used in this way without the permission of the master of the house…However there was no master of the house. So the suitors helped themselves to the maids in the same way they helped themselves to the sheep” (Atwood 116). Therefore, their behavior should have been considered in the same way that Penelope’s was: dutiful and loyal to their master.

Penelope tells the reader that giving visitors to pick of their servant girls was a part of good hospitality—a very important convention in the Homeric epic—and the master of the house happily obliges them in their choice (Atwood 116). Considering this, by sleeping with the suitors, the girls were continuing in the same behavior that would have been promoted and even expected if Odysseus were home.

Despite this reality the maids are placed in the category of the whore, therefore their actions must be presented as indicative of their role. The dichotomous classifications of women in The Odyssey would not allow them to be both promiscuous and faithful. They are limited to obscurity, being minor characters, “neglected to the margins of the narrative;” they serve no other purpose than to fulfill their role in the epic convention and suffer what most readers of The Odyssey would consider a much deserved fate (Howells 6).

However in The Penelopiad the maids become the majority, holding the voice of commendation or condemnation, a voice previously denied to them in the epic. Mihoko Suzuki finds that Atwood uses parody and burlesque to expose the Odyssey’s unfair representation of women and their lack of complexity due to the placed upon them by the epic. She argues that Atwood uses her modern examining of the Penelope and her maids to, “allow agency, intelligence, and voice to female protagonists who may not be equivocally amiable.” (Suzuki 270).

She goes on to argue that that, “through their debunking, light-hearted burlesque Atwood makes a more serious point; the maids function as a tragic chorus, commenting on the actions of the hero, Odysseus (and in a later chorus, Penelope)” (Suzuki 272). Atwood allows the women to occupy identities other than that of the dichotomous prudent and honorable wife and foolish dishonorable harlot. Howells argues that Atwood’s project in The Penelopiad, “Atwood’s project is to retell The Odyssey as herstory” (Howells 8).

And in doing so, Atwood addresses many of the unanswered questions in The Odyssey by allowing. In her re-envisioning of The Odyssey she takes the poem out of the context of the Homeric Epic to speak plainly and bluntly about the true events of The Odyssey, or at least some quite plausible possibilities. Shannon Collins notes that The Odyssey is, “A recitation of a blind poet, who recounts the stories told by a famous liar and adventurer, the poem contains narrative nested within narrative” (Collins 57). Likewise, Howell mentions that, “It seems that Atwood is using Penelope to tell another story within it: the story of the hanged maids” (Howells 6).

The stories have in common therefore that they are both metafictional, true to Homeric epic convention, however as Collins says, “In the Greek epics, women do not star in their own tales so much as play supporting roles in the adventures of others” (Collins 57). Therefore, casting Penelope as the narrator is essential to Atwood’s formation of the ‘new’ woman we find in The Penelopiad. We find in Homers interpretation that the women are described only by other characters but not given the opportunity to speak about themselves. This can have a profound effect on the facts of the story—on what is deemed important therefore which facts are told and untold—and also on how those facts are communicated.

The values, beliefs, frustrations, and insights of a person or group often influence not only the tone and mood of the story—that is to say what is impressed upon the reader—but also the details of the major events as well. For example, Homer paints Odyssus as a cunning, brave, and well deserving hero with amazing exploits while Penelope paints him as a boastful, short-legged, tricky liar with amazing stories. Collins argues therefore that, “each of the women characters also has a story to tell, though their versions may be different from the official one. Our own stories are by necessity different than the stories told about us by others. The story- tellers may claim to tell an objective truth, but who can know the truths of our own individual stories” (Collins 57)?

Although Atwood explains that, “Writing The Penelopiad allowed me not only to revisit an ancient and powerful tale, but to explore a few dark alleyways in the story that have always intrigued me,” she ultimately leaves the reader in the same predicament as the Odyssey; true to the epic, we are left with many questions (Atwood 58). Who’s telling the truth about the shroud, the suitors, and the slaughter: Penelope or the maids? Was it Eurycleia who perpetrated the slaughter of the maids on
her own accord out of jealousy? If Penelope was so wise and indeed recognized Odysseus as she says, why didn’t she tell him the ‘spies’ at the same time she told him about the shroud?

Unlike Homer however, she also opens our minds to new possibilities—perhaps Odysseus’ exploits were over-exaggerated fables adaptations of the truth in which battles with Cyclops were merely bar fights and goddesses were merely high-priced whores. Atwood’s widely imaginative, but strongly conceivable, answers to the unanswered questions of The Odyssey are some of the reasons I and many other readers fall so deeply in love with The Penelopiad. The means by which she develops these new possibilities give voices, first-hand interaction, and real humanity to the women of the Odyssey.

They become real people—real women with real emotions, desires, grievances, and pain—as opposed to the simple manifestation of the roles that they play in The Odyssey: the faithful wife, the disloyal servant. Of course they serve a specific purpose to the plot and themes of The Penelopiad ad they do in Homer, they are not locked into being the muted puzzle pieces that they are in Homer.

Atwood, Margaret. “The Myth Series and Me.” Publishers Weekly 252.47 (2005): 58. Academic Search Alumni Edition. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. . In this brief articles, referenced quite frequently in literary criticism and examination of The Penelopiad, Atwood divulges her motivations behind the creation of the The Penelopiad and her thoughts about the re-telling of classic myths. Particularly, she admits that one of her intentions in The Penelopiad is to respond to, or provide answers to, some of the mysteries of The Odyssey. Atwood, Margaret. The Penelopiad. New York: Canongate, 2005. Print.

Collins, Shannon C. “Setting the Stories Straight: A Reading of Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad.” Carson-Newman Studies 11.No. 1 (2006): 57-66. Library.cn.edu/. Carson-Newman College. Web.

Collins comments on the art of storytelling as depicted in The Odyssey and The Penelopiad. She evaluates the stories told by Penelope, Odyseus (in the Odyssey which are commented upon, or rather revised by Penelope in The Penelopiad), and the maids. Her arguments provide support for the voices of the women of The Penelopiad existing only outside the confines of the Homeric Epic as women, namely the maids, are not given the opportunity to weave their own stories in The Odyssey but are endowed with voices in The Penelopiad to do just that—to tell give an “herstorical” account of The Odyssey.

Mihoko, Suzuki. “Rewriting the Odyssey in the Twenty-First Century: Mary Zimmerman’s Odyssey and Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad.” Approaches to Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. By Kostas Myrsiades. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. 239-54. Analyzing Atwood’s works from a feminist perspective, Suzuki offers valuable insight to the critical nature of The Penelopiad. Particularly interesting are her comments on the voices of the women in The Penelopiad that we do not hear in the Homer’s The Odyssey.

The woman in white

Identity can be defined as the condition or character a person or thing. Behaviour can be manipulated to mask identity so that people appear to have characteristics and conditions which in reality they do not possess. In this essay, I will present a comparative analysis of two extracts in which the characters have modified their behaviour so that they portray a false identity of themselves. The two characters that I will compare are Sir Percival Glyde from The Woman in White, and Murial from The Lady in the Lake.

The selected extract from The Woman in White is the scenario in which Sir PercivalGlyde is attempting to convince Marian and Mr Gilmore of his innocence. In this scene, Laura has received Anne Catherick’s letter warning her against marrying Sir Percival. Collins portrays Sir Percival as a well-mannered Baronet who wants to avoid misfortune and embarrassment on others; ‘may I beg that you will write at once… ’. Sir Percival’s use of the auxiliary verb ‘may’ here makes him appear to be considerate and submissive. The verb choice of ‘beg’ makes him seem as though he is at the mercy of Marian. He depicts a gentlemanly manner, which to some extent successfully cloaks his true motives and identity.

In this extract of The Woman In White, Mr Gilmore – the family esquire – is narrating.Thus providing an objective outlook of the events taking place. Mr Gilmore is emotionally and personally involved in the situation as he cares for Miss Fairlie as he has known her from childhood. Even so he the attempts to keep his professional opinion objective and irrelevates his own emotional opinion, observes and deduces a judgement from the facts presented in front of him as he narrates ‘my function was of the purely judicial kind.

I was to weigh the explanation we had just heard…’ to which he comes to a fair and unbiased verdict ‘that his explanation was, to my mind, unquestionably a satisfactory one.’ However we still question the reliability of Sir Percival’s explanation due to the fact that even though Mr Gilmore has told us that objectively he has concluded that Sir Percival’s explanation is ‘unquestionably’ satisfactory he contradicts himself by stating that he could also ‘set up a case against Sir Percival Glyde’. This instantly sparks hesitation in the reader to trust Sir Percival Glyde even though accordingly
we have no reason to. The reader chooses to take in to account Mr Gilmore’s biased view rather than his professional conclusion which in consequence results in suspicion – that Sir Percival’s personality, his perceived identity is, to some degree falsified. However even though we questions Sir Percival’s identity and his involvement with Anne Catherick, we nor Mr Gilmore or Marian question his motives on marrying Laura.

In the second extract The lady in the lake is where we are introduced to Mrs. Fallbrook. In this extract, Marlow visits ChrisLavery’s house to investigate the circumstances surrounding Lavery’s previous encounter with Krystal this is not how you spell her name? Kingsley. Here he meetsMurial for the first time as Mrs Fallbrook, and when her identity is questions she instantly replies ‘Why, certainly. I’m Mrs Fallbrook. Who did you think I was?’.

The declarative statement followed by the interrogative challenges the detective to question her identity. Her use of the word ‘why’ before she has even introduced herself shows unnecessary protestation as though she feels she is being accused of being someone else, which in reality she is. ‘Why’ here also hints at confusion and misunderstanding while the adverb ‘certainly’ shows her certainty and confidence. Chandler confuses the reader at once with the personality of Mrs. Fallbrook. ‘Who do you think I was?’. The interrogative is used in a demanding manner, as though she is leaving Furthermore, the demanding tone of the interrogative leaves the reader leaves the reader questioning why she felt the need to ask it, and whether she is assuming someone else’s identity. leaves no room for doubt or opposition, and this in turn leaves us wondering who she really is. It also implies that she is eager to know who he thought she was and why. A question she would have otherwise not asked if she was not assuming someone else’s identity.

The narrative perspective of the novel aids in masking Muriel’s true identity in this extract. Chandler has opted to use the first person narrative, which limits the point of view to that of the detective Marlow such as when he interrogates Mrs Fallbrook ‘But you didn’t shoot him, did you – on account
of he owed you three months’ rent?’. He is completely oblivious to the fact that Mrs Fallbrook is not whom she claims to be and the persona of Mrs Fallbrook is a disguise to hide behind while concealing her own identity. This adds to the mystery of the novel as the reader is also as naïve tothe true identity of the woman in the apartment as Detective Marlow, leading to usquestioning her identity although we do question her motives for being in Lavery’shome where it should have been in reverse.

The language used in the two texts differ, which reflect the time period that the extracts are written in and whom they were intened for. On one hand you have The Woman In White. In this the language is sophisticated. Many intended statements are enquiries. For example ‘can there be better testimony in his favour… than that of the woman’s mother?’ Implying that such a high ranking man such as Sir Percival was being dishonest was at the time being rude was inconceivable and to avoid this statements are asked as questions to hide that fact that it is exactly what the person is thinking, whereas questioning suggests innocent naivety, as people of such rank were always polite and would not speak out of term. Also it is more descriptive. This is because in the Victorian era, reading was one of the few ways people could spend their leisure time, especially the rich as they did not have the same technologicaladvancments as in The lady In The Lake.

The Woman In White was written in 1859, this was before technology had advanced and apart from playing games such as chess and draughts the older and more sophisticated generation has nothing else to do but read. It also suited the upper class rich to be the ideal audience for The Woman In White as they were amongst the few people in society who were educated and could read. So the language used is tailored around the intended audience and has Collin considered the length and amount of description in the novel.

On the other hand we the lady in the lake where almost none of the characters speak in a well-mannered tone. Marlow for instance is very blunt and to the point majority of the time and shows no interest in showing respect for anyone as it is not relevant to his job, and is sadistically sarcastic. For example when talking to Mrs Fallbrook he does not pretend nor hide the fact that he thinks she’s lying ‘let’s not kid around anymore… not that I don’t
love it… you didn’t shoot him, did you…’ here the interrogative ‘you didn’t shoot him, did you…’ is implied more as a declarative that he is awaiting confirmation for and so is instantly accusing her of murder. Also he seems to be patronising her ‘let’s not kid around anymore… not that I don’t love it…’ which can be considered as rude.

The Lady In The Lake is considerably more fast paced and seems to lack the large quantities of description in comparison to The Woman In White. Where The Woman In White has many paragraphs dedicated to description, where The Lady In The Lake make up for in dialogue, to a point where the ever little e description of the setting is given it is given thought dialogue, for example were Mrs Fallbrook describes the rung and the grey chenille carpeting on the stairs. Because of the lack of description and the much use of dialogue the story is much faster paced. Chandler is very concise and has to be as much as possible as the novel, written in 1943 it has to compete with other means of leisure such a movies which as a much more popular choice amongst the general public to whom the novel is also targeted at.

In conclusion in both extracts perceiving someone is who they claim to be is mistake for which they pay dearly later on in the novels. In the woman in white true identityassumed because of honour and rank and in the lady in the lake it is because of naivety to the full situation not having reasons to suspect otherwise.

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Education For Woman

Education is very essential for every one because it is the only education by which we can differentiate between human beings and animals. Education tells us that how can we live in a society that’s why education is important for every one, for both men and women. In past, women did not receive any education at all. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their houses. Domestic works were their only education. But now we are living in 21th centaury where there is no any difference between men and women. In this century women have the same respect as men have. They help each other in every sphere. So education should be given to both men and women.

But instead of this there are so many people who do not want to educate their women because they think that women do not need education. They think that women are expected to take care of everyone except themselves. They have to take care of the children, stay home, clean up the house, and be the self-denying wife and mother. They think only that the life of a woman is all about getting married, having children, and being bombarded by unimportant details of domesticity. But they do not understand that the education is very important for women not only for them but for a whole family. Because women are the mothers of the future generation. If women are uneducated, the future generations will be uneducated.

In day to day life, the real problems are faced first by women and then the same problems are conveyed to men for solution. If the women are educated, they can solve all the problems of their houses. It is said that when ever any men get education it is only useful for him but when ever any women get education it is useful for whole family. An educated woman gives an educated family and an educated family can makes society better. We can not imagine a god society without the education of women. If a woman will not get education how will she manage whole family?

Man and woman are like the two sides of a coin. Without one, the other cannot exist. Education women can not only give an educated family but Education of women can also be helpful in eradicating many social evils such as dowry problem, unemployment problem, etc. Social peace can easily be established. A woman has to play three distinct parts in the course of her life in each of which certain duties are expected of her. The first duty of a woman is to be a good daughter. The second is to be a good wife. And the third is to be a good mother. Education teaches a mother what she should be. It also teaches her how she would do it to be a good daughter, a good wife and a good mother.

Only With the help of education women can know their rights .Woman belongs to a weaker section of the society because she suffers from many handicaps due to rigid, outdated social customs and religious practices. But an educated woman cannot be exploited easily. She is aware of her rights and will go any length to defend them.

Also, one of a mother’s highest duties is the education of her children at the time when their mind is not amenable to instruction. A child’s whole future life, to a large extent, depends on the teaching it receives in early childhood and it is needless to say that this first foundation of education cannot be well laid by an ignorant mother. Thus education will enable women to make their children, husbands and parents truly happy. Consequently it is very important that women should be educated. On all these grounds female education is a vital necessity.

How far are woman and goddesses responsible for the problems that Odysseus faces on his journey?

In Homer’s Odyssey women are responsible for many of the problems that Odysseus faced during his journey back to Ithaca. This essay will analyse how far women were responsible and also compare it to far other things caused problems for Odysseus. The first woman that I think caused Odysseus problems on his journey is Calypso. Calypso, her name meaning “the concealer” in Greek, using her beauty kept Odysseus captive on her island for seven years. “He is left to languish in misery in the island home of Calypso, who keeps him captured there.” (Page 63) Odysseus is upset because firstly on the island of Ogygia, Odysseus is powerless: he is no longer warrior and king but Calypso’s lover. The fact that she kept him captive is bad because had he remained on Ogygia, he would have no chance of ever getting any fame and glory. “His eyes were wet with weeping, as they always were” (Page 66). This quote also refers to this point because Odysseus wants more than anything to return home, but he can’t and there is nothing Odysseus can do about it.

The second reason that Calypso caused problems was the fact that she offered eternal life to Odysseus. “Yet had you any inkling of the full measure if misery you are bound to endure before you reach your native land, you would stay and share this home with me, and take on immortality.” (Page 68) This ironically, she is just offering him a form of death as he would be isolated from the rest of the world. It would also prevent him continuing on his journey. On the other hand though, firstly, if it hadn’t been for the Charybdis and the Gods, Odysseus wouldn’t be on Ogygia. “Nine days of drifting followed; but in the night of the tenth the gods washed me up on the island of Ogygia” (Page 168), conveys that the Gods caused Odysseus to be on Ogygia. Also the person who alerts the Gods of Odysseus current location and situation is Athene, who of course is also a woman. Not only that but while Odysseus was being held on Ogygia he was very well treated by Calypso, she fed him, bathed him and clothed him and she shows great signs of Xenia not just to Odysseus but to Hermes as well.

The second woman who was responsible for problems that Odysseus faced was Circe. Firstly she turned all but one of Odysseus’ men into pigs and delayed Odysseus’ progress. “Now they had pig’s heads and bristles and they grunted like pigs; but their minds were as human as they had been before,” (Page 131) this quote depicts Circe’s cruelness towards Odysseus’ men. Secondly Circe again stalls Odysseus from completing his journey back to Ithaca. “You are worn out and dispirited, always brooding on the hardships of your travels. Your sufferings have been so continuous that you have lost all pleasure in living.” (Page 136) This quote shows how Circe convinced Odysseus and his men to spend more time on the island. Thirdly Circe made Odysseus and his men take a different route, via the prophet Teiresias, rather than going straight back to Ithaca. “But Circe has marked out a very different route- to the Halls of Hades and the dreaded Persephone.” (Page 139) This makes the rest of Odysseus’ crew very upset.

“When I told them they were heart-broken. They sat down where they were and tore their hair out.” (Page 139) Circe was very useful on the other hand. Had they not resumed their journey via the prophet Teiresias in the Underworld they would be completely ignorant to the dangers of Scylla, Charybdis and the Sirens ahead. She was also useful to Odysseus as she bore his child. The last women who were responsible for problems on Odysseus’ journey were the Sirens. “For with their high clear song the Sirens bewitch him, as they sit there in a meadow piled high with the mouldering skeletons of men, whose withered skin still hangs upon their bones.” (Page 158) This quote conveys how savage the Sirens are and that if Odysseus and his men did cross the Sirens without knowing they would have had a nasty death.

“There is no homecoming for the man who draws near them unawares and hears the Sirens’ voices; no welcome from his wife, no little children brightening at their father’s return.” (Page 158) This quote depicts the fact that if Circe hadn’t told Odysseus and his men to go and seek Teiresias then they would never have found out about the Sirens and therefore suffered as a result. So to conclude I think that women were only responsible for some of the problems on Odysseus’ journey as although most of the women hold him up on his journey, (one of them for seven years) they not only show him xenia but they also give him good and sometimes life saving advice.

Woman in Black

First of all, Susan Hill uses personification to describe the fog in London, which creates a foreboding atmosphere. She uses very negative words to describe the fog such as “creeping”, “swirling”, “smeared and stained.” The sibilance in these words link to the idea of evil and foreshadow the awful events that are about to come. The malevolent imagery that Hill uses leads the reader to believe that the fog is evil; this is backed up by quotes such as “a fog that choked”, which makes it sound like the fog is so heavy that it is almost torturous and makes it appear like the fog is a murderer. The pathetic fallacy of the fog and the fact that it is in the month of November, which links to Frankenstein creates a traditionally gothic atmosphere which builds tension for the reader. All of this imagery creates suspense and it is like a red herring because it causes the reader to think that Arthur’s terror is going to occur in London. The fact that Arthur starts his journey on such a dismal day foreshadows the dark future ahead of him and leaves the reader with a level of uncertainty about what’s going to happen.

Secondly, Hill uses lots of religious imagery linking to hell to describe the setting in London such as “Inferno”, “red-hot pools of light”, “boiling cauldron”, “evil red smoke” “red-eyed and demonic”. The repetition of the word “red” links to the idea of evil and malevolence as this is often the colour that is associated with hell and the devil. The hell references also reflect the personal hell that Arthur is soon about to suffer because of the events that unfurl at Eel Marsh House so in a way the hell references are foreshadowing for what is to come in the novel. Also all of the references to hell cause the reader to think that Arthur would be relieved to get out of London and away from the fog and gloomy atmosphere however this is one way in which Susan Hill makes the story more interested for the reader because they are lead to believe that London is that place of evil.

In the Country of Men Woman

-Automatic sense of powerlessness initiated by the cultural environment of Libya’s patriarchal society in which woman are severely oppressed. Matars setting in a figurative landscape of Libya in which males obtain an overriding dominance assists in creating a world in which powerless woman is a norm. From the outset of the novel, women are portrayed as weak and incompetence demonstrated by Kareem’s descriptions of a woman’s menstrual cycle as “a curse” . This criticism from a mere child demonstrates how woman are considered below children in the society’s hierarchy. Matar emphasizes the oppression of woman through the act of Mama being immobile during sex. This heightens that lack of power possessed by woman and the ability for the outside patriarchal society to infiltrate a household and be present in even the most intimate situations. lack of respect of woman rights within the society is evident with the severe extremities associated with her arranged marriage. Locked up and sex against will, notion that father would execute ultimate power by killing her without compunction highlights how a woman is merely a chattel in the society. -Rarely called by names highlighting limiting role as bearer. I must be a good wife, loyal and unquestioning…”. Puts make up on, Baba asks why no lunch yet, tells her what to pack= Men have control and ability to take action while woman are powerless relying on men for permission..

2) However, Matar demonstrates how power is more individual than cultural with Mama’s ability to choose how she reacts to specific situations resulting in obtaining power to save Baba. Mama develops power after her intervention with Um Masoud leads to the successful saving of Baba’s life, awakening Mama to the subtle yet influential power she possesses. -Matar makes a statement that individual power is an inherent characteristic, as Mama discovers happiness throgh recognizing her own ability to wield power. This is demonstrated to the allusion of the story of “Scheherazade”. Although she condemns Scheherazade’s actions, scorning the heroine’s actions to save herself simply for life itself, Mama displays action similar to those of the novel woman. Her actions parallel those of the heroine, ultimately harnessing hidden power to outsmart and influence, saving Baba in the process.

She ultimately uses power of rationality and realism to act- pragmatic Despite the men acting in ways that are idealistic rather than realistic, Mama shows ultimate power of knowledge that in this particular society, resistance is futile and best not be engaged. Matar highlights how in order to survive; a person must acquiesce to regime. Becomes “darling of the house” and becomes a woman who is able to cope with her life in juxtaposition to at the beginning of the novel where she succumbed to the consumption of alcohol as an escape mechanism. On a deeper level, Matar invites us to view her behaivour as a response to a world full of suffering and lack of control. Therefore, her divergence from alcohol consumption supports the newfound harmony harnessed within her relationship.

3. Mama is powerful in the sense that she is able to influence thoughts within her son, ultimately controlling his departure to Egypt. -Mama’s use of storytelling of her “black day” has the ability to influence young Suleiman and implicates him in guilt and a duty of care -Results in him “dreaming of saving her”. Power over Suleiman When combined with alcohol problem, her power over him is manipulative, with Suleiman standing up to Baba stating “all you men are the same”. Uses power of persuasion to arrange Suleiman’s “safety” as he leaves for Egypt is a deceitful maneuver that echoes her own marriage. Suleiman describes her “ruthless, steely certainty that made her send me away”. Hence, IN THE DENOUEMENT OF THE NOVEL, Mama accesses her inherent power

4. Um Masoud
– Matar’s juxtaposition of Mama and the other principle wife, Um Masoud, in the novel demonstrate how inequality is not shared throughout all households Um Masoud, who is married to a RC member, is seen to wield major influence over her husband. Um Masoud reminds her husband of his catechism “She is our dear neighbor” It is she who intercedes on Mama’s behalf to save Baba which is partly acknowledged by Mama who “What if they can’t or wont help us”, detailing Um Masoud’s ability to save Baba Further relishes her power-playing role to a point in which is unhealthy and warped is demonstrated by her ordering of Suleiman to take a slice of cake to the “gentlemen sitting in the car”. ordering Suleiman to act in kindness towards a man who has been spying on his family and involved in the execution of his best friends father. Demonstrates Matar’s presentation of intricate an complex presentation of characters. Not black and white.


Women have inner ability to choose how they react, may not be discovered until catalytic events enhance maturity. Power is a by-product of authority demonstrated by Um Masoud whose close proximity to power is able to inflate ego.

Compare and Contrast of “From a Secret Sorrow” and “A Sorrowful Woman”

In the short story “From a Secret Sorrow” by Karen Van Der Zee a woman who struggles to tell her fiancé a truth that is killing her inside. The story focuses on two main characters, Faye and Kai. Faye is a woman who thought that the world was over for her after finding out she was infertile. Faye had no idea on how to communicate such horrendous news to Kai, her fiancé. She was afraid that her Kai was going to leave her and find someone else. She then started acting weird, nervous, and distanced herself from him. Her fiancé questioned her about a note he found, Faye immediately recognized that it was the note the doctor gave her and with a terrified voice asked “How did you get that?” (31). Finding out that she was infertile made her felt sorrow and like she was the only one who had the right to be upset. She thought that Kai was not going to love her anymore but it was the other way around. Kai seemed like he was really in love with her and cared about her. He wanted to let her know that whatever the problem was she was not alone, that it was not only her problem and that they will work together, then eventually get married. But Faye would not listen, she also loved him so much that she would have rather let him go instead of ruining his life with her knowing she is infertile. She knew he would be extremely disappointed and she told Kai that he had the choice to leave her and marry someone else. Kai continuously kept repeating Faye how much he loves her. Kai then asked “why should I be disappointed, Faye? Why?”(Van Der Zee 33). She felt like her heart thundering in her ears, she seemed like she was going to drown like if she could not breathe. Then she said “Because… because I can’t give you children! Because I can’t get pregnant! I can’t have babies! That’s why!”(Van Der Zee 33). Kai after the shocking secret that was been kept from him “He stared at her as if he had never seen her before” (Van Der Zee 33). Faye with her legs shaking, shortness of breathing and all these things on her head just ran away. Faye seems to struggle with some type of insecurity issues with her husband. After she ran away, Kai calls her house extremely worried about where she was just to make sure she got there safe. Chuck, someone who lived at home answers the phone and said that she was home fine. No matter how upset he was about what he just found out, he called to make sure she was safe.

A few minutes after she got home, Kai showed up to her room quietly, without knocking the door, and sat next to her. “He put his arms around her and drew her against him” and in a quietly voice said “Faye, please marry me” (Van Der Zee 34). Kai was obviously surprised for what Faye had told him, but he seemed to still care more about her than the fact that she cannot have children. However, Faye said “No” she stands up from the bed and got away from him. Faye felt like she was not enough for him because of the fact that she could not get pregnant. After moments of discussions Kai made her understand that it was not just her problem, that it was their problem as a couple. Faye still doubtfully said “how… can I ever believe it?” and Kai replay “Look at me, Faye. No other woman can give me what you can- yourself, your love, your warmth, your sense of humor….” (36). After Faye explained him word for word what the doctor said to her she said “So you see… we don’t have to hope for any miracles” Kai smiled and said “we’ll make our own miracles (36).” He then grabs her and kissed her. All of a sudden Kai went to her closet, opened the suitcases and began to pile all her clothes, he also opened the drawers, and took out all her things. Faye confused asks “What are you doing?” Kai ignore her for a min and then said “get dressed. We’re going home” Faye “Home…?” “Yes home- where you belong. With me in my house, in my bed in my arms (37)”. Kai had enough frustration with everything that had happened that he does not want to risk having any more problems. “You’re coming with me now. And I’m not letting you out my sight until we’re safely married (37).” Kai prose that if they can’t have children, there are a bunch of orphanages all over the world with children in need of a family. “Faye” he said “Your my first and only choice (38).”

Kai and Faye adopted 3 children, a boy a two girls. I seems like they were from Vietnam because she say they had small faces and large dark eyes full of fear. It was noticeable the tragedies of war, death and poverty in their eyes. Time passed and everything seem to be working out, the kid’s faces are full of joy as well as Kai’s eyes. Faye deeply inside knew that she was everything to Kai, “To hi, she was the only woman, beautiful, complete, whole (38).” The story “A Sorrowful Women” by Gail Godwin describes a woman that seems to be exhausted of her family and life. Unlike the first story, this is about a married couple who already have a child. The narrator does not give names to the characters and he/she engages on a third person role to tell the story. This story carries a depressing, sad and dark mood. The wife, one night tells her husband if he could “put the boy to bed and read him the story about the monkey who ate too many bananas(39)” since she was already tired of doing all the work at home. The husband thought she just needed a break, and he assume that there’s nothing wrong with the idea of taking care of the child, therefore he happily agreed to take care of the kid. Since that evening the husband noticed that his wife was being very distant from him his child. He notices that the reason of why she was so depressed was probably because of the child. The child was the one who brought her to this stage of sadness, to the point where she began to show aggressiveness in her and the people around her. The sight of her husband made her sad. One night as she looked at the child, she began “…yelping without tears, retching in between” (Godwin 41). Her husband takes her into his arms and he shows he had complete control over the situation. Her husband wants to find out what is wrong with her, and what he could do to make her feel better. In this story the husband portrays a different type of control that was showed in the first story “From a Secret Sorrow”. In a sorrowful woman the husband showed an understanding control, while Kai’s control is that he solves the problems. As the story goes on the Husband tries to assure his wife that he understand what she’s going through. While in the other story Kai tells Faye that his that he would never know how she really feels but he could try and help her.

In A Sorrow Woman the man behaves as if he is the protector of the woman, as if she is his queen I and he did anything that he could to keep her happy. The husband takes over her roles of the wife in the house, but he man soon got tired of all the thing he was doing at home and he decided to hired a girl to help out. The wife after seeing how the maid was doing everything for them and giving her child the love and attention he deserved she decided to fire her because she felt jealous. She did not want anyone to be affectionate with the child; it seems as if she even wanted the kid to suffer for something unexplained. She wanted the baby to feel alone, to not have anyone care for him or to show love towards him. Firing the maid is so selfish on the wife’s part because according to the book “the girls upsets me” (41), but really what made her upset was the love and care the girl was providing to her child and husband. Something she originally said she could not handle anymore. The wife was tired of seeing someone else do what she could not do herself. The girl who cried and said “I loved the little boy, what will become of him now?” (41). in this quote one could suggest that the boy was left alone, without love and attention. As if the girl knew the baby was going to suffer. The maid knew the mother did not want him or cared for him anymore, therefore she wanted her to think it over, to make sure if she really wanted the maid to leave. After the maid left the husband was the one to replace her, to go grocery shopping, to clean the house, to take care of his son and overall to do the things the maid was in charge of. The woman depression kept on getting bigger and bigger as time pass. She decided to move to the white room downstairs where the girl used to stay. She pretty much isolated herself from her family and everyone. The white room symbolizes emptiness, been unloved and voided by others. The woman as time passed did not even went out of the room anymore and everything had to be brought to her. Few weeks after been in the room, she woke up and decided to go and check her kitchen and realized that everything look different “New dish towels. The canisters seemed closer to the sink, a new brand of butter (Godwin, 43).”

The woman cooked, clean the house and did the laundry all in that same day, two weeks’ worth of work in just a couple of hours. After all the work the woman did she felt how her “veins pumped and her forehead sparkled.” Then she opens the cupboard and “took what was hers” (Godwin, 43). When the man and the boy came home and found cooked food, the house clean and all the laundry washed they were extremely surprise. The husband excited ran to the little white room and found her, the little boy said “Look, Mommy is sleeping”, the father right away notice that was not really sleeping. The father lay down on the bed and “his face into her fresh-washed hair” (Godwin, 43) In this story the mother was obviously tired of the role of a housewife. She became so distant with her family up to the point that she isolated herself in a little room downstairs. She blame the children for feeling the way she feels. She did not wanted anyone to give the child love because for her he basically ruined her life. She loved her husband but at time she felt like she was not part of the family. At the end she decided to cook and clean the house for the last time and then took her own life. In Both stories “A Sorrowful Woman” and “A Secret Sorrow” the narrator talks about a woman who struggle to fit in their family environment. They portray unhappiness in their lives and how this is affecting them. The tittle of the two stories fix perfectly since the theme of both deals around sorrowful emotions. Even both narrators have the same idea of sorrow they express it in different ways. For example in A Sorrowful Woman the woman The stories have the titles that deals with sorrow to show the main theme of the stories that revolve around sorrowful feelings (Godwin). In “A Sorrowful Woman,” the woman appears not to be identified. She experiences sorrowful emotions in her family, whereby she does not even speak with the family members. Contrary to the first story, in “A Secret Sorrow”, Faye, the main character of the story, appears to be unhappy because of the fact that she could not conceive any children.

Thus, the main difference in the both stories is the fact that Faye dreams about a family, which the unidentified woman in the Gail’s story already has. They both experience sorrow for various reasons in the family set up (Zee). It is very important to clearly see the differences between these two stories. One might judge the stories by the title, by the fact that they both have to do with sorrow. That cannot be done because these two stories acquaint us with totally different types of sorrowful situations. The women from the two stories have very different reason for their fear and sorrow. Faye, from the first story mourns over the fact that she will not be able to have her own kids and if she marries Kai then she will be a disappointment to him for her inability. In the second story the woman fears of her role as a wife, she decides that she has had enough of raising a child. She wants to abandon her duties as a wife and become carefree person as she once was. She wants to start loving herself over anyone else, to live a self-centered life doing things that she wants to do. The reason she killed herself was because of the lonesomeness and worthlessness she felt living her life for herself. The men supported their women in very different ways. Had the man from the second story supported his wife same as Kai supported Faye, his wife might have gotten better and returned to her family. Kai supported Faye in two very important ways, physically, and emotionally. Physically, Kai supported her with his strong bronze hands that represent strength and endurance. Kai supported her emotionally by repetition of the fact that he loves her and that no matter what they will go through this together. In the second story, the man supports his wife only physically as he carries her, undresses her, brings her drought. If only the man in the second story tried to connect with her emotionally, try to talk with her about how she feels, and try to find ways how to solve this problem without going public, he might have made her feel needed.

When a man loves a woman

When a man loves a woman, is a film about the way alcoholism affects a marriage. It also shows people an alcoholic who recovers (Alice) and her husband Michael, who in some ways was able to deal with her better when she was drunk. Alice is a high school counselor who drinks all day, every day. Michael, her husband is an airline pilot who knows his wife drinks heavy on occasions, but he has no idea of the extent of her drinking. Alice finally confesses to her husband some of her secrets, of how she would get some of her drinks when they were together. One day she goes out drinking after school with a friend and forgets to go home, by the time she remembers it’s after midnight. On another occasion she gets drunk and slaps her oldest daughter and passes out, as she fall she crashes in glass, water and blood. It’s a relief for Alice to admit she is addicted to alcohol. She’s been hiding it too long. Her husband is warm and understanding, arranging for her to check into a treatment facility. It’s after Alice starts being sober, that’s when her husband starts showing signs of being unhappy.

Michael shows how much in love he is, how attentive, how accepting. Sure, she hid a lot of her drinking, but the drinking she couldn’t hide, the episode with the eggs, the scene in Mexico, the night she locks herself out of the house, which would be unacceptable to many spouses. Alice checks herself into a treatment facility, where she begins learning to live with the disease. She makes close friendships with other recovering alcoholics. On visiting day, when a fairly fearsome-looking fellow patient offers to play with their daughter, she reassures her husband: “He’s not a child molester. He’s an armed robber.” Back home, Alice attends a lot of AA meetings, and confides in friends she meets there. Michael is not sure he likes this so much. They have fights, mostly because Michael still has the habit of handling everything, settling problems with the children, making decisions. Now that Alice is ready to participate more fully in the family, he feels threatened. And she is emotionally fragile, too. One day she’s in a foul mood and he wants to know why, so he can help, and she explains that she is simply having a very bad day and there is nothing either one of them can do about it, and he can’t accept that. He needs to know the reason, so he can fix it. It isn’t just about Alice’s recovery. It’s about Michael’s recovery from Alice’s recovery.

She knows what her problem is and what not her problem is. She has a line of dialogue that, in context, is both unexpected and perfect, but this dialogue helps Alcoholism has been called a disease of denial. What “When a Man Loves a Woman” understands is that those around the alcoholic often deny it, too, and grow accustomed to their relationship with a drunk. When the drunk gets sober, he or she becomes a fuller and more competent person, and that can threaten the old relationship. That’s why professionals call alcoholism a “family disease.” It’s a hard concept to understand. The one aspect of this film that I love so much is how no character is faultless in the whole situation. All members have contributed to the problem, and all must face up to what they did and try to improve what they have.