Author Exploration Paper on Writer”s Biography

Born on December eighteenth, 1870, Hector Hugh Munro was the third child of Charles Augustus Munro, an inspector general in the Burma police. H.H. Munro’s mother, Mary Frances Mercer, was killed a mere two years after her youngest son was born. She was killed by a runaway cow in England (Merriman). After her death, H.H. Munro and his siblings were raised in England by their two aunts and grandmother. These three adults had been typically the inspiration for lots of female characters in Munro’s stories (“A biography of Saki”).

Mrs. DeRopp, in “Srendi Vashtar”, is modelled after his aunt Agnes (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). His aunts were each very strict, they usually often used the birch and whip as a form of punishment. However, if Saki had not faced such harsh trials as a child, his future works won’t have been as rich as they’re today{Subjunctive mode}.

Due to the Munro children’s poor health, they have been pressured to be taught by governesses at residence.

At the age of twelve, H.H. Munro was finally able to attend college in Exmouth and Bedford Grammar. H.H. Munro’s father retired when Hector was sixteen. For a couple of years, the small family traveled the continent before his father organized a submit for him in the Burma police. Munro spent 13 months in Burma. Although sick on multiple events, Munro was able to research Burmese animals, and he even raised a tiger cub throughout his time there(A Biography of Saki”).

In 1984, Munro was compelled to return to England after contracting malaria whereas in Burma.In 1896, Munro begn to put in writing political satires for the Westminster Gazette. These essays had been later collected and published as The Westminster Alice.

In 1902, Munro printed a group of his quick stories, called Not-So Stories. Munro also revealed only one work of great non-fiction referred to as The Rise of the Russian Empire. This was the only piece ever written by Munro to include his real name on the guide jacket. For all of Munro’s different items, nonetheless, Munro’s name was nowhere to be found. Instead, Munro selected to write underneath the pen name of “Saki”. The name Saki can imply certainly one of two issues, either Munro was referring to himself as a breed of monkey, or he noticed himself because the cupbearer of Fitzgerald’s Rubaiyat. It is extra probable that the latter option is true, for Saki had usually expressed his admiration for Fitzgerald’s work (Hitchens){Compound sentence}.

During his lifetime, Saki additionally served as a war correspondent earlier than moving to Paris to write for The Morning Post and a French paper. He briefly revisited England in 1907 when his father became sick and died in May. Saki then opened a membership, The Cocoa Tree, and continued to write down for so much of newspapers and publish his brief stories. When struggle was declared in late 1914, Saki enlisted in the army though he was formally too old{Complex Sentence}. He additionally surprised a lot of his admirers by turning down a number of commissions and insisting that he serve in the trenches, claiming that he couldn’t lead troopers if he didn’t first know tips on how to be one (Hitchens). He continued writing{gerund phrase} whereas in the army about his life on the entrance until November in 1916.

Near the village of Beaumont-Home on the river Somes, Saki was shot by a German sniper. On the verge of a crater, the good storyteller shouted, “Put that bloody cigarette out!” Those were to be the “great Saki’s” final words (Hitchens). Although Saki’s hand would write no more, it is quite clear that Saki’s writing has positively been influenced by his life events. H.H. Munro, or Saki, lived and wrote in the course of the late 1800s and early 1900s. This time period was speckled with various wars and revolutions, and gave start to the world’s first great war. Throughout these main events, Saki was there to witness, document, and ultimately give his life to these skirmishes.

During his life, Saki traveled to the Balkans, Russia, Poland, and France as a foreign correspondent from 1902 to 1908. While in these countries, he witnessed “Bloody Sunday” in St.Petersburg and the Russian Revolution of 1905. He additionally criticized the government for its “inept handling” of the Boer War (Silet). Saki’s many travels allowed him to be uncovered to hardships and dangers that “…did a lot to alter the tone of his work” (Silet). Saki’s travels to Europe also “…introduced him to European Folk Literature” (Silet), a genre that supplied him with both subject material and the darker imaginative and prescient of many of his later fiction.

When not traveling the world, Saki was often found in England, the place he made observations concerning the Edwardian society that he lived in. He later transformed these observations into many brief stories, based mostly on the upsetting of the monotonous routine of on a daily basis life (Silet). However, in course of the end of his life, Saki’s work is darker; there seems to be less humor in his writing as time goes on (Silet).

During this period of his life, a touch of naturalism begins to creep into his writing, almost extinguishing the flickering tongue of humor that was evident in all of his work. Saki’s use of naturalism is very obvious in his later fiction, such as the short stories “Dogged” and “The remoulding of Groby Lingfoughn”(Elahipanah). Although Saki wrote many alternative tales, sometimes utilizing multiple genres, there is no question that the various world events that occurred during Saki’s lifetime greatly influenced Saki’s writing. Saki has usually been called a “master of the short story”(Hitchens). Aside from this title, Saki was also a grasp of satire. Satire is usually witty and ironic, and makes use of fastidiously hidden hints within the text to convey its message.

The style not often attacks specific people, and sometimes makes use of extremes to convey the audience to an consciousness of the danger in a selected society (“Characteristics of Satire”). More specifically, Saki was an Edwardian satirist–he usually made enjoyable of his society, and lots of of his brief stories need to deal with terribly strange events taking place to the ordinary individuals of his social class and time interval (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”). Saki’s earlier stories are usually extra humorous; his later tales are darker and extra macabre due to his many experiences with warfare and the darker sides of humanity (Silet). Naturalism, a genre that exhibits the harsher aspect of life and portrays the concept man is powerless against nature{appositive phrase}, is also apparent in some of Saki’s aforementioned later fiction. Many figures from Saki’s childhood (mainly his aunts Agatha and Charlotte) are also used as models for many of Saki’s female characters (Silet).

The traits of satire and and naturalism are both clearly portrayed through Saki’s writing. Saki’s short story “On Approval” consists of lots of the basic traits of satire that are additionally present in Saki’s different works. Having lived in England for a lot of his life, Saki knew the the city properly, and selected London, a city he typically frequented, as the setting for this story (“A Biography of Saki”). Gebhard Knopfschrank, a self-pronounced artist, strikes to London from his small farm to attempt his success at painting. As time goes on, Knopfschrank becomes increasingly poor, hardly ever buying meals. However, one day, Knopfschrank enters his boarding home and gleefully buys “…an elaborate meal that scarcely stopped short of being a banquet.” (“On Approval”).

The other boarders, believing that Knopfschrank has finally offered his his art and been found as a genius, rush to buy Knopfschrank’s ridiculously costly work, eager to purchase his work{infinitive phrase} earlier than their costs increase together with his fame. Later, the boarders understand that Knopfschrank has not bought a single portray in any respect. In reality, a wealthy American has accidentally hit, and killed, many animals again on Knopfschrank’s farm. The American hastily paid “‘…perhaps more than they were value, many occasions more than they’d have fetched out there after a month of fattening, but he was in a hurry to get on to Dantzig.’” (“On Approval”). Saki’s use of satire in this piece is obvious. At the end of the story, Saki, by way of Knopfschrank’s character, ridicules Americans and the way they constantly rush around utilizing money to get out of their problems, saying, “‘…God be thanked for wealthy Americans, who are at all times in a hurry to get someplace else” (“On Approval”).

This basic attack on a specific group of people is a component generally used in satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). This story also makes use of satire in one other way–it may be very ironic. Irony is almost always present in satire “(Characteristics of Satire”). On the final evening of his keep, Knopfschrank sells many of his works, noting “Till to- day I have bought not one of my sketches. To-night you have bought a couple of, because I am going away from you” (“On Approval”). This is an instance of situational irony. Satire is also evident one more method in this piece–Saki writes the story in such a way that he makes the members of the boarding house’s unlucky mistake seem more humorous than tragic, which is a key point of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”). Saki also states in the textual content that Knopfschrank “…fancied he may paint and was pardonably anxious to flee from the monotony of rye bread food regimen and the sandy, swine-bestrewn plains of Pomerania” (“On Approval”).

This quote portrays a standard theme that usually seems in a lot of Saki’s writings–the upsetting of everyday routines. The use of Saki’s style satire and his personal connections to the setting of the story are evident Saki’s “On Approval”. Saki’s short story “The Interlopers” has clearly been influenced by Saki’s own life and genre. This tale, which takes place in a small strip of disputed forest, is about two enemies–Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym–who are both out late on a stormy evening, patrolling their borders with their huntsmen, every making an attempt to catch and kill the other. After wandering for a while, the men come nose to nose with each other. Before either can react, however, there was a “…splitting crash over their heads” (“The Interlopers”) and a towering tree {participial phrase[present]} falls and pins each males to the ground.

The two talk for a time, at first buying and selling insults, however their exchanges soon turn out to be a lot kinder as the men start to supply one another their friendship. By the top of the story, the previous enemies have now become associates, and they see dark figures rushing towards them. Believing these figures to be their males, coming to rescue them, the 2 feel that all of their troubles are over, earlier than coming to the startling realization that the varieties, presumed to be their saviors, are literally the issues that might be their deaths–wolves. The story ends with Ulrich letting out “…the idiotic chattering of a man unstrung with worry.” (“The Interlopers”).

This story incorporates many examples of irony, which is each a staple of satire (“Characteristics of Satire”) and a common component in lots of Saki’s different stories. Dramatic irony is proven in the midst of the story, when the 2 enemies, preventing over a chunk of land, are ultimately killed by that land. Irony is portrayed in the story yet once more by having the 2 former enemies finish a century-long household feud mere moments earlier than their own demise. Saki even states within the text that “…if there was a man on the earth whom [Gradwitz] detested and wished unwell to it was Georg Znaeym” (“The Interlopers”). This story also connects to Saki’s private life via the story’s setting. This story takes place in a forest positioned “…somewhere on the japanese spurs of the Carpathians” (“The Interlopers”), an space that Saki visited while touring along with his family (Merriaman). Saki’s “The Interlopers” consists of features of Saki’s life, style, and environment in its telling.

Many totally different sides of Saki’s life and his satire can be present in his brief story “The Lumber-Room”. In this story, a young boy, Nicholas, is banned from the garden and forced to stay at home with his unpleasant aunt as punishment whereas his cousins are taken to the seaside for a trip. While at house, Nicholas manages to pull off an excellent trick on his aunt; he compels her to imagine that he is within the forbidden backyard whereas Nicholas steals the important thing to the mysterious lumber-room. Once contained in the mysterious room, Nicholas explores the room, discovering dozens of prizes. While in this room, Nicholas hears his aunt calling and swiftly runs to her, only to discover that she has fallen into the water tank in the forbidden garden and is trapped inside, calling for assist. Nicholas then explains to his aunt, whom he believes to be “…the Evil One” (“The Lumber-Room”), that he can not assist her because, as a result of rules laid out by her, he’s not allowed to enter the garden.

Nicholas leaves the aunt within the water tank till a maid discovers her. Meanwhile, the opposite aunt and the youngsters return from their go to, which turned out to be disastrous. While sitting at dinner, Nicholas displays on the tapestry that he saw, and speculates that the huntsman should still escape from the wolves along with his hounds. This story shows many different elements of Saki’s own childhood. Saki himself was really raised by his two aunts.

Saki, like Nicholas, also despised two aunts, and infrequently based a lot of his female characters off of them (Hitchens). Saki was a practical joker (“A Biography of Saki”), fairly just like Nicholas in the story. Saki was additionally very keen on animals throughout his lifetime (“H.H. Munro: About the Author”), and displays this love of animals in “The Lumber-Room” by scattering lots of them all through the story. Nicholas finds some of these animals in the lumber room; there are lots of animal-themed objects, and Nicholas soon discovers brass figures formed in the images of “…hump-necked bulls, and peacocks and goblins” (“The Lumber-Room”).

There can also be a wonderful guide depicting colourful birds. Saki exhibits his love of animals by putting them in this “…storehouse of unimagined treasures” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses irony, an important element of satire, in this story as nicely. When Nicholas’s aunt is trapped in the water tank and wishes Nicholas to save lots of her, Nicholas is unable to as a result of she dictated earlier that he was “…not to enter the gooseberry garden” (“The Lumber-Room”). Saki uses each satire and his own life experiences to give this story true life and shade.

The events of Saki’s life are closely apparent in his short story “Sredni Vashtar”. In this story, Conradin, a younger boy{appositive phrase}, is pressured by his sickness to stay with his despised cousin, Mrs. DeRopp. One day, however, Conradin is prepared to smuggle an internecine ferret into the shed by his room. Conradin names this ferret Sredni Vashtar and creates a religion round this feral god. His aunt soon grows suspicious as Conradin begins to spend all of his time within the shed, exhibiting fervid devotion to the gracile ferret. As time goes on, Conradin grows increasingly more obsessed with the ferret, and begins to chant “‘Do one factor for me, Sredni Vashtar.’” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Finally, his aunt goes to investigate the shed, puzzled as to why Conradin finds it so interesting. During her visit to the shed, a scream is heard coming from it. Moments later, a sleek shadow darts off into the night, its maw purple and darkish with Mrs. DeRopp’s blood. This story displays Saki’s personal childhood in many ways.

Saki, like Conradin, was weak when he was young, and was not deemed healthy sufficient to attend faculty till the age of twelve (Hitchens). Conradin also feels that “…without his imagination” (Sredni Vashtar”) he would not have been capable of stay due to”…drawn-out dullness” (“Sredni Vashtar). Saki writes that he typically felt the identical way (Silet). Saki, like Conradin, was additionally confined to the care of an overbearing relative whom he greatly disliked–his aunt, Agatha (Silet). In “Sredni Vashtar, Conradin hates Mrs. DeRopp with “…a desperate sincerity which he was perfectly capable of masks.” (“Sredni Vashtar”). Saki most probably felt this identical means in direction of his own aunts. Mrs. DeRopp is definitely based mostly off of Saki’s despised aunt (Silet).

Clearly, many references to Saki’s early childhood are made in Saki’s “Sredni Vashtar”. Saki’s brief stories, which are often about extraordinary issues happening to extra-ordinary individuals, are as relevant in today’s world as they have been throughout Saki’s own lifetime. Many of Saki’s works make the most of the important thing aspects of each satire and naturalism, completely. Saki uses ironic wit and exaggerated situations to enthrall the reader in his works. This same technique is usually present in political cartoons today. Saki has also used his considerable abilities to affect different authors, similar to P.G. Wodehouse. One well-known actor (Hitchens) that was closely impressed by Saki’s work was the late Noël Coward (Hitchens). While staying at a county home, Coward discovered a duplicate of Beasts and Super Beasts (a collection of Saki’s quick stories) and was captivated by the author’s work (Hitchens). “‘I took it up to my bed room, opened it casually, and was unable to fall asleep until I had finished it’” (Hitchens).

When referring to his own writing, Saki often referred to as it ‘“true sufficient to be fascinating but not true sufficient to be tiresome’” (Hitchens). This view of Saki’s prose is type of clear–although his work primarily focuses on the folks of Saki’s day, the large events that occur to them maintain Saki’s work attention-grabbing and interesting. There is no doubt that Saki was in a position to create imaginative works that captivate the reader, lovely short stories which may be extremely detailed, and unique texts which would possibly be unlike another author’s{Parallel construction}. This makes Saki’s tales attention-grabbing and fun to learn.Saki’s work has definitely been influenced by his private experiences, his environment, and the genre of satire. Saki’s ironic quick tales divulge to his readers his private view on the disturbance of day by day routine, events that also happen quite often today.

Writers of the American Revolution: Benjamin Franklin

The American Revolution influenced so much more than just people’s taxes and freedom. It influenced writing and speeches of people at the time. The American Identity during the American Revolution was reflected in Benjamin Franklins writing such as the “Poor Richard’s Almanac” and The Declaration of Independence (he helped draft the document). Political, social, and economic factors shaped Franklin’s writing The political circumstances Benjamin Franklin was in greatly influenced his writing of the Declaration of Independence, America was in turmoil with Britain and they wanted to separate from them. The Declaration of Independence is well known as the document that declared the need of separation of the colonies from the King of England. He reflects the political times in Poor Richard’s Almanac as well. In the almanac there is direct examples of important dates at the time and population figures around the world. The need for a almanac of this sorts was important to the people it gave them information about the world around them such as political ideologies.

At the time also Franklin was very into politics when he wrote the almanac. (Morgan) The American Identity influenced political papers including the Declaration of Independence and Poor Richards Almanac by reflecting peoples and the writers feelings at the time. Social issues were arising around the time of the American Revolution. America was just beginning and the colonies which were a mix of culture and beliefs were uniting to fight against Britain. The Declaration of Independence reflected all of the people. (Background History) It had to not conflict with the thirteen colonies staying within their social norms while still bringing a convincing argument to the King. The Poor Richards Almanac was a description of social culture, it brought together witty statements, popular articles, and even horoscopes.(Morgan) It was widely read and influenced directly by the events happening at the time.

The importance of social queues were greatly reflected in the content of Franklins writing. The Declaration of Independence and Poor Richards Almanac were both written at a time when the economy had everything to do with the troubles of early Americans. Taxation by England had caused revolts in the colonies and the Declaration of Independence was an answer to the the Revolutionary war and the impugning taxes that were put on them. The Poor Richards Almanac also was a direct reflection of economic factors at the time. The almanac included predictions that were important to farmers at the time which were a major part of the economy. People from all classes poor and rich could benefit from the almanac. Economic factors at the time of Revolution were expressed throughout Franklins writings. Benjamin Franklin was able to reflect and summarize so many peoples thoughts during the American Revolution. He takes great care in being relatable yet firm. The shaping of his writings led to the shaping of the world around him.

Works Cited
“Background, History, And The Beginning Of The Revolution.” Was the American Revolution a Revolution? N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
“IIP Digital | U.S. Department of State.” Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writer 1776-1820. N.p., 10 Oct. 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Morgan, Lisa. “The Pennsylvania Center for the Book – Poor Richard’s Almanack.” The Pennsylvania Center for the Book – Poor Richard’s Almanack. N.p., June 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Shmoop Editorial Team. “Benjamin Franklin in The American Revolution.” Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

Part II: Rhetorical Analysis

Excerpt from Benjamin Franklins Autobiography

It was about this time I conceived the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. I wished to live without committing any fault at any time; I would conquer all that either natural inclination, custom, or company might lead me into. As I knew, or thought I knew, what was right and wrong, I did not see why I might not always do the one and avoid the other. But I soon found I had undertaken a task of more difficulty than I had imagined. While my care was employed in guarding against one fault, I was often surprised by another; habit took the advantage of inattention; inclination was sometimes too strong for reason. I concluded, at length, that the mere speculative conviction that it was our interest to be completely virtuous was not sufficient to prevent our slipping, and that the contrary habits must be broken, and good ones acquired and established, before we can have any dependence on a steady, uniform rectitude of conduct. For this purpose I therefore contrived the following method.

In the various enumerations of the moral virtues I met in my reading, I found the catalogue more or less numerous, as different writers included more or fewer ideas under the same name. Temperance, for example, was by some confined to eating and drinking, while by others it was extended to mean the moderating every other pleasure, appetite, inclination, or passion, bodily or mental, even to our avarice and ambition. I proposed to myself, for the sake of clearness, to use rather more names, with fewer ideas annexed to each, than a few names with more ideas; and I included under thirteen names of virtues all that at that time occurred to me as necessary or desirable, and annexed to each a short precept, which fully expressed the extent I gave to its meaning.

These names of virtues, with their precepts were:
Temperance
Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
Silence
Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.

Order
Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.

Resolution
Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.

Frugality
Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself, i.e., waste nothing.

Industry
Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.

Sincerity.
Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.

Justice
Wrong none by doing injuries or omitting the benefits that are your duty.

Moderation
Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.

Cleanliness
Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation.

Tranquillity
Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.

Chastity
Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another’s peace or reputation.

Humility

Imitate Jesus and Socrates.

My intention being to acquire the habitude of all these virtues, I judged it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time, and, when I should be master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on, till I should have gone thro’ the thirteen; and, as the previous acquisition of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain others, I arranged them with that view, as they stand above. Temperance first, as it tends to procure that coolness and clearness of head which is so necessary where constant vigilance was to be kept up, and guard maintained against the unremitting attraction of ancient habits and the force of perpetual temptations.

This being acquired and established, Silence would be more easy; and my desire being to gain knowledge at the same time that I improved in virtue, and considering that in conversation it was obtained rather by the use of the ears than of the tongue, and therefore wishing to break a habit I was getting into prattling, punning, and joking, which only made me acceptable to trifling company, I gave Silence the second place. This and the next, Order, I expected would allow me more time for attending to my project and my studies. Resolution, once because habitual, would keep me firm in my endeavors to obtain all the subsequent virtues; Frugality and Industry, freeing me from my remaining debt, and producing affluence and independence, would make more easy the practice of Sincerity and Justice, etc., Conceiving, then, that, agreeably to the advice of Pythagoras in his Garden Verses, daily examination would be necessary, I contrived the following method for conducting that examination. Taken off of website:

http://www.ushistory.org/franklin/autobiography/page38.htm

Benjamin’s Use of Rhetoric to Express His Values

Advice has to be given in certain ways to certain people and the methods of how some choose to give advice are often varying. Benjamin Franklin takes his chance to write a self help book with his advice in the form of his autobiography, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. In an excerpt from his book he effectively uses pithy statements, ethos, and pathos to reveal his values relating to life. The first advice he utilizes ethos. “I wished to live without committing any fault at any time; I would conquer all that either natural inclination, custom, or company might lead me into.” He utilizes ethos in order to give himself not just credibility but to give the reader an understanding of were he is coming from and a judgement of his character. He uses words like ‘ natural’ and ‘conquer’ which are strong and convincing to prove his worthiness of being a trusted writer.

He takes the entire first two paragraphs to give himself credibility he uses reveals plenty to do with what he believes. He explains himself with lines like, “I concluded, at length, that the mere speculative conviction that it was our interest to be completely virtuous”, this gives the reader a reason to trust what he has to say because he is self aware. Using ethos gives proofs to Benjamin Franklin’s values. The next 13 lines of the excerpt are wholly pithy statements one after the other. The revelation of his values are widely expressed through all of the statements such as “Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.” and “Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.” Which is also juxtaposition in itself. The thirteen lines also utilize parallelism by listing one word along which each statement as a title, which makes the entire excerpt easier to follow.

Also in the last paragraph he takes the order he has used in the list and orders his paragraph in the same way. The use of parallelism and pithy statements revealed Franklins values uniformly and easy to follow. His use of pathos and relating to the audience is vital to Franklins writing. He takes the things he says and melds them into passionate and understanding statements such as, “My intention being to acquire the habitude of all these virtues, I judged it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time”. He is honest with his audience telling them what he wants them to pay attention to. The use of also within his pathos an allusion to “Pythagoras in his Garden Verses” this shows were he derives his ideals and how he chooses to outline them in order to serve his own purpose of a profitable life. The use of pathos along with allusions gives Benjamin a strong sense of his own values. Benjamin Franklin has a solid sense of values throughout this excerpt. He uses rhetoric to his advantage and reveals his values perceptively.

Filipino writers

Region
Literary Types
Prominent Author

Bicol Literature
-extraordinary vitalityof richness in depicting historical events, specific persons and social conditions in Bicol Region. – characterized by clarity and grace of expression evident in song and dance. – friction writing in Bicol has not flourished.

Handiog (epic) – First important work in Bicol.
Liturgical Play (play) – combination of miming and punning with religious to cover up doubled edge statements against Spaniards. Comedia – as a social and political critique enhanced by his creation of an ineffectual character quite like tragic hero. Anti Cristo (drama) – technical artistry gained appreciative comments from drama critics at University of the Philippines.

Maria Lilia F. Realubit
Mariano Perfecto

Sabas Armenta

Justiniano Nuyda

Asisclo Jimenez – Known for his gift of mimicry and comic version of life.

Manuel Fuentabella – noted for his lyricism and sensitivity.

Angelo De Castro – writes with perceptivity and fatalism.

Valerio Zuniga – projects human feelings clearly in his work.

Mariano Goyena del Prado – writes with poetic awareness and dramatic choice of words.

Ilocano Literature
– best illustrates the literature of the region in various stages

Dallang – Ilokano Literature

Lam-ang and Namongan – earliest known poem, mention of Christian baptism and marriage and names of other characters shows strong evidence of hispanization.

Translation of Cardinal Bellarmine’s Catechism – first book printed in Iloko, earliest source of information about Pedro Bukaneg.

Passion and Panagbiag – religious work

Moro Moro and Zarzuela (Comedia) – first presented by Isabelo Uray Narigat No Paguimbagan/ Improvement Despite Obstacles 1911 (novel) Nasamitken Narucbos nga Sabong daguiti Dardarepdep it Agbaniaga/ Sweet and Fresh Flower of a travellers Dream1921 Mining Wenno Ayat it Cararua/ Mining or Spiritual Love 1941

Banawag – weekly magazine

Maingel it Kabambantayan (The hero of Wilderness) – life of Ilokano pioneers who seeks greener pastures in Cagayan Puris it Barukong (Thorn in the Breast) – studies between the fued between the Iloko and other regional groups. Dagiti Mariing Iti Parbangon (Who are awakened at Down) – deals with fisherman because poetry seeks employment in government. Nasudi nga Agnanayon (Forever Pure) and Ta Dida Ammo it Aramidda – are the social study of Sapanish era. Ramut iti Ganggannaet (Roots in Foreign Soil) – about Filipino Identity The Other Women

Marcelino A. Foronda Jr. – gives substantial account of Ilocano literature

Fray Francisco Lopez

Pedro Bukaneg – father of Iloko Literature.
Leona Florentino – National poetess of the Philippines.
Isabelo de los Reyes – folklone studies and religious and political article. Facundo Madriaga

Marcos E. Milton

Marcelo Pena Crisologo

Former President Ferdinand Marcos – reffered it as the bible of Northern Philippines. Arsenio T. Ramels

Contante Casabars

Marcelino Foronda Jr.

Marcelino Foronda Jr.

Virgilio R. Samonte

Sugbuanon Literature
provides information and insights into the character and culture of the largest linguistic sector in the Philippines. Abundant and varied.

According to Saturio Villarino, it is characterized by adaptions from Spanish and English poetry. Inspired by vernacular translations of foreign novels.

Ang Suga (The Lamp) – bitter consequences of Filipinos sensitivity towards the Spanish Occupation. Lalawa (Image) – collection of didactic short stories portraying to society problem character. Dili Diay Yawan-on (Not truly evil) and Fausto Dugenio’s Sayaw (The Dance of Life) Syudad sa Sugbu (V Ramos St., Cebu City)

And Temistocles Adlawan’s Ang Gindak-on sa Dagat (The Breadth on the Sea) – most significant stories during the last 30 years Miawas ang Taub (The Tide Overflowed) – longest Sugbuanon novel, composed of 80 up to 90 characters.

Ang Palad ni Pepe (Pepe’s Fortune) – phenomenally successful novel serialize in Bisaya Ang Anak ni Pepe (Pepe’s Child) – sequel to Pepe’s Fortune Adlaw sa Panudya (Day of Reckoning) – master piece of Tiburcio Baguio with Francisco Candia Balitaw – comic representation of love

Drama Balitaw – developed from balitaw, which story line with spoken dialogue is woven around at least two balitaw sequences. Duplo – debate in verse with only two characters.

Balagtasan sa Balitaw – incorporation of duplo and balitaw, courtship plot became frame work. Kolilisi – private type of drama performed by neighbors to divert bereaved family. Bagamundo – related type of folk play where a vagabond stranger arrives at the gate of kolilisi. Pamalaye – private performance, old Sugbuanon ritual formalizing an engage to marry. The Quarell between the East and the West Bachelors – story from Marawi City

Nicolas Rafols

Vicente Rama

Domingo Estabaya – outstanding among the school writers

Dionisio Gabriels Dalan V. Rama

Natario Bacalso- outstanding novalist duing this time

Flaviano Boquecosa – outstanding novalist duing this time

Tiburcio Baguio

Radiomoda Mamitua Saber

Plutarch’s Influence on Shakespeare and Other Writers of the Sixteenth Century

The influence of the writings of Plutarch of Chaeronea on English literature might well be made the subject of one of the most interesting chapters in the long story of the debt of moderns to ancients. One of the most kindly and young spirited, he is also one of the most versatile of Greek writers, and his influence has worked by devious ways to the most varied results.

His treatise on the Education of Children had the honour to be early translated into the gravely charming prose of Sir Thomas Elyot, and to be published in a black-letter quarto ‘imprinted,’ as the colophon tells us, ‘in Fletestrete in the house of Thomas Berthelet.’ The same work was drawn upon unreservedly by Lyly in the second part of Euphues, and its teachings reappear a little surprisingly in some of the later chapters of Pamela.

The essay on the Preservation of Good Health was twice translated into Tudor prose, and that on Curiosity suffered transformation at the hands of the virgin queen herself into some of the most inharmonious of English verse.

The sixteenth century was indeed steeped in Plutarch. His writings formed an almost inexhaustible storehouse for historian and philosopher alike, and the age was characterized by no diffidence or moderation in borrowing. Plutarch’s aphorisms and his anecdotes meet us at every turn, openly or in disguise, and the translations I have alluded to did but prepare the way for Philemon Holland’s great rendering of the complete non-biographical works in the last year of the Tudor era.

But it is as author of the Parallel Lives of the famous Greeks and Romans that Plutarch has most strongly and most healthily affected the literature of modern Europe. Few other books of the ancient world have had since the middle ages so interesting a career; in the history of no other, perhaps not even the Iliad, can we see so plainly that rare electric flash of sympathy where the spirit of classical literature blends with the modern spirit, and the renascence becomes a living reality.

The Lives of Plutarch were early translated into Latin, and versions of them in that language were among the first productions of the printing press, one such edition being published at Rome about 1470. It was almost certainly in this Latin form that they first attracted the attention and the pious study of Jacques Amyot (1514-93).

Amyot’s Translations of Plutarch

No writer of one age and nation has ever received more devoted and important services from a writer of another than Plutarch owes to Amyot. Already the translator of the Greek pastorals of Heliodorus and Longus, as well as seven books of Diodorus Siculus, Amyot came not unprepared to the subject of his life’s work. Years were spent in purification of the text. Amyot’s marginal notes as to variants in the original Greek give but a slight conception of the extent of his labours in this direction. Dr. Joseph Jager has made it more evident in a Heidelberg dissertation, ‘Zur Kritik von Amyots Ubersetzung der Moralia Plutarch’s’ (Biihl, 1899).

In 1559, being then Abbot of Bellozane, Amyot published his translation of Plutarch’s Lives, printed in a large folio volume by the famous Parisian house of Vascosan….The success of the work was immediate; it was pirated largely, but no less than six authorized editions were published by Vascosan before the end of 1579.

Amyot’s concern with the Lives did not cease with the appearance of the first edition. Each re-issue contained improvements, and only that of 1619 can perhaps be regarded as giving his final text, though by that time the translator had been twenty-six years in his grave. Yet it was not the Lives solely that occupied him. In 1572 were printed Les Oeuvres Morales et Meshes de Plutarque. Translatees du Grec en Francois par Messire Jacques Amyot.

The popularity of this volume, by whose appearance all Plutarch was rendered accessible in the vernacular to French readers, was hardly inferior to that the Lives had attained, and it directly inspired another work, already mentioned, whose importance for English drama was not very greatly inferior to that of North’s translation of the Lives: ‘The Philosophic, commonly called the Morals, written by the learned Philosopher, Plutarch of Chaeronea. Translated out of Greeke into English, and conferred with the Latin translations, and the French, by Philemon Holland…London 1603.’

The indebtedness of such writers as Chapman to the Morals of Plutarch is hardly to be measured. Our concern, however, is rather with the lives as they appeared in North’s translation from the French of Amyot, in 1579.

Sir Thomas North

Thomas North, or Sir Thomas, as history has preferred to call him, was born about 1535, the second son of Edward Lord North and Alice Squyer his wife. The knightly title in North’s case, like that or Sir Thomas Browne, is really an anachronism as regards his literary career. It was a late granted honour, withheld, like the royal pension, which seems to have immediately preceded death, till the recipient’s fame had long been established and his work in this world was virtually over.

It is simply as Thomas North that he appears on the early title pages of his three books, and as Master North we find him occasionally mentioned in state papers during the long and eventful years that precede 1591 . Sometimes, by way of self-advertisement, he alludes to himself rather pathetically as ‘sonne of Sir Edward North, Knight, L. North of Kyrtheling’ or ‘Brother to the Right Honourable Sir Roger North, Knight, Lorde North of Kyrtheling.’

We know little of his life. It appears to have been a long and honourable one, full of incident and variety, darkened till almost the very end by the shadow of poverty, but certainly not devoid of gleams of temporary good fortune, and on the whole, no doubt, a happy life.

There is good reason, but no positive evidence, for believing that he was educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 1557 we find him at Lincoln’s Inn; on the 2Oth of December in that year he dates from there the dedicatory epistle to Queen Mary, prefixed to his D’tall of Princes. In 1568 he was presented with the freedom of the city of Cambridge. In 1574 he accompanied his elder brother Roger, second Baron North, on a special mission to the court of Henri III of France.

Six years later, under date of August 25, 1580, the Earl of Leicester commends Mr. North to Lord Burghley as one who ‘is a very honest gentleman, and hath many good things in him which are drowned only by
poverty.’ During the critical days of the Armada he was Captain of three hundred men in the Isle of Ely, and he seems always to have borne a high reputation for valour.

With 1590 the more interesting part of North’s life closes. In 1591 he was knighted. At this period he must apparently have enjoyed a certain pecuniary prosperity, since eligibility for knighthood involved the possession of land worth 40 [pounds] a year. In 1592 we hear of him as justice of the peace in Cambridgeshire; the official commission for placing him is dated February 24.

Six years later we may infer that he was again in financial straits, for a grant of 20 [pounds] was made to him by the city of Cambridge. The last known incident of his life was the conferring on him of a pension of 40 [pounds] per annum from the Queen, in 1601. He may or may not have lived to see the publication of the third, expanded edition of his Plutarch in 1603, to which is prefixed a grateful dedication to Queen Elizabeth.

North was twice married, and we know that at least two of his children, a son and daughter, reached maturity. His literary fame rests on three translations. The first in point of time was a version of Guevara’s Libra Aureo, of which an abbreviated translation by Lord Berners bad been printed in 1535, with the title ‘The Golden Boke of Marcus Aurelius Emperour and eloquent Oratour.’

North made no such effort at condensation; his rendering appeared first in 1557 and again, with the addition of a fourth book, in 1568, with the following title page: ‘The Dial of Princes, compiled by the reverend father in God, Don Antony of Guevara, Byshop of Guadix, Preacher, and Chronicler to Charles the fifte, late of that name Emperor. Englished out of the Frenche by T. North. . .

And now newly revised and corrected by hym, refourmed of faultes escaped in the first edition: with an amplification also of a fourth booke annexed to the same, entituled The fauored Courtier, never heretofore imprinted in our vulgar tongue. Right necessarie and pleasaunt to all noble and vertuous persones.’ There seems no reason to accept the suggestion that the style of this book was influential in any particular degree in shaping that of Lyly’s Euphues.

North’s second translation appeared in 1570. The title page, which contains
all the information concerning the work that the reader is likely to require, runs as follows: ‘The Morall Philosophic of Doni: Drawne out of the auncient writers. A worke first compiled in the Indian tongue, and afterwardes reduced into divers other languages: and now lastly Englished out of Italian by Thomas North.’

In the Stationers’ Register for 1579 occurs this entry: ‘VI to Die Aprilis. — Thomas vautrollicr, master Wighte Lycenced vnto yem a booke in Englishc called Plutarks Lyves — XV and a copie.’ This is the first mention of North’s translation of Plutarch, which was duly published in the same year, 1579, by the two book-sellers named in the registration notice. A facsimile of the title page appears as frontispiece to this volume….It is of importance to consider here the exact relation in which North’s translation stands to that of Amyot, first printed just twenty years before and definitely claimed by North as his source.

….North’s Plutarch enjoyed till the close of the seventeenth century a popularity equal to its merits; but its vogue was now interrupted. It was supplanted by a succession of more modern and infinitely less brilliant renderings and was not again reprinted as a whole till 1895. How entirely it had fallen into disrepute in the eighteenth century is evident from the significant verdict of the Critical Review for February, 1771, ‘This was not a translation from Plutarch, nor can it be read with pleasure in the present Age.’ One hopes, and can readily believe, that the critic had not made the attempt to read it.

There is some doubt as to which edition of North was used by Shakespeare. The theory of Mr. A. P. Paton that a copy of the 1603 version bearing the initials ‘W. S.’ was the poet’s property has long ago been exploded. From an allusion by Weever in his Mirror of Martyrs, we know that Julius Caesar was in existence in 1601. The two possible editions, those of 1579 and 1595 respectively, often vary a little in wording, but there seems to be no instance where such difference offers any hint as to which text Shakespeare used.

No one with a knowledge of the rules and vagaries of Elizabethan orthography will probably lay any stress on the argument which prefers the folio of 1595 for the sole reason that on the first page of the Life of Coriolanus it happens to agree in spelling of the word ‘conduits’ with the 1623 Shakespeare, whereas the folio of 1579 gives the older form of ‘conducts.’

If Shakespeare’s acquaintance with North was delayed till about 1600, it may be imagined that copies of the second edition would then be the more easily obtainable. If, on the other hand, we derive the allusions in A Midsummer Night’s Dream (II. i. 75-80) to Hippolyta, Perigouna, Aegle, Ariadne, and Antiopa from the Life of Theseus, as has been done, though with no very great show of probability, we must then assume the dramatist to have known North’s book at a period probably antecedent to the appearance of the second edition. The question is of little import.

There seems on other grounds every reason to prefer the text of the editio princeps, which in practically all cases of difference offers an older and apparently more authentic read ing than the version of 1595. As has been said, we have no evidence that North was personally responsible for any of the changes in the second edition.

Short Stories by Selected Women Writers

An Undergraduate Thesis
Presented to the Faculty of the
College of Arts and Sciences
University of Southeastern Philippines
Bo. Obrero, Davao City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirments for the Degree
Of Bachelor of Arts in Literature

Cheah Kaye Rosales
Charisma J. Tabingo

October 2013

ABSTRACT
ROSALES, CHEAH KAYE and TABINGO, CHARISMA J., University of Southeastern Philippines, Davao City, “Short Stories by Selected Women Writers”

Adviser: Prof. Dayenne Sipaco
This study was conducted to determine the usual Form of the five short stories. It is also analyzed the events and character’s situation in the story. The Formalistic Approach was used in the study. The study found that the writings of the five authors Kerima Polotan Tuvera, Aida Rivera Ford and Irish Shiela Crisostomo show their great knowledge of the Philippine history. This study was conducted through the use of Formalistic Approach. The researchers gathered all five short stories by selected women writers and read the story, analyzed and studied. The researchers use the formalistic approach to analyze the form of the study. We choose form for easy to make the structure of this study. Furtheremore, this study analyze the elements used in Kerima Polotan-Tuvera’s The Virgin and A House Full of Daughters, Aida Rivera-Ford’s Love in the Cornhusk and The chieftest Mourner and Iris Shiela G. Crosostomo’s The Steel Brassiere. The chapter 1 included the problem and its setting.

It is also include the statement of the problem, the significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study and definition of thr elements used. The chapter 2 discusses the review of related literature and studies, the plot summary and the author’s biographies and the approach used in the study. Theoretical and conceptual framework was also included. In the chapter 3, the research design, research instrument, research process and research locale are also included in this chapter. Presentation, analysis and interpretation which employed formalistic approach were in chapter 4. The summary, conclusion and recommendation were also shown in chapter 5. The tables of the five short stories are in the appendices including the elements used in this study.

APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Bachelor of Arts in literature, thesis entitled “Short Stories by Selected Women Writers” prepared and submitted by Cheah Kaye Rosales and Charisma J. Tabingo, is hereby recommended for approval and acceptance.

Prof. Dayenne Sipaco

Adviser

Approved by the Committee on Oral Defense with a grade of _______.

DR. MA. RITA C. TUBAN DR. PATRICIA O. ELBANBUENA

Panelist Panelist

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Bachelor of Arts in Literature.

DR. MILAGROS D. ARQUILLANO DR. EVEYTH P. DELIGERO Director, Evening Program Dean, College of Arts and Sciences

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to thank the following individuals who helped a lot in making this research and study:

Prof. Dayenne Sipaco, ourv adviser, thank you for helping us to make and finish this study, thank you for your understanding, patience and criticism.

To our panel members, Dr. Ma. Rita C. Tuban and Dr. Patricia O. Elbanbuena, thank you for your patience, understanding and giving us a good idea in this study.

To our parents, thank you for the support in financial and moral support. Thank you for the encouragement and prayers. And most especially to our almighty God, thank you for giving us a strenght, guidance, knowledge and good health to finish this study.

C.K.R and C.J.T

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Declaration of Originality ……………………………………………….. i Title Page ……………………………………………… ii Abstract……………………………………………… iii Approval Sheet………………………………………………. v Acknowledgement ………………………………………………. vi Table of Contents ………………………………………………. vii List of Tables ………………………………………………. x List of Figures ………………………………………………. xi

Chapter
1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING ………………………… 1 Statement of the Problem ……………………….. Significance of the Study ……………………….. Scope and Limitation ……………………….. Definition of Terms ……………………….. 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature ………………………… Plot Summary ………………………… Related Studies ………………………… Testimonies on The Virgin ………………………… Testimonies on A House Full of Daughters ……………………. Testimonies on Love in the Cornhusk ………………………… Testimonies on The Chieftest Mourner ………………………… Testimonies on The Steel Brassiere ………………………… Formalistic Approach ………………………… Conceptual Framework ………………………… 3. METHOD

Research Design ………………………… Research Instrument ………………………… Research Locale …………………………
Research Procedure ………………………… 4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION OF DATA …………………………. Form and Content …………………………. Elements …………………………. Similarities and Differences of the Short Stories …………….. Analysis Data …………………………. 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ……. Summary …………………………. Conclusion …………………………. Recommendation …………………………. APPENDICES

Appendix A Table
The Virgin …………………………. A House Full of Daughters ………………………….. Love in the Cornhusk …………………………. The Chieftest Mourner …………………………. The Steel Brassiere ………………………….. The Five Short Stories

The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera………………………. A House Full of Daughters by Kerime Polotan-Tuvera……… Love in the Cornhusk by Aida Rivera-Ford………………….. The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera Ford………………… The Steel Brassiere by Iris Shiela G. Crisostomo…………… BIBLIOGRAPHY

CURRICULUM VITAE

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Conceptual Framework …………………………… 1.2 Plot Structure ……………………………

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Literature is the art of written work and can, in some circumstances, refer exclusively to published sources. The word literature literally means “things made from letters” and the pars pro toto term “letters” is sometimes used to signify “literature,” as in the figures of speech “arts and letters” and “man of letters”. A short story is a brief work literature, usually written in narrative prose. In so doing, short stories make use of plot, resonance and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques. In Philippines, the most notable literature was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. It includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines.

The history of Filipino women writers is an account of how they became literary “mistresses of the ink” and “lady pen-pushers” who created works of fiction or factual and historical storybooks, poetry, novels, short stories, essays, biographies, autobiographies and other known writing genres. Writing in English, Spanish, Filipino and other languages, female writers from the archipelago utilized literature, in contrast with the oral tradition of the past, as the living voices of their personal experiences, thoughts, consciousness, concepts of themselves, society, politics, Philippines and world history. The problem that the researchers have noticed that some of us have poor in writing skills especially the college students nowadays.

The proponents believe that proper use of elements, which are the main ingredients in writing prowess of the students. There are many subjects that focus on the proper way of writing. Some students do not develop their writing skills. These problem result to a bigger issue which is the lesser Filipino authored books being published and read in the country today. The need to address the issue is the reason for conducting this research which aims to help future Filipino writers how to use properly the elements in writing. With the use of Formalistic Approach the researchers study the novels and how the authors used the elements in achieving the form of their stories to impart these to the future Filipino writers.

The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera is a story about Miss Mijares, the stereotypical uptight, conventional, old fashioned and strict spinster. For a long time, she’s been living in a routine life. When she met the guy, she’s attracted to him because he doesn’t “fear” her. She loses herself when she’s with him, but not completely. The symbolism of her getting lost literally is the way she feels with the guy. She is trudging on to a wholly different and new experience. She finds herself caring for the man – a subordinate – but she didn’t care. When she found out that he has a son, she felt betrayed – her feelings betrayed. This is what she is getting into – not all of the things are in her control. In the end, she let’s go of all her inhibitions. A House Full of Daughters also by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera is a story about a mother who has seven daughters, and realizes that it’s not about something to give wealthiest to her children, but what matters most how good motherhood she gives in order to make them good daughters. Love in the Cornhusk by Aida Rivera-Ford is another kind of love story.

But the ending is not like the other love story that they live happily ever after in the end. In this story, they’re love did not last till the end. The girl marries someone instead of the guy that she loves. The story shows that “true love waits”. The Chieftest Mourner also by Aida Rivera-Ford is a story of “another woman”. Even if the Legal wife did suffer with her husband while they are together, it’s not her, who helped the narrator’s Uncle when he was in his lowest moment of his life. And it was the other woman who did a great sacrifice for the uncle and she mourned greatly upon his death. But it is not advisable that young women or woman should be “The other woman” because as far as society is concerned, it is a sin.

The researchers decided to conduct this study because The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera, Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo are all written by Philippine women writers. Since formalistic approach, often referred to as the New Criticism, it assumes that a work of literary art is an organic unity in which every element contributes to the total meaning of a work. The proponents of this study chose five short stories that would represent the attention of the readers to look for different structural relationships and patterns not just in words and their relationships but also in larger units such as the short stories of the different women writers in structuring the plot, the setting including its actual place and time and its ambience, point of view, theme and language that may contribute to the uniqueness of each work.

Statement of the Problem
This study was intended at investigating, understanding and evaluating the similarities and differences in the relationship of various formal elements of a text to make up a whole in the short stories by the women writers through formalistic approach. Moreover, the study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the form of the selected short stories?

a. Setting
b. Characterization
c. Plot Structure
d. Point of view
e. Theme
2. What are the short stories similarities and differences in terms of form? Significance of the Study
The study is intended to benefit the following:

Students. The study may assist mainly the literature majors as they expand their awareness of the application of formalistic approach that will further enhance their positive response to the world of literature. College of Arts and Sciences. This study may enhance the teaching approach in literature. The study may uphold supplementary learning in reading short stories. This study undergoes numerous processes to come up with a factual and reliable result. Therefore, learning in this case can be more interesting and it will help them to dig deeper their understanding of the work. Literature Curriculum.

The study may help to understand fully how a work of an art is analyzed using a specific approach, particularly formalism. These may help improve the current stragedy used in literary criticism. Through this, there will be improvement in critical analysis and making a short story. Being good in literary criticism will help to have better analysis in studying literary works. Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study explored the different structural patterns, as well as understanding the forms which the five short stories are portrayed through an analysis of characters, plot, setting, point of view, style and tone. This study was limited to the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera, Love in the Cornhusk and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo. Definition of Terms

The following are operationally defined according to how they are used in this study. Short Story. A short story is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose. Chieftest Mourner. Who suffered most, the mistress or second wife; because the second wife wants to prove to the poet’s family that she has a great right to the dead body of the poet rather than the legal wife. Point of View. Author’s decision about who is to tell the story and how it is to be told. Plot. The arrangement of events that make up a story. For a plot to be effective, it must include a sequence of incidents that bear a significant causal relationship to each other. Setting. The time and place of the action in a story, poem, or play. Theme. A story’s theme is its idea or point.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter contains related literature and studies, plot summary of the five short stories, review of related studies, formalistic approach and the biographies of the three Filipino women writers. The review of related literature contains the information about the story, the person behind their situation and the reviews about them. These studies discuss about the characters and their personalities. Formalistic Approach

The twentieth century formalistic approach, often referred to as the new criticism assumes that a work of literary art is an organic unity in which every element contributes to the total meaning of the work. This approach is as old as literary criticism itself, but it was developed in the twentieth century by John Crowe Ransom (1884-1974), Allen Tate (1899-1979), T.S Elliot (1888-1965) and others. The formalist critic embraces an objective theory of art and examines plot, characterization, dialogue and style to show how elements contribute to the theme or unity of the literary work. Moral, historical, psychological and sociological concerns are considered extrinsic to criticism and of secondary importance to the examination of craftsmanship and form. Content and form in a work constitute a unity, and it is the task of the critic to examine and evaluate the integrity of the work. Paradox, irony, dynamic tension and unity are the primary values of formalist criticism.

The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. Formalism has the advantage of forcing writers to evaluate a work on its own terms rather than to rely “accepted” notions of the writer’s work. Formalism is intrinsic literary criticism because it does not require of any body of knowledge besides literature. Formalistic Approach first step in explaining the literary work is to discover what the words actually mean in their full denotative and connotative value. The object of formalistic criticism is to find the key to the structure and meaning of the literary work. Related Literature

This part includes the summary of the five short stories to give the readers a brief picture of the story. Author’s biographies of The Virgin, A House Full of Daughters, Love in the Cornhusk, The Chieftest Mourner and The Steel Brassiere are also included so as to give the readers an information about their lives and inspirations. The Formalist Approach which is used by the proponents is also discussed to let the readers understand how the research is being conducted. Finally the reviews about the stories are also found in this chapter to give the readers a glimpse and idea on the feedbacks of the people who have read it. Plot Summary

The Virgin is a story is about a woman named Miss Mijares, she doesn’t look like 34. She was slight, almost bony but she had learned how to dress herself to achieve those shapes of her hips and bosom. She had pushed against the bed in grief and also in gratitude and thought that neither love nor glory stood behind her, only the empty shadows. Alone the room with her unburied dead, she had held up her hands to the light, noting the thick durable fingers, thinking in a mixture of shame and bitterness and guilt that she had never touched a man. She met a jobseeker man, applying to her in their woodcraft section. They had talked along with the interview, and the man told her that he wasn’t married. She was often down at the shanty that housed their bureau’s woodcraft, talking with Ato, his foreman, going over to him with the list of old hands due to release. They hired their men on a rotation basis and three months was the longest one could stay.

The new hand was absent for a week, Miss Mijares waited on that Tuesday he first failed to report for some reasons. Until, Miss Mijares got angry when she knew that the man lied to him that he wasn’t married. It rained that afternoon in one of the city’s fierce, unexpected thunder storms. Without warning, it seemed to shine outside Miss Mijares’ window a gray, unhappy look. And the man calls her and apologized to her about why he lied. Up and down the empty, rain –beaten street she looked. It was as though that all at once everyone else had died and they were in the world, alone. In her secret heart, Miss Mijares’ young dreams fluttered faintly to life, seeming monstrous in the rain, near this man, seeming monstrous but sweet overwhelming.

She wanted to go away from him but he had moved and brushed against her and where his touch had fallen, her flesh leaped, and she recalled how his hands had looked that first day, lain tenderly on the edge of her desk and about the wooden bird, in the dark she turned to him. A House Full of Daughters is a story about a mother who has seven daughters. She thought, sooner maybe she could have seven dowries or seven beauty parlors. She has a house full of seven young women, a veritable avalanche of femaleness. For her, there is some guilt in one’s motherhood, remembering with what heartbreak each daughter had come because one had wanted sons instead. Her friends told her how lucky and blessed she was. She often burst into tears and they thought she cried from joy. But she’s not one of those mothers keeping a score of what exactly the baby has to give, like nice clothes, jewelry, fun and good times. She has a friend, that she can say a complete mother, beautiful in her pregnancy, beautiful in her motherhood. Her friend has a way of wearing maternity dresses that looks her elegant. She never ate sweets, keeping strictly to juices and veggies, in short, she is a correct mother. But suddenly, her friend ran out of nowhere with another man and left those beautifully-tended babies.

There is no moral here, but she suspected she would have stayed if she did allowed her herself, with saving humor, the luxury of some mistakes. Her daughters are transferring their idolatry from movie actresses and pop singers to their schoolteachers and real-life friends, but they are mildy hostile to those who strain their accents. She has caught one daughter, fifteen, stock-still on the cemented walk, arrested on her way home late afternoon by sounds she no longer hear. When they met for supper that night, she seemed different, she couldn’t say a thing, so secretive and sad and her heart constricted because she knew that her daughter had a long way to go. If all that she has given a daughter is a mere correctness, not rightness, mere form, not substance. If she distill motherhood of nearly twenty years, that just about sums up all she taught them. Only because she doesn’t want them accomplished such a thing but wanting it to be an experience for them. It is a miracle to her life that her daughters learned love from her, who wasn’t always able to give it, she who wanted only the beginning to survive their number. They lived in a large musty house canopied by ancient trees and they fight daily over the bathroom, seven young women and this she sow, but in gay confusion, they keep their good relationship.

Love in the Cornhusk. Is a story about Tinang, she visits her former master, Señora, whom she was working for before she got married. While carrying her baby boy, she walks through the entrance of the house of her former Señora and meet his former young master, Tito, and the Señora. Upon getting inside the house, Señora asks her some questions how her married life is together with his Bagobo husband and also how is it to be a mother of a baby boy. Their conversation continues and they reach to the point of talking about the tractor drivers of Señora, especially the one who was good, Amado. After that, Tinang finally tells her former Señora about her intention of being there. The baptism of her baby is about to come and she wants Señora to be a Madrina or a Ninang to her child. The relationship between Tinang and her former Señora with her family remains good. And so, Señora hastily agreed to be so and yet wants to provide baptismal clothes for the baby and the fee for the Priest. Before she left from Señora’s house, she was told by her that there is a letter for her in the drugstore, which also serves as the post office of the barrio. By that moment, she thought that someone might be dead or maybe that letter comes from her sister.

So she hurriedly takes her way home and passes by that drugstore to get the letter. As she continues walking in a muddy road to her way home, she tries to look for a place where she could lay down her baby, hoping that she could read the letter before she arrives home. Finally, she finds a good place where she can stop for a while. There is a Kamansi tree and under of it are scattered cornhusks. So, she prepares a heap of it using her foot and laid her baby upon it. Then, she starts reading the letter. After doing so, she finds out that the letter is a love letter, her first love letter, which comes from Amado, her boyfriend, saying that he does not want to break up with her when he left from the field of Señora without telling the reason why he did so. Time cannot be back anymore. It is already too late that she discovers that Amado still loves her.

However, she was not informed that his mother’s worst illness made him gone for some time. Instead, Tinang marry a Bagobo man, whom owns 2 hectares of land. After all, what she does is only to remember her past with Amado until the time comes when she has to leave upon noticing that a snake is sneaking towards her baby boy. In the end, she leaves the place without noticing that her first love letter fell down among the cornhusks. The Chieftest Mourner. Is a story about narrator’s uncle, husband of her Aunt Sophia is said to be dead. He was the last of a distinct school of Philippine poets and a handsome man. But, he was living with another woman, she brazenly followed his Uncle everywhere calling herself his wife, a confusing situation ensued. When people mentioned Uncle’s wife, there was no way of knowing whether her Aunt Sophia or to the woman. The narrator was puzzling over who was to be the official widow at his funeral when word came that it was her, the narrator to keep Aunt Sophia’s company at the little chapel and there were only a few people present. There were two women, each taking possession of her portion of the chapel just as though stakes had been laid, seemingly unmindful of each other, yet revealing by this studied disregard that each was very much aware of the other.

Her Uncle’s clan certainly made a short work of her Aunt and when she returned, her Aunt is sobbing. As though as to comfort her, one of the women said, in a whisper from the door, that the president himself was expected to come in the afternoon. Meanwhile, the woman spoke in whispers, and then the voices raised a trifle. Still, everybody is polite. There was no more talking back and forth and the suddenly the conversation wasn’t polite anymore. The woman strikes, and angry talked to the clan. After her strike to the clan, Aunt Sophia wants to stop her by pleasing her clan. After all, the entire woman’s face became livid with shock and rage. She stood wordless, her face began to twitch and then the sobs came and she tell them they can have the dead body and she left the burial after. The Steel Brassiere is a about a wife and her Tiya Anding’s steel bra.

Her Tiya Anding was a friend who had no living relatives. When she died, her house and the 300-square-meter lot reverted to the government. With the impending demolition, she had hastily driven to that humble abode hoping to save a few memories of a past life. One of the queerest things she recovered from the pile of old clothes was an old bra. It wasn’t fit for any young lady’s breasts because it was made not of soft cotton or lace but of cold and hard metal. The bra looked like pointed armor ready to deflect an ax or a lance from the enemy–a sure protection for the delicate female flesh underneath. She remembered Madonna in her skimpy get-ups, net stockings and all, her tits in similar, pointed cones. After while, the cold of the metal against her skin produced a strange feeling. The bra properly belonged to an ancient warrior princess yet she felt she was too weak to fight her own bottles. She had married to Lindoln for eight years but it felt like she had been living with a stranger. Lindoln was a good provider, the sales manager of a pharmaceutical company that paid well. He gave her wife a big house with a lush garden, a dutiful maid and an excellent cook.

There was nothing more to ask but she felt she really had nothing. She took her children to the park. Later in the afternoon, they wandered through the playground and spent time pushing one another in a swing. Twin metal chains fastened the swing to a horizontal steel bar and once again the fell of the cold steel between her fingers made her think of her Tiya Anding’s breast armor. The rain was now falling harder and she was dripping wet. Trotting to the car with the children and they run to the parking lot. As expected, the children came down with a cold and Lindoln kept her wife up all night with his how to be a good mother lectures. He barked then crept into bed with his back turned to her. She lay awake for what seemed like an hour before she heard a faint snored. Then she went to the balcony for some air. She wanted to cry.

She wanted to scream. She wanted to laugh if it would help. She remembered her Tiya Anding. After lunch, she helped the maid get the laundry from the clothesline. After a few minutes under the hot midday sun, she went back inside to the kitchen for a cold glass of water. The feel of the cold pitcher in her hand made her think of the cold metal she once wore against her breast. The feel of the steel brassiere was as comforting and reassuring as the ice water running down to her throat. The phone was ringing and it was Lindoln. Her husband told her that he’s friend Jimmy will be coming for dinner but the line was bad and she told her husband to call her again. But suddenly, when the phone rang again and again, she doesn’t put the phone up anymore. For her, the steel bra reminds her as her Tiya Anding’s words of comforting and reassuring. Review of Related Studies

In this part, the proponents include the critical analysis made on the five short stories. This is to make the readers understand the story deeply. In addition, the researchers aim to explain to the audience how and in what way the stories are being presented by its respective authors. This includes the studies related to the characters and events in the stories. Testimonies on The Virgin. In the book of The Virgin, Kerima Polotan-Tuvera showed her writing skills to the readers about womens personalities and situation. The story was created passionately and beautiful for women who have struggles about love. Based on the short story, the various personalities that the main character named Miss Mijares showcased were her stiff and aloof behavior wherein her superiority to herself makes her unfriendly and detached to other people. Also her attitude when it comes to dealing with people wherein she often humiliates them by asking them questions with regards to their standing in the society.

Moreover, her life was effusively based on caring for her ailing mother and putting to school her niece thus, her realization to herself when it comes to her own personal life such as love and marriage was eluded. Miss Mijares is a thirty-four-year-old woman who works at a job placement agency wherein her perspective in life has put her into a situation of helping first her family before herself. The major problems that Miss Mijares encountered in the story was the death of her mother wherein she mourned on that very day needing her mother’s flesh and struggling to keep herself strong which also changed her ideals in life which made her superiority as a women more resilient. Another problem that she encountered was confronting her emotions especially with her feelings to the new man at the carpentry shop wherein during the interview and application for the job, Miss Mijares shows a bossy or arrogant kind of personality towards the guy, furthermore she was unwittingly drawn to the man especially during the time that both of them were stranded on an unknown street because of heavy rain and Miss Mijares driven by her feeling and emotions to the guy allowed herself to the invitation of the man.

Testimonies on A House Full of Daughters. Another short story of Kerima Polotan-Tuvera that she created the story as inspiration for the women and especially to those who work so hard to raise their children. The story was creative and beautiful that Kerima was using a female character or the narrator of the story to show how motherhood is important. According to the story, “the fatal error of most women is to let motherhood smother them to be so sold on its high mission and incalculable purpose, as to think that there is nothing more afterward. Daughters outgrow their daughterhood and when that happens, what have you got but old teething rings and some vague memories?” Certainly, the narrator of the story showed her side to the readers that a motherhood means new dimensions, a new level of pain, another depth of heartbreak, a truer height of joy, but rightly or wrongly, she fight against having her daughters loom so large in her life that the other people drown her.

She struggled for air and as a consequence broke many of the rules. We can tell that the narrator of the story is Kerima Tuvera, as she portrays the story, there might be connected to her or maybe she encountered other woman like the narrator or maybe she have experience with it. Kerima was using her creative skills that she write this story to express her side to the readers that being like her as a mother has a big purpose and important. Aside in the story, the narrator has a friend, a complete mother, a beautiful motherhood, which ran away with her man and leaves her good husband and her beautiful babies. Kerima wants to know the readers that why this complete mother runs away with her man? It’s because she’s afraid of her responsibilities from her husband and her children? In short, this complete mother wants to leave her responsibilities.

The story was simple yet it has a moral lesson for those women who afraid of their responsibilities and for those who leave their responsibilities. “There is a world beyond the one circumscribed by pungent blankets and damp rubber sheets, and the young mother must sneak off to reassure herself of its herself of her existence so that she might return, strong enough for her other, more immediate universe.” Testimonies on Love in the Cornhusk. Aida Rivera-Ford has lived with her husband in their large farm in Davao. In connection to this, the short story of Love in the Cornhusks is somehow related with her life like its barrio setting and the characteristics of the Characters as well. Perhaps, the main character is a woman based on the fact that the writer of this short story is a woman too. The story is very simple, easy to understand and yet realistic. It begins in a situation where the main character, Tinang, starts her day as she visits her Señora with a good vibe that shifted to a different one lately. With a little similarity with the Telenovelas shown in television, this story shows that a lowly one, a nanny and a barrio girl, can be its main character, whom is experiencing twists in her life. However, she did not experience some kinds of abuses nor having an enemy in her life because the story is stressing not on these matters but on how decisions a person does could affect his or her entire life.

The author made the life of Tinang centered between two men. The Bagobo, her husband and Amado do not speak in the story but they are characterized differently with each other. It appears that her husband, the Bagobo, is a simple man, whom is satisfied of being a farmer with the two hectares of land for his family. On one hand, Amado, the one she loved before her husband, is portrayed as a tractor driver, whom wears formal clothes every Saturday and a yet man who gives importance to his future as he wants to study mechanical engineering someday. Marrying is not a joke and to marry the bagobo is not just a coincidence in Tinan’s life but it is her decision when she did so, even if she did not know yet the reason why Amado had suddenly gone. The last part of the story has some symbolic figures. Tinang still loves Amado even after she got married to her husband. Reading the letter is a moment when Tinang’s feeling for Amado has reawakened. To cry is the first thing she does, then, she tries to recollect her first experiences with him. A snake comes in the scene sneaking towards her baby.

That snake is the represent of such discovery and poses threat towards her relationship with her family. Why the snake is going to her baby? It is because that snake, if Tinang lets herself be taken by her emotion, can destroy her relationship with her Bagobo husband. Indeed, the snake is about to attack her son for he is the symbol and the fruit of the love that she and her husband shared together. In the end of the story, the author’s symbolisms are saying that Tinang chooses to accept the consequences in the decision she made in her life. First, she stands up from her sitting position telling that life must go on; then she embraced the baby telling that she has to embrace her own consequences and situations and especially the people whom God has given to her; next, she prayed and beg the almighty not to punish her after thinking other things outside from her married life saying that she realizes that her thoughts are wrong; afterwards, she checks the skin of the baby searching for some marks showing the possible scars in her married life after reincarnating the feelings she once had with Amado; and the last one, the letter fell unnoticed among the cornhusk saying that she leaves that momentum without knowing that her very strong feeling and longing to Amado, if is not totally gone yet, is at least eased and is left among the cornhusks, which is meant to be consider as only a part of her life. Testimonies on The Chieftest Mourner.

Testimonies on The Steel Brassiere.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
The Formalistic Approach stresses the close reading of the text and insists that all statements about the work be supported by references to the text. Formalistic Approach is used in this study to dig deeper in the elements. In the Formalistic Approach the data are presented, analyzed and interpreted. Formalism refers to critical approaches that analyze, interpret or evaluate inherent features of a text.

FORMALISTIC APPROACH

Setting
Characters
Point of View
Plot Structure
Exposition
Complication
Conflict
Climax
Resolution
Theme
Figure 1
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The Virgin and House Full of Daughters
by: Kerima Polotan-Tuvera

Love in the Conhusks and The Chieftest Mourner
by: Aida Rivera-Ford

The Steel Brassiere
by: Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo

In this study, wherein the proponents used formalistic approach, all elements mentioned must be taken to completely achieve the ideal form of a work of art. Provided by the information given in this chapter, this study produced an analysis using an approach applied to the five short stories and ignored the factors outside the text. This study used the formalistic approach that focused only in the internal elements that the five short stories contained.

Biographies
KerimaPolotan-Tuvera (December 16, 1925- August 19, 2011) was a Filipino author. She was a renowned and highly respected fictionist, essayist and journalists, with her works having received among the highest literary distinctions of the Philippines. Aida Rivera-Ford was born in Sulu. She crossed over to Negros Oriental in 1949 for an English degree at Siliman University. Records toast her as the first editor of Sands and Coral, the school’s literary folio. In 1954, she flew to the University of Michigan on a Fulbright grant to secure her master’s degree in English. Her work “Love in the Cornhusks” is one of five well-crafted stories for which Rivera-Ford won the Jules & Avery Hopwood Prize in Michigan. In 1955, the Sunday Chronicle’s This Week magazine featured the prize winning story, with illustration by RodDayao. From N.V.M Gonzales to Epifanio San Juan, critics were one in hailing the story with uncommon praise, citing its masterful subtlety but also its earnest vision- a rare case of art prevailing upon all creeds and manners of persuasion. Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo has a degree in communication arts from University of the Philippines at Los Banos. She is getting her MFA at Dela Salle University while working at the National Commission for Culture and Arts.

Chapter 3
METHOD
This chapter presents the method used in conducting the story. Research Design

The proponent’s uses descriptive method and they are now to present the data in a descriptive manner. It enabled the proponents to describe or present the picture of events under the investigation and analysis. The descriptive method of research was used for this study. The researchers focused in presenting the form used in the five short stories. The primary goal for formalistic approach is to determine how such elements work together with the text’s content to shape its effects upon readers. In this study, its intention is to study the elements such as setting, character, point of view, plot structure and theme. Research Instrument

This part shows how the researchers organize the data gathered. The elements of the five short stories are placed in the table. Setting, characters, point of view, plot structure such as exposition, complication, conflict, climax and resolution/denouement and theme.

SHORT STORIES
SETTING
CHARACTERS
POIN OF VIEW
PLOT STRUCTURE
(Exposition, Complication, Conflict, Climax and resolution or denouement THEME
The Virgin

A House Full of Daughters

Love in the Cornhusk

The Chieftest Mourner

The Steel Brassiere

RESEARCH LOCALE
This study was conducted within the USEP Campus, specifically at the CAS Learning Center and Library. Other supplementary information was gathered through the use of internet.

RESEARCH PROCESS

Initial background inquiry of the preparation and needed materials were done such as reading the primary sources (the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by K.P. Tuvera, Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by A.R. Ford and The Steel Brassiere by I.S. Crisostomo). The sources that came from the books (Handbook of Critical Approaches, etc.) and through Internet research are used as secondary sources. RESEARCH PROCEDURE

The proponents for this study begin the research by selecting the five short stories by different female authors that interest them the most and are they had to be worthy of the investigation. When the primary sources (the short stories) are at hand, the proponents started to read, analyze and interpret the works to examine what approach was suitable to be applied. The proponents picked out an issue that needed explorations and further study from the short stories and they were able to identify the similarities and differences in the stories through the elements of the plot, setting, characters, theme and point of view.

To gain more ideas and information that would support the study, the proponents will also accessed the secondary sources from the internet and they made use of thesis as references found in the University Library and CAS Learning Research Center. When the data and information had been gathered, the proponents organized them in meaningful pieces of information. Here, the ability of the proponents in matching the information was related to how the research was tested. After the paper was organized, the proponents ended by presenting the conclusion with all the evidences and proofs that would support the research mentioned.

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This section contains the gathered information of the researchers in the subject of the study. It also includes the analysis and interpretation of data. Form and Content of the Short Stories

Table 1. It is the content of the short stories The Virgin and House Full of Daughters by KerimaPolotan-Tuvera, Love in the Cornhusks and The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera-Ford and The Steel Brassiere by Iris Sheila G. Crisostomo. The content includes the setting that determines the time and place of the short stories, characters, plot with its parts: exposition, complication, conflict, climax, resolution and denouement. The other element is the point of view which identifies how the short stories are told. Lastly, the theme, which is the central idea of the story that will serve as a message to the readers.

The Virgin
The story of The Virgin is set in the office of Miss Mijares. She is the main character in the story, a single, not look 34 and not exactly an ugly woman, she was no beauty and she did think of love. “She had gone through all these with singular patience, for it had so her that love stood behineemed d her, biding her time, a quiet hand upon her shoulder…” The story was told in a third person limited where in the narrator only tells the story and focuses to the protagonist. The exposition includes the background information about the main character, about her life, the people outside her and their attitude toward her.

The story starts in a protagonist, Miss Mijares where she interviews her applicants in her office. She went to the cafeteria and went back to her office after. When she talked with the jobless across her desk, asking them the damning questions that completed their humiliation, watching pale tongues run over dry lips, dirt crusted handkerchiefs flutter in trembling hands, she was filled with an impatience she could not understand. “Sign here, she had said thousands of times, pushing the familiar form across, her finger held to a line, feeling the impatience grow at sight of the man or woman tracing a wavering X or laying the impress of a thumb” The complication is when Miss Mijares interview the man, one of her applicants also. When she returned to the bleak replacement office, the man stood by window, his back to her, half-bending over something he held in his hands. “In his hands, he held her paperweight, an old gift from long ago.

He had turned it and with the knife tightened the screws and dusted it. In this man’s hands, cupped like that, it look suddenly like a dove” Miss Mijares is denying herself about her feelings to the man and this man wills never her love. But when the man was absent for a week, Miss Mijares waited on that Tuesday he first failed to report for some word from him, in the absence of a definite notice, someone else who needed a job badly was kept away from it. “I went to the province, ma’am, he said, on his return. You could have sent someone to tell us, she said. It was an emergency, ma’am, my son died, he said How so? She asked. A slow bitter anger began to from inside her. But you said you were not married! she said, No ma’am, he said gesturing. And she asked him loudly, are you married? And the man said, No ma’am. She asked again, but you have…you have a son! And the man replied, I am not married to his mother, he said grinning stupidly.

A flush had climbed to his face, suffusing it, and two large throbbing veins crawled along his temples. Miss Mijares looked away, sick all at once. “You should have told us everything, she said and she put forth hands to restrain her anger but it slipped away she stood shaking despite herself. Your lives are our business here, she shouted.”

The story ends in that day, it rained that afternoon in one of the city’s fierce, unexpected thunder storms. Without warning, it seemed to shine outside Miss MIjares window a gray, unhappy look. It was past six when Miss Mijares, ventured outside the office. Night had come swiftly and from the dark sky the thick, black, rainy curtain continues to fall.