Assessment task – SHC 21 Introduction to communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings

Communication is about making contact with others and being understood. When communicating, folks send and receive messages repeatedly. As an early years practitioner working with children and younger people, effective communication is important to make sure that I can create the best provision for the youngsters and young individuals I am work with. In my setting, whenever you have a look at all of the interacting and communications between youngsters, young people and adults via the actions, it shows there are such a lot of reasons why individuals communicate.

Making relationships

When we talk, we make new relationships with youngsters, parents, carers or colleagues. I should use constructive communication skills to make a good first impression in relationships, for example, being friendly, smiling, shaking arms once I greet the particular person. Developing relationships

As an early years practitioner, I ought to develop a relationship with youngsters, younger people, their dad and mom, carers and colleagues by sustaining a friendly and supportive method and by being interested in what other people are doing and feeling.

This enables them to feel comfortable and safe, figuring out that they’ll trust and depend on my skilled service. Obtaining and sharing information

As an early years practitioner, I may have to obtain and share details about youngsters and young people who I work for with colleagues and other companies to ensure the staff is fully informed. I additionally want to communicate with children and young individuals or their relations concerning the care and support they acquired or about the sorts of providers and facilities which would possibly be available in our setting.

Expressing ideas and ideas

I might have to speak with my colleagues to share my ideas and concepts about features of follow in my setting, and also I should use efficient communication abilities to encourage children and young individuals to talk about what they have learnt, say what they think or categorical themselves imaginatively. Giving and receiving support

Children and young people typically seek reassurance from adults as a means of creating their self- confidence. As a practitioner, I should use my constructive communication skill to reward them, give them time and a spotlight to reward their efforts and achievements. I also ought to communicate with my supervisor and colleagues to obtain the assist and reassurance about my work efficiency. Expressing emotions, wishes, wants and preferences

As an early years practitioner, I need use my positive communication expertise to encourage children and younger individuals to express their emotions and wishes and to speak about how they wish to be treated, in addition to to say what they like and dislike. In the early years setting, there are so many reasons individuals talk, I should use communication talent positively and effectively to make sure good quality service.

Are young people feel to being too protected

Parents often consider that it is higher to be secure than sorry. Do you consider young people to be too protected?

Whenever you come across the word “childhood”, you presumably can sense the liberty to do everything, you probably can see yourself on all smiles and even you can keep in mind the foolish things you’ve carried out with your friends when you were younger which might make induce a way of humour till now. Well not anymore. In today’s world, dad and mom prevent them from letting them go out and enterprise, they do not enable their youngsters to do actions and lastly solving their children’s personal problem.

Nowadays, helicopter mother and father do not enable their baby to go out and enterprise the world. Helicopter dad and mom don’t permit their youngsters to exit as they are afraid about their youngster being kidnapped. If this continued, kids would be immature and sad to say that they’d proceed to . To prove my level, a analysis was done by Cambridge University on the crime rate from ten years in the past until now.

The results tells us that crime price has decreased by a whopping 86.81%. On the contrary, some critics may argue that children are immature, thus they’re unprepared to face the world. But that is part of life, studying ought to never be obstructed and the more skilled they’re, the more experienced they are going to be. Ernest Dimnet once mentioned that, “Children should be educated, but they have additionally to be left to coach themselves.”. Therefore, this brings to me to my point that oldsters are overprotective.

In today’s world, it’s a widespread sight to see helicopter parents stopping their youngster to do activities similar to cycling, skating or even walking to school. They are chained to their residence making children prisoners in their very own properties. This is as a end result of they’re afraid that their child might contract something “disastrous” corresponding to fever, minor injuries. Research performed by Cambridge University tells us that kids ten years in the past have 65% lesser kids affected by obesity than youngsters now. This is due to mother and father not permitting their baby exercise.

If this continued, children will get obese and will get long run medical conditions similar to High blood pressure. On the other hand, parents could argue by not allowing their kids, they will forestall their youngsters from being kidnapped by con man. This is identical worry as soon as Lenore Skenazy, author of free vary youngsters and America’s Worst Mom, had this same downside when she let her 9 year old to take the subway. But quickly it has paid off when her son returned home all smiles. Therefore, this tells that youngsters are overprotected.

Lastly, a research accomplished by National University of Singapore tells us that a whopping 78.69% of kids, between the age of 10 to 15, who participated in the research lacks primary problem fixing abilities and a majority of kids are brought up by helicopter dad and mom. Nowadays, children share their issues to their parents, soon their parents shall be worried and they’ll handle their issues. Because of that, kids lack problem fixing expertise and turn into extra reliant to their dad and mom. On the opposite side of the coin, some critics could argue that youngsters can decide up downside solving abilities by attending courses or go for counselling. But which youngsters will be involved to attend courses or go for counselling, and also a well-known creator, Paulo Coelho, once stated that “People by no means study anything by being told, they have to find out for themselves.”. Thus, this could inform us that younger persons are overprotected.

To oppose this point, some critics could argue that kids are naive and gullible. They make decisions with out analysing the aftermath of it. Afraid of that, dad and mom prevent their youngsters from making decisions. To illustrate this point, here is an situation. Imagine your 15 12 months old daughter was proposed by a guy. Being in a dilemma whether to just accept or not, she follows her instinct and accepts his proposal. So with out you figuring out she has been hanging out with her “life partner”. Then in the future, she comes at your doorsteps, crying and limping at the similar time. Then she tells you what had happened. Then you got here to know that she obtained raped by the guy she had proposed with out you knowing. There goes her virginity. There goes your delight. There goes your faith. There goes your daughter’s future.

You can’t rewind back into time to stop this. And there you are now feeling that you simply have been a ineffective mother or father to your daughter. Back to my level, to stop this kinds of problem, parents should efficient communication with their children and after they have accomplished something wrong, you must advise them on what they should do to forestall the situation to occur once more, rather than yelling and abusing them which would not convey any solution to the problem however making the problem even worse. In this manner, we may forestall being an overprotective mother or father and establish a bond something greater than a Parent-Child relationship.

Before I end off my essay, let me tell you my opinion about this topic. Parents do show more care and compassion to their kids than anyone could do. Due to that, dad and mom tends to become over protective and so they purpose to let their baby have a stress-free life. But the issue is that with the purpose of theirs, their kids are being over protected. Thus, their children turns into immature, changing into much less assured to resolve their own issues and lastly turning into less experienced. Thus, I can firmly conclude that young people are being overprotected!

Analysis “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne

I always discover myself drawn to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s stories, significantly his short-short ‘Young Goodman Brown’. Hawthorne’s use of allegory and symbolism retains me coming again for extra. I discover how influential Nathaniel Hawthorne was in early American Literature fascinating. The way he is ready to dig deep into the morality of man is awing. Common allegories present in ‘Young Goodman Brown’ are the fall of man, lack of innocence, destructing of mankind, and sin.

‘Young Goodman Brown’ follows the story of newlywed Goodman Brown and his wife Faith and fellow Salem residents.

Three months into their marriage Goodman Brown sets off on a journey into the forest. Because of the Puritan’s strict beliefs, they usually believed that the forest was a lawless place cursed by sin; where savages, beast, and the Devil himself lives. This, nonetheless, doesn’t cease Goodman Brown from ignoring his wives pleads to stay home along with her, and he ventures into the night on his non secular quest.

He walks within the woods pondering he might within stand the affect of the Devil and return a righteous individual stronger in his religion. Instead, he returns with troubling conflicting thoughts, never to belief anyone again. To live in constant worry of those closest to him. Goodman Brown underestimates the power of sin as he offers to its seduction. Only to reside out his days as a dark and hopeless man.

There are many tales, poems, films, television packages, songs even that display those that have given into the temptation of the Devil, but I can’t assist however consider ‘Over the Garden Wall’ a miniseries that air on Cartoon Network back in 2014.

This sequence takes place in a Puritan America setting in a world the place people, animals, and the supernatural coexist. The story follows two brothers Wirt and Greg as they journey via the labyrinth forest of the unknown to make it again home. They face many challenges from the towns and settlements along their journey.

The primary antagonist is the Beast, a Satanic figure, who corrupts those that have been led astray from the path with deception and offers. Throughout the series, he taunts Wirt into succumbing so hopelessness, finally succeeding after Wirt believes his brother is gone. Just like once Goodman Brown sees his beloved spouse fail to withstand the lure of the forest, he loses his faith and hope.

Allegory of Young Goodman Brown

The story, “Young Goodman Brown” by Nathaniel Hawthorne has a lot of allegories. It is a moral story that’s told through the corruption of a non secular individual. Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his pride and perception in himself interfere with his relations with the group after he meets with the satan, which causes him to stay the lifetime of not understanding who to trust or believe in his personal group. In the beginning when Faith, Brown’s wife, asks him not to go.

Brown says to her “My love and my Faith … this one night time I must tarry away from thee”. DiYanni 273) When he says his “love” and his “Faith”, he is talking to his spouse, however he’s additionally speaking to his “faith” to God.

He is headed into the woods to meet with the Devil, and by doing so he leaves his faith in God along with his wife. His delight made him feel that he can sin and meet with the Devil because of this promise that he made to himself.

This promise just isn’t without irony as a result of when Goodman Brown got here back he now not looks at his wife with the identical faith he had earlier than. When Brown left and met with the Devil, he declares that the rationale he was late was as a result of “Faith saved me again awhile. ( DiYanni 273) From speaking to the devil Brown says that he comes from a “race of honest men and good Christians” ( DiYanni 274) .

The Devil then pointed out his father and grandfather when they had been flogging a lady or burning an Indian village.

These words had been ironic due to the dangerous things that that they had done and it reveals that he does not come from “good Christians. ” ( DiYanni 274) The devil continued trying to convince Brown, however he did not give in because of his wife, “Faith”. And because of her, he couldn’t proceed.

The Devil agrees with him and tells him to show back to stop that “Faith ought to come to any harm” like the old woman in entrance of them on the path. ( DiYanni 274) The turning level of the story begins when Brown’s is confuse about his faith as a outcome of the lady on the path is the woman who “taught him his catechism in youth, and was still his moral and religious adviser. ” ( DiYanni 275) The Devil and the girl had spoken to each other, Brown continues to stroll on with the Devil in the disbelief of what he had just witnessed.

Brown once more decides that he will no longer continue and says that just because his teacher was not going to heaven, why ought to he “quit my dear Faith, and go after her”. ( DiYanni 275) The Devil tosses Brown his employees and leaves him. Brown begins to suppose to himself about his situation and his pride in himself begins to build. Brown is feeling good about his power in resisting the Devil, he see a carriage coming, and he hears the voices of the minister and Deacon Gookin. He overhears their dialog and hears them discuss about a “goodly young girl to be taken in to communion”! ( DiYanni 276) that night at that night’s meeting and fears that it could be his Faith. When he heard this he grew to become weak and fell to the bottom. He “begins to doubt whether or not there really was a Heaven above him” and this is a key point when his faith begins to deprave him. Once he begins to doubt whether or not that is actually what he had heard or not, the sound comes to him once more and this time it’s adopted by “one voice, of a younger woman”. ( DiYanni 277) He believed it was Faith and he yells out her name within the forest.

A pink ribbon flies by way of the air and he grabs it. At this second, he has lost all faith in the world “My Faith is gone” and was persuade that there have been “no good on earth. ” ( DiYanni 277) Brown was manipulated simply by his belief. Not solely was his spouse gone but additionally his faith, as a outcome of to him his wife was the only one who was innocent, but also now she was taken open by the evil within the city. At this level Brown had lost his faith in God, therefore there was nothing holding his instincts from transferring in the path of evil.

Brown then goes mad and challenges evil. He feels that he would be the downfall of evil and that he is robust sufficient to beat all of it. He believes that he’s better than everybody else in that he alone can destroy evil. He says this comment because he is upset concerning the misplaced or his spouse to evil. Throughout the story, Brown doesn’t show any emotions like a traditional person would have had. The creator exhibits that Brown has “no compassion for the weaknesses he sees in others, no remorse for his personal sin, and no sorrow for his loss of religion. (Easterly 339) This is an example of how Goodman Brown chose to comply with his head rather than his coronary heart. The “Young Goodman Brown” ends with Brown returning to Salem at early dawn and searching round like a “bewildered man. ” He can not believe that he’s in the identical place that he simply the night time earlier than.

Salem was no longer residence to him. He felt like an outsider in a world of Devil worshippers and because his “basic means of order, his spiritual system, is absent, the society he was conversant in turns into nightmarish. (Shear 545) He comes again to the city “projecting his guilt onto these around him. ” Brown reveals his anger in the path of the neighborhood when he sees Faith who’s overwhelmed with pleasure to see him and he appears “sternly and sadly into her face, and handed on with no greeting. ” ( DiYanni 280) Brown cannot even stand to take a look at his wife with whom he was at the convert service with. Goodman Brown was devastated by the invention that the potential for evil resides in all people. The rest of his life is destroyed due to he has to face the reality and live with it.

The story, which can have been a dream, and never an actual life occasion, created a lot of doubt in Brown’s thoughts that minimize him off from his fellow man and leaves him alone and depressed. So regardless of if it was a dream or not it had a large effect on him. His life ends alone and miserable because he was never in a position to have a look at himself and understand that what he believed had been everyone else’s faults had been his as nicely. His extreme delight in himself led to his isolation from the community. Brown was buried with “no hopeful verse upon his tombstone; for his dying hour was gloom. “

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

A review of the literary work by James Joyce, “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”, including a history of the creator.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is taken into account to be one of many best works of literature of all time. Herbert Gorman, an author from the early twentieth century, stated that “so profound and delightful and convincing a book is a part of the lasting literature of our age,” and with good cause.

The main character of the novel, Stephen Dedalus, is a posh and dynamic youth, and one who undergoes vast changes through the course of his life. The primary influences on him are household and religion. As his life passes, Stephens’ feelings towards these influences change drastically. Stephen’s household is essential to him. His father, Simon, plays a major function in his adolescence, and Stephen has nice respect for him.

However, there are cases when Stephen is angered by his fathers’ actions, and resents his statements. The growing money owed incurred by Simon lead to his son’s transferring to a day college. Stephens’ difficulties at his former academic institution are relayed by his father, a lot to the chagrin of the youthful Dedalus. Later within the novel, Stephen loses even more respect for his father as the familys’ money owed continue to grow and they are forced to move. Once, when the 2 males journey to sell of the household property, Simon returns to his former college and converses along with his former classmates.

Stephen is upset to pay attention to of his father’s wild conduct as a youth, and of his flirtatious nature. He begins to rebel against his strict upbringing, putting again at his familys’ conventional values and lifestyle. Religion is an ever present force in Stephen’s life. He attends a non secular college from an early age, and is a devout Roman Catholic. He has great reference for the clergymen at his school, and even fears the rector. As his life progresses, Stephen experiences nice feelings for ladies, and finally gives into his want when he encounters a prostitute in Dublin. From this level ahead, he views his life as an immoral one and makes many makes an attempt to appropriate it. He goes so far as to deprive all of his senses from any form of pleasure. While attending a religious retreat, Stephen takes all that he hears to heart. He believes that if he does not appropriate his methods, he might be banished to an eternity in Hell. Deciding that he must confess his immoral act, Stephen goes to a small parish the place he’s not identified. He begins to overcompensate for his sins, however to no avail. His sinful ways overcome his religious values, and Stephen decides to abandon his faith. He vows to change his life for the better, and begins finding out at a university. Here, his artistic nature surfaces, and Stephen embraces it. He explains his new theories to all who will listen, and decides to move away from Ireland and his repressed beliefs, and to a brand new lifetime of freedom. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a literary work that has many distinct elements concerned in it. The stylistic method of writing that Joyce makes use of is maybe the most notable of them. Not as quickly as within the novel are citation marks used, making it troublesome to evaluate where dialogue begins and ends. This actual fact, nonetheless, lends itself in the direction of the reader’s determination of what the author had in thoughts by using this type. In addition to this, the plot seems to have large gaps in it at points. The time frame of the story, in addition to the straightforward dedication of Stephen’s age, is difficult to understand throughout sure cases. Joyce may have utilized this to permit the reader to deliver a more private approach to the studying and understanding of the work. This, too, is an interesting facet of the novel. Many critics believe that Portrait is an autobiographical piece of fiction. Many similarities exist between the lives of Stephen and Joyce. The strong spiritual upbringing of those Irishmen, their monetary hardships, and the household life of each male is strikingly comparable. Each attended the identical faculties, underwent the identical mental development, and grew strongly hooked up to their creative interests. However many differences between their lives, it’s apparent that Joyce drew upon his own life when he created this work. Although Joyce was more of an athlete, extra extroverted, and regarded his peers as equals or superiors, Stephen’s life parallels his with an enormous deal of similitude. The personalities of Joyces’ associates have been modified, as have been the educational honors he was given, but the very fact nonetheless remains that the life of Stephen Dedalus and James Joyce are intertwined to a fantastic extent. On the entire, this novel was an apparent work of nice literary ability. The mastery with which it was written, and the questions it turns up within the reader’s personal thoughts, affirm the basic nature of Joyce’s writing. The occasions at which the story line is difficult to comply with are more than compensated for by the deep which means of this portrayal. The lifetime of Stephen represents the life of Joyce, and all his struggles to turn into whom he felt that he was meant to. It symbolizes an endeavor that everyone ought to take to coronary heart; when one believes in one thing for themselves, one ought to attempt to attain their objectives irrespective of the difficulties that they must overcome. The literary value of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is type of great. The genius with which it was written is expressed in that it calls for that the reader suppose. If the reader does not ponder the work, its immeasurable importance is misplaced. James Joyce’s objective in penning this piece of literature, appears to be in telling the story of his personal struggles and all of the hardships he was pressured to stay via. The great poverty that his family needed to endure, along with the tutorial and philosophical calls for that he put himself by way of, all contributed to his life and to this novel. The book is described by many as both a novel about an artist and a novel about development and schooling. It portrays the life of an artist, yet is solely one interpretation of the artist’s life. The very title of the work, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, brings this point across. The book is just that, a portrait, and one thing whose interpretation is left as a lot as the artist and the viewer. The novel relates the bodily and emotional growth that its protagonist Stephen Dedalus undergoes. Again, the title expresses this fact when it refers to Stephen as a young man. Although he’s bodily a young grownup (he is sixteen years old when he commits the sin of getting relations with a prostitute), he’s still a psychological baby. Much progress remains to be necessary for Stephen to actually turn into an grownup. Even within the concluding pages of the work, Stephen nonetheless regards himself as superior to others, and as being more necessary in his theories on life. James Joyce utilizes these aspects to allow the reader to believe what they might after reading his work. The theme of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is one that is close to both the novel’s primary character and to its writer. As a work of autobiographical fiction, this novel was written with the feelings and values of the creator at its center. The perception that one should strive for anything and every little thing that they consider in, regardless of the opposition, is the central concept that this work is predicated upon. Both Stephen and Joyce rebelled against the traditional religious values that every was brought up with, in addition to the significance of a powerful household. As younger males who had completed their education, Stephen and Joyce moved away to pursue their artistic and artistic skills, despite the actual fact that it meant departing from a lot of what they had always believed in. This thought is one that can be heeded by all who share unorthodox views. Despite the conflicts on could encounter, the distress one may feel during troublesome occasions, individuals should put their feelings ahead of those that may strive to quash their unpopular convictions. No individual or group should be allowed to change anothers’ values as a outcome of they’re unpopular. James Augustine Joyce was born on February 2, 1882, in Rathgar, Ireland. He was the oldest of ten youngsters, a big quantity for an Irish household of the time. In 1887, the Joyces moved to the Dublin suburb of Bray as a end result of mounting debts that Joyce’s father incurred. The next fall, James was enrolled at certainly one of Ireland’s premier boarding colleges, regardless of the family’s many monetary problems. In September of 1888, Joyce started studying at the Jesuit school for boys, Clongowes Wood College. His father had despatched him right here, realizing his son’s talents even at this early age. In the beginning, Joyce had difficulties adjusting to life away from house, but quickly turned socially and physically adapted to his new house. He started to excel in athletics, music, and academics, all of which was noticed by the priests that seemed over him. Upon returning house at Christmas that very same 12 months, Joyce found his family deeply affected by the demise of Charles Parnell, a proponent of Irish independence. James felt the influence of this incident as nicely, studying the sharp divisions between Church and state in his country. At this early age of ni
ne, Joyce wrote his first poem “Et Tu, Healy,” during which he condemned the actions of the person who contributed essentially the most to Parnell’s dying. Joyce soon discovered that he wouldn’t return to Clongowes, as his father had misplaced his job as tax collector for Dublin. However, he was capable of switch to a prestigious day school, Belvedere College, through connections that his father had made. In 1894, he traveled to Cork, Ireland, to promote the remaining belongings that his father nonetheless owned. The next yr, James joined the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and was elected as Solidality Prefect in 1896. This position, held by older college students, was certainly one of nice esteem, and Joyce was re-elected twice throughout his time at Belvedere. He graduated from the Day School in 1898, and shortly after, entered the University College of Dublin. While on the University, Joyce discovered that his unorthodox views on literature were not well-liked ones. His 1900 essay Drama and Life denounced Greek and Shakespearean works in favor of extra modern drama. His favorable review of an Ibsen play was met with much criticism, yet Joyce was not discouraged. He graduated from the college in December of 1902 with a level in trendy languages. It is claimed that he knew 17 completely different dialects in the course of the course of his life. Joyce moved to Paris, yet returned house in April of 1903 when his mom was taken ill with cancer. She died in August of that year, and James quickly withdrew from all household issues. He started to put in writing a satirical autobiography which he titled A Portrait of the Artist, yet it was rejected by his editors. Instead, Joyce used his manuscript as a basis for Stephen Hero, which

A. E. Housman”s Poem ‘To an Athlete Dying Young’

A dialogue of A. E. Housman’s “To an Athlete Dying Young”, providing the reader with an idea of the author’s views on demise.

“Dying Young” A. E. Housman’s “To an Athlete Dying Young,” also called Lyric XIX in A Shropshire Lad, holds as its main theme the premature dying of a younger athlete as advised from the point of view of a friend serving as pall bearer. The poem reveals the idea that those dying on the peak of their glory or youth are really quite fortunate.

The first few readings of “To an Athlete Dying Young” supplies the reader with an understanding of Housman’s view of death. Additional readings reveal Housman’s try and convey the classical idea that youth, magnificence, and glory can be preserved only in death. A line-by-line analysis helps to determine the aim of the poem. The first stanza of the poem tells of the athlete’s triumph and his glory crammed parade through the city by which the crowd loves and cheers for him.

As Bobby Joe Leggett defines at this point, the athlete is “carried of the shoulders of his friends after a successful race”. In Housman’s phrases: The time you won your city the race We chaired you thru the market place; Man and boy stood cheering by, And home we brought you shoulder-high. Stanza two describes a method more somber procession.

The athlete is being carried to his grave. In Leggett’s opinion, “The parallels between this procession and the previous triumph are fastidiously drawn”.

The reader should see that Housman makes another reference to “shoulders” as an allusion to connect the first two stanzas: Today, the road all runners come, Shoulder excessive we convey you home, And set you on the threshold down, Townsman of a stiller city. In stanza three Housman describes the laurel growing “early” but dying “quicker than a rose.” This parallels “the ‘smart lad’ who selected to ‘slip betimes away’ on the height of his fame”. Leggett’s implication of this parallel is “that demise, too is a victory”. He ought to contemplate himself lucky that he died in his prime and will not out reside his fame. Housman says: Eyes the shady evening has shut Cannot see the document minimize, And silence sounds no worse than cheers After earth has stopped the ears. Leggett feels that “death in the poem becomes the agent by which the process of change is halted”.

In the following stanza symbolism is used because the physical world is in Leggett’s phrases, “The field the place glories don’t stay”. “Fame and sweetness are represented by a rose and the laurel, that are both topic to decay,” Leggett explains. The athlete dying is described right here by Housman: And spherical that early-laurelled head Will flock to gaze the strengthless dead, And find unwithered on its curls The garland briefer than a girls. Any biography learn on Housman ought to reveal that he was an huge student of Latin, a very dense language in which much which means can be condensed right into a small word. F. W. Batesman states, “He edited volumes of poetry for the poets Juvenile and Lucan” . Housman tried to put in writing in the same form because the poets who he also edited by using “a concentration of monosyllables to supply an English equivalent to the verbal density that Latin possessed ready-made in its system of inflection”.

However, this was not all the time employable. Housman makes use of condensed, and uneven words to express his ideas, an obvious imitation of the Latin poets. A good instance is that barely a word contained in “To an Athlete Dying Young” consists of more than two syllables. Because of Latin emulation, many hold Housmans’ works to be too easy. As Batesman notices, “English monosyllables, then again, because of their familiarity and trivial associations, are most likely to vulgarize and sentimentize no matter expertise they’re making an attempt to describe” . Housman’s attempt to breed a Latin-patterned verse posts the problem Dr. Samuel Johnson referred to in his “Life of Dryden”: Words too familiar or too distant defeat the aim of a poet.

From sound which we hear on small or coarse occasions we don’t simply receive robust impressions or delightful images; and words to which we are nearly strangers, each time they occur, draw consideration on themselves which they should transmit to things.  As well as old time structure, Housman takes benefit of many old time concepts and ideas in his writings. He conveys the traditional concept that magnificence, glory, and all things which are held in esteem soon outlive that fame which they once possessed in “To an Athlete Dying Young.” So, in the untimely dying, the athlete is spared the sorrow of seeing his records be damaged and him shedding his talent. He won’t ever outlive his second in glory. He will all the time be remembered as a winner on the peak of his profession.

An excellent example of that is the retirement of Michael Jordan who did retire on the peak of his career and can in all probability be remembered as the greatest basketball player to ever stay. This is the idea the poet has in mind somewhat than making an attempt to flee from life. Many must assume the young athlete was fortunate as a result of he didn’t have to undergo the relaxation of lifes miseries and one would hope the young athlete is in a greater place. Leggett presents in his book Land of Lost Content: It can be simple to oversimplify the attitude toward death on this poem and regard demise merely as an escape from a miserable existence, as many of Housman’s critics have insisted. But, viewing the poem in relation to the theme of the entire work, one must conclude that here, as elsewhere in A Shropshire Lad, the purpose not that these lads have escaped some sort of evil inherent in all of life, but they, instead, have escaped the change and decay of time; and as Housman’s coin image suggests, they’ve preserved something which in itself is valuable.”

The classical idea held by Housman is, “the perfect” does exist, this perfection, could be destroyed by time though. B. J. Leggett says that “the poem illustrates a conception of death as metaphorical agent for halting decay”. A question, who’s speaking within the poem, is often requested in and about Housmans poem on demise. Is it Housman himself, are these his views of demise, or is he assuming a personas voice in this poem? Many say that the voice and think about of demise is among the athlete’s friends and never Housman presenting the story. Legggett, the writer of The Poetic Art of A. E. Housman, says: Housman achieves the effect of the assertion of two contradictory attitudes gaiety and grief, triumph and defeat in numerous poems about demise. Although the ‘philosophy’ of death in “To an Athlete Dying Young” has been mentioned for example of Housman’s perversity, no commentator, to my information has sufficiently emphasized that the angle towards death taken within the poem is that of the dead athlete’s good friend, not that of the poet.

Housman clues us in that the speaker is a good friend in a number of methods. First, he’s telling the story as one of many people who witnesses the athlete’s victory and cheered him via the town. Then he is pictured as one of the pall bearers, near the lifeless athlete, who helps him into his grave. Leggett says, “The poem is thus a type of graveside oration delivered by one of the lads who, presumably, ‘wore his honours out””. Housman’s poem says: Now you’ll not swell the rout Of lads that wore their honours out, Runners whom renown outran And the name died earlier than the man.

The conceit of the poem seems to be that, it would not matter what, death is the final victor. This is created from the character of the persona, his imagined relationship to the useless younger athlete and the occasion of the poem. To be capable of perceive Leggett’s view with that of Housman’s is to confuse a method by which the poet conveys a hard to grasp reaction to demise with a philosophy, which has no meaning outdoors the poem. The sixth stanza could not appear as essential as the opposite stanzas in the poem, but it nonetheless plays a major position in the play. In Housman’s words: So set, earlier than its echoes fade, The fleet foot on the sill of shade, And maintain to the low lintel up The still-defended challenge-cup.

This together with the last stanza “Completes the comparability in the gentle of what has been said within the three center stanzas and end off the poem with the reference to the athlete’s glory as being shorter lived than a girls” (186). By dissecting this poem line-by-line, a reader can perceive the which means Housman has behind it. Anyone who reads Housman’s materials has to read it very carefully the first few occasions and really analyze what the meaning really is. When Housman uses the small, short, and choppy phrases to illustrate or explain something, he’s making an attempt to explain it elaborately. That is very effective for this poem because the athlete lived a brief choppy life, yet, be it for much less than a moment, he lived elaborately.

Dying Young A. E. Housman’s poem, “To an Athlete Dying Young,” is about an athlete who dies in the prime of his athletic profession and will all the time be cherished for dying that way. In the poem Housman’s view of death is proven in that when you die younger, and at a pentacle of success you die fortunate. In the first stanza the athlete had just received his race and was introduced home on the shoulders of his “townsmen.” In the second stanza the athlete is being carried on the shoulders of his townsmen but this time in a casket. “Shoulder-high we convey you residence, / And set you at your threshold down, / Townsman of a stiller city.” Before the group was “cheering by” now the reader can see that he’s useless due to the “stiller town.” Read in regards to the management of Grief symbolism

Housman than moves within the next two stanzas and talks of how the athlete is wise for dying young because Housman is aware of that glory does not remain endlessly. One would believe that Housman was a man that believed that all records were made to be damaged. In the fourth stanza Housman says: Eyes the shady night time has shut Cannot see the document cut, And silence sounds no worse than cheers After earth has stopped the ears: In that, we can see that housman sees the athlete as lucky as a result of any athlete would hate to see his record broken so this one is fortunate as a result of he does not should see all the glory and fame that was his be taken away from him in all probability as he took it away from one other particular person. With fame, it’s an ongoing course of, the next man goes to do something that’s better than you, and then that guy will be out done by another person, and so on. Well, this athlete was lucky. He did not have to see his report damaged, no one took the celebrity that he had earned, and he’ll always be remembered as probably the greatest in his event. Another factor about his glory is that his followers will all the time have the questions on how good he might have been, thus will at all times be preserved as probably the greatest that ever participated in the sport.

Works Cited

  1. Bache, William. “Housman’s To an Athlete Dying Young.” The Explicator, 1951. (185)
  2. Henry, Nat. “Housman’s To an Athlete Dying Young.” The Explicator, 1954. (188-189)
  3. Housman, A.E.. “To an Athlete Dying Young.” The Bedford Introduction To Literature. Ed. Michael Meyer. Boston: Bedford Books Of St. Martin’s Press, 1993. (967)
  4. Leggett, Bobby Joe. Land of Lost Content. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1970.
  5. Leggett, Bobby Joe. The Poetic Art of A. E. Housman. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978.
  6. Ricks, Christopher ed.. A. E. Housman. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1968.
  7. John S. Ward Dr. Larry Brunner English Composition II November 9, 1994

A Child Or Young Person Is Injured and Unwell

Identify The Signs And Symptoms Which May Indicate That A Child Or Young Person Is Injured Or Unwell.

The baby could complain to the trainer that they don’t feel well or they really feel drained, the child’s appearance maybe they look tired, pale and worn out. Also the kid might have a excessive temperature; the child doesn’t participate in any actions and the child retains saying they want their mum or dad. The child vomits, coughs for a long period of time, refuses food, they turn into clingy, refuse to play with other children, withdrawn from others, diarrhoea and adjustments in usual behaviour.

If these indicators and symptoms do occur this reveals that the kid is unwell or injured. If the kid is on this state it will be greatest to ship the kid residence so it does not have an effect on the other children. Also by doing this you’ll be giving the parent an opportunity to offer medical attention to the kid which is what the kid would need on this scenario.

Identify Circumstances When Children Or Young People May Need Urgent Medical Attention

If the kid is passing out, unconscious, chocking, temperature is above normal body temperature-showing they have a fever, the child is discovering it tough to breath, a wound that won’t stop bleeding, a head injury with symptoms of concussion and if a baby is having a fit.

In some circumstances the kid would have to be taken to the hospital with the father or mother if the kid wants urgent medical consideration, such as having a match. These are all circumstances have been child will want urgent medical attention.

Outline Own Role And Responsibilities In The Event Of A Child Or Young Person Requiring Urgent Medical Attention

If a child wants critical medical consideration, you inform someone instantly and then do as you would possibly be advised, that might be either staying with the kid to comfort them or get a first aid box or call the ambulance and name the children’s parents. If the kid has medicine that must be given to them at a certain time, you need their medicine to be prescribed by their physician in order that you are in a position to give them the medicine and the medicine needs to be saved refrigerated.

3 Career Goals Career ChoiceSince young many of us have renowned what

3 . Career Goals: Career Choice

Since young, many of us have renowned what profession path they may wish to comply with. Some knew they needed to be an lawyer, a protector, a doctor and commenced their journey towards creating their profession dream true by taking the obligatory programs, passing their examinations, and did what was needed to enter the sphere of their choosing. Some ar uncertain of the profession path they may wish to comply with and opinions of others on what they must do will result in a street of uncertainty and confusion.

Lastly, for various reasons there are those who are wanting an amount transitioning from one career possibility to another. despite that stage in life the individual makes a career call or transition, each occasions are tough and since work has frequently been an awfully huge part of our lives, its significance on our well-being is straightforward. Thankfully, counselling will facilitate to chop again the burden of these challenges whereas serving to the individual build the right profession choice for them.

In an quantity of fixed modification and modernization there are infinite career strategies and prospects one will pursue. because of the overwhelming career prospects a quantity of younger adults notice themselves troubled to create the right career selection and prepare their expert future (Krumboltz & Levin, 2010). curst the fear of making the incorrect career selection, the young grownup is misplaced during a labyrinth unable to determine their reply. all through now – generally ages fifteen to twenty-four, the young adult goes by way of a

4. The Choice Of A Career Essay

For many students, contemplation concerning what subject they could prefer to add begins lots of prior to their senior 12 months of highschool and initial yr of school. From infancy, people ar asked what they may prefer to be once they age. associate understanding develops that that what’s chosen as a end result of the individual’s profession is thus deeply built-in with their identity that the 2 can hardly ever be recognized individually. “The number of a profession could also be an extremely essential technique that performs a big function in shaping individuals ‘s aspirations, issues, and action” (Malach-Pines &Yafe-Yanai, 1999, p. 503). This understanding makes selecting a major a deeply personal and profound question for every individual. “It is one amongst the foremost essential choices created by individuals rising up in Western cultures with a quantity of making an attempt to search out through their careers a way of existential significance for his or her entire life” (p. 503). to form a considerate and thorough call can be too overwhelming for a few students, resulting in a knee-jerk alternative, that the scholar can ultimately modification a minimum of as soon as. “The number of a profession could additionally be an advanced and multi-faceted technique together with all of the spheres of an individual ‘s life” (p. 503) and it are often powerful for a conventional scholar, on the approximate age of eighteen, to understand simply however way reaching the outcomes of this call are often. Or perhaps they are doing understand and really feel paralytic by the concern of creating the wrong choice.

5. Psychology and Career Choice

The definition of scientific discipline is actually the research of human (and usually animal) behaviour. The word itself means that “the science of the soul.” the primary language unit, “psyche” suggests that soul, and subsequently the second half accommodates the muse of the word “logic.”

I have invariably questioned regarding human behaviour. Why will this particular person scream once he’s angry? Why will that particular person cry? Whenever I see someone UN agency look confused or discouraged, I usually shock what the disturbance is and if there’s something I might do this would inspire them. i imagine that is typically why i wish to be a·show plenty of content·

Most of my friends apprehend that if they really need someone to speak to, my door is usually open, and that i can invariably pay attention. I imagine scientific self-discipline could be a decent career on behalf of me because of I relish the kind of labour that they are doing, and that i suppose I could be smart at it if i really set my heart and my thoughts thereto. My strongest high quality is that I’m nation individual. I sometimes apprehend once to say what, counting on the particular person and due to this fact the mood they’re in. My objective with this profession paper is to find out lots of concerning what a scientist will and judge if it’s the correct profession selection on behalf of me. The definition of scientific discipline is actually the examine of human (and typically animal) behaviour. The word itself means that “the science of the soul.” the primary language unit, “psyche” means that soul, and therefore the second half accommodates the foundation of the word “logic.” (Encyclopaedia of Careers and occupation steering 244) What all psychologists do is teach people the which means of issues, or they furnish the influence, a trigger. They maintain conferences to counsel people. there’s tons of research to induce, like trying to find concerning the consumers ‘ background. They moreover conduct tests all to greater perceive people. Psychologists area unit there to allow suggestion, to listen, and to figure with their buyers to search out explanations to their points. Most sensible psychologists have tons of curiosity. a selection of that surprise is making an attempt to work out nonetheless issues work. determining the rationale behind a response that someone has, or why people have feelings and why some

6. Career and Interest Self-Assessment Results

Self-Assessment I. Career and Interest Self-Assessment Results This self-assessment check out was one thing that narrowed down doable interest and helped the individuals open their mind to new careers. In-fact after I completed my check out i used to be able to read the assorted careers that really feel in my interest class. Taking a survey and conniving the various likes each field had amassed decided my check out consequence. when gathering the likes that had accumulated i was ready to confirm that stock class was strongest. My high inventory was typical that states, I’m one WHO likes to comply with set rules and procedures, and prefers element and clear traces of authority. My second strongest inventory class was Social, that states, i choose work activities that promote learning and improvement. Not solely did I study what my strongest inventory was I additionally had the ability to find out that jobs fell beneath these lessons. Out of every class inside the extent 5-education demand, I had one job that stood out over the others; class one typical had maths educational. This job are some things that might be attention-grabbing, nevertheless I’m unsure if I’d want this job as a career. The social class had one job that moreover caught my eye, health skilled person. in spite of everything the evaluation and searching at all of the courses and in addition the doable job opportunities I even have come back to the idea that the take a glance at are estimates.

Explain the post-16 choices for young folks and adults

The alternatives for pupils aged 16 and over have historically been both to depart school and start employment, or to remain and continue with their schooling. Although many pupils do nonetheless select one of these choices, it is doubtless there might be extra alternatives available as there has been an elevated authorities concentrate on and funding of education for 14 to 19 yr old’s, and specifically a give consideration to decreasing the variety of young folks not in training, and employment or training submit 16.

Under the old labour government it was that by the top of the September of the year that every younger individual leaves obligatory education, they may have a place in further studying obtainable. The September assure was applied nationally in 2007 and was later extended in order that 17 yr olds who have accomplished a short course or have chosen to go away the exercise they selected on completing school may have the opportunity to extend their learning. The September guarantee.

Under the last labour government, the guarantee was the following: Full or part-time schooling in school, Sixth Form College, independent studying supplier or Further Education College.

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An apprenticeship or programme-led apprenticeship, which should embody both the coaching factor and a job or work placement. Entry to employment Employment with coaching to NVQ stage 2 The purpose behind these necessities is that by 2013, all pupils might be required to proceed in education or training to at least 17 years of age.

This doesn’t imply that they are going to be required to remain in class, but they want to be following one of the pathways above.

It is possible that beneath the new authorities these might change. Post- 16 options for younger individuals and adults embrace employment, coaching and studying:

Continuing (or returning to) full-time education e. g. continuing studies in sixth forms, further education schools and specialist faculties Studying part-time e. g. developing abilities or interests by way of day/ evening lessons, distance learning and on-line programs Getting work based coaching e. g.earning whereas studying by doing apprenticeships which lead to nationally recognised qualifications Getting into college and higher training e. g. full-time or part-time levels, including undergraduate and postgraduate studies.

Taking a niche yr e. g. before going to university taking a yr out to journey or do volunteer work either at residence or abroad Working as a volunteer to develop abilities and acquire work expertise Getting a job Education selections for 16 to 18 year old’s in England embody continuing in full-time schooling either at school/ college or continuing their learning by way of work based mostly training similar to apprenticeships.

Continuing in full-time schooling includes studying for academic qualifications corresponding to ‘AS’ or ‘A’ ranges or work related skills similar to the new vocational qualifications on the qualifications and credit framework. Selected schools also offer the diploma qualification for 14 to 19 year old’s. Secondary schools and sixth kind faculties provide general/ tutorial education, together with some programs in vocational/applied topics. Further schooling colleges place a larger emphasis on vocational programs although additionally they supply basic courses and tertiary faculties supply each general and vocational schooling.

There are many alternatives for education and coaching obtainable to adults aged 18 and over, supplied by various types of education and coaching suppliers. The primary types of schooling and training available are: Further education programs e. g. A levels, BTEC nationals and higher nationals Higher instructional courses e. g. superior diplomas and levels Training for work e. g. vocational and sector-specific programs Education and training courses may be offered at colleges, universities, in the workplace or by distance learning.

Course fees for adult schooling differ relying on the extent of the course and the sort of qualification. Some adult studying courses are free. These include grownup literacy programs and programs which result in learning for skills corresponding to GCSEs and A levels. Free tuition is available for people who do not have already got GCSEs, A ranges or equal and people claiming unemployment benefits. Besides the value of the course itself, there are different costs associated with being an adult learner (or learner of any age for that matter) including journey prices, books and equipment.

To unfold the price of studying some adults study part-time while in work or looking for employment. Courses are offered half time in any respect levels together with further schooling and higher education. Distance studying is another choice as distance studying courses are often cheaper, may be carried out at the learner’s own pace and cut out many course-related prices which adults might face corresponding to travel, childcare and time lost at work. (O’Hara, 2010).

023 Understand Child and Young Person development

Age range Explain the sequence and fee of development 0-3 months When born, infants present innate reflexes, corresponding to swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, strolling and standing reflex; in the first month babies turn out to be much less curled up and the startle reflex is beginning to fade; towards the tip of the third month babies start lifting and turning their heads. 3-6 months

When mendacity on entrance babies can carry their legs and arms balancing on their tummies; they can reach and seize a toy and so they can pass it from one hand to a different; they can additionally roll from their backs to entrance; round sixth month infants are becoming able to sit with assist (e.

g. high chair). 6-9 months Babies can sit without support; they’re starting to crawl or find other methods of being cellular (bottom-shuffling); starting to use fingers to feed. 9-12 months

Babies have gotten very cellular, quick crawling, standing up by the furnishings, some infants stroll along the furnishings using their hands to hold on; developing talents to handle objects and placing them into containers; babies capable of feed themselves with fingers.

1-2 years At the start of this period babies are starting to walk and round 18 months they’re changing into more and more skilful on their feet, transferring quicker; toddlers around this age start to take a seat and push with their legs to move on the sit-and-ride toys.

Towards their second yr youngsters stroll confidently, they’ll run and climb; in path of the tip of the second yr some children have gotten prepared to start potty training.

2-4 years In the third 12 months kids begin potty coaching; they turn into able to push with feet or peddle a tricycle; kids can stroll upstairs alternating their ft; towards the end of the this period kids are skilful sufficient to feed and costume themselves; they are in a position to do threading, pouring and they can use scissors. 4-7 years Physical development much less rapid, nonetheless skills are becoming extra refined and actions extra coordinated.

Ability to kick and control ball; development of nice motor expertise essential for handwriting. 7-12 years Good coordination of small and huge actions; growing physical skilfulness means task can be accomplished faster, more accurately and extra confidently; neater drawing and writing; correct slicing. Between 9 and 12 children achieve even better coordination and pace in fantastic and gross motor expertise. Around eleventh year the our bodies of some ladies are starting to change (growing breasts) and a few may begin their periods. 12-16 years Gradual body modifications in each women and boys (girls bodily mature quicker [around 15/ 16] than boys [around 17/18].

Fast body changes may have an effect on spatial consciousness which can become often poor in consequence. 16-19 years The maturing of the physique is ending with the complete development of sexual organs; the physique is taking a distinctive female or male form. 023 Table 2: Intellectual and cognitive development Age vary Explain the sequence and fee of improvement 0-3 months Quite early on babies are in a place to recognise the smell of their mother and her voice; later they turn into acquainted with voices of important others and they are often calmed after they hear them; they are excited about faces.

In their third month babies start to differentiate between day and night (settled routine); infants turn into thinking about mobiles and different objects around them. 3-6 months Babies are becoming interested in what is happening round them, turning their head in the path of curiosity; objects are being explored by arms and mouth. 6-9 months Developing nice motor skills permit babies for a greater exploration of objects by dealing with and touching with fingers; around eight or 9 months babies perceive object permanence (objects proceed to exists even when out of sight).

9-12 months Babies are extra conscious of what is taking place around them, they are beginning to understand routines through signals (bib = food) 1-2 years Children get pleasure from pop-up and posting toys and in their 2nd year they’re starting to have a go at easy jigsaw puzzles and building bricks. 2-4 years Children fake play with miniature world; they extra thinking about books, mark making and painting. In their fourth 12 months kids are able to concentrate and focus longer on activities which which caught their interest. 4-7 years

Children begin to do some simple counting and calculations, recognizing letters is adopted by gradual decoding of simple words and later by reading. 7-12 years Reading and writing is changing into easier, youngsters begin reading silently to themselves. Play turns into extra organized and follows rules. Development of thinking and reasoning is demonstrated via unbiased downside solving. 12-16 years Further development of reasoning and drawback fixing; kids are gradually beginning to understand more summary ideas. 16-19 years

Cognitive talents are becoming further refined, leading to high stage skills in young people. 023 Table three: Communication improvement Age range Explain the sequence and price of improvement 0-3 months To start with babies categorical their hunger, tiredness or different discontent through crying; around 5th/6th week babies begin to coo when content; within the third month babies start smiling and reciprocate smiles. 3-6 months Babies beginning to perceive somewhat of what is being mentioned and they are beginning to give some communication signals themselves (e. g.

raised arms once they wish to be picked up). 6-9 months Babies become fairly vocal, babbling with a differentiated tuneful string of sounds. They are also starting to understand various important key phrases related with their routines (e. g. ?dinner? ). 9-12 months Babies clearly show they perceive extra of what’s being mentioned round them/ to them. Babbling continues to be main means of communication. 1-2 years First meaningful sounds/ phrases are starting to emerge around thirteen months, and at the end of 2nd 12 months kids might need a vocabulary of about 200 phrases. 2-4 years

Language is changing into a robust technique of communication. From connecting two words first youngsters are starting gradually to build up sentences and their speaking is changing into comprehensible even to those who are not in regular contact with the kid. Even although there could be the odd mistake within the sentence structure, the language toward the tip of this era is becoming fluent and children ask questions and generally enjoy expressing themselves by way of language. 4-7 years Children are becoming concerned with written language – they are starting to study to read and write.

7-12 years Reading and writing turns into easier now; firstly of this period youngsters enjoy telling jokes to others; other than chatting, kids are beginning to have the power to type a easy argument and be persuasive, they are changing into increasingly capable of negotiate with others. Their writing reveals extra grammatical awareness in addition to personal creativeness. 12-16 years Reading and writing skills have gotten excellent and children are becoming more and more skilful in negotiating and persuasion of others (peers and adults). 16-19 years

Communication with peers is changing into crucial; differentiation between formal and informal language and its use in actual life is turning into more and more essential; young individuals use different means to communicate (via phones, mobile messaging, emails, facebook, and so forth. ). 023 Table 4: Social, emotional and behavioural growth Age range Explain the sequence and price of development 0-3 months First social contacts are being established mainly during feeding; on the finish of the first month infants begin to present first smiles which then steadily turn out to be response to acquainted faces.

3-6 months Babies smile and squeal with delight when taking part in with familiar others. 6-9 months Babies attempt to stay near their primary carers and round 8 months babies may turn out to be distressed when their main carer leaves. 9-12 months Babies are mounted on their carers and don’t need to be with strangers. 1-2 years Children begin notice other youngsters round them and so they present some curiosity in them and later start parallel play. They also begin show some frustrations and tantrums as they progressively uncover some boundaries. 2-4 years

Children play alongside others and should start copying their actions. Around the third yr kids turn into extra aware of others and their needs which also reflects of their play which is gradually starting to be increasingly cooperative. Children get pleasure from being praised by adults. 4-7 years Developing language helps youngsters to type higher relationships and kids begin to show some preferences in friendships. 7-12 years Friendships are becoming extra stable and extra necessary and will affect decision making (if my good friend is doing one thing I could be more likely doing it also).

Gender specific play is changing into more obvious. Children begin to evaluate themselves to others. Children get pleasure from being given some obligations. 12-16 years Friends and friendships are very important and progressively opinions from associates would possibly feel more essential that these of parents/ carers. This results in exploration and problem of the boundaries of relationships in addition to studying to deal with disagreements, arguments, etc. There are anxieties coming from pressures from school. 16-19 years

Young people enjoy being with their pals, they’re finding discovering their own identity and sense of belonging to a group/ teams of specific traits which defines for them who they’re (religious groups, sport group, goth, etc. ) 023 Table 5: Moral improvement Age range Explain the sequence and rate of growth 0-3 months 3-6 months 6-9 months 9-12 months Children might begin listening to “no” and would possibly stop their behaviour for a second. 1-2 years Children are beginning to understand “no” they usually start using it themselves.

2-4 years At the start of this phase still no understanding what is correct or wrong however children perceive when they are mentioned “No”. Later they become capable of observe some simple guidelines. Around 4 years kids have gotten thoughtful at instances however many of the occasions will decide what to do on the basis of adult approval. 4-7 years Children are beginning to understand guidelines; they attempt to perceive them, observe them and may try and create their own rules the place no rules are given (made-up recreation with friends). 7-12 years

Children share their information of rules with others and will readily level out if somebody breaks the rules. Later they are changing into more conscious of behaviour consequences and they’re usually turning into extra thoughtful. 12-16 years Children are beginning to pay attention to a bigger picture – guidelines of communities and societies and they are beginning to grasp the need for that. 16-19 years There is a interest in ethical points, discovering out that right and incorrect isn’t always black and white. Questioning and testing of rules. A2 Answer the next questions. 1.

What is the difference between ‘sequence’ of improvement and ‘rate’ of development? 2. Why is the distinction important? (Ref 1. 2) Q1. What is the difference between a sequence of development and fee of development? Sequence of growth is the order during which improvement occurs, e. g. kids are capable of sit earlier than they be taught to crawl. The order of the sequences in development are at all times the identical (even though there may be some individual differences: babies at all times study to maneuver about earlier than standing up and strolling, but some infants bottom-shuffle as a substitute of crawling).

Rate, on the other hand, is the velocity by which individuals undergo the stages/ sequences of growth. Most youngsters be taught to walk when they’re about 12 months old. However, some babies might be able to stroll when they’re 10 months old and others when they’re 15 months old. Individuals may also be developing with totally different price in numerous areas, e. g. some children could be growing shortly physically, but their speech could be delayed. These individual variations are outcomes of genetic predispositions and different organic influences as nicely as environmental stimulation.

Q2. Why is the difference important? Knowing the sequences of improvement in different areas is important for practitioners to have the ability to plan accordingly and due to this fact to help the development in individuals. The fee of the event is necessary in phrases of recognizing any atypical improvement and recommending/ looking any additional interventions when wanted. TASK B Complete desk; Research and report B1 Complete a desk as proven on the next web page, identifying the completely different personal and external elements that influence children and young people’s growth.

(Ref 2. 1, 2. 2) B2 Produce a report to show your knowledge and understanding of differing theories of improvement. This report should establish how these theories have influenced current apply and embody the following: Cognitive (e. g. Piaget) Psychoanalytic (e. g. Freud) Humanist (e. g. Maslow) Social studying (e. g. Bandura) Operant conditioning (e. g. Skinner) Behaviourist (e. g. Watson) Social pedagogy. Over the years there have been many theories trying to clarify certain elements of growth, behaviour, learning, and so on.

In the next textual content we’ll take a glance at essentially the most influential theories which are being utilized by practitioners in higher understanding as properly as everyday work with children and young individuals. After a short description of how an individual principle was founded, we will focus on the key points for work at nurseries. Theory of cognitive growth (Constructivist approach) Theory of cognitive development is connected with the name of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) who through work on intelligence checks began to notice how kids at same levels make very similar errors in their tasks and drawback fixing approaches.

Piaget then carefully observed his personal children, capturing their improvement in particulars and later utilizing these observations to create a concept of cognitive growth. Piaget considered children as lively learners who create ? schemas? (believes) about the world based mostly on their experiences. This is how they make sense about what is occurring round them. However, a child? s schemas are going to be challanged time to time by new and surprising experiences and in consequence present schema should tailored to fit these in (e. g.

touching something sizzling will alter the notion that every thing is safe to the touch and youngster will be taught that sure objects can hurt when being touched). Piaget? s principle influenced the follow by having a ? child-centred? approach. In our setting, for instance, we make regular observations on what our children are interested in and what they wish to play/ do. After careful evaluations and identifications of potential next steps of development we plan actions which in addition to reflecting children? s interest additionally additional challenge them to encourage the event.

Psychoanalytic theory of character Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) instructed that each persona has got three parts to it – id, ego and superego. We all are born with id, which is the part of our personality that is driven by our needs and reflects in pleasure-seeking behaviour. Id is egocentric and passionate and it’s purely after satisfying its wants, often identified as ? gratification?. However, through social contact and studying babies/children steadily learn to bear in mind of the surface world and finally of wants of others.

They will be developing ego, which is ready to plan the actions so the wants of the person can nonetheless be met however in more socially desired way, e. g. capacity to attend for once turn when the meals is being served at pre-school settings. This known as ? differed gratification?. Later, because of additional parenting and learning about social and cultural values, the superego is developed. Superego could be described as an internalised parent because the baby is starting to concentrate to what is good and what is bad with out external reminder – e.

g. I should not hit as a outcome of it hurts. If the behaviour trespasses the imperatives of the superego, the person will really feel guilt as they are now conscious that their behaviour was bad (this is referred as ? conscience? ). Apart from judging conscience, superego has obtained a notion of an ego-ideal to which it’s going to attempt. When ego demonstrates good behaviour the ego-ideal part of superego will reward this, e. g. feeling good after doing one thing for another person even when exterior praise isn’t current.

Even though Freud has been criticised for basing his description and explanations of development on sexual motives, some of his theoretical ideas are actually widely accepted (e. g. the concept of unconscious thoughts – id and most of superego). One might say that orientation on children? s needs may be partly impressed by Freud? s ideas concerning the dynamics of id, ego and superego. Too robust superego and suppressed unconscious id will result in many issues in grownup life, the place individual tries to reside mainly by what’s required by the skin world rather than permitting themselves to observe own wishes.

In early years wholesome development of ego can be supported by putting the child and their wants in the centre of our consideration; actions and work with kids is individualized and child-led, yet nonetheless well deliberate and secure. For instance, in our setting we might notice that a specific child enjoys opening and closing doors, gates, and so forth. Instead of completely discouraging him from doing that we’d identify situations when it could be appropriate for him/her to take action and explain the necessary things around it in a child-friendly means (e.

g. : When everyone has got their shoes on, you can open the door, Henry. , We will maintain the gate closed now, as a outcome of we’re going to play in the yard now. , Mind your fingers when closing the door – you would close them in and that might really damage. , and so forth. ). If we are saying ? no? to children it’s good to make sure that the child knows concerning the reasons behind our selections (even although they may find it hard initially anyway, they’re extra likely to come round and perceive it in their very own time).

Humanistic theory of motivation and personality – Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Maslow studied motivation in people and came up with what’s now known as Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow divided the needs into five classes (physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualisation) and put them in hierarchical order from probably the most essential and primary needs to higher-order needs. Maslow argues that it’s necessary to fulfil the wants from from the bottom of the hierarchy first to have the ability to meet the wants of upper order.

Only when all the opposite decrease needs are met, a person can focus on fulfilling the very best needs of self-actualisation, corresponding to creativity, downside fixing, morality, and so on. In our follow we are aware, that when a child is for example overtired and hungry (the most basic physiological needs), there is not a house to try to slot in different issues, e. g. ?wait for your turn? , ? say please? ,…. (which can be engaged on their higher order needs, similar to love/belonging (friendship) or esteem (respect for others, respect by others).

This child at that stage must be fed and put to sleep as soon as possible and other input has to attend until the kid is again able to tune to it/ receive it. Social cognitive principle Social cognitive principle has its roots in behaviouristic strategy. However, Albert Bandura (born 1925), even although accepting studying by conditioning, argued that lots of studying happens through social observations (? observational learning? ). Observational studying is when kids copy what other children or adults do; in comparability to conditioning, observational learning happens spontaneously and sometimes with out the necessity for reinforcement.

Cognitive abilities seem to play an necessary role in observational studying as kids have to be succesful to notice the activity itself as nicely as keep in mind it precisely. As workers we must be conscious in the finest way we act and work together in front of youngsters as they are likely to copy our behaviour. In accordance with the social cognitive theory we try to set good examples to the children in our settings by showing good manners and being courteous to them in addition to to a minimum of one another.

Behaviourist strategy to studying – operant conditioning Operant conditioning relies on classical conditioning (I. P. Pavlov; J. B. Watson), which teaches that certain behaviour/ reaction can be related with a stimulus by way of conditioning, e. g. fear of cats after a bad expertise with a cat. F. B. Skinner (1904-1990) however took this a bit further and thru experiments mainly with pigeons and rats showed that studying can be strengthen by reinforcements, corresponding to optimistic reinforcement (praise, sticker, consideration, etc.

), unfavorable reinforcement (this is eradicating something which is negative from the situation so it not poses a ? threat? or causes unfavorable emotions and the whole expertise turns into extra constructive, e. g. child does wish to play with a toy because it is frightened of the noises it makes – by switching the pontificate, the child is in a position to explore the toy) and punishers (negative consequence which is prone to forestall individuals to repeat their behaviour – e. g. touching scorching iron).

Skinner researched handiest ways to retain the learnt behaviour and he came upon that even though steady optimistic reinforcement is good at the beginning of the educational, later unpredictable optimistic reinforcement retains the learnt behaviour in place for longer time period. This is because despite the fact that the reward comes regularly, we’re not positive when it will come next and due to this fact we keep doing the behaviour. At our setting we may be using operant conditioning for instance after we are helping a toddler to potty practice.

First every sitting on the potty, regardless of results might be rewarded. When the child gets into the habit of sitting on the potty, then solely profitable potty session will be rewarded with a sticker (however praise for trying when unsuccessful remains). When starting to do frequently this stickers may gradually turn into praise and sticker shall be awarded if the kid efficiently asks for potty once they need it. Behaviourist method to studying – Classical conditioning J. B. Watson (1878 – 1958) adopted I. P.

Pavlov? s work on classical conditioning with animals (dogs salivating when food arrived turned then salivating even on the mere sight of the bowl; Pavlov took this further by conditioning utterly unrelated meals stimulus, corresponding to bell or light, which after regular presence at the mealtimes would later by itself initiate the salivating response in dogs). Watson confirmed that classical conditioning is possible in people as well (famous Little Albert experiment, where a baby was conditioned to have concern of rats).

Classical conditioning isn’t really utilized in apply as a lively way of educating, however its concept can be used for observational purposes (e. g. recognising when sucking thumb signals starvation and so on. ). Social pedagogy Social pedagogy is a discipline which brings together principle and apply in order to guarantee one of the best and holistic means of supporting youngsters in their improvement and education. The total goal of social pedagogy is to provide children and young folks the very best possibilities for his or her future lives.

In accordance with social pedagogy the Early Years Foundation Stage Framework (EYFS) has been devised to capture the development in early years and to assist professionals to observe, plan and assist effectively particular person growth. For better and targeted understanding the development has been divided into seven areas, out of which three are recognised as prime areas (Personal, Social and Emotional Development; Communication and Language; Physical Development) and four are described as specific areas of development (Literacy; Mathematics; Understanding the World; Expressive Arts and Design).

The help the professionals can provide is differentiated into helpful advice in optimistic relationship and recommendations for enabling environments. In EYFS we will see influence of Piaget? s work in enabling environments the place the primary focus is predominantly on individual? s personal expertise. We also can strongly establish the theory of ? zone of proximal development? by Vygotsky (cognitive development) in EYFS as we will easily identify where children are in their development, what’s the next developmental stage for them and the way we can support this next step.

023 Personal and exterior factors influencing improvement B3 Personal Factors: Give ONE rationalization of a constructive affect on the development of youngsters and young individuals Health standing: given by genetic predispositions as well as environmental elements, similar to food plan, air pollution, stress, and so forth. If weight problems is genetically handed on in the household than nutritious diet along with growing optimistic angle towards common train will assist the child to maintain a good well being. Disability: Physical impairment, corresponding to missing or underdeveloped limb Wheel chair along with barrier free surroundings (e.

g. lifts, ramps, low sinks, etc. ) will help to help independence of a person. Sensory impairment: visual impairments, hearing impairments, death-blindness, When working with individuals with visible impairment, we will use the other senses to compensate and provide essential stimulation which helps the development, e. g. using special toys/ learning material which makes use of touch and sound as a mean of gaining info. However, if there may be some imaginative and prescient left (which often there is), the environment may be adjusted by using distinction colors, non-reflective materials, good lighting, and so forth.

Learning difficulties: Dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysortographia, ADHD, ADD Children with ADHD benefit from having an everyday routine. Activities needs to be quick and well deliberate with simple and simple to observe directions. Hands-on activities with common physical exercise and lots of reward are essential. External Factors: Poverty and deprivation: poor diet, inadequate housing, lack of training, lack of entry to play and leisure, low aspirations and expectations Good training might help the individual to break from the poverty and safe them a better brighter future.

Family environment/background: neglecting parents, abusive parents, parents with alcohol or different drug-taking issues, ill parents who aren’t in a place to provide sufficient setting for his or her youngsters, etc. Parents who’re unwell and now not capable of absolutely provide for his or her youngsters could presumably be provided with carers who would assist with the overall easy operating of the household, caring for wants of the disabled parent and the wants of the kids, whereas maintaining the family itself together.

Personal choices: from certain age children/ young folks make some choices for themselves which might have effect on their development, e. g. taking drugs, changing their food regimen, etc. To help to stop drug-taking it is necessary to help the development of a optimistic self-image and wholesome shallowness; education and raising consciousness of dangers of drug-abuse can also be a helpful preventative measure. Looked after/care status: children in residential care, in foster families, in their very own household but having care standing (they are the responsibility of local authorities).

If children are being fostered it is useful if siblings can keep together. Education: Educational system, via household itself, via different groups (religious groups, sport teams, hobbies and pursuits, and so on. ) Finding out strengths of a person (which wouldn’t have to essentially academic) and constructing upon these to build a healthy shallowness and recognition of self-worth – this might help to compe with other weaker areas in a positive means. 023 Task C Report Produce a short report in the type of an induction pack for model spanking new employees at a setting, overlaying the next. a.

Give two examples of evaluation strategies that might be used to watch a child/young person’s development. (Ref three. 1) b. Give three examples of why typically child/young person’s development doesn’t observe the anticipated pattern. (Ref three. 2) c. Give one explanation of how incapacity can influence and affect improvement. (Ref 3. 3) d. Give three examples of different types of intervention that would promote optimistic outcomes for the child/young individual, where growth isn’t following the anticipated sample. (Ref 3. 4) a. In our setting we use a number of evaluation strategies to watch our children?

s development. The most used one is a brief free description on sticky labels – these seize a specific brief observation in a particular area of development (e. g. Physical Development); the date and the recognized area/ areas get recorded on the label. This technique of recording data is helpful for gathering proof of the progress of growth in specific areas and constructing a developmental profile of an individual baby. We also use particular statement sheets, on which we capture a extra detailed and complex remark.

In the subsequent part on the sheet the observation is evaluated and areas of the event are identified (often greater than one). In the last part we determine the following steps for the child and how we may help the kid to achieve that. We have two kinds of remark sheets in our settings following this format – one is only written statement, the other one is a photo statement sheet. This technique of recording and evaluation allows us not solely to add to the developmental profile of each baby but in addition to plan successfully to further assist the child? s development. b.

There are many possible cause why at occasions the event won’t comply with the expected pattern. Apart from the most obvious ones, corresponding to disabilities and special learning wants, the event can get affected by exterior elements, similar to environmental reasons, cultural reasons, social reasons; and specific individual reasons, corresponding to emotional reasons, physical reasons and communication difficulties. Environmental reasons: Among environmental reasons which can affect child? s growth is for instance the place and in what situations a child lives and what kind of faculty they attend.

Social causes: There may be massive differences between kids when it comes to wealth of their families, family standing and household structure (big family with strong bonds compared to divorced parents with unfavorable mutual relationship), education of fogeys in addition to their ability to tune themselves to the needs of their children – all of those will affect the means in which children shall be growing. Communication skills: Slower developing communication expertise have got potential to negatively influence the event in other areas.

The incapability to successfully categorical themselves might result in frustrations in youngsters and aggressive behaviour as properly as consequently decrease literacy skills. Similar effects could be noticed in kids whose families? language is not the dominant language of the nation. If the dominant language isn’t fully acquired the kid might significantly battle as soon as at college. c. Disability can have an result on more than one space of development as children can turn out to be pissed off and their self-esteem can be lowered. The attitudes of low expectations and stereotyping by others may even have a secondary unfavorable impression on a child? s growth.

d. There are several methods how difficulties in development can be recognised, monitored and positively supported. Educational establishments may have appointed SENCO, an individual who’s responsible for identification and organising further support for kids with particular needs. If applicable Educational psychologist shall be contacted to make a full assessment and recommendations in tips on how to assist individuals in schooling (behavioural problems and learning difficulties). Suggested interventions may be mentioned with mother and father and with learning assist assistants and individual academic plan may be written up and adopted.

If there are any points with speech and communication, Speech and language therapist shall be consulted – the outcomes of the evaluation will result in a specific plan of motion, usually involving regular contact by which special workouts shall be defined, practised and taught to youngsters and their parents/carers/other professionals for them to have the flexibility to help the youngsters outside the sessions. If a child? s bodily development is affected, physiotherapist can provide help with particular exercises and massages to assist the bodily development, maximize the vary of motion and develop the suitable motion control.

Task D Report Produce a report which explains the next: a. Why is early identification of speech, language or communication delay important for a child/young person’s well-being? (Ref 4. 1) b. What are the potential risks for the child/young person’s well-being if any speech, language or communication delay isn’t identified early? (Ref four. 1) c. Analyse the significance of early identification of the potential risks of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and disorders. (Ref four. 1) d.

Who could be involved in a multi-agency team to support a child/young person’s speech, language and communication development? (Ref 4. 2) e. How, when and why would a multi-agency method be applied? (Ref 4. 3) f. Give 4 different examples of play alternatives and describe how you’ll put them into apply to support the event of a child/young person’s speech, language and communication. (Ref four. 3) a. Early identification of the language and communication difficulties is essential as it could support the development to stop additional (secondary) impact on other areas.

Also, because the brains in younger kids have not completed their improvement, the earlier we are able to intervene, the better prospects of success we’ve. b. Problems in language and communication can have a negative effect on other areas of development, such as cognitive and social improvement. Children with language and communication difficulties usually have a tendency to struggle in school in studying to learn and write, which may have additional unfavorable impact not solely on different topics however more importantly on their vanity. Children with such issues can turn into gradually isolated. c.

Early identification of the potential dangers of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and problems is very important in phrases of placing essentially the most appropriate interventions in place to assist the event and benefit the children? s needs. Well timed and nicely tailored intervention has obtained the potential to optimize the development and to minimize potential negative impression for other areas of improvement. d. In the multi-agency team to support the child with speech, language and communication there will be the child? s GP or a well being visitor, who will make a referral to a speech and language specialist.

If there’s a suspicion that the communication difficulties are related with studying difficulties Educational Psychologist shall be consulted. When it is selected the kind of intervention wanted, the dad and mom, the educational setting professionals and the remainder of the staff ought to work together in order to implement the chosen intervention in order to meet the needs of the kid. e. Multi-agency method is used when mother and father and/ or other professionals (such as GP, early years settings, etc. ) have recognised that a baby is in need of additional assist to help the event.

Different professionals are involved within the assessment of the needs (e. g. GP to evaluate potential listening to or other impairments) and speech and language therapist devises the greatest possible particular person help. Multi-agency strategy brings together totally different fields of expertise to guarantee the absolute best end result for the kid. f. There are many informal alternatives how children? s communication and language development could be supported. These would possibly usually be simpler than formal workouts as they naturally meet the kid in they world of play, making it extra motivating and fun.

Nursery rhymes and songs – Children get pleasure from becoming a member of in nursery rhymes and songs. These are short and memorable and their rhythmical sample make them perfect little exercises for developing language, pronunciation and fluency (good follow when dealing with stutter). Books are perfect for creating passive and energetic vocabulary, understanding that means of words and learning right sentence construction informally. Books are a beautiful approach to spark children? s creativeness as nicely as instructing them to express themselves in regards to the world round them by providing the relevant vocabulary.

Pictures in books make it possible for youngsters from the earliest age to actively have interaction with the story in addition to to engage in a dialogue with another person. Dressing up and role play once more helps the child in an off-the-cuff way to interact in speaking and communication with others whilst enjoying the imaginative play. Puppets are a unbelievable method the means to involve kids in communication via play. Children are fascinated by puppets and luxuriate in adults taking active half in their play, which once more allows for a possibility to develop language and communication in a enjoyable means. 023 Task E Complete table

Complete the table on the next web page, displaying how the different types of transitions can affect kids and younger people’s development and consider how having optimistic relationships throughout this era of transition would be of profit. Additional Guidance Different types are: a. Emotional, affected by private experience, e. g. bereavement, entering/leaving care. b. Physical, e. g. shifting to a brand new academic institution, a brand new home/locality, from one activity to another. c. Physiological e. g. puberty, long-term medical circumstances. d. Intellectual, e. g. moving from pre-school to major, to post-primary. (Ref 5. 1, 5. 2)

Give ONE specific instance of a transition Give ONE potential effect on kids and young people’s improvement Evaluate the benefit of a constructive relationship during this period of transition ~ present ONE example Emotional: Bereavement Depression which may affect sleep pattern, kids might become lethargic and less interested in partaking in any activities which can have an result on they social, emotional and cognitive development Positive relationship with open communication and listening skills allows for a child to ask troublesome questions and share their worries and disappointment, to speak over tough recollections and anxieties concerning the future.

This might assist with overcoming the past and the disappointment. Physical: Moving residence Moving home may effect the youngsters social development as they may lose previous pals and discover themselves unable to fit in new friendship teams. Some kids would possibly begin having food points, corresponding to overeating to deal with anxieties. This can affect their emotional, social and bodily improvement. Positive relation can provide a serving to hand with dealing with the new scenario whereas supporting the self-esteem and inspiring the confidence in a teenager.

Positive relationship can also act as model of expertise of how to establish a model new relationship. Physiological: Gaining a bodily disability – e. g. lost limb Withdrawal – youngsters may become very solitary, unable and unwilling to hitch in with their friends, which may affect their bodily, emotional, social as properly as cognitive development. Positive relationship will talk acceptance and healthy support in coping with a life-changing scenario; this should assist in coping with difficulties as they arrive Intellectual:

Moving from pre-school to major faculty Lack of focus and motivation because the child would possibly feel overwhelmed by new routines and new calls for which they might find very tough – this will affect their pure cognitive improvement and they might regress into safer youthful stage of development. Positive relationship will enable for a kid to feel safe, valued and as attaining (in their very own pace) by identifying the suitable method of working with the kid with the sensitivity to their specific wants and tempo of growth.

TDA 3.1 Communication and professional relationships with children, young people and adults

Effective communication is very important. It helps develop positive relationships that benefit the children and allow them to participate and learn within the setting. It is also important in many other ways; It prevents misunderstandings that can lead to bad-feelings and/or bad working relationships. It can help engage and involve parents/carers in their child’s learning. If we model effective communication skills the children are more likely to follow and to understand what is acceptable. It means important information will be passed on to the relevant people e.g. If a child has a medical condition such as asthma and needs an inhaler at certain times. All staff who may work with the child must be made aware of this. Positive relationships don’t just exist, they must be built. In order to communicate effectively you must think about the way you relate to others.

Communication is more than just what you say. Often non-verbal communication speaks the loudest yet it is that that we are least aware of. The main forms of this are body language, facial expressions, gestures and posture. For example, you are talking to a new parent about how their child has settled in and you say “She is doing very well and has made lots of friends” but you stand with your arms folded, avoiding eye-contact and frowning. Instead of being re-assured the parent is likely to feel upset and worried. Principles of relationship building

Effective communication – This is the most important point and should go hand-in-hand with all other principles. Showing respect – Listen to and respect other people’s point of view. If you show respect to others it is likely they will respect you. Being considerate – Be understanding about possible factors behind people’s behaviour and don’t be too quick to make judgements. Remembering issues which are personal to them – A good way of building positive relationships is to show an interest in things that are important to others.

Be clear on key points – Nods of the head and repeating words/phrases show that you are clear on what is being said. When you are giving information ensure that the other person understands. For example, if speaking to a young child ask them to repeat what you have said.
Active listening – Listening is a skill and requires a certain amount of self-control. You have to ignore your own needs and focus on the person speaking. You must pay attention to what is being said and follow it closely. Make eye-contact and keep your body open. Sometimes you need to adapt the way you communicate depending on the situation; Different cultures

Some cultures have different norms on what is offensive or polite. It is important to understand this but ensure you do not assume or stereotype. Where possible you should try to have an awareness of the culturally acceptable behaviour of the person you are communicating with and adapt your approach accordingly. For example, if it is not acceptable to them to have eye-contact do not keep trying to do this. Also be aware of language barriers. You may need to use other non-verbal forms of communication to ensure they understand. Social and professional contexts

You should make sure you use the appropriate language and behaviour dependant on the situation. For example, if you were in a meeting with a parent and other professionals you would speak a lot more formally than you would in the staffroom at dinnertime. You should also remember other factors such as your body language and the way you dress. Other forms of communication

Non-spoken forms of communication can be mis-read. Be sure to be clear and prompt when responding to e-mails or phone messages. If you are unsure of the message ask questions or para-phrase. It is often useful to make notes as you may need to pass the message on or refer back to it at a later date. Skills needed to communicate with children and young people

Children learn how to communicate by example and by the responses of others. All children should have the opportunity to express their thoughts and opinions and be listened to. You should ensure you give them sufficient time to do this. Just saying you are listening isn’t enough. You should show that you are interested in what they are saying by giving them your full attention. It is important to show you are approachable. Use positive body language and facial expressions. Speak to children on their level and repeat key words to show your understanding. It may be necessary to question them further, if this is the case give them time to answer. Children may lack confidence and may need to be prompted. Adapting communication for children

Some children may have difficulty communicating; thought should be given to individual needs. You may have children who have a speech impediment or have English as a second language. You should give them plenty of time to speak so as not to make them feel pressurised. Some children may not be given time to talk outside of school and may feel anxious. Others may lack confidence. Gently prompt children to join in discussions, ask them open-ended questions and encourage children to take turns in speaking and listening. Always be mindful of the age and/or stage of the children.

You will need to adapt your vocabulary and the way you respond. For example, older children may be offended if they think you are speaking to them ‘like a child.’ Although it is important to develop positive relationships through communication you should ensure that you remain professional. When the children are on task you should try to prevent interruptions and keep the conversation to do with the activity. In other situations give the children time to talk freely but always maintain boundaries.

Communicating with adults and children/young people
Adaptations for children/Young People
Similarities
Maintain carer to child relationship and remain formal.
Maintain eye contact
Communicate what is expected of them.
Respond to what is said
Age/stage appropriate
Show interest
Ensure they understand.
Positive body language
Don’t encourage physical contact.
Active listening
Give praise and encouragement

Sometimes you may encounter adults who have different communication needs and will need to adapt the way you communicate with them accordingly; Hearing impaired – Face them and maintain eye-contact as they may need to lip read. Use hand gestures to enhance what you are saying. Write down important information. English as an additional language – You may require a translator. Sometimes if the child is older they can translate messages. If there isn’t a translator available speak slowly and clearly. Visually impaired- Often schools send out letters and forms to parents. These may need to be in large print or Braille or you may need to speak to the parent/carer directly. Disagreements

Disagreements are often down to miscommunication. There may have been a misunderstanding with a member of staff, information may have been perceived wrongly or it may be differences of opinion. Sometimes disagreements occur with parents. This could be due to information not being passed on, a lack of time to talk at the start/end of the day or different views to how situations should be dealt with. It is important that any disagreements are resolved as quickly as possible so as to maintain positive relationships. Children pick up on negativity and it makes an uncomfortable environment for all. You should talk only with the person involved and find a way forward. Do not ignore the problem as the longer it is allowed to go on the more difficult it will be to resolve. Confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information All adults that work in a school environment should be aware of the legislation regarding confidentiality and data protection. Data Protection Act 1998

It is essential for schools to hold certain information so that children can be cared for effectively. This may include; Health or medical records Records from previous schools Records for children with special educational needs Any organisation which holds information on individuals needs to be registered with the information commissioner. This is designed to ensure that confidential information cannot be passed on to others without the individuals consent. The eight principles of practice are that information must be: Processed fairly and lawfully

Used only for the purpose for which it was gathered
Adequate, relevant and not excessive
Accurate and kept up to date where necessary
Kept for no longer than necessary
Processed in line with the individual’s rights
Kept secure

Not transferred outside the European Union without adequate protection As a teaching assistant I have access to a wide range of information about the children in my care. I ensure that I keep all information confidential unless otherwise necessary and if I am unsure I speak with my line manager. Sometimes when people think of passing on confidential information they think of to other adults outside of school but it involves professionals, other parents and even other children in the school. Any of these would be a breach of confidentiality.

Confidentiality
In some instances parents may be wary about giving out private/personal information that the school needs. In this instance every effort should be made to reassure them about confidentiality and that the information will not be passed onto anyone else without their permission. Each school should also have a confidentiality policy that can be referred to. Sometimes you may attend meetings with other professionals. Parental consent should be gained before any information about the child/family is shared unless the child is ‘at risk’ or there is a legal obligation on the school to disclose such information. You must be mindful of students, helpers or visitors in the school and what information is revealed in their presence.

Some information must be passed on such as if a child is asthmatic or has an allergy but the majority of information should be on a need to know basis. It is always important to remember there may be a situation where you will need to tell others. If a child confides in you about certain issues and you suspect child abuse or that the child may be ‘at risk’ you should ensure the child knows that you cannot keep the information confidential. You must pass the information on to the delegated person. In cases such as this you should makes notes on what the child has told you and allow them to speak freely but do not push them for information or ask leading questions.

Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People

This pack is designed to support you in producing evidence for your qualification. You can either complete the sheets enclosed or create your own way of presenting your evidence.

Outcome 1

1.1) Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety.

1.2) Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people. You can produce evidence for this outcome by completing the attached chart and writing short statements.

Outcome 2

2.1) Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses.

2.2) Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured.

2.3) Identify circumstances when children and young people might require urgent medical attention.

2.4) Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including fires, security incidents and missing children/young person. You can produce evidence for this outcome by completing the attached charts and writing a short reflective statement.

Outcome 3

3.1) Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse.

3.2) Describe the risks and possible consequences for children and young people using the internet, mobile phones and other technologies.

3.3) Describe actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self harm) or bullied, or maybe at risk of harm, abuse or bullying.

3.4) Describe the actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague may be Failing to comply with safeguarding procedures

Harming, abusing or bullying a child or young person

3.5) Describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality and when to share information

You can produce evidence for this outcome by completing the attached chart and writing a short reflective statement.

007. Outcome 1.1 (written and reflective statement)

Identify the main points or write a brief summary of the following: Children Act 2004/2006
Every child matters
Local safeguarding board
Your settings safeguarding policy

007. Outcome 1.2 (written)

Complete the following table with 2 examples.
Agency name (involved in safeguarding people and young people) Role of the agency (in own work setting)

007. Outcome 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 (written)
Complete the following table with 5 examples.
Common childhood illnesses
Signs and symptoms
What action will you take in the work setting

Identify what might be wrong with a child/young person who may be suffering with some of the following symptoms, explaining what action you would take. Severe headache, feeling nauseous, raised temperature, sensitivity to light, blotchy skin/rash, cold hands and feet with shivering, feeling very sleepy with difficulty to wake.

Illness

Action you would take

007. Outcome 2.4 (reflective statement)
This work will also provide evidence for 009, outcome 1.1 and 1.2

Emergency
Action to take following your settings procedures
Fire

Security incident – identify what this might be.

Missing child or young person

Explain/outline the responsibilities of staff in your setting during a fire drill – who is responsible for checking the rooms, who is responsible for collecting the registers, who is responsible for collecting emergency phone numbers etc.

007. Outcome 3.1, 3.2 (written)

Complete the table, identifying the different types of abuse.

Type of child abuse
List at least THREE characteristics (signs/symptoms) for each type of abuse P…….

E……..

s…..

N……

B…….

Identify a risk to children using internet and mobile phones How could you try and keep children and young people safe from your identified risk? Internet risk:

Mobile phone risk:

007. Outcome 3.3, 3.4 (written and reflective statement)
This work will also provide evidence for 009, outcome 1.1.

Explain how you would deal with the following evidence or concerns, referring to settings procedures where possible. Evidence or concern
How you would deal with this
A child discloses they are being bullied

A child discloses they are being abused

You have observed consistent bruising on a baby whilst changing their nappy.

A colleague is failing to comply with the settings safeguarding procedures

A colleague is harming , abusing or bullying a child

007. Outcome 3.5 (reflective statement)
This work will also provide evidence for 009, outcome 1.1.

Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper:

Following your settings confidentiality policy, identify the types of information you should not share with others. There may be certain occasions where you need to share confidential information with others. Identify what this information could be and under what circumstances might you need to break confidentiality.

How does the Internet Affect Young People?

How does the Internet Affect Young People?

There is a saying among the baby boomer generation, that if you want to learn how to use computers and the internet, go ask your grandchildren to teach you. An estimated 100% of all young people use computers with more than 90% regularly using the internet. Much of this internet use is tied to homework and websites needed to do research. However the internet is also the way most kids connect after school using social networks such as MySpace or Facebook. The kids communicate through chat rooms and emails, while also posting comments on their friends’ walls. Internet usage is so pervasive that many experts, scientists and psychologist have begun to study what effect it has on the lives of young people in general.

With so much social action taking place from behind a computer screen, adults and teachers are concerned about the loss of social skills among young people. In other words, the ability to communicate up close and personal with friends and family is becoming extinct. Young people simply don’t know how to hold a conversation. Take away a kid’s cell phone or computer and they tend to withdraw, don’t know what to do with their hands, become sullen. Hours in front of a computer on the internet also lends to the obesity problem plaguing America and the rest of the world. And a lack of exercise isn’t the only physical problem. Eyesight wanes after long hours in front of a computer screen. Bad posture, and body pain can develop from long hours spent sitting, not the least of which is bad circulation in the legs. Many young people who spend a great of time in front of computer are beginning to show symptoms of disease and illness not usually seen until someone reaches middle age or senior citizenship.

There are also many upsides to time spent in front of a computer. Young people today are able to log on and talk to their counterparts growing up in other parts of the world. The internet literally opens up the possibilities of world culture them enabling them to understand and to appreciate diversity. Painfully shy people unable to hold a face to face conversations can go online and talk for hours with someone elsewhere in the world, who may be in a similar situation at home. The internet enables young people to find answers to questions that they may not feel comfortable discussing with their parents and friends and teachers. An example of this might be sex education, which is only given cursory attention in most American schools.

Some studies have even shown that young people who regularly use the computer have better reading skills, spatial skills and visual skills. The one drawback to being on the computer that it is done in isolation, away from the watchful eyes of parents. Some of the information accessed my not be good for young people. The younger mind may not be able to process the information correctly. Parents should keep a watchful eye without seeming to smother their growing child’s independence.

Like all things in life, the internet is a two edged sword, one edge good, the other edge bad. Parents should use internet access as a teaching tool, helping their youngsters to understand the duplicity involved in life in general including the internet and the world wide web.

Partnership working in services for children and young people

1.1 Explain why working in partnership with others is important for children and young people.

Agencies working with one another in partnership is important as it enables information and concerns to be shared, this helps with the overall development of the child. It can be used to keep a child safe from harm,(every child matters Victoria Climbie no agencies involved in her care shared information which resulted in her tragic death).It can identify if a child has any special needs the child can then get support and help. It promotes a good relationship with parents/carers and helps them to feel more confident with the setting and its staff. It also help colleagues share information and observations leading to a greater understanding of child and their development which helps the child receive consistent level of care. Overall working in partnership ofers positive, improved outcomes for children and their families.

1.2 Identify who relevant partners would be in own work setting.

Parents ,social services, carers, senco, speech therapist, ofsted, gp ,health visitor, physiotherapist, nursery, colleagues, psychologist, paediatrician and police.

1.3Define the characteristics of effective partnership working.

For a partnership between a number of organisations’ to be effective characteristics such as good communication, trust and respect and confidentiality maintained at all times .All partners should have a clear aim that is agreed to ensure the needs of the child are meet. Parents and children should be treated fairly and with respect so that trust can be maintained. 1.4 Identify barriers to partnership working.

There are many potential barriers, these can be inconsistency between professionals. An information barrier, language barrier, incorrect information given, incorrect knowledge, personnel barrier, misunderstanding, poor communication, cultural and or religious attitudes to disability .A parents own education, previous experience, individual practitioners lack of knowledge of other professions, poor staff morale and poor morale from partners. Poor understanding of the aims of partnership and a lack of attention to the development skills of individuals. The wrong or insufficient partners involved and continual shifting of organisational structures and not planning in advance when things go wrong.

2.1 Describe why clear and effective communication between partners is required.

Clear effective communication is not only required, it is necessary to achieve the best outcome for all those involved. The key principles of partnership are openness, honesty and agreed shared objectives. All documents should be clear and concise, well written and dated. Any face to face meetings should have minutes taken, an agenda and a plan of action agreed that is sanctioned by all those involved ,all telephone conversations should be recorded ie written in dairy, date, time and with whom and what was discussed. This should then be confirmed by email outlining the conversation. If a breakdown between all partners involved in the Childs care, there may be an emotional, physical or intellectual impact on the Childs development.

Identify polices and procedures in the work setting for information sharing.

All policies regarding information in the setting are based on the Uks government guidance, these are European convention on human rights.
Human rights act.
Common law duty of confidentiality.
Data protection act 1988
Every child matters.
Children’s act 2004.
Working together to safeguard children 2006
Information sharing guidance
Safe guarding vulnerable groups act 2006
The children’s plan 2007.
Criminal records bureau guidance.

I have included several polices all of which make sure that the staff know they have a professional responsibility to share information with other agencies in order to safe guard children. The manger will disclose any information on a need to know bias only. All staff aim to ensure that parents and carers can share information with confidence and it will be used to enhance the welfare of their child. All development records are confidential and only staff and parents have access unless it deemed necessary to share with partners, personnel records and welfare requirements are also confidential. Each child has a key member of staff ie a named person who is the parents main contact with development and safe guarding issues. We also have clear polices about sharing information and confidentiality, which describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality and when to share information .

2.3 Explain where there may be conflicts or dilemmas in relation to sharing information with partners and maintaining confidentiality.

If you believe or have concerns that a child in your care may be suffering or may be at risk of significant harm, you may be unsure weather your concern constitutes a reasonable cause to believe that this is happening. In a situation like this your concern should not be ignored and you should approach your manger. You should not discuss the matter with anyone who does not need to know and protect the identity of the child and family involved. If you do have concerns it is not advisable to discuss the matter with the family until appropriate partners have been informed and agreed plain of action has been agreed. Sometimes a person may not specifically ask a member to keep information that they have given about themselves or another individual confidential and would of course assume that this is implied, the person may then share this information with others, who are not part of the setting partnership.

Sadly there may be a child in your setting, who is believed to have a physical or learning disability. Sometimes a parent may find it hard to cope and would rather with the not acknowledge the situation and refuse to co operate with the setting. .4 Describe why it is important to record information clearly accurately, legibly and concisely meeting legal requirements.

All information must be clear ,accurate and legible. The data protection act states that you should take reasonable steps to ensure the accuracy of any personnel data you obtain. Ensure that the source of any personnel data is clear. Carefully consider any challenges to the accuracy of information, and consider weather it is necessary to update the information. All information must be correct ,not used for any reason other than the reason it has been collected unless permission has been given. Not usually passed on without permission. Not to be kept for longer than necessary and to be secure. Under the data protection act parents can ask to see information that is held about their children and correct it if necessary and to know how the information is being used. 2.5 Identify how communication and records are recorded and securely stored meeting data protection requirements.

We hold written records the purpose of which are to comply with legislative requirements. These demonstrate that statutory and policy have been meet .As tool to provide evidence of work that has been undertaken. That demonstrate accountability in decision making , and to give an account of the children’s history, significant issues and involvement in the setting. Help us analyse and make assessments to help see if goals and aims have been achieved. To provide a reference and a reminder to key worker communicate information to co workers and partners. Show how decisions have been made and in what order. Provide information for responding to complaints. We keep personal details such as name address contact numbers medical details including medical contact numbers. All files are kept in a locked cabinet in the management office, which if left unmanned by management is locked, and locked at all other times only management have access to the keys, so there is no way that anyone can have access unless they first ask management.

Only when managements permission has been given, can a person have access to records however they must first sigh and date they have been allowed access and this will need to be counter sighed by a manger. No records are to leave the building. Only safe guarding officers are able to do this and this applies when there is a need to share information with our partners. Any use regarding safeguarding issues is at the discretion of management. No one is allowed in to be alone in the building other than staff, and no one is allowed alone in the office alone other than management .No pictures of the children are stored on the computer, which are taken for the purpose of their file are printed placed in profile and locked in cabinet. The photos are then deleted from the computer and camera right away.

Positive environments for children and young people

Positive environment
A positive environment is one that supports all aspects of the child’s development; staff members/carers can provide the children different ways to extend their developments. By doing activities and guiding the children through their learning, this creates a positive environment for them. Example:

Reading and writing activities will help the child or young person’s cognitive and intellectual development. Singing and speaking to the children or young people will help further their communication and language development. Praising and positive responses will encourage good behaviour and will help them understand right from wrong. This will help extend the child or young person’s physical and intellectual development.

In the nursery that I am training in we allow the children and young people to have access to outside and inside, we call this ‘free play’. We have some staff inside and some outside to supervise the children and young people. Inside:

We will set out an activity for them on the tables and in the ‘role-play. These activities could be finger painting, gluing and sticking; each activity we do with the children and young people will cover all aspects of their developments. All of these activities are supervised by either a member of staff or a student to ensure they are behaving and that they are all safe. ’ We have a baby gate that’s blocking the children and young people from the kitchen area, where the adults (members of staff will prepare their food, this is to ensure their safety.

Outside
Children and young people will have sand and water activities outside. They also have a variety of toys and places to explore such as the ‘shed shop’ and the ‘outdoor kitchen’. The children and young people also play with the bikes and scooters, these will only be taken out by and adult/member of staff. The garden itself is surrounded by a wooden fence that has a gate (fire exit), this gate has a high bolt that can be moved by a member of staff.

For both inside and outside we ensure that all the children and young people are supervised and that their needs are met; nappy changing, nap time and their lunch/snack time. We also provide the children and young people with a cold compress if they have had a bump or fall; we have a first aid kit for any other injuries the children may get when doing an activity.

Regulatory requirements that underpin a positive environment for children and young people

Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) Framework
All early year providers must ensure that children and young people’s educational and intellectual needs are met and that the child or young people develop well. Ensures children are kept healthy and safe

Ensures that children have the knowledge and skills they need to start school EYFS ensures that every child or young person makes good progress and no child gets left behind Learning and development opportunities which are planned around the needs and interests of each individual child and are assessed and reviewed regularly Partnership working between practitioners and with parents and/or carers

Childcare Act 2006
Reduce child poverty: To support parents and carers to work, and focus on the provision of good quality childcare for working parents or adults. Reduce inequalities between young children: Focus on supporting children most at risk of poor outcomes because of deprivation and disadvantage and promote social mobility. Improve wellbeing for young people and children

HSWA (the health & safety at work act 1974)
Securing the health, safety and welfare of persons at work;

Protecting persons, other than persons at work, against risks to health or safety arising out of or in connection with the activities of persons at work;

Controlling of highly flammable or otherwise dangerous substances, stored correctly or locked away to prevent any harm or danger to any persons

Cleaning and ensuring the work equipment is in working order and that instructions, training or supervision is given if needed

Providing protective clothing or equipment if risks cannot be removed but can be prevented

Report certain accidents, injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences Care Standards Act 2006
People running day-care services for children up to eight years old must register with Ofsted Early Years (Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills)

Regular inspections must be carried out to ensure that the childcare setting is both safe and suitable for all young people and or those that are vulnerable

In a childcare setting there must be an activity plan for all children and young people to ensure their educational needs and to help extend all their developments

Safeguarding and welfare requirements
Protection to all child and young persons
Data protection
Qualified staff, Training, Support and Skills
Safety and Suitability of Premises, Environment and Equipment Confidentiality
Staff Record Sheet
Complaints Procedure
Registration Form
Safeguarding Children Policy
Safeguarding Children Procedure
Social Networking Policy
Partnership with Parents Policy
Settling In/Child Induction Policy
Accident Record Form
Recruitment Policy & Procedure
Staff Employment Contract
First Aid Box Guidance

References

Contribute to the Support of Positive Environments for Children and Young By lillie94 | March 2012 People
http://www.studymode.com/essays/Contribute-To-The-Support-Of-Positive-944399.html

How is Childcare Regulated?
Page last updated: 11 September 2013
http://www.tameside.gov.uk/surestart/childcare/regulations#reg

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Social Networking And Its Effects On Young Generation

Social Networking Sites is a web-based service, with a large online community. Websites like Face book, MySpace or Twitter provide social networking services like bring people together all over the world by allowing them to get to know each other. This interaction is likely to include families, friendship and romantic and group relation. With the help of networking, it can help people make friends and to search to find some personal relationship and families can stay in touch more easily. Nowadays, huge number of people connects to networking sites and it also increases the number of relationship. The websites combine many internet features into one: personal profile, blogs, places for photos and videos, the latest news about music groups, user groups, and more. People use social networking sites to developing business contacts and maintaining contact with them. Websites like LinkedIn can be convenient place for professionals to meet and talk about business. Developing business contacts on the internet is most of the time easier and faster than offline.

Aims

The aim of the study is explain the Importance of participating in internet groups and interactive with others and one-on-one from the individual self concept and social relationship. This research also tell how the knowledge is to be explored and social action is to be taken which shall be carried out in the field so this research aims at understanding transformation reconstructing and striving for an understanding of the whole. So approach which suites my question is qualitative research and the primary aim of this investigation is to study the people interaction on internet as we all know the now days people have been curious about how the powerful new information and communication media known as internet interaction is going on in the society.

Objectives

Promote your business using social networking sites.
Effects of social networking websites on the young generation. Safety sites of young generation.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Social networking sites.

Literature review

Internet is first and foremost communication technology with the potential to change people social interaction. Internet adoption in homes has grown rapidly since the early 1990’s. For Example by 2003 63% of American had used the internet. In 1990s, Information technology experts expected the internet to be consigned to the trash heap of history. Internet has become an essential part of our lives; many websites have facility ways for people to keep in touch in the form of social networking. Social networking sites are the way for interact with new people and to make connections as well as share photos, videos, and activities with each other (Red Sox Nation”, \Northern California”).. In the past 5 years, such sites have rocketed and millions of people use networking sites. According to Amanda Lenhart and Mary Madden indicates that 55% of online teenagers have created a personal profile online, and 55% have used networking sites like MySpace and Face book.

A social networking site includes both the exchange of information among individuals and group online. Expression also represents a view perspective, reflection, or quality of the individual or groups. Social networking is more focussed on individual relations and goals than is city and community involvement and networking with specific others whom one either knows initially or eventually comes to know. This interaction is likely to include families, friendship and romantic and group relationship. Video-sharing site is an also place where humans can make connection with one another. YouTube also allows a user to add another user as his or her friend. Expressions refer to the material that is created by individual or groups to reflect their views, interests or talents. Mainly internet based on social networking sites to build the personal and relationship and give the meaning to people’s lives. This sites help to people allow creating social relationship and it also used to find new friends in new locate. There are many ways the internet can be used for social relationship as follows are:

– Online chatting

Online dating
Finding life partners
Online friendship
Many more
Online chatting

By using online chatting on internet many friends and relatives have come closer and to know very well to each other. Calling is very expensive and people can’t afford to call. With the help of networking sites, people can connect to their relatives and get to talk each other very easily and they can see each other and chat through internet.

Online dating

Social networking websites are a great way of meeting people new people all over the world. Now days, people are meeting and dating on the internet. People can chat to somebody anytime, anyplace and anywhere. They are having huge relationship with others, so they will ask they will not go out with them because they are dating to someone.

Finding Life partners

Social sites focus on many different aspects of life, which makes it easier to find and make connections with other people who share common goals and interests, including love. By using traditional forms of marriage creation mainly of arranged marriages, internet has slowly being modified to the arrange marriage because it can serve the strength of tradition especially when modern condition of technologies seen to in decide tradition.

Friendship Circle

By using these sites instant messaging it allows cheap chatting between people and among group of friend or family. It also offers a good way of communicating with friends nearby or far away, without worrying about time or cost. This activity leads to vast expression of contact and interactivity many people enjoy ready for outcomes relationship. I just like keeping up to chat with somebody and it makes me feel very great to know somebody and to make new connection. So in this research the evidence strongly suggest that the internet has already been used to powerful enhance the social relationship. The importance is social and is creating both individual level and collective level social capital. Networking sites also used for developing business contacts and to make connections with them.

Websites like LINKEDIN can be suitable place for professionals to meet and talk about business. Developing business on the internet is the most of the time easier and faster than offline. Social networking sites are also promoting a business to a wider audience and global marketing .Nowadays, the majority of business at least one kind of online presence. All the above reason  that the easy and rewarding interaction with other people, as well as the personal or professional gain that people obtain from joining social networking sites. These sites succeed at making everyone part of global society. In our research, social networking sites can effects on the young generations. As a result, social networking websites have extensive attraction for youngsters with the number of users growing daily. In 2007, Pew Internet and American life Project report that 55% of online teens have a personal profile (facebook, twitter, orkut) on this kind of website. Today, youngsters attract these sites just because of this websites combine many features into one like personal profile, blogs, videos and photos sharing, and many more. Along with these benefits come some risks. As conclude that there are number of cases for harassment or sexual advances.

Most of these sites are open to all, especially MySpace or face book which means that teenagers could be exposed our personal information and our identity to someone. Cyber-bulling and harassment are more often commit by other youngsters and mostly tend to happen most to older girls and either gender who have a strong online presence. There so many several forms like posting threatening messages, publishing private messages, e-mails or text messages, posting embarrassment photos and many more. Another risk is identifying theft, which means somebody can enter your personal profile they can know about everything like, your name, birthdates and your location. So today, it’s very rare for harassment to all over the world but it can still be a cause of emotional distress for youngsters. As a result, most social networking sites have privacy controls in place, but youngsters hardly ever use them. If you can do active monitoring of profiles and behaviours catches some hackers, but not all of them. Here some tips of safety sites for young generation as well as child also when they created our profile it make sure they understand not to post personal information like home address, birthdates, email address, mobile number etc because this information is private to them and not for sharing.

And also explain that what gets put on the internet can live forever its means if you remove your picture later it may have been copied by someone else and misuse of your picture also. The main safety tips are that you should use for password for your profile and make sure their password cannot be easily guessed. Survey results show that percentage for adults with profile on social networking sites September  data. In this graph shows that adults in all age group favour for face book by a wide margin, with older adults preferring it slightly more. In 73% of all adults 18 and older have use face book as well as adults 30 and older has 75% and young adults 18-29 has 71% who use social networking sites have a face book account. In contrast, 48% of all adult social network users have a MySpace account. Young generation is much more using MySpace with 66% but only 36% of the 30 and older bracket. In other rates for professional networking sites LinkedIn are the reverse of MySpace. 14% of all adults 18 social networking sites users have LinkedIn account, which breaks down to 7% of adult 18-29 and 19% of adults 30 and older. In conclude that the highest percentage of internet users have use face book in social networking sites the second sites used is MySpace and other LinkedIn sites.

Advantages of social networking sites

The most common advantages of social networking sites, it is the good way for communicate with new people and to make connections as well as share photos, videos ,blogs, services and activities with each other. It’s also build the personal relationship and give the meaning to people’s lives. Social networking sites are also promoting a business to a wider audience and global marketing. By joining different communities, now people can easily know about the latest news related to that community. And the best parts of this that advice is free u don’t need to pay any euro. Experts and your friends always ready to give you advice and share information with you. Here some most common positive things that has to make social networking really popular among people and spread smiles.

Disadvantages of social networking sites

There are some major disadvantages of networking sites that Security is the topmost matter of social networking sites which we used more. There are some people who always search for fake identity, which means somebody can enter your personal profile they can know about everything like, your name, birth date, email address and your location. So today, it’s very rare for harassment to all over the world. It is always advisable to don’t provide your entire identity information online otherwise it makes our life spoil. Methods of Research:

Philosophy of research

There are many different types of research philosophies used by researchers like positivism, realism, interpretive, objectivism, subjectivism, pragmatism, functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist and radical structuralism. There are two types of realism direct and critical and the meaning of direct is “what you see is what you get”. Critical realism is the real world images of things and theory suggests data which specify technique at back observables. It means before data collection selection the selection of theory is must and then collection of data according to requirement (Saunders et al, 2007).

Types of Research

There are two main type of research approaches qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research, by definition deals with quantity and relationships between attributes; it involves the collection and analysis of highly structured data in the positivist tradition (Bowling 1997) .This method of research is appropriate in situations in which there is pre-existing knowledge which will permit the use of standardized data collection methods like survey, questionnaires.(Bowling 1997). Qualitative is an empirical research in which data is in text form rather than in number form.

Qualitative method as opposed to quantitative used to collect and analyze the information in as many shapes, mostly non numeric. Main focus of this technique is to explore as feasible in detail, idea is to attain deepness instead of breadth (Blaxter ET at, 2007). I will use qualitative method of research here. The strength of this approach is the capability to study people in the field. Qualitative research describes words rather than numbers, the equality of social phenomena through observation. I am using in depth interviews and questionnaire and discussion group at the same time for collecting my research data. .

Methodology

The methodology shall be illustrative qualitative using a case study methodology. This method offers an opportunity to study a particular subject and this can be used to express theories. Case study is a strategy for doing research method which involves an empirical investigation of a specific occurrence within its real life context using multiple source of indication.

Support children and young people’s positive behaviour

Introduction

This assignment will demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of why it is important for all staff to be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people. Also outlining the implications that inconsistent application of rules may have and applying the rules and boundaries in accordance with the policies and procedures. Detailing the benefits or encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour and providing examples of the types of behaviour that should be referred to others and to whom these should be referred.

Assessment Criteria 1.2

Why it is important for all staff to be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people and outlining the implications that inconsistent applications of rules may have.

All staff in school should know and use rules consistently and behaviour should be monitored closely by the schools senior management. Children and young people should be shown fair and consistent boundaries at all times they respond well when they know what is expected of them, if all members of staff use the same strategies when managing behaviour. If behaviour is not managed well this could waste lesson time and children’s learning could suffer. Children should know the sanction and rewards and the order in which it will be applied no matter who talks to them about their behaviour. If they are consistent and fair the children get to understand quickly what id acceptable and what’s not.

If you are inconsistent they become confused and may become scared or withdrawn as they are unsure of whether their actions are leading them into trouble or not. If you treat children differently and react to individual children’s behaviour differently you can be accused of favouritism, bias and victimisation. You can project an image on someone who lacks control and doesn’t know what they are doing and therefore lose authority and respect. The school should work as a whole to be consistent in-line with policies and procedures then staff, pupils and parents have an understanding of the rules, boundaries and behaviour expectations as well as sanctions that result from transgressions this results in a calmer, smoother, day and easier year group to group transitions.

Reasons why it is important to have behaviour boundaries:-

To create a positive environment, which encourages independence and development of self – of esteem to enable all children to care for themselves, be responsible for their own safety and take ownership of their own action and take pride in their achievements. To stop all forms of bullying, racial and sexual harassment all incidents will be thoroughly investigated and all children involved will be counselled and parents will be informed and involved in all decision making. When children are being bullied in school we may not always recognise that they are being bullied or likewise they also may misunderstand the nature and label one incident as bullying.

All incidents will be recorded and in cases or racial and sexual incidents the schools governors will also be involved. When managing pupils behaviour, all staff will need to be aware of schools policies. The majority of children / young people do not present Challenging behaviour, and they attend arrange of educational settings in environments which are conductive to learning appropriate behaviours., it is essential to ensure that behaviour which does not meet school settings expectations, is responded to throughout management strategies that do not rely upon and form of physical or abusive intervention. The aims of this procedure is:-

To promote positive behaviour management in schools and education settings and to help schools and educational settings to understand what the law means for them in practical terms and provide staff with advice on good practice. To protect the interest and well – being of children and young people’s for whom staff have a shared responsibility and to protect staff in fulfilment of their responsibility’s to children and young people and reduced the likelihood of actions by staff being challenged in the courts. Protecting the local authority who ultimately has responsibility for the actions of its staff.

Examples of applying these rules and boundaries in accordance with policies and procedures

All adults who work within the school environment have a responsibility to themselves and to the schools, to model a high standard of behaviour, both in their dealings with the children and with others adults within the school as their examples of behaviour has a significant influence on the children’s behaviour. Good strong teamwork between adults will encourage good behaviour in children. Each school has a behaviour policy that staff should be aware of and adhere to all staff; all new staff follows an induction programme to guarantee a dependable approach to behaviour management.

Classroom organisation and teaching methods have a major influence on children’s behaviour in classroom environment, children are aware of the degree to which they and their efforts are valued. A good relationship between a teacher, teaching assistant and the children promotes positive strategies which are used together with classroom displays that the children have done by themselves all have a bearing on the children’s behaviour behaviour.

Assessment criteria 2.1

The benefits of encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour.

All children are given explicit guidelines on their expected behaviour within the schools premises and all expectations are given in clear and precise manner paying attention of the relevant age range. All children will be encouraged and trained to the daily routines and responsibilities for their own actions when in school. Positive and appropriate behaviour is rewarded with special choosing activity and positive attention and privileges. A whole class sticker chart maybe implemented to encourage more positive behaviour in which the class will be rewarded with a treat. The best way to reward good behaviour and encourage more is positive reinforcement. Good behaviour results from parents and adults rewarding the child with encouragement and positive words. If a child feels good about something that they have did and achieved they are more than likely to repeat the good behaviour.

Children are naturally born pleaser’s and you can reward good behaviour with a simple smile, a laugh, praise or a continuing fun activity. Children will be encouraged to repeat good behaviour because each time they are having more fun and enjoyment. Good behaviour means that they get to repeat the fun things that they like to do and this encourages them to have good behaviour. Rewarding good behaviour with compliments children like to feel more grown up then they are and this encourages the children to continue with good behaviour and will also make them feel more independent. Tell the children with good behaviour that they are acting a certain age older. Another way to reward good behaviour is to tell the child or children how pleased you are with something that the child has done. The child will be encouraged to keep up with the good behaviour. Most importantly reward good behaviour and encourage more with patience and kind words.

Assessment criteria 3.2

Examples of the types of behaviour that should be referred to others and to whom these should be referred to.

There will be times when children might not show a positive behaviour. There could be many reasons for any type of inappropriate behaviour shown sometimes children and young people are just testing the limits of their boundaries or sometimes their could be far more serious reasons behind it. However in a situation like this teachers and teaching assistants need to recognise that when the child needs to be referred to others. Sometimes children’s behaviour could show some signs that they need some extra support.

Children biting:- Most children stop biting by the age of three. It is common in toddlers and is linked to frustration as they cannot talk and express their feelings and find it difficult to control their emotions. If older children are still biting they may need to be investigated to determine what is causing them to behave in this way.

Aggression:- While most children will squabble and younger children will hit out older children should be more controlled. Aggressive acts such as hitting another child for no reason should be referred.

Change of behaviour:- If children’s behaviour changes on certain days or who were fine earlier may need additional support. There could be many reasons of sudden change in their behaviour such as abuse, family separation, or a bereavement in the family.

Many behavioural problems can be solved by a teacher or teaching assistant but sometimes the more serious problems needs to be reported on to people higher up in the school system.

These include:-

Hearing a child saying something about another person’s race. Which the teaching assistant at first report to the teacher, then the head and if necessary they would inform the parents of the children involved.

Verbal abuse to another to another person. First this would be reported to the teacher and then the head and if necessary the parents of the child.

Stealing from other children or around the school e.g. classroom etc – report to teacher and the head, parents of the child or children will be informed and police if necessary.

The types of behaviour that are unacceptable and should be referred to others include:-

Using your power, strength and authority to intimidate others, Abusive language, and racist, homophobic, sexist language. Possession of and taking drugs or alcohol and illegal substances or entering the school premises after having taken alcohol or any drugs, fighting and violent behaviour may result to damage of school property.

We also need to refer the following types of inappropriate behaviour:-

Behaviour that is inappropriate for the child’s stages of development e.g. a child over four years old who continues biting an older child who hits other children or is physically aggressive in other ways, Self harming behaviour, and the common type of behaviour is bullying:- Other professionals who may be called upon help to all those involved. It is useful for senior members of staff to attend meetings in which allows everyone to contribute information about a child, these will help to create an overview on the progress, development and behaviour of the child and its here that recorded observations will be especially useful.

Professionals who may become involved include the following:-

Health Visitors

Works primarily with children up to five years and their families, checking for healthy growth and development.

Play Therapists

Play therapists have specialist training and work with children through play to help them feel emotionally secure.

Paediatricians

Paediatricians are doctors who specialise in the care of children and young people up to the age of 16, to check for normal development and diagnose difficulties.

Educational Psychologist

They assess children and young people who have special needs and give advice, particularly for those with emotional and behaviour difficulties.

Child Psychologist

They are doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating behavioural and thought disorders in children, adolescents and sometimes in adults. They use there knowledge on many factors including biological and psychological factors, in order to devise a treatment plan for a child with behavioural and thought disorders. This plan may include medication to help control or minimise certain behaviours or thoughts.

Conclusion

We have learnt that all members of staff should be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people and to why it is important to do so. Also to apply these rules and boundaries within the schools policies and procedures. We have also detailed the importance of encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour and the ways these can have affect on the children and young people. we have provided examples of the types of behaviour that maybe found in children and young people and who they may be referred to in different situations regarding to the different behaviour patterns.

Ensuring children and young people’s safety

Ensuring children and young people’s safety and welfare in the work setting is an essential part of safeguarding. While children are at school, practitioners act in ‘loco parentis’ while their parents are away. As part of their legal and professional obligations, practitioners hold positions of trust and a duty of care to the children in their school, and therefore should always act in their best interests and ensure their safety – the welfare of the child is paramount (Children Act 1989). The Children Act 2004 came in with the Every Child Matters (ECM) guidelines and greatly impacted the way schools look at the care and welfare of pupils.

Children and young people should be helped to learn and thrive and be given the opportunity to achieve the five basic outcomes: be healthy; stay safe; enjoy and achieve; make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. Children are vulnerable and depending on their age and level of development, do not see danger or recognise risks. They do not know when or how to look after themselves and need adults to protect them and ensure their safety, whilst encouraging their independence in an age appropriate manner.

All organisations that employ staff or volunteers to work with children need to use a safer recruitment practice. In March 2005, following the Soham murders and the subsequent Bichard Inquiry, the DCSF – Department for Children, Schools and Families – (previously the DES and the DoH) proposed that Recommendation 19 of the Bichard Inquiry should be carried out:

‘new arrangements should be introduced requiring those who wish to work with children, or vulnerable adults, to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients.’

As a result, the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 was passed, providing the legislative framework for the new Vetting and Barring scheme. This Act established the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) to make decisions about who should be allowed to work with children, the elderly and other vulnerable adults and to maintain lists of those who are barred. Under the Act, it is an offence for an employer to employ a barred person in a role with children. It is also an offence for a barred person to apply for such a role. Employers must also advise the ISA if an individual harms a child whilst working for them. The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 merged the ISA with the CRB (Criminal Records Bureau) to form the DBS (Disclosure and Barring Services). It also differentiated between supervised and unsupervised activities.

Schools should have policies and procedures for safer recruitment practice, which should be applied at every stage in the recruitment process, from advertising, references and pre-interview checks, to the selection of candidates, interviewing process and the offer of appointment. As part of the process, every adult wanting to work with children or vulnerable adults must have a DBS (Disclosure and Barring Services) check. There are three levels of DBS disclosure:

-Basic disclosure: details relevant information about the individual, together with any convictions (spent or in force), cautions or warnings that the individual has received.

-Enhanced disclosure: includes the same as the basic disclosure, plus any additional relevant information held by the police.

-Enhanced disclosure with Barred List Check.

Schools must also ensure that any adults (including cleaners and caretakers) or volunteers in the workplace do not have unsupervised access to children unless they have been DBS checked.

Schools need to ensure that they provide children and young people with a happy safe environment to learn and develop, with trusted and supportive adults. Practitioners need to actively promote the well-being and welfare of every child. This includes providing a wide range of activities to promote development through play as well as formal learning. These activities should include age appropriate toys and games that meet the Toy (Safety) Regulations 1995 and are in a good state of repair. Practitioners should check for Kitemarks and CE markings. Kitemarks are symbols that show products have been tested and meet the British Standard Institute requirements. CE markings show that products meet European standards as set out by the European Community.

Children also need to communicate and socialise with their peers, children from other age groups and other adults. They need to feel safe and secure in their environment so that they feel able to speak to adults about any concerns they may have, or to ask questions and seek help without fear of embarrassment. They need good role models who can help them extend their decision making skills and develop independence appropriate to their age and development level. Practitioners have a further responsibility to provide additional support to children who may have special educational needs.

This may be through individual sessions within the school, liaison with external services such as educational psychologists or through the CAF (Common Assessment Framework) process. The CAF process was developed to gather and assess information in relation to a child’s needs in development, parenting and the family environment. It is a service that should be offered to children (and their families) whose additional needs are not being met through universal services within the school. Practitioners also need to protect any children who may be at risk of significant harm because of their home life and personal circumstances.

There are a number of policies and procedures that should be in place in schools to ensure children and young people’s protection and safety:

•Working in an open and transparent way – adults should make sure that another member of staff is always aware of where they are working, especially if they are alone in a room with a child, there should always be visual access or the door should remain open.

•Duty of care – adults should always act in the best interests of the child and ensure their safety – the welfare of the child is paramount (Children Act 1989).

•Whistleblowing – staff should understand their responsibilities to raise concerns of malpractice. Staff will be deemed to be failing in their duty to safeguard children if they do not act.

•Listening to children – adults relationships with children should always be professional, caring and respectful. Children need to feel valued and listened to.

•Power and positions of trust – adults working with children hold positions of trust due to their access to the children in their care, and relationships between pupils and staff will always have an unequal balance of power – these positions should never be abused.

•Behaviour – teachers should behave in such a way as to safeguard children’s well-being and maintain public trust in the teaching profession.

•Physical contact – staff should ensure that any contact with children is entirely professionally appropriate.

•Off-site visits – staff must take particular care to ensure that clear boundaries are maintained and full risk assessments must be carried out prior to a visit.

•Recording of images – there must be age-appropriate consent from the person or their parents or carers.

•Intimate personal care – all children have a right to safety, privacy and dignity when intimate care is required.

•Sharing concerns and information – highly confidential information about children and their families should only ever be shared on a need to know basis, and anonymously wherever possible.

•Security – school premises should be made secure with fencing, gates and locking doors with secure access codes to prevent unwelcome visitors and to stop children from leaving the premises unaccompanied. There should be clear locking and unlocking procedures and stringent rules for visitor access to the buildings. Contractors should be LA approved or selected using safe selection procedures and should have carried out appropriate risk assessments in advance. They should be given information to enable them to follow the school’s safety procedures.

The three main areas that address the protection of children from harm in the work setting are: child protection; health and safety, and risk assessments.

•Child protection.

It is the responsibility of all adults in the setting to actively safeguard children and young people and to prevent abuse or neglect. The setting should detail how the policies and procedures should work on a daily basis and outline current legislation in this area (see Task A). The policy should describe the responsibilities of the setting as well as those of individuals. It should include a summary of the possible signs of abuse or neglect for staff to refer to (see Task D1). Staff are required to respond to any concerns in an appropriate and timely manner. There should be clear guidelines on how staff should proceed when there are concerns, or allegations have been made, including the role of the designated CPO (Child Protection Officer) (see Task D2).

Staff should also be made aware of the procedures if the allegation concerns another member of staff or the head teacher (see Section 2 below). The policy should detail external services that may be required, including names and telephone numbers etc. There should be specific guidance about how to behave if a child or young person makes an allegation of abuse. The policy should detail other procedures and policies that support staff responsibilities in this area, such as the behaviour and anti-bullying policies (see Task E) and the whistleblowing policy (see Section 3 below).

•Health and Safety.

Schools are legally required to have a Health and Safety policy to ensure that there is a plan for how health and safety is managed in the setting and that all staff are aware of all their responsibilities. This policy should be read and implemented by all staff and it should form part of the induction process for new members of staff. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 were designed to protect everyone at work. The employer in a school must take reasonable steps to ensure that staff and pupils are not exposed to risks to their health and safety. This applies to activities on or off school premises. The employer is required to carry out regular reviews of the school, its premises and activities. There should be a designated health and safety representative at every setting who is responsible for the reviews and any subsequent action.

The reviews should involve regular walks around the school as well as safety checks on equipment. All electrical items should be checked annually by a qualified electrician. Fire extinguishers should also be checked annually. Staff should ensure that they use any safety equipment provided and store it safely. All materials and equipment used in schools should meet recognised safety standards. Practitioners should check for Kitemarks and CE markings. Kitemarks are symbols that show products have been tested and meet the British Standard Institute requirements. CE markings show that products meet European standards as set out by the European Community. The Workplace, (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 deal with physical conditions in the workplace and require employers to meet minimum standards in relation to a wide range of issues, including: maintenance of buildings and equipment; lighting; provision of drinking water; temperature; ventilation; rest rooms; toilet facilities; room dimensions and space; cleanliness; condition of floors and traffic routes.

The School Premises (England) Regulations 2012 apply to all maintained schools in England, and came into effect in October 2012. This legislation works in conjunction with the Workplace Regulations, but applies specifically to school standards, which are often more stringent i.e. the provision of a medical room for pupils, or a lower maximum temperature for hand washing in children’s toilet facilities. To protect children and young people from harm on the premises, the school should consider the following:

•Safety of the indoor and outdoor play equipment, including water and sand play.

•Safety in the school kitchen, including the storage, preparation and cooking of food.

•Fire safety, including maintaining clearly marked exit routes and doors.

•Appropriately sized furniture and equipment for the children.

•Safe storage of hazardous materials under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002.

•Appropriate adult-child ratios at all times.

•First aid training for staff, with sufficient numbers of first aid trained staff on the premises at all times.

•Safety in the dining hall, including hot food, spillages, choking risks etc.

•Vigilance in challenging unidentified adults.

•Procedures for cleaning up bodily fluids, vomit or faeces.

•Internet safety.

•Hand washing facilities and practices.

•Adaptations where necessary for children with special needs or disabilities.

•Safety of outdoor play areas, including access, space and floor surfacing.

•Safe storage and supervision of medicines.

•Implementation of procedures for children and staff with illnesses, i.e. remaining away from school for 48 hours after sickness or diarrhoea.

•A nominated person for asbestos and legionella competency.

•Tidiness and safety of traffic routes around the premises.

Off-site educational visits have additional issues that could affect children’s safety. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 requires full risk assessments to be carried out prior to a visit. Employers must assess the risks of activities, plan measures to control the risks and inform employees of the measures. Staff must follow school and Local Authority regulations, policies and guidance, which include: evidence of parental permission; emergency procedures; first aid kit and trained staff; appropriate clothing and equipment; qualified staff for activities; adult to children ratios; special educational or medical needs of the children; approval of volunteers (including DBS checks); age and competence of the pupils and transport arrangements. Health and Safety arrangements also require members of staff to keep colleagues/senior staff aware of their whereabouts and movements.

•Risk assessments.

It is a legal requirement for all employers to carry out risk assessments. Risk assessments are a formal examination of things that could cause harm to people. The Health and Safety Executive guidance sets out a simple Five Steps to Risk Assessment:

Step 1: Look for the hazards and risks. A hazard is something that can cause harm. A risk is the likelihood of harm together with the consequences should it take place.

Step 2: Decide who could be harmed and how.

Step 3: It is necessary to differentiate between hazards and risks and then to prioritise them, dealing with the most serious risks first. Decide whether the existing precautions are sufficient. If not, decide what other precautions should be introduced and ensure that they are put in place.

Step 4: Record your actions and findings.

Step 5: Review the assessment at regular intervals, or if circumstances change, and revise if necessary.

Risk assessments should be used within the school setting e.g. for a new climbing frame or for outdoor water play, and also for off-site visits regardless of their duration. The head teacher is usually responsible for risk assessments and should sign and date them after they are completed. If existing precautions are not satisfactory, then activities may have to be restricted or stopped until changes are made. Changes may involve staff training or additional equipment. Risk assessments will also need to be carried out for individuals with special needs or disabilities and specialists may come to the school to carry them out. Other individuals may require a risk assessment in certain circumstances, i.e. a pupil on crutches or temporarily in a wheelchair. Ofsted inspectors would expect risk assessments to be available as part of their inspections.

Risk assessments should form part of a school’s management processes and help to formalise working practices and arrangements. They are a valuable tool for identifying problems and potential problems, monitoring situations and ensuring precautions are taken to keep children and adults safe from harm.

Communication and Professional Relationships with Children, Young People and Adults

Unit 301 – Communication and professional relationships with children, young people and adults. 1.1 – Effective communication is important in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults because it ensures strong relationships between on another and helps create a positive working environment. By demonstrating and modelling effective communication skills with others you will create positive relationships. It is important that we know how to communicate to one another in a polite, friendly manner even in moments of stress. If we have positive relationships with children, young people and adults we are more likely to communicate information to one another. By thinking about the different ways we can communicate to each other this will ensure positive working relationships are carried out. 1.2 – If we can ensure children, young people and adults are comfortable in our company this will encourage relationship building.

It is important that we build on positive relationships with one another to create a friendly, happy and positive environment to work in. Children, young people and adults can pick up on unfriendly or negative atmospheres so by ensuring that we are relationship building with one another and are creating positive relationships through effective communication the whole setting will benefit. There are a few key points that ensure a positive relationship. These include; Effective communication, Being considerate, Maintaining a sense of humour, Showing respect, Remembering issues which are personal to them, Taking time to listen to others and Being clear on points. All of these key points will help build positive relationships with others. 1.3 – When working in different social, professional and cultural contexts it is important that we learn how to adapt the way we communicate in different situations. When working with others it is important that we consider the context in which we are working. For example, if I was in a meeting I would use more formal language and behaviour.

If I was communicating with a parent it would be more informal and more personal. It is important that all practitioners are aware of different types of communication with adults. For example, if I had a professional conversation over the phone, I would ensure that I listened well, I was attentive and responded well when speaking to the other party. When dealing with other professionals there will be meetings and discussions as well as more informal communication at times. On some occasions non-spoken forms of communication can be an issue if they aremisread by others. For example, how quickly someone responds to an email or phone message. It is also important that we are aware that different cultures will have their own norms of behaviour which will extend to gestures, body language and eye contact. 2.1 – In order to have effective communication with children and young people you need to demonstrate a number of skills. Children learn to communicate through the response of others:

If they do not feel that their contributions are valued, they are less likely to initiate communication themselves. Whilst communicating with children and young people it is very important that you make eye contact and actively listen. Body language is extremely important. When interacting with children and young people you should get down to their level. Children are aware of facial expressions and how approachable you are. It is important that we as practitioners smile and react in a positive way to what children are saying.

It is important that we allow children the chance to communicate and make sure that they are given sufficient opportunities to talk. As practitioners we should always react and comment on what children and young people are saying. On some occasions you may need to repeat back to pupils to check our understanding, particularly if they have used incorrect language. One of the main skills is to always be interested in what children have to say and ensure we respond and question children to maintain conversation.

For children to be able to communicate effectively we should encourage them to ask questions and put their ideas forward. 2.2 – In order to build relationships with children, you will need to adapt your behaviour and communication accordingly. By effectively communicating and interacting with children of all ages, cultures and abilities it will help them feel secure and valued. A) It is important that you adapt the way you communicate when interacting with children and young people of different ages. When interacting with younger children they may need more reassurance. They may also need to have more physical contact as a result. Children of different ages will require varying levels of attention. It is important that we know how to adapt our vocabulary and we consider how to interact positively with children and young people as we listen and respond to them. B) When working with children you will be dealing with children in a variety of different situations.

It is important that we adapt our verbal communication accordingly. For instance, if a group of children and me are carrying out acircle time activity it is important that all the children are engaged and focused and that I have dealt with any distractions before they interrupt my activity. However, when talking to children in more social situations such as lunchtime or free play, it is important that we use this time to create and develop positive relationships with children, although we should always speak to them in a way which maintains the relationship of professional carer to child. C) When working with children who have communication differences it is important to ensure care and sensitivity.

Some children will need to take their time and may feel under pressure when they are speaking. It is very important that we adapt the way in which we communicate accordingly to the child’s individual needs. Some children may not have many opportunities to speak, or may be anxious or nervous. If they have a speech disorder, such as a stammer, or conditions which make communication difficult for them, they should be allowed to take their time and not feel rushed. It is important that we try not to fill in words for them or guess what they are going to say, as this may add to their distress. When working with children who have communication differences you may need additional training such as makaton or sign language.

This is so you are able to communicate effectively. In some cases where children have special educational needs you may need to have additional equipment in order to communicate with one another. 2.3 – When communicating with adults and with children there are many similarities, always maintaining eye contact and interest, responding to what they are saying and treating them with courtesy and respect.

However when communicating with children it is very important to maintain the relationship of carer to child and what this means in a preschool setting. Children will always see adults as carers no matter how well you get along with one another and we have to ensure that our relationship with them will always be on a formal basis when in school and out. When communicating with children we need to be clear so they understand what is expected of them and so they can learn to communicate themselves.

When communicating with children it is important that the vocabulary and verbal expressions we use are at the right level for all children. It is also very important that we as carers do not encourage physical contact when communicating with them. It can be very hard to avoid this with young children as they will often initiate hugs. In this situation it would be inappropriate to tell them not to. However we should not offer physical contact with children or be overly physical with them at any time. 2.4 – There are many ways in which we can adapt communication to meet different communication needs of adults. It is important that we are sensitive to the needs of other adults, particularly if they have communication difficulties.

It is important that we adapt the way we communicate. Sometimes we will do this without even realizing. For example, if I am speaking to a parent or carer who has a hearing impairment, I will make sure that I am facing them and I am making eye contact so that they can lip read. It is important that when working with adults that have communication needs we observe, reflect and adapt our means of communication. If a parent speaks English as an additional language (E.A.L) we may need to have a translator and meet together if the information we are communicating is complex or difficult to convey. 2.5 – When managing disagreements, it is important that we do so carefully so that bad feelings do not persist afterwards.

In many cases, disagreements are down to lack of communication or miscommunication with others. Poor communication can cause conflict within in certain areas, between carers and children and young people and between carers and adults. The best way to resolve areas of poor communication is to discuss them to establish a cause and then find a way forward together. The important thing to do is not to ignore the problem or talk to everyone else about it except the individual concerned. Sometimes adults may not have the same ideas about the purpose of an activity or meeting, or come with a different idea in mind. It is important to always clarify the aims of what we are there to do and why.

Different values and ideas can cause disagreements between parents and settings. It is important that we work alongside parents and explain or clarify why things need to happen in a different way at nursery. Sometimes adults can act in an aggressive way if they are not sure about what they are doing or lack in confidence. It is very important that we are sensitive to this and offer encouragement and support. 3.1 – In settings we ask parents and carers for a variety of information so that we are able to care for children as effectively as we can while they are with us. These records include Record of information, Health and medical records and records for children who have special educational needs. These records are confidential and are only used for the purpose for which it was gathered. If theinformation needs to be passed on to others for any reason, parental consent will need to be given. This is asked for when a child starts nursery and their parent or carer will fill out a consent form.

This information is confidential and can only be shared with people with a right to access it. For example, the child’s key worker, line manager or an external agency. The Data Protection Act 1998 is a legislation that all child care settings must adhere to along with Every Child Matters. Within Peter Pan Nursery we ask all parents to sign a consent form which allows practitioners to take photographs for the evidence of the child’s development and for displays. It is very important that all practitioners are aware that you should not pass on any information about the child or their family to other parents, other professionals unless their parents have been consulted or visitors. 3.2 –When all parents / carers hand over the child’s record of information, health and medical records and any records of special educational needs we ensure that they are aware that all this information is kept in a file which is in a locked cabinet in the office and is confidential.

We make all parents aware that the only time any information is passed on without the parents’ consent is when we feel that the child may be in need, if the child is at risk or is being abused. Also if the child has any medical conditions then certain information may be passed on to other carers.

For example, if a child has asthma or epilepsy. At Peter Pan Nursery we have information boards in each of the units displaying photographs of children with their medical conditions or allergies in an area of which only carers can access. 3.3 – At Peter Pan Nursery we have a policy in place called ‘Whistle blowing’. This means that if you think there is a suspected case of child abuse or if you think a child or young person is at risk or a practitioner is behaving in an unusual way then it is important to blow the whistle and tell the line manager. If another practitioner confides in you, it is important to remember that there are situations in which you may need to tell others. It is very important that if a child, young person or adult confides in you, you must at all times tell the individual that you will not be able to keep confidentiality if they disclose something to you in which you cannot keep to yourself for these reasons.

Child and Young Person Development

1) Describe, using the examples in the case study, the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development. Include examples from the family and children’s background, health and environment. (2.1)

In the case study there are many influences that affect the children and young people’s development in the family; this can be because of the background of the family, the health and also the environment they live in. The mother and father were both in foster care when they were young, so they won’t have a motherly/fatherly figure to look up to when looking after their own children. Their fridge/freezer is broken so they can’t keep food fresh, so they will have to eat tinned food. The twins, Melody and Michael, were born 14 weeks premature so they will need all the nutrience they can get to help them grow and get healthy. The flat they all live in is crowded because there are 8 of them to share 3 bedrooms and a small lounge and kitchen.

The lift in the flat is broken so the children can’t go out to play and get exercise. Also when the lift isn’t working the twins cannot attend the nursery, so they will not learn all the simple things you learn in nursery. The mother cannot leave the flat to shop for food, so they will have to eat less food for each meal to last them until she can get to the shops. Also their father cannot leave the flat because he has a severe disability and he has to stay in bed. He can’t even work because of it, and the mother can’t work because she has to look after the children and Wayne too, so they have to live on benefits. Their flat is right next to an industrial estate where many chemicals are used; it is letting off all the chemicals and polluting the air.

Therefore the children can’t really go out anyway because of the polluted air, it will make them ill. Nigel, who is 7, has asthma and it gets worse when the weather is overcast. Also it doesn’t help when the flat has damp patches everywhere that will make Nigel’s asthma worse. These are the influences that affect the children and young people’s development in the case study. 2) Describe, with examples, the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development. (2.2)

It is important to recognise and to respond to concerns about children and young people’s development. To prevent a child or young person being neglected or in risk of harmful situations such as violence, drugs or alcohol misuse you can deliver early intervention. This is a support system for children with developmental disabilities or delays and their families. If someone recognises a child or young person getting hurt/abused by parents/family then they should respond to it by calling the social services. That way they can deal with the abuse, and take the child away from the family. Then the child couldn’t get hurt and they will be able to develop more. If you was a student and have a work placement at a nursery/ preschool and you notice that a child has bruises or is acting in a weird way, like being really quite than usual you may think that something is wrong.

There are a couple of things you could do; you could ask the child if there is anything wrong if you get no answer then you could tell your supervisor or another member of staff. That way they could do something about it such as, they can ask the child what’s wrong or they could contact the parents. In the case study the family live in a flat right next to an industrial estate which is letting off lots of chemicals and polluting to air, and the children can’t go out to play because of that, it could make them really ill. The parents could go/talk to the council about getting a council house, and then the children can go out and play to get exercise to help them to develop. These are some ways of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development.

Teaching Writing to Young Learners

1. Introduction:
Language is the salient way of expressing our thoughts. We use language for planning our lives and exchanging our ideas. Globalization has given rise to English as a global language and learnin g it has become inevitable to communicate with the world. In many co untries including Bangladesh, English is the second language and it is a compulsory subject in our curriculum from the elementary level. It is an endemic part of our life and in today’s world we will not be able to survive without English. Recent studies have revealed some evidence that yo ung learners learn second language better compared to adult learners. In our country, though students are taught English at an early age, they cannot achieve fluency and accuracy in English which nowadays is pre-requisite for higher studi es, gettin g a decent job and above all for business. The effective way to make a

learner proficient in E nglish is to develop all the four basic language skill s- li stening, reading, speaking and writing. Listening and reading are the receptive skills and work as an input for the learners and gradually prepare the learners fo r the productive ski lls, speaking and writing. Amongst all four skills teaching writing is most challenging, more specificall y teaching writing to yo ung learners is a genuine challenge for the teachers. It is an imperative language ski ll , which need to be developed from an early age. Young learners do not fee l motivated to write rather they like to speak more in an ESL class. In our educational system students do not get eno ugh chance to write according to their own wish. In some schoo ls, they have creative writing classes where students get the chance for free writing. The objective behind it is to make the students independent and activate their thought process. From teachers’ side it is important to select the right lesson and design it according to the age group. If the students do nctlike the lesson, the whole class will be unproductive. Teachers have to take care of student’s motivation, their level of writing and preferred way of leaming before preparing any task. It is difficult to draw young leamer’s attention and keep it focused for longer time. For doing this a teacher has to follow some teaching methods as we.ll as teaching techniques to facilitate effective leaming. To develop my paper, I will first look at the theories of teaching and leaming writing, how learners can be motivated in class, and what triggered their mind to write. This paper will focus on the theories applied in the classroom from my own teaching experience followed by some effective criterion of teaching writing to young learners and how a teacher can help the leamer to develop the writing skill at an early age.

2. Literature review:
Writing is an integral skill of successful second language learning. McDonough and Shaw (2004: pg-152) defined writing as a vehicle for language
practice and further added that it attempts to communicate with the writer’s ideas and thought. Students have to go through a structured process of writing. In classroom, writing activities can be done in-group or individually. According to leamer’s level teachers can design the writing task. McDonough and Shaw (2004: pg-155) have stated a process of writing according to which teachers should guide the leamers- “gathering ideas, working on drafts and preparing final version” that will establish a collaborative and interactive framework . To make the process fruitful teacher should make the learners motivated .

For learning or teaching second language to young learners, motivation is an important factor to achieve success. Various studies have shown that motivation is strongly related to achievement in language learning. Naiman (1978) (sited: Ur, 2005 : pg-275), author of a classic study of successful language learning, defined certain typical characteristics of motivated second language learners irrespective of their age. Some of this are-

1. Positive task orientation: Leamer is willing to tackle tasks and challenges , and has confidence in his or her success. 2. Ego involvement: The learner finds it important to succeed in learning in order to maintain and promote his or her own self-image. 3. Need for achievement: The learner has a need to achieve, to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. 4. High aspiration : The learner is ambitious, goes for demanding challenges, high proficiency, and top grades. Besides motivation, young learners have other learning strategies that teachers have to consider while teachin g. Teachers’ duty is to identify specific learning strategies what a group of learners or individual learners already have and at the same time help them to adopt different strategies . According to Vivian Cook (1996 : pg-l06) there are some good learning strategies 1. Find a learning style that suits you 2. Involve yourself in the language learning process 3. Develop an awareness of language both as system and as communication 4 . Pay
constant attention to expanding your language knowledge.

The process of learning second language should be initiated at an earl y age as it is proved that yo ung learners are better learners than adult learners. Cook (1996) claimed, “Peop le who start learning English as an adult never managed to learn it properly and other who learns it as a child is indistinguishable from the natives”, which supports Lenneberg ‘ s critical p eriod hypothesis theory.

Ur (2005: pg-286) suggests “for schoolchildren learning a foreign language will be well onl y if the teacher find a way to activate and encourage their desire to invest effort in the learning activity” . For yo ung learners extrinsic or instrumental motivation works well where teachers pl aya vital role and they need to focus on the nature of moti vation students have. Penny Ur (2005: pg-278) has found some sources of extrinsic motivation that works for young learners while learning second language. Some are discussed below: • J

Success and its rewards: This is the single most important feature m ralsmg extrinsic motivation. Learners who have succeeded m past tasks will be more willing to engage with the next one.

Tests: The motivating power of tests appears clear, learners who know they are going to be tested on specific material next week will nornlally be more motivated to stud y it carefully.

Competition: Learners will often be motivated to give their best not for the sake of learning itself but in order to bear their opponents in a competition.

Penny Ur (2005: pg- 286) has done a research on how a leamer’s age influences language learning. Assumptions made by her are given below: • • • Young children learn languages better than the older ones. Foreign language learning in school should be started at an early age as possible. It is easier to interest and motivate children than adults.

As writing is a productive skill, picture is the most effective source, which is mainly visual stimulus to motivate young learners for teaching writing. Andrew Wright (2004) pointed out some important role that pictures play to help the teachers to teach writing. According to him picture can motivate learners to pay attention and take part in the lesson, it brings the context of any situation through which they can express their ideas, and most importantly pictures can be described in many ways that will develop leamer ‘ s writing and organi zation ski 11 as well. Furthernlore teachers can give a choice to the students so that they can choose their own ~ topic . Before setting the task for elementary level students, according to Jeremy Harmer (1998), “teacher should make it sure that students have enough language competency to complete the task”. At the same time teachers should be alert while checking the task. If teachers do excessive correction in elementary level it may have a negative impact. Hamler (1998) also points out, “over correction could have a demotivating effect on the students” and suggests, “Teachers can tell the students that for a particular piece of writing they will correct mistakes of particular aspects of language like- grammar, punctuation, spelling or organization .” From teaching writing to correcting it, the whole process is amalgamated which gradually develop the writing skill of second language learners.

3. Implementation of theories into practice:
As an intern I worked in a school where I taught English language for three months to gain practical knowledge about language teaching. It was a part of my learning process and I taught a certain age group ranging from 6-8 years. I also observed some higher-level classes. The objective behind the internship was to implement the theories we had learnt and to see how those theories worked in real classroom setting. In this section I will focus on different stages of my teaching experience backed up by theories and techniques.

3 . 1 Class obs ervation and preparation of les son plans before te aching:

Primarily I taught grammar and after few weeks I also started teaching creative writing in std-l and 2, which remained challenging al l the way through my internship. It was evident to me that students were not very enthusiastic or motivated in creative writing class, which was the basic requirement to learn any language skill. At first I followed the instructions and tasks provided by the coordinator. On the whole they designed tasks for creative writing class comprised of picture writing and short paragraph writing. I observed one class to see their teaching procedure before teaching any class. The teacher gave each student a sheet of paper containing six sequenced pictures. She described the pictures to the students in such a way that it had become a story, which was appreciative. After the explanation students were asked to write eight to ten sentences describing those pictures. Some words were given below the p ictures to help the students. The instructio n was not clear to the students and the teacher did not check whether students understood the instructions or not. In fact students did not ask for any help. Instead students sitting behind the class started coloring the pictures. The instructor was well behaved and it was taken for granted that learners were too young to write much. Very few students actually wrote and the teacher appreciated that. When I started teaching I prepared some lesson with pictures and chose some topic for their paragraph writing like- my home, my favorite cartoon or games, my friend and my pet. I was very cautious whi le choosing the topic, as it would be the first step of getting students’ attention in the class. While teaching in language class I had identified that most of the students were eager to engage themselves in any task as it was very important to them to maintain their own self-image. They were extremely competitive to each other and strived for success. Unfortunately in creative writing class they behaved another way. Their extrinsic motivation became low compared to other classes as they were not challenged in that task. Before designing the task I concentrated on certain issues regarding students’ involvement and reward.

3.2 Techniques applied while teaching writing:

When I stalied teaching picture writing (Std-l), I involved the students from the beginning to talk about the pictures. I used adapted material , mostly from the picture books and I simplified them according to the students ‘ level. It was easier for me to motivate them at first. After getting response about the picture I gradually engaged the students through classroom discussion. From that discussion I wrote their thoughts and responses on the board so that they would take help while writing. They participated actively in the class though some of the students were still reluctant. In other classes (Std-2) I taught paragraph writing for example- ‘My Home’ . To engage students I asked some warm up questions. After that I did brainstorming to get the ideas and asked students to come and write whatever they think about their home. I even asked one of them to draw a picture of a home. The whole class was engaged in the task and I built up a strong rappOli with them. When they talked among themselves I monitored them and found that they were making few mistakes apart from the vocabulary. From the beginning I concentrated on

process writing where students had to activate their brain in order to write about anything. In OLlr time, teachers focLlsed on product writing (finished work) rather concentrating on process. Process writing all ows learners to develop their writing gradually. Byrne (1988), (sited in: McDonough and Shaw, 2004) suggested some stages of process writing: List ideas —+ make an outline —+ write a draft —+ correct and improve-+ write versIOn . ~

In both the classes students listed the ideas successfully and they did it with ease but they did not feel motivated to write it down. I encouraged them to write and announced them that three best writers would be rewarded in each week. But it took time to inspire them to write down whatever they could. Eventually, it worked well than before since all of them were involved in the learning process and they challenged themselves. I even asked the students to choose their own topic . Progressively they started writing in few weeks and they enjoyed the creative writing class. Even if they had done a lot of errors, I insisted them to write as much as they could to break their silence about writing before commenting or checking their final work.

Error correction and feedback:

While checking the script, I had found some common errors. For example- My mother cook rice for me. They hardly add any- s/es with the verb, though in the grammar class they had learnt it. Some other frequent errors made by the students that I had pointed out are – most of the time they added -ing with the verb, they did not add- ed with the regular verb when it was past, even sometimes added- ed when it is not needed. All these elements were taught in the grammar class. Still it happened since they did not practice free writing at home. Moreover, these elements were taught discreetly. In the grammar class they just practiced the work sheets containing several grammar items provided by the teacher but they did not know how to use it in writing. To make the students aware I wrote several comments so that they co uld go through their errors but eventually that did not work well. I observed them for couple of weeks to get the result but they made the same errors. I was a bit distressed as I did not over correct their copies and I knew that over correction would not work. I talked with my supervisor and she told me that had to correct the cop ies carefully and line by line. 1 realized that students were habituated of over conection and they did not feel like to correct their checked work. In fact they were not motivated enough to improve their writing skil l. Though I checked only one kind of grammar at a time, they did not note that and did not rewrite it. However my supervisor was not very pleased as I did not check all the errors. Despite the fact that I made the class interactive and interesting than before, there were problems regarding en”or correction and feedback as the learners were too young to realize.

4. Recommendation:
Young learners are energetic, lively and it is easier to motivate and every language teacher shou ld make the best use of it. Throughout my internship I worked on several aspects of language teaching and found that to make the students confident and competent in writing, providing feedback was the most crucial factor. Students responded well on the topic for writing but they were not eager to write. Furthermore, they did not correct their write up thougb I encouraged them. In that case providing effective feedback is one of the important tasks for ESL teacher. Materials used for writing were rather well designed to engage the students but the problem lied with giving feedback .. Initially I provided written feedback wh ich according to Ken Hyland (2003) played a central role in most L2 writing class. He added, “Many students see their teacher’s feedback as crucial to their improvements as writers”. Before commenting on written work, first teacher has to remove the stigma of overcorrection from students’ mind which undermines the students. The nature of response also varies according to learner’s level. To make the students aware of their errors teacher can allocate one class every alternate week for grammar correction combined with classroom discussion between teacher-students which will be valued by students as well as effective for them . Teachers should make a balance between positive and negative feedback. Besides written comments, teacher can also engage students to check each others copy which is referred as peer feedback by Ken Hyland (2003). Teacher can point out some common errors and according to that students can check their copies. This process will make them responsible to correct their work. On top of that they will be able to judge the written work and in the end this practice will make them independent. In our present classroom environment this practice can easily be done as it does not require any extra faci lities. It only needs a manageable class size not more than 25 students. What it requires is teachers ‘ dedication towards their work and sincerity to ensure effective implementation of proposed so lutions for successful teaching writing to young learners .

5. Conclusion:
Thi s paper is all about engaging students in writing class for successful learning and it ti s the reflection of my internship. In this report I have focused on the teaching procedure to yo ung learners for writing and how it differs from teaching adu lts. To improve writing skill it needs practice and constant attention especially to young learners who are sensitive towards learning. Teachers have to deal with them adroitly. In the elementary level, teachers pl aya vital role to develop writing skill. While checking the scripts teachers have to be leni ent as because they are the only sources of motivation for the yo un g learners. Learners’ moti vation plays prime role to engage the students into classroom activity which is the most challenging work for the teacher. Whenever teachers provide positive feedback and support learners ‘ ideas, it works greatly. Leamers’ self esteem goes up automatically and they participate. Giving feedback remains a problem as different students take the feedback in a di fferent way. To so lve the problem in this paper I have proposed some recommendations to improve the writing skill which are quite easily applicable in our classroom environment. Teachers just need to take care off the learners ‘ need, what kind of feedback they need rather overcorrecting them which work well. Without writing skill second language learnin g wi 11 remain incomplete and to ensure that students have to learn it from an earl y age .

Bibliography

1. Cook, Vivian . 1996, Second Language and Language Teaching. Oxford University

Press. 2. Harmer, Jeremy. 1998, How to Teach English. Addison Wesley Longman limited. 3. Hyland, Ken. 2003 , Second Language Writing. Cambridge University Press. 4. Nunan, David. 2003 , Designing Cambridge University
Press Tasks for the Communicative Classroom .

5. Ur, Penny. 2005 , A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Th eory (ed). Cambridge University Press. 6. Wright, Andrew. 2003, Pictures for Language Learning (ed). Cambridge University Press.

Promote Child and Young Person Development

1. Explain the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing development

When assessing a child/young person we must be careful to take in to account confidentiality before carrying out any observations. Within my setting, we have an Welcome pack (aka Induction Pack) with lots of forms for the parents to sign which gives us permission to observe them and the child/children with in the assessment centre. All of the confidential material surrounding the parents and children are locked away in a secure cabinet in the office so no unauthorised access is allowed. The only time confidential is breached is if the child is at risk and we only share this information with other authorised professionals. When carrying out observations either in the room or via camera we have to take the Childs wishes and feelings in to consideration, if the child is at real risk we stay present but if they child clearly doesn’t want you there we must leave the room. For example, we had a family with a toddler and baby and during the night when mum fed the baby we were present in the room, but often having this person in the room woke the toddler and caused him unnecessary upset so instead watched intensely via the CCTV. When we assess a child we must take account of their ethnic, cultural and linguistic backgrounds as these can play an important role in how the child acts and the understanding of the words being used.

Disability or specific requirements need to be taken in to account when carrying out any assessment/observation of a child can be underestimated and the observations will be unreliable. In my setting we receive all the information of each family from the Local Authority who have referred them to us, its vital we receive relevant and up to date information so we know exactly what the concerns are and get an accurate picture of the Childs development, if this information was incorrect it could harm the child’s development. Avoiding bias is important in my role, we must remain completely objective, we are not here to judge our families, we observe and document facts of every aspect of their day to day lives they live out with in the assessment centre, our focus is the child and our main responsibility is there safety. We have a large staff team who all individually work with each family and we each document what we see, then once social workers and assistants have read the assessment forms, patterns can emerge.

Support Children and Young People

All children and young people have rights. Most references to rights are about what is recieved to children from others, particularly from their parents and the goverenment and its agencies. Children and young people with special educational needs have a unique knowledge of their own needs and circumstances and their own views about what sort of help they would like to help them make the most of their education. They should, where possible, participate in all the decision-making processes in education including the setting of learning targets and contributing to IEPs, discussions about choice of schools, contributing to the assessment of their needs and to the annual review and transition processes They should feel confident that they will be listened to and that their views are valued. Most schools now have written policies and parts of their mission statements specifically made for the inclusion and equality of SEN children. They must be in written form and should also be posted on the website for access to all who require it. There should also be policies which show the rights and responsibilities of those within the environment. The policies may be a number of separate ones or combined in one policy covering all the relevant areas. The policies should show how the school relates to the main policies affecting the special educational needs. These include:-

* Disability and access
* Gifted and talented pupils
* Race and cultural diversity
* Special educational needs
* Inclusion and equality of opportunity
* Safeguarding and bullying
“Special Needs” is such a massive topic that has different areas to make it complete. Children with special needs may have mild learning disabilities or profound impairment; food allergies or terminal illness; developmental delays that catch up quickly, occasional panic attacks or serious psychiatric problems. The designation is useful for getting needed services, setting appropriate goals, and gaining understanding for a child and stressed family. Children with special needs are children with a variety of different disabilities, health and mental health conditions that require special intervention, services, or support. Parenting a child with special needs can be particularly challenging. Fortunately, children with special needs and their families may be eligible for services to address their unique needs, many of which are free. Children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them.

Children have a learning difficulty if they: a) have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age b) have a disability which prevents them from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local education authority c) are under compulsory school age and fall within the definition at (a) or (b) above or would so do if special educational provision was not made for them. The overall aim is that children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities will have improved health, independence and wellbeing so that they will enjoy childhood, achieve their potential and make a positive contribution in their lives by having timely access to local support and local schools which meet their needs. Special educational provision means:

a) for children of two or over, educational provision which is additional to, or otherwise different from, the educational provision made generally for children of their age in schools maintained by the local education authority, other than special schools, in the area. b) for children under two, educational provision of any kind. Some children may be able to catch up with their peers with extra help in the form of short term targeted interventions or a differentiated curriculum, but may not have a special educational need. It is when this support does not help a pupil to progress that he or she will need to be assessed further and support planned, in liaison with parents, carers and other professionals. The child should have a voice in this process. There is a graduated approach to identifying and providing support to meet these needs. The law says the child has special needs if their learning difficulties are caused by physcially disabilites

mental
emotional and behaviour problems
difficulties in reading, writing maths etc…
speech diffiulities
About 1 in 5 children have learning difficuties at the same time in thie school likfe. Most of these children end up going to a mainsteam school. Children with statement aften atten mainstram school. The Role of the SENCO

Early education settings, except specialist SEN provision, will need to identify a memberof staff to act as the special educational needs coordinator (SENCO). In the case of accredited childminders who are part of an approved network, the SENCO role may be shared between individual childminders and the coordinator of the network. The SENCO should have responsibility for: ● ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs ● advising and supporting other practitioners in the setting ● ensuring that appropriate Individual Education Plans are in place ● ensuring that relevant background information about individual children with special educational needs is collected, recorded and updated. The SENCO should take the lead in further assessment of the child’s particular strengths and weaknesses; in planning future support for the child in discussion with colleagues and in monitoring and reviewing the action taken. The SENCO should also amke sure that appropriate records are kept including a record of children at school Action A and School Action Plus and those with statements. They usually responsible for the child should remain responsible for working with the child on a daily basis and for planning and delivering an individualised programme. Parents should always be consulted and kept informed of the action taken to help the child, and of the outcome of this action. STATEMENT

A statement of special edcuaution needs is a legal document, it decsribes all the needs of the child. Also the special help they require. It takes into account the advice from speech therapist, gp, nurses, teacher councilors etc…. The law sasy that all state schhols must do their best, provide full proper education and give the best posible learning for them including inclusion. The law has dealt with special education needs 1993 ducation Act
which replaces the 1981 Act. The 1993 Act states and issues the “code of practice”. This was issues by the secreatary state and is still being used today. CODE OF PRACTICE

Code of practice gives quidence and how to identfy and access special educational needs. In 1978 the warnock committee looked at the needs of the child and not at the handicap. In 1982 the educatio Act encouraged the intigration of the needs and the handicap, This resulted in the statementing process. The Code of Practice suggest 5 stages of action:

1. the class teachers, assistant identify the child SEN needs and takes ential action
2. the school SEN co ordinator takes the lead responsibility
3. the school is supported by outside specialist
4. the lEA decides whesather a satuortory assessment is nesseccary
5. the LEA considers whether a statement is considered.
SEN SPECIAL NEEDS
STATEMENTING
CODE OF PRACTICE
IMPACT OF SEN ON SIBLING AND FAMILY
SUPPORT FOR DISABILITY
HEARING IMPAIRMENT
AUTISM
ADHD
DOWN SYNDROME
DYSLEXIA
When a child is identified with a need they are places on a SEN registor withing the schools. Teachers, TA offer support through differenciation. They also support through planning IEPs in place with specific subject and cross cirrcular TARGETS. Targets need to be realistic short term, measurables, smart, achievable, time bound. When targets are set Smart language has to be used. example of smart language which can be easurale :

MAKE
CREATE
WRITE
DESIGN
and words that are not considered as smart:
UNDERSTAND
KNOW
SHOW

Targets set in the IEP should be “SMART”, which stands for: S specific, so that it is clear what the child should be working towards Mmeasurable, so that it is clear when the target has been achieved Aachievable, for the individual child

Rrelevant, to the child’s needs and circumstances
Ttime-bound, so that the targets are to be achieved by a specified time Class and subject teachers and TA support IEPs implementation. SENCO is responsibily for planning, monitoring, and reviewing the SEN provision and the student progress. Termly reviews of the progress are advisaby those on going minireviews are also very important. 1st step for children who have some special needs – SCHOOL ACTION A • School action: the school is able to meet the pupil’s needs with in house interventions, staff and resources. Students can move off the school action A IEPs if sufficient progress is achieved. SCHOOL ACTION PLUS

• School action plus: the school is able to meet the pupil’s needs with in house resources but has support from outside agencies, for example, the local authority’s educational psychologist.  It is a school responsibility to get support from external agencies. The students is placed on a SEN registor for school action plus. A new IEP is divised in conjuction with the external agencies. Class teachers and TA support the new IEP or implement it in the class or on a one to one basis. SENCO takes the lead monitoring reviewing, co ordinating. If there is progress made the pupil goes back into school action A. If there is progress in school action A then they will be taken off the SEN registor. However if after 2 school action plus reviews, progress is not statutory or has gone worse, the schoolnegoiates with the parent, request the ivolvement of the LEA, asking them to make an assessment. The assessment statutory : parents and school, the LEA to undertake a statutory on a child identifying with SEN.

The LEA can take up to 6 weeks to consider whether to approve the application. Then the LEA will take 10 weeks to undertake a essay for the SEN child. Lea will request reports, evaluation, assessments from head teachers, teacher, nurses, gp, SENCO, parents and cares. Following the outcome of statutory assessment the LEA takes 2 weeks to notify to the parenst of their intentions whether they will issues a SA or suggest approriate. The statement of SEN is issued by the LEA only when the mainstream school are unable to meet the needs of a child with it exsisting resources and equipment. Parents then recieve a draft statement, then 8 weeks are given to be finanlized. A statementt is a legal document, procedures are put into place to monitor, review, evaluate the childs progress in a school that is fit for the child or purpose. They also support with transport need, dietery needs, aid needs. The statement LEA is then reviewed annually at which point it can be amended or seized according to the child progress. Statement of special educational needs: the pupil’s needs are severe or complex enough to require additional funding and resources to supplement the school’s support. Referrals for statutory assessment can be made by the child’s school or setting, a parent, or an agency such as a health is The Language of Disability

Using the correct termonilogy when discussing the term DISABILITY is important, as use of bad language re enforces stereo types and influnences people attitude. Perhaps the best use of language is “deaf and dumb”. These words are extermly negative and makes acrossition between deaf and stupidity or having lack of inteligence. It also unlikely that the person is totally deaf. In the context of seacking most deaf people have some degree of speech, although this may be limited because of their inability to learn to say words which they can not hear. So they are not dumb. Eg:

victim of …….person who has….
crippled by …..person who has….
invilid ….person with…..
mental…..person with….
disabled…disabled person…
handicaped..disabled person…
deaf and dumb..person with hearing visual or speech
mongoloid….person with down symdrome
abnormal….different……
Disability, is a impairment that has a long term and substantial effect on a child’s ability may amount to a disability. This may include sensory impairments, such as those affecting sight or hearing, or hidden impairments such as dyslexia, autism, speech and language impairments, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 builds on the 1995 Act by requiring all schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES). The DES must set out ways that schools promote equality of opportunity and promote positive attitudes towards pupils, staff and others with disabilities. In addition there must also be an Access Plan. This plan must identify how discriminatory barriers are removed. For example: ● an improvement to the physical environment, such as ramps, room layout, lighting ● providing information in diff erent ways for children with a disability, such as audio, pictorial, larger print. Children or young people with medical needs such as diabetes or epilepsy would also be considered to have impairment and therefore be disabled if he or she: a) relies on medical treatment or aid in order to able to be able to carry out normal day to day activities (except needing to wear glasses or contact lenses). b) has a progressive condition (such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy or infection) or

c) has a severe disfigurement which affects normal day to day activities. Legal entitlements
Disability Discrimination Act 1995
Protects the rights of all those with disabilities. It also places a duty on schools (and other organisations) to eliminate barriers to ensure that individuals can gain equal access to services. Disability Discrimination Act 2005

Places a duty for schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES) and an Access Plan. Schools must encourage participation in all aspects of school life and eliminate harassment and unlawful discrimination. The rights of children and young people with special educational needs and disability are set out in the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 . This includes the right to have their needs met without having to wait for a diagnosis. Equally a diagnosis alone does not mean that a child is covered by the act. It is the effect on a child’s ability to carry out day to day activities that has to be considered. Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001

Makes it unlawful for educational providers to discriminate against pupils with a special educational need or a disability. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001)11 strengthened the right of children and young people with special educational needs to equality of access to education, and in particular, to a mainstream school. A statutory duty on local authorities and schools: • not to treat disabled pupils less favourably for a reason related to their disability. • to make reasonable adjustments for disabled pupils, so that they are not at a substantial disadvantage to those who are not disabled.

• to plan strategically and make progress in improving accessibility for disabled pupils over time, by:
– increasing access to the curriculum
– making improvements to the physical environment of the school to increase access to education and associated services
– making written information accessible in a range of different ways for disabled pupils, where it is provided in writing for non-disabled pupils.
Race Relations Act 2000
Outlines the duty of organisations to promote good relationships between people from different races. Human Rights Act 1998
Sets out rights of all individuals and allows them to take action against authorities when their rights have been affected. Children Act 1989
Sets out the duty of local authorities (including schools) to provide services according to the needs of children and to ensure their safety and welfare Children Act 2004
Sets out the duty to provide effective and accessible services for all children and underpins the fi ve Every Child Matters outcomes Education Act 1996
Sets out the school’s responsibilities towards children with special educational needs. The Act also requires schools to provide additional resources, equipment and additional support to meet their needs Equality Act 2010

Sets out the legal responsibilities of public bodies, including schools, to provide equality of opportunity for all citizens. This brings together nine equality laws The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice 2001

This outlines the statutory guidance for policy and the procedures and responsibilities towards children with special educational needs. It includes the levels of support which should be provided to children, depending upon their individual need. Local authorities and schools are required to develop accessibility strategies and plans to demonstrate this. Children and young people with special educational needs and disability also have a right to have their disability equality positively promoted. Local authorities, schools and educational settings have a duty to ‘take a more proactive approach to promoting disability equality and eliminating discrimination. With this came the requirement to publish disability equality schemes and measure their impact, engage disabled stakeholders, and audit the needs of disabled children and adults within the community.Children with disabilities have poorer outcomes across a range of indicators. These include lower educational attainment, poorer health, more difficult transitions to adulthood and poorer employment outcomes. Families of disabled children are less likely to have one or both parents in work, and are more likely to suffer family break up. Siblings of disabled children may be more likely to suffer from emotional and behavioural problems. WITHIN THE SCHOOL

6. The school must appoint a SEN co ordinator to run a special needs policy 7. By observing, reporting, target, work being set, the SEN co ordinator must keep records and reports of all the children with needs 8. SEN co ordinator has taken lead responsibilty to draw up plans for indiviual childrenthey have to be reviewed each term 9. From sept 1994 all schools were obligied to publish their special need policy. For all the above to work the following conditions within the school environment must exsist. 10. A strong management of head and staff that are committed to speial needs. 11. They need to have good commnication and all “need to know basis” nformation is showed. 12. A whole school approach with everyone following same procedures 13. Inservice training, SEN is esstenial (current legisalation, current issues, everything updated) 14. Provision of adaquates, children persecfic resources to support the childs needs, specific to their ability 15. High profile educational needs, teachers should be an important part of their school life However school must be careful not to discriminate against pupils with SEN or disablity. There is a difference between SEN and disability. Not all children with disability will have a special edcuatonal need or visa versa. SEN is a relative term and the need is some what dependant on the learning environment. The effectiveness of teaching and the task to be done. Early recognition and intervention

Early intervention has lasting benefits, providing a sound foundation for future learning and development. It enables some children to catch up with their class mates and for those who need support on a continuing basis it means thatbhelp is available as early as possible, reducing the risk of long-term under achievement. However, there are a number of factors that get in the way, including poor co-ordination between education, health and social care leading to gaps in support, shortfalls in the availability of childcare for disabled children, difficulties in refocusing funding to support earlier intervention: Improving support for children with special needs from birth. Children develop and learn from the moment they are born. The first few years are a crucial developmental phase, which do much to shape a child’s life chances. The role of parents in supporting their child’s learning in the early years, more than any other phase, is absolutely critical. Improving childcare for children with SEN and disabilities. Parents of children with SEN and disabilities have more difficulty than others in finding suitable childcare. Key points include: 16. promoting a co-ordinated approach to early education and childcare 17. improving information on the availability of suitable childcare locally through Children’s Information Services and Childcare Link, and through 18. helping families to meet the additional costs

Improving SEN advice and support to early years settings
Raising the skills and awareness of staff in early years settings Removing barriers to learning
Inclusion is about much more than the type of school that children attend. It is about the quality of their experience; how they are helped to learn, achieve and participate fully in the life of the school. But we know that the reality does not always match this. Schools and early years settings still vary enormously in their experience in working with children with SEN, and in the specialist expertise and resources available to them from other schools, local authority education and social services, health, and voluntary organisations. Schools should have the confidence to innovate and with the skills and specialist support they need to meet the needs of all pupils successfully. How do school complete this with the help of local authority, parents, teacher and other specialist is by many ways: • special schools providing education for children with the most severe and complex needs and sharing their specialist skills and knowledge to support inclusion in mainstream schools

• schools working together to support the inclusion of all children from their local community, backed up by good quality specialist advice from the local authority and health services, working in multi-disciplinary teams • parents with confidence, that, in choosing a local mainstream school, their child will receive a good education and be a valued member of the school community. • help schools to develop effective inclusive practice through a Inclusion Programme bringing together education, health, social care and the voluntary sector • provide practical tools and materials for schools and local authorities to improve access for disabled pupils • clarify the future role for special schools, giving a strong focus to high standards and partnership working with mainstream schools and encouragement to participation in full • take steps to improve the quality of education for children with more severe behavioural, emotional and social difficulties • work with the SEN to improve planning

• develop practical guidance on reducing reliance on high cost placements in residential special schools • set minimum standards for SEN advisory and support services, to achieve greater consistency in quality, availability and cost effectiveness. Widening opportunities in mainstream education is very important when removing barriers. Difficulties in learning often comes from an unsuitable environment or inappropriate grouping of pupils, inflexible teaching styles, or inaccessible curriculum materials – as much as from individual children’s physical, sensory or cognitive impairments. Children’s emotional and mental health needs may also have a significant impact on their ability to make the most of the opportunities in school. Schools are committed to removing the barriers to learning that many children encounter in school.

The National Curriculum contains a statutory statement, Inclusion – providing effective learning opportunities for all pupils. All OFSTED inspections reports implementing this requirement. Schools need to become more effective at responding to the needs of individual pupils through a Inclusion Development Programme. The programme will support partnership projects involving education, health and social care, voluntary organisations, higher education institutions, special and mainstream schools, and early years settings to develop. The aim is to develop evidence base about what works and build about how to implement good practice most effectively. Focusing initially on: • autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)

• behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD)
• speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) and dyslexia • moderate learning difficulties (MLD).
The Inclusion Development Programme will support schools and early years settings through:
• teaching and learning resources for teachers and early years practitioners
• training materials for, and advice on, effective deployment of learning support assistants
• guidance on effective classroom strategies
• models of good practice for working in multi-disciplinary teams
• information about where to go for more specialist advice and support

Another great way when trying to remove barries is sharing expertise between special and mainstream schools. Breaking down the divide between mainstream and special schools to create a unified system where all schools and their pupils are included within the wider community of schools. Educating children with the most severe and complex needs can be harder. However having strengthened parents that choose a mainstream place for their child, at the same time we recognise thatsome children have such severe and complex needs that they require more specialist provision than is currently available in most mainstream schools. Providing transport for children with SEN helps cutting back to cost, which enables children to be included and not at a disadvantage. Improving specialist advice and support for schools, parents, children and staff. Schools need access to specialist SEN advice and support to help them identify and meet children’s needs and to provide back-up when children’s needs suddenly change or crises occur. Raising expectations and achievement

Schools provides education that brings out the best in every child, that builds on their strengths, enables them to develop a love of learning and helps them to grow into confident and independent. You can see great progress in the achievement of pupils in primary and secondary schools in recent years. But we need to do much more to help all children, including those with SEN to achieve as well as they can, not least if we are to reach the challenging national targets expected of all schools. All teachers should have the skills and confidence – and access to specialist advicewhere and when necessary – to help children with SEN to reach their potential improved data giving parents and teachers a clearer picture of how well children working below age-related expectations are progressing young people able to follow courses which build on their interests and aptitudes and lead to recognised qualifications young people with SEN actively involved in decisions about their education and options to have real opportunities for progression, training and work. Schools will:

put children with SEN at the heart of personalised learning, helping schools to vary the pace and approach to learning to meet individual children’s needs deliver practical teaching and learning resources to raise the achievement of children with SEN strengthen the focus in Key Stage 3 on young people with SEN who are falling behind their peers Personalising learning for children with SEN embraces every aspect of school life including teaching and learning strategies, ICT, curriculum choice, organisation and timetabling, assessment arrangements and relationships with the local community. Supporting improvements in the quality of special school will help: • promote leadership and management training for special school head teachers and managers • increase access to diversity programmes in the special school sector to improve the curriculum • develop tools to help local authorities to identify potentially failing special schools Its very imortant that schools Improve training and professional development opportunitie. Every teacher should expect to teach children with SEN and must ensure that they are equipped with the skills to do so effectively. This will require action at three levels of skills. Delivering improvements in partnership

Schools are more consistency between local authorities in their strategic management of SEN, particularly in their use of statements, the level of delegated funding to schools. • schools regularly reviewing the effectiveness of their SEN , with LEAs providing support and challenge where concerns are raised • parents with greater confidence that their child’s SEN will be met in school, whether or not they have a statement • greater integration of education, health and social care to meet the needs of children and families in line with the proposals set out Schools will promote more consistent practice through a team of expert, working closely with the Department for Education, who will provide support and challenge on key SEN issues including the use of statements, management of SEN resources, identifying and sharing good practice and tackling underperformance.The networking and collaboration facilitated by the SEN will support this work. They will make SEN Regional Partnerships directly accountable to the Department for Education and Skills for their work on the implementation of this strategy. Ensure that schools make inclusion an integral part of self-evaluation. Role of teaching assistants who work with children with SEN

Teaching assistants who work with children with SEN and disabilities, often referred to as Learning Support Assistants (LSAs), play a valuable role, providing one-to-one support to children with SEN as well as wider support in the classroom. However, research suggests that individual support from an LSA can in some cases lead to less involvement by the teacher, leaving the LSA to deliver most of the curriculum. It is important that teachers and LSAs play complementary roles, avoiding over-dependence on the LSA and depriving the child of teacher attention. Similarly, whilst making due allowance for special needs, it is important that children do not rely excessively on the LSA or solely on one-to-one help. If they are supported to learn within peer groups, they will be better able to develop social and collaborative skills enabling them to move towards increasingly independent learning. Many schools have a mission statement which sets out the commitment of the school which focuses on inclusion and equality of opportunity. They are easily avaliable on their websites or can be asked for. There must also be written policies, designed to reflect the rights and responsibilities of those within the school environment. Policies should also provide guidance for staff and visitors to the school on ways to ensure inclusive practice. Schools have to conduct policies for many thing which leads to having many many policies. There may be a number of separate policies or they may be combined. Policies must include ways that schools work in relation to:
● race/cultural diversity
● equality of opportunity/inclusive practice
● safeguarding/bullying
● gi ed and talented pupils
● special educational needs
● disability and access.
Policies are developed in response to legislation, codes of practice and statutory frameworks. The diff erent ways in which schools promote the rights and equality of opportunity for children and young people must be included in the policies. There is now a greater focus on the outcomes that is, the diff erence that legislation has made to individuals and groups within the school. Schools must monitor the strengths and any weaknesses in policy as they do with each indiviual student and staff. During school inspections, Ofsted also make judgements about the school’s inclusiveness. Legislation is frequently amended and changed in response to outcomes, so it is important that staff are familiar with up-to-date policies and procedures within your own setting. This help protect not only the pupils but staff and head of the school. The development of legislation, policies and practice should be
seen as a cycle. The cycle goes like this:

Legislation
Practice and procedure School policies
Outcomes Codes of practice and statutory framework
The cycle of development of legislation, policies and practice and back to the beginning to Legislation
Pupils , parnts, careers, should all be involoved in identifying short term targets and reviewing the outcome. As a TA one may be part of the support arrangement and planning of their IEPs. TA and teachers offer support through diffrentiation. This is very important when a class has a SEN child. Making sure to adapt teaching techniqics and learning to meet the indiviual needs. An IEP or Individual Education Plan is a plan or programme designed for children with SEN to help them to get the most out of their education. An IEP builds on the curriculum that a child with learning difficulties or disabilities is following and sets out the strategies being used to meet that child’s specific needs. An IEP is a teaching and learning plan and should set out targets and actions for the child that are different from or additional to those that are in place for the rest of the class. The IEP is not a legal document, which means that the LEA does not have to produce a plan or make sure that a child receives any support that is outlined in the plan.

The purpose of an IEP is to inform the teacher and others working with the child of specific targets for the child and how these will be reached. The IEP allows schools and staff to plan for progression, monitor the effectiveness of teaching, monitor the provision for additional support needs within the school, collaborate with parents and other members of staff and help the child become more involved in their own learning and work towards specific targets. An IEP should contain “targets”, “provisions” and “outcomes”. It should note 3 or 4 short-term targets set for or by the child, the teaching strategies to be used to achieve those targets, the provision that will be put in place, say when the plan is to be reviewed and identify outcomes which show the child’s progress against his/her previous targets. Information that may be contained in an IEP may include:

Any likes, dislikes or anxieties that the child may have
Assessment information
Details of any other educational plans the child may have
Details of how the IEP will be co-ordinated
Details of the child’s additional support needs
Details of who will be providing the support
Home-based tasks and the parents’ and child’s comments
Information and timescales for reviewing the IEP
Targets that the child is expected to achieve within a specified period of time Parents and child’s details.
The IEP is a working document and should be reviewed regularly (usually two or three times a year) to ensure that it continues to meet the child’s needs. When reviewing IEPs teachers need to consider both the parents’ and the child’s views, the progress made by the pupil, the effectiveness of the IEP, any specific issues that impact on the child’s progress and any changes to targets or strategies. After considering the child’s current progress, new targets should be set to be achieved by the next IEP review. What the agreed targets are

What help should be given
How the help is to be given
Who will give the help
How often the help will be given
How it will be decided if the help has been successful (you may see the phrase ‘success criteria’) How it will be decided if the help is no longer needed
When the help is to be reviewed
IEPs should focus on up to three or four key short-term targets for your child. The targets should relate to the following areas: communication
literacy
mathematics
behaviour
social skills.
For children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) targets are likely to focus on communication, social inclusion and flexibility. An IEP shouldn’t
set too many targets at one time and should limit itself to current, agreed priorities. Targets should be SMART – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound. If specific targets set in an IEP are achieved, it means that the extra help has been successful. New targets then need to be set at an IEP review. Alternatively, it may be decided that the help given has been so successful that an IEP is no longer needed. Managing IEPs is very importat, whatever system is in place at school, time must be set aside for writing, teaching and reviewing IEPs. All IEP targets must be achievable for both the pupil and teacher: they should be small steps, so that success is clearly visible to the pupil, the parents and the teacher. Regular periods of time to work with the pupil, or for the pupil to be working at specific IEP targets, should be recorded in the teacher’s daily or weekly teaching plans for the class. IEPs should be kept continually under review. As a minimum, IEPs should be reviewed at least twice a year and parents and the child concerned should be consulted about the reviews. When reviewing have to consider: progress

views as parents
child’s views of his own progress
how effective the IEP has been
anything that is affecting child’s progress
any updated information and advice
future action, including changes to targets or strategies.

After considering your child’s progress, the targets to be achieved by the next review should be set by appropriate staff with your involvement and, if possible, with your childs input too. All early education settings and schools should have clear guidelines that set out: who will prepare IEPs

how IEP targets will be taught
who will teach the IEP targets
how IEPs will be recorded, for example written records may be kept how all staff who teach your child will know about his IEP
how new staff will be told about your child’s IEP, including when he moves into a new school year, or to a new school.

Professionals from outside the school, such as a specialist teacher, an educational psychologist or a speech and language therapist, might provide advice to help prepare the IEP. They might also make additional specialist assessments, or be involved in teaching the child directly. To summarise, IEPs should: raise achievement for pupils with special educational needs

use a simple format and be seen as working documents
detail provision and targets which are additional to or different from that generally available for all pupils be easily understood by all staff and parents
be distributed to all relevant staff
promote effective planning
help pupils to monitor their own progress
result in good planning and intervention (ie timely and appropriate help) by staff result in the achievement of specified learning goals for pupils with SEN. PARENTAL PARTNERSHIP IN SUPPORTING NEEDS

Parent Partnership with parents plays a key role in promoting a culture of co-operation between parents, schools, LEAs and others external people. This is important in enabling children and young people with SEN to achieve their potential. Parents hold key information and have a major role to play in their children’s education. They have unique strengths, knowledge and experience to contribute to the shared view of a child’s needs and the best ways of supporting them. It is therefore essential that all professionals (schools, LEAs and other agencies) actively seek to work with parents and value the contribution that they make. The work of professionals can be more effective when parents are involved and account is taken of their wishes, feelings and perspectives on their children’s development. This is important so when a child has special educational needs. All parents of children with special educational needs should be treated as partners, coming together for the child.

They should be supported so as to be able and empowered to: ● recognise and fulfil their responsibilities as parents and play an active and valued role in their children’s education ● have knowledge of their child’s entitlement within the SEN framework ● make their views known about how their child is educated ● have access to information, advice and support during assessment and any related decision-making processes about special educational provision. These partnerships can be challenging, requiring positive attitudes by all, and in some circumstances additional support and encouragement for parents. Defining Parental Responsibility is important that professionals understand who has parental responsibility for a child. The Children Act 1989 introduced the concept of parental responsibility. The Act uses the phrase “parental responsibility” to sum up the collection of duties, rights and authority that a parent has in respect of a child. This is very important part of the partnership. In the event of family breakdown (i.e. separation or divorce) both married parents will normally retain parental responsibility for the child and the duty on both parents to continue to play a full part in the child’s upbringing will not be diminish.

This means that parental responsibility will be shared, often with the parents living in different households. Key principles in communicating and working in partnership with parentscreates positive attitudes to parents, user-friendly information and procedures and awareness of support needs are important. There should be no presumption about what parents can or cannot do to support their children’s learning. Stereotyping views of parents are unhelpful and should be challenged. All staff should bear in mind the pressures a parent may be under because of the child’s needs. To make communications effective professionals should: ● acknowledge and draw on parental knowledge and expertise in relation to their child ● focus on the children’s strengths as well as areas of additional need ● recognise the personal and emotional investment of parents and be aware of their feelings ● ensure that parents understand procedures, are aware of how to access support in preparing their contributions, and are given documents to be discussed well before meetings ● respect the validity of differing perspectives and seek constructive ways of reconciling different viewpoints ● respect the differing needs parents themselves may have, such as a disability, or communication barriers ● recognise the need for flexibility in the timing and structure of meetings.

LEAs and schools should always seek parental permission before referring them to others for support (for example the local parent partnership service). Where parents do not wish to have their details passed on to third parties their wishes should be respected. When a child attends a residential school, or is ‘looked after’ by the local authority and is living away from home, every effort should be made to ensure that parents are encouraged to continue to play an active role in their children’s education. Parents’ participation in assessment and reviews when a child is away from home is particularly important, because of the need to forward plan for when the child or young person returns to their own community. Schools working in partnership with parents

The school is often the first point of contact for parents. Parents should be fully involved in the school-based response for their child, understand the purpose of any intervention or programme of action, and be told about the parent partnership service when SEN are identified. Schools must tell parents when they first identify that a child has SEN. It is very important that schools welcome and encourage parents to participate and throughout their child’s educational career at the school. Schools needs Special Educational Needs – Code of Practice regularly review their policies to ensure that they encourage active partnership with parents and do not present barriers to participation. Schools should seek to actively work with their local parent partnership service. Parents also have a responsibility to communicate effectively with professionals to support their children’s education. In working with schools they should: ● communicate regularly with their child’s school and alert them to any concerns they have about their child’s learning or provision ● fulfil their obligations under home-school agreements which set out expectations of both sides.

LEAs working in partnership with parents need to ensure that: ● they are accessible, welcoming and value the views and involvement of parents ● information is available in a range of appropriate languages and variety of mediums, so that all parents for whom English is not their first language, and those with a disability or learning difficulties can access the information. LEAs should work in partnership with local parent and voluntary organisations, as well as the parent partnership service, to produce such materials and ensure that parents receive comprehensive, neutral, factual and appropriate advice. Effectivly the LEA have to complete and provide many thing inorder for the parent partnership to be at its best and takes responsibility for setting and monitoring the overall service. They need to: ● set out their funding and budgeting plans for the service ● ensure adequate resources and staffing to meet the needs of the parents ● ensure appropriate management structures

● ensure that the service has a development plan which sets out clear targets and is regularly reveiwed ● ensure that the service is flexible and responsive to local changes ● ensure that parents and schools are provided with clear information about the parent partnership service, and about the various other sources of support in their area, including statutory and voluntary agencies ● ensure that the service is provided with accurate information on all SEN processes ● establish, the service which ensures sufficient levels of resources and training, and clearly set out the quality standards expected of ● have, appropriate arrangements for overseeing and regularly monitoring and reviewing the service, taking account of best practice both locally and nationally ● develop co-operative arrangements with the voluntary sector to ensure the mutual exchange of information and expertise ● promote and facilitate arrangements for the service to work in partnership with other agencies such as health and social services ● actively seek feedback from the service and service users to inform and influence decisions on SEN policies, procedures and practices in order to improve communications and minimise the potential for misunderstandings and disagreements.

Overall the aim of parent partnership services is to ensure parents of children with additional needs have access to information, advice and guidance in relation to the special educational needs of their children so they can make appropriate, informed decisions. The service should provide advice to the parents of all children with special educational needs not only those with statements. The main role of parent partnership services is to help parents whose children have been identified as having special educational needs. However, there will be cases where parents believe that their child has special educational needs, but the school takes a different view. Parent partnership services should be flexible in their approach and handle such cases sensitively and sympathetically. They should consider parents’ concerns carefully, try to help and support parents who want information, and not dismiss out of hand any enquiries for assistance or information. By doing so both offically bodies and parents protects and help the children at a early intervention and concentrate on provding the child with the best possible teaching and education.

Contribute to the support of child and young person development

1.2. Identify different observation methods and know why they are used

Different methods of observations are appropriate for different situations.

Narrative (AKA running records).
This methods are the ones where you write at the time what children are doing, notice something interesting, or are looking for a specific skill or area of development, simply writing down what you see as is happening. This method is used as it can provide a rounded picture of a child, and no preparation is needed. Diary

Is when a daily record is kept of what children have done. This is often shared with parents and is useful for children and young people who do not have speech, like a baby or a young person with learning difficulties. This method is used as it can help other to know what a child has been doing, and it also provides a long time record. Anecdotal

These observations are the ones you have not actually seen but are points that others such as parents might tell you about, after something important or interesting has happened they can be written down in a diary or the child’s records. This method is used as it can help other to know what a child has been doing in a different situation. Time Sampling

This observation allows you to look at what a child does over a period of time, such as morning or part of the afternoon. This method is used as it can provide a snapshot view of what the child doing and is also possible to record the activity of more that one child. Event Sample

A prepared sheet is drawn up in advance considering carefully the type of information that needs to be collected. A column is put down for each piece of information. When the behaviour is seen, the person who has seen it should fill in the sheet, This method is used to look at how often and in what circumstances a child shows a particular behaviour. Checklist

Check list are easy to use because they focus the observer on particular aspects of child development. This method is used as it is quick and easy to use, and you can repeat the assessment and see the differences.

3.1. Describe the different transitions children and young people may experience.

Throughout childhood there are many different points when children have to cope with changes. Some changes are difficult for children such as when parents separate or when someone close to them dies. As a result of changes, some children’s development can be affected. They become afraid, tearful or on the other hand angry and frustrated. Knowing what type of transitions children might face can help us to support them.

This table shows some of the more common transitions:

Emotional
Change in family circumstances
Parents might separate, new people might join the family (step-brothers), siblings might no be born, some close to the child might become ill or die, families may become short of money or become wealthier, parents might start working away from home or longer hours, might lose their jobs or work from home. Changes in friendships

A friend might move away, friendships might change.
Changes in carers/practitioner
Might change nanny, au pair or move childminder.
Physical
Change in location
Might move area or country might move home.
Physiological
Changes in health and body
Might become ill or develop a chronic medical condition that requires treatment. Going through puberty Intellectual
Changes in setting (Each setting will have its own rules/style and expectations) Might move from pre-school or nursery, move from class, move schools, start going to breakfast or afternoon club. Other

Daily transitions
Moving from one setting to another as part of their routine, going to a club or lesson. Between carers
Going between parents and practitioners.

3.2 Explain how to give adult support for each of these transitions.

Emotional
Change in family circumstances
Work closely with parents and share information about the child’s needs, give them time to talk about what is happening, allow them to express their feelings, reassure them, look out form more information from specialist organisations. Changes in friendships

Encourage children to express their feelings, help them make new friends. Changes in carers/practitioner
Work closely with other practitioners to learn more about the child, and visit them so they can get to know them. Physical
Change in location
Work closely with parents, allow time to settle and talk about where they use to be or go, spend time getting to know each other to find out more about the child. Physiological
Changes in health and body
Work closely with parents, look for more information, allow time for questions, reassure. Intellectual
Changes in setting (Each setting will have its own rules/style and expectations) Share information about children’s needs strengths and interests, meet the person who will be with them,, involve the children. Other

Daily transitions
Allow time to settle and adjust, give plenty of warning and avoid rushing them. Between carers
Aim to be consistent, consider using a diary so everyone know what the child has done.

4.1. Explain how a work setting can encourage children and young people’s positive behaviour.

In my work setting there is Positive Behaviour Policy that intents to manage children’s behaviours and has clear procedures that staff must follow to encourage positive behaviour and also to manage unwanted behaviour.

There are many ways in which we can help children/young people to learn about positive behaviour.

Positive relationships play a key part in behaviour because children and young people need support and attention. Therefore is important to take time to talk and have fun with children.

In the work setting we encourage positive behaviour by meeting their basics needs and listening to children and valuating their opinions, children need to express their feelings. It also important to provide a stimulating and challenging environment, so children can enjoy and have fun while learning, we encourage this by planning the experiences well and giving children choices to allow children to learn about having some responsibility. Being inclusive and thinking about children as individuals and about what they need, showing positive behaviours such as kindness and taking turns and gentleness, also setting clear and fair boundaries that are right for their age. We reinforce positive behaviour by giving them praise, encouragements and rewards. We also encourage children to resolve conflict by themselves.

Child and young person development

Task 2 – Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.

The sequence of development is the order in which development takes place. Although some stages of development may be missed (for example some babies do not crawl and go straight from shuffling to walking) the sequence is usually followed by children and the order usually remains the same.

The rate of development is the time-frame given for the average development of a child expected at a certain age, i.e. at one has started to walk. All children are unique and will develop at their own rate. The rate of development is just a guideline. For example: some babies start teething from 6 months and some of them start at 9 months. Some babies can start making sentences at around 1 year; others can only speak few broken words.

The sequence of development generally remains the same. The rate of development can change considerably and many other factors such as individual growth patterns, social background, health and nutrition, disability and learning difficulties can have an effect on it. It is important to know the difference between the sequence and rate of development as it helps to meet the children’s individual needs. It helps you recognise if any children have special educational needs and helps you plan to make sure they are getting the help and support they may need.

Practitioners must have a good understanding of the child development rates.

Practitioners should:

•Carry out assessment and observation effectively. It is required for practitioners to make development comparisons between a child’s actual development stage and expected development rates.

•Offer appropriate activities and experiences. This will be informed by observation, monitoring and assessment of individual children.

•Anticipate the next stage of a child’s development. This allows the practitioner to provide activities and experiences that will challenge and interest children, therefore, stimulating the child’s learning development.

•Notice when children are not progressing as expected. Although children develop at different rates, significant delays in one area or many delays in several areas can be an indication that children need intervention and extra support.

Support Children and Young People During Transition

Explain how a child or a young person’s approach to transition may be affected by their culture, religion, personal beliefs gender stage of development and previous experiences. How a child or young person sits within his or her family can be vital to how they transition, children or young people from a large family can either feel like their being held back or feel very fortunate. In some cultures it is common practice to have grandparents living with Mum and Dad and in others it is perfectly normal to have aunts and uncles living altogether. Being part of an extended family can have its upside, You may have access to more time and attention from adults, especially if one of them is at home or retired from work. On the other hand a child or young person from a lone parent has only the view from that parent and what if there is little or no contact from any family, how or would this affect transition? Will the child inevitably come through his or her transitions the same as his or her peers?

Obviously as each child or young person would have been offered different opinions, they are likely to maintain a difference of opinion as this is what they would be raised as, therefore altering their approach to transition slightly to another of a similar age. They may also reach their intended transition sooner, if they have older siblings who are encouraging or maybe they just like to copy. Larger families with large numbers of children can sometimes come under fire from the government and media, seemingly struggling and unable to provide quality time for each child. Whichever the family size a child needs to feel loved and valued, they also need to feel safe and have a clear set of boundaries. Ensuring these needs are met helps a child on their way to successful transitioning.

Promote child and young person Development

Children and young people need an environment which is most likely to promote effective and confident child development where they can experience and environment of mutual respect and trust and open communication. We as practitioners need to reflect on our own practice where we can evaluate the contribution we have made to the support of child development and find ways that we can improve our practice. When reflecting on our practice we need to look at the ways in which we communicate with the children and young people such as varying with different methods of communications through a range of activities referring the stages of their development. We do this in our setting by looking at the plans and linking the activity to the EYFS and looking closely to new vocabulary and proposed learning outcomes that we will focus on whilst doing the activity.

Good practice would be to evaluate the activity after the week and then look back at what you did or didn’t do such as explain new shapes and positional language in a physical activity. In our setting we will always ask each other, as colleagues, to see if they would like to input anything and just for a little reassurance that you are doing something the correct way and beneficial for the children. Bad practice would be to not allow the children to be experimental with the activity and for the activity to be purely adult led, this would not allow the children’s development to grow and progress. We will try to avoid situations in which children receive adult attention only in return for undesirable behaviour. Children crave attention whether it is positive or negative. If we give them this they may not feel the need to behave badly.

We make sure that bad behaviour is not taken away from the rest of the group and that no one is singled out for their attention. We set these clear behaviour boundaries and rules so that the setting is able to run effectively with all the team members working towards the same aim. The children will also feel more secure and confident if they know what is expected of them, what is or isn’t acceptable. Being positive role models will help the children look up to us for guidance and to also copy the behaviour they witness therefore it is of great importance that we promote good behaviour by being polite, friendly, kind etc. How we treat unacceptable behaviour

Physical punishment such as smacking or shaking will be neither used nor threatened within our setting. This is highly inappropriate and of course illegal and it could also be extremely frightening for children. Children will never be sent out of the room on their own as this would be very upsetting for the child and potentially very dangerous as anything could happen to them. They must be accompanied with an adult at all times. Techniques intended to single out and humiliate individuals will not be used. This will also be very upsetting for the child and very humiliating for them, so we at Priory Pre-school have a ‘’thinking chair’’ in place. This is for the children to think about their bad behaviour. Once they have had time to think, we will talk to them and make them understand what they have done was not nice and could have potentially hurt another child.

We will always let them express themselves and the teacher will always listen to the child to allow them to explain why they did the bad behaviour. This will allow the teacher to find out more information about the incident. If a serious behavioural incident would occur such as racial or abuse, the behaviour will be made clear immediately by explanations from the children and not by blaming anyone. It is very important to make sure that the behaviour they are doing is not welcome at the pre-school and not the child themselves. It is important to quickly move on from the bad behaviour once dealt with and then concentrate on the child’s good behaviour. Adults will not raise their voices in a threatening manner as this would be frightening to the child. Talking and explaining to a child will be much more beneficial. We make sure that cultural expectations are regarded in the pre-school and to make sure that their wishes are met as it would be inappropriate for us to go against them.

We remember that all of the children at our pre-school are different and will react differently to being told off for their misbehaviour. Re-occurring behaviour problems will be tackled by the whole pre-school and the child’s parents using objective observation records to try to understand the cause of the situation. It is important to record observations to gain a larger picture of why the behaviour is occurring and the records could show numerous reasons and could possibly show a pattern of behaviour. We will always keep the child’s parents informed about how we are managing it and the progress of the child. It helps to let the parent know as the parent can continue the same practices as what we at the pre-school will use. A multi-agency approach is the best way of ensuring that all of the child or young person’s developmental needs are met. Using multi agencies, such as community centres, institutions and services is very important when working with children and young people as it is an effective way of supporting the children, young people and their families and parents and carers with additional needs and helps to secure an improved outcome.

For example, in our setting we have an educational psychiatrist who comes in and visits every term to help go through the Individual Education Plan (IEP) for two children to review the current plan and set new targets to improve their learning, these are specifically for children with special educational needs (SENCO). By visiting these agencies and working closely with professionals like this, it can support the early intervention process for children and young people to prevent problems occurring in the first place, or resolve present problems which in term will reduce the amount of referrals being made. By working with agencies, it will allow practitioners to work in an inclusive way by looking closely at the need of every child and young person and making sure they are valued and supported to ensure active participation in all areas of the curriculum. In our local community we use a few local agencies such as Houghton Regis Community Centre and Downside Community Centre who allow parents to visit them for meetings for extra help on how to promote good child development and general care taking for their children.

Understand Child and Young Person Development

Unit 022 Understand Child and Young Person Development

Outcome 2

(1 – a,b,c,d)
Children and young peoples development can be influenced by a range of personal factors. If a child has a disability it may prevent the child from developing in one or more areas, they may feel excluded and maybe have not got enough support to promote development. If a child has learning difficulties they will struggle to develop as it may take them longer to understand different things. A child’s health can also be a major factor of their development, they need the correct diet, may be stressed of their home living conditions can also affect their development. Sensory impairment can also affect children as they may not be able to afford the resources they need to promote development such as glasses.

(2,a,b,c,d,e)
Children and young peoples development can be influenced by a range of external factors. Poverty and deprivation can affect a child’s development as they mightn’t be getting the same resources as another child as they cant afford them. Children now a days play on play stations and other computing games and the children in the less well off families cant afford these toys and the child may start to feel left out and deprived and excluded from other boys and girls who can afford these toys.

Family environment and background of the child is another factor, if the child has a family that may be going through a break up or a single parent family may affect their development and also the childs background, if they have seen other family members not doing well in school or with friends they may think this is what is supposed to happen. A child needs to make personal choices but if they make the wrong one depending on friends and family they may affect their own development. Education will impact on a childs development, if the child is getting extra curricular activities and getting good education they are promoting their development.

3 (d,f)
The theories of development such as social learning by one theorist called Albert Bandura states that children learn by observing the main people in their life, how they behave and the child will imitate them. A child will repeat the behaviours they have seen if it is awarded with attention or praise. The people a child will copy would be parents/carers/siblings or friends. Another theory of behavioural developmet by B.F Skinner states that if the main carers in a childs life implemented behavioural modifications, the children would learn the correct way to behave.

In child care settings staff promote this by praising and rewarding good behaviours and giving time out and no attention to naughty behaviour. But this will only work if it is followed through at the childs home as well. Social pedagogy is how the children in my setting learn and develop their skills. They can have free play with their friends outside on the play trails or playing football or cricket. Inside the children can sit down and play monopoly that anybody can join in if they like therefore there is no child feeling pressurised into playing but can watch and learn how to play.

Outcome 3

(1,) in my setting we monitor childrens development by using different methods such as assessments and observations. Here I would look at the childs record which will tell me their academic attainment or intellectual development. If we have a concern for a childs development we will be very observant of this child and make a record of anything we feel relevant or important and let my boss know who will then speak to the childs parents/carers. We compare these findings against the expected norms and milestones for the childs age and using feedback from the parents if there has been any concerns from home, and my boss and the family will take further action if needed. We observe the children in both watching them but talking to them and listening to anything they want to talk about.

(2)
Reasons why childrens development may not follow the expected pattern may include many different factors such as disability. If the child has a disability but we still see changes then the disability may becoming worse as the child gets older for e.g learning difficulties, the child may be struggling with learing new skills in school. As we do homeworks in my setting we would take a note that that child is struggling with new things being taught and may need extra attention. Emotional reasons, children may have a lack of motivation and may not try new skills/tasks if they are unsettled which will then cause low confidence and self esteem issues.

Physical development may be effected by genetics this can mean physical growth difficulties or the child may be a slower learner. Environmental reasons as in outcome 2.2 such as poverty, where a child lives, education and their family structure can affect a childs development . Culturally reasons such as how people bring up their children with the different religions having different beliefs which can adversely affect childrens development. Social reasons for eg if a child is born into poverty or a family who is separated, this is likely to have negative affects on children or if a family give less time to other activities out side of school for kids such as football, hockey or cricket this will affect the childs development as they are not getting as much play with other children. Communication problems will also affect a childs development.

Children with hearing or stammer will find it hard to communicate and hard to express themselves and can show aggressive behaviour when frustrated. These children may experience problems with reading and writing.

(3)
Children that may have a learning or physical disability may get bullied at school which will affect their self confidence and may affect their learning and language capabilities and development.

(4)

There are many interventions that can help promote positive outcomes for children such as a social worker, speech and language therapist, psychologist, youth justice, additional learning support or a health visitor. In my setting a child had a stammer and he went to as speech and language therapist, they helped and learnt the child how to deal with this issue. By helping this child with speech therapy his confidence grew and he had more self esteem. The child can now talk properly with only a slight stammer compared to what it was before.

Outcome 4

(1)
It is extremely important of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. In young children any typical comprehension or production of speech sounds like vowels and consonants, words phrases or sentences are known as communication delays or disorders. I would pay attention to any causes of concerns such as a childs vocabulary and grammar and slow communication development. The child may grunt, point or say one word rather than attempt to produce words in a sentence.

If the child hasn’t got as much interest in other toys that children that age should be playing with, or of the child prefers to play alone or considered shy or withdrawn may experience speech and language delays or disorders. Some of the risks include, children not fulfilling their potential, they may struggle to be independent, they may become withdrawn, anti- social behaviour, depression, low self esteem and confidence, difficulty in making or keeping friends or experiencing problems with learning and understanding information.

(2) Multi agency teams works together to support speech, language and communication by meeting together to talk through the help, resources or support needed for the child their family or if the child is in another setting. It helps by everyone being there and everyone having the same aim or goal. The groups sort out who is doing what and when and they discuss who to contact if more advice or support is needed. They will have meetings, taking minutes and collectively providing correct up to date information if any circumstances have changed through the time they are working together.

(3)

Play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication for children by playing games that they must use vocal skills such as ‘the name game’ which we play in work. The kids are put in 2 teams and there will be a bed sheet between them, one child from each team will stand either side of the sheet and when the staff drop the sheet they must shout the name of the person standing the other side, the first person to shout the right name wins and the they win the other child to their side.

This game lets the children get to know each other building social/communication development but also speech and language as they are talking and need to shout the name loud and clearly. Every child is given the choice to play or not, so even if they don’t they are still developing their skills by watching and learning how to play if they are not sure.

Outcome 5
(1,2)

Different types of transitions can affect children and young peoples development. Types of transitions are emotional – when personal experiences such as beginning or leaving a place of care, parents separating or bereavement. Physical – change in environments like a new home or from one activity to another. Intellectual – changing schools or school years from primary to secondary. Physiological – puberty or medical conditions.

All of the above can affect development as things are new to the child, they may feel like moving from one class to another is scary, they may be nervous the fact there may be new faces or a new teacher may make the child feel anxious or scared if their parents are separating. Some young people may become depressed with some of these transitions as they may get bullied if they move to a new class or a new house in a different area and they may struggle to make new friends with low self esteem and low self confidence.

They may withdraw themselves from other children and not want to leave the house, which will affect their social development skills. Bereavement may also cause depression as the child may think it was their fault they will fell low self worth and maybe loose direction in life. During periods of transition having positive relationships can support children ins schools by adults making themselves known to the children.

Personalities , attitude and approach will reassure the children on the type of support they could get making them feel safe and secure and developing their own self esteem. Letting children know that when an accident happens its ok and it can be fixed or cleaned up and the adult always reassures the child. Communication is a good way for a child to gain self esteem and confidence after bereavement and help them come to terms with the sense of loss.

Understand Children and Young Person’s Development

1 Understand the pattern of development that would normally be expected for children and young people from birth-19 years. 1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years.

Children do not develop at the same rate as each another. Every child has a different rate of development. Areas of development:
These are the main areas of development
1. Physical development
2. Social development
3. Intellectual development
4. Language development
5. Moral development

Below is the guide at which they might develop for the age ranges. 0-6 months:
* Physical development : By the time he is six months old, a baby will be able to turn their head to sound and movement, watch their parent’s face while feeding, smile at familiar faces and voices, reach their feet when lying down, reach for and grab objects, and put things in their mouths independently. * Social and emotional development: A six month old baby will respond to their mother’s face, smile, and need comfort and cuddles from their parents. * Language development: A six month old baby will be able to make a variety of happy sounds, will respond to music and singing, and will mirror their parents’ movements and expressions. Feeding problems: rejection of breast or bottle; excessive vomiting. Developmental regression: depression; unresponsiveness; failure to smile, show displeasure, or cuddle; rejection of comforting efforts. * Intellectual development: Learns through senses. Coos and vocalizes spontaneously. Babbles in syllables. * Moral development:

6-12 months:
* Physical development: From 8 months, begins to crawl.
From 9 months, may begin to walk. Learns to let go with hands. Puts everything in mouth. Begins teething. Is physically unable to control bowels. By the time he is one year old, the toddler will have learnt to sit first with support, and then without, he will be able to roll over, he will begin to crawl or shuffle, he will be able to stand with support, he will raise his arms when he wants to be lifted, he will respond to his name, he will pass objects from hand to hand, look for things that have been hidden, and reach for food. * Social and emotional development: A one year old will enjoy the company of others and will enjoy playing simple games, and will show affection to his carer. Finds mother or mother substitute extremely important. Will talk to you, using babbling sounds. Will start to imitate behaviours of others. Eating is a major source of interaction. Will not “play nicely” with other infants; will poke, pull, push, instead. This is because the child doesn’t distinguish others as equal beings. Needs to feel sure that someone will take care of him/her. Becomes unhappy when mother or primary caregiver leaves. Draws away from strangers. Needs to be held and cuddled with warmth and love. * Intellectual development: Learns through the senses, especially the mouth. Likes to put things in and take things out of mouth, cupboards, boxes, etc. Likes to repeat the same behaviour, but also likes to see novel things. Likes to hear objects named. Begins to understand such familiar words as eat, Mama, bye-bye, doggie. May not speak until age 1 or later. * Language development. Passivity; withdrawal; lack of initiative, e.g., lack of response to stimulating people, toys, pets; crying frequently and easily; learning slowly; poor muscle coordination; injured easily. All of these problems interrelate; e.g., the child who is passive is less likely to develop the skills needed to explore the world, such as climbing and crawling. The resulting limited experience can manifest itself in slow learning and inability to take risks. * Moral development:

1-2 Years.
* Physical development: Begins to walk, creep up and down stairs, climb on furniture, etc. Enjoys pushing and pulling things. Begins to feed self with a spoon and can hold a cup. Can stack two or three blocks. Likes to take things apart. Likes to put things in and take things out of cupboards,
mouth, boxes, etc. Takes off pull-on clothing. Still cannot control bowels. * Social and emotional development: Enjoys interaction with familiar adults. Imitates and copies behaviour. Begins to be demanding, assertive, independent. Finds mother still very important. Waves bye-bye. Plays alone but does not play well with others the same age. Is possessive of own things. Needs the warmth, security and attention of a special adult. Is learning trust; needs to know that someone will provide care and meet needs. Has temper tantrums. Is generally in a happy mood. But may become angry when others interfere with child’s activities. May become frustrated because of not being able to put wishes into words. * Intellectual development: Learn through senses. Is curious, likes to explore; pokes fingers in holes. Can say the names of some common objects. Use one-word sentences, “No,” “Go,” “Down,” “Bye-bye.” Can point to and name common body parts and familiar objects. Can understand simple directions. Begins to enjoy simple songs and rhymes. * Language development: Excessive adaptability, e.g., withdrawal, passivity, fearfulness; obsessive head banging, finger sucking, rocking; lack of interest in objects, environment, or play; overly rebellious, e.g., excessive temper tantrums, uncontrollable hitting, biting, and hyperventilating, and/or constipation. * Moral development: Is inwardly sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of anger.

2-3 Years:
* Physical development: Runs, kicks, climbs, throws a ball, jumps, pull, pushes, etc.; enjoys rough-and-tumble play. Is increasingly able to manipulate small objects with hands; likes to scribble; eats easily with a spoon; helps to dress self; and can build a tower of 6 to 7 blocks. Begins to control bowels; bladder control comes slightly later. * Social and emotional development: Still considers mother very important. Does not like strangers. Imitates and attempts to participate in adult behaviours, e.g., washing dishes, mopping floors, applying make-up. Can do things with others, such as listening to a story. Needs to develop a sense of self. Needs to do some things for self; enjoys praise. Tests his/her powers; says “No!” often; shows lots of emotion, laughs, squeals, throws temper tantrums, cries violently. Fears loud noises, quick moves, large animals, and mother’s
departure. * Intellectual development: Continue to learn through senses; still is very curious. Has a short attention span. Uses three- to four-word sentences. Begins to sing simple songs and say rhymes. * Language development: Excessive adaptability, e.g., withdrawal, passivity, fearfulness; obsessive head banging, finger sucking, rocking; lack of interest in objects, environment or play; overly rebellious, e.g., excessive temper tantrums, uncontrollable hitting, biting, and hyperventilating, and/or constipation. Excessive stubbornness; consistent over-reaction to reasonable limits; weak sense of positive, distinct self, which manifests, e.g., as not making choices, meekly accepting others’ impositions. * Moral development: Usually appears self-reliant and wants to be good, but is not yet mature enough to be able to carry out most promises.

3-4 Years
* Physical development: Runs, jumps, begins to climb ladders; can start to ride tricycles; tries anything; is very active; tends to wander away. Scribbles in circles; likes to play with mud, sand, finger paints, etc.; can begin to put together simple puzzles and construction toys. Dresses self fairly well; cannot tie shoes. Can feed self with a spoon or fork. Takes care of toilet needs more independently; can stay dry all day but perhaps not all night; becomes very interested in own body and how it works. * Social and emotional development: Is sensitive about the feelings of other people toward self. Is developing some independence and self-reliance. May have fear of strangers, animals, and the dark. Is anxious to please adults and is dependent on their approval, love, and praise. May strike out emotionally at situations or persons when having troublesome feelings. Can leave mother for short periods but mother is still very important. Begins to notice differences in the way men and women act. Imitates adults. Starts to be more interested in others; begins group play; likes company. Is not ready for games or competition; groups are not well formed. * Intellectual development: Continues to learn through senses. Uses imagination a lot; starts dramatic play and role playing; likes to play grown-up roles, e.g., Mommy, Daddy, fire-fighter, spaceman, Wonder Woman. Begins to see cause-and-effect relationships. Is curious and inquisitive. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting;
shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviours, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Begins to know right from wrong. Finds other’s opinions of self to be important. Is more self-controlled and less aggressive. Uses extreme verbal threats such as, “I’ll kill you,” without understanding full implications.

4-5 Years.
* Physical development: Has large vocabulary, 1500 to 2000 words; has strong interest in language; is fascinated by words and silly sounds. Likes to shock adults with bathroom language. Has insatiable curiosity; talks incessantly; asks innumerable questions. Nightmares are common. Has imaginary friends and active fantasy life. Is very active and consistently on the go. Is sometimes physically aggressive. Has rapid muscle growth. * Social and emotional development: Really needs to play with others; has relationships that are often stormy; when playing in groups, will be selective about playmates. Likes to imitate adult activities; has good imagination. Relies less on physical aggression; is learning to share, accept rules, take turns. Exhibits a great deal of name calling; can be demanding and/or threatening. Often is bossy, belligerent; goes to extremes, bossy then shy; frequently whines, cries, and complains. Often tests people to see who can be controlled. Is boastful, especially about self and family. Has growing confidence in self and world. Is beginning to develop some feeling of insecurity. * Intellectual development: Has large vocabulary, 1500 to 2000 words; has strong interest in language; is fascinated by words and silly sounds. Likes to shock adults with bathroom language. Has insatiable curiosity; talks incessantly; asks innumerable questions. Nightmares are common. Has imaginary friends and active fantasy life. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bully peers; inhibited play and talk; ritualistic behaviors, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others or in a child’s normal activities. * Moral development: Is becoming aware of right and wrong; usually has desire to do right; may blame others for own
wrongdoing.

5-6 Years.
* Physical development: Can dress and undress self. May be farsighted, a common condition, causing hand and eye coordination problems. Is able to care for own toilet needs independently. May have stomach-aches or vomit when asked to eat disliked foods; prefers plain cooking but accepts wider choice of foods; may have larger appetite. * Social and emotional development: May fear mother won’t return, since mother is the centre of the child’s world. Copies adults and likes their praise. Plays with boys and girls; is calm and friendly; is not too demanding in relations with others; can play with one child or a group of children, though prefers members of the same sex. Likes conversation during meals. Knows differences in sexes and is more modest. Is interested in where babies come from. If doesn’t like school, may develop nausea and vomiting. Is experiencing an age of conformity; is critical of those who do not conform. In general, is reliable and well-adjusted. May show some fear of the dark, falling, dogs, or bodily harm, though this is not a particularly fearful age. If tired, nervous, or upset, may exhibit the following behaviours: nail biting, eye blinking, throat clearing, sniffling, nose twitching, and/or thumb-sucking. Is concerned with pleasing adults. Is easily embarrassed. * Intellectual development: May stutter if tired or nervous; may lisp. Tries only what he/she can accomplish; will follow instructions and accept supervision. Knows colours, numbers, etc.; can identify penny, nickel, dime; may be able to print a few letters; a few children learn to read on their own. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviors, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Is interested in being good, but may tell untruths or blame others for wrongdoings because of intense desire to please and do right. Wants to do what he/she believes is right and avoid what is wrong.

6-7 Years.
* Physical development: Is vigorous, full of energy, and generally
restless, e.g., foot tapping, wiggling, being unable to sit still. Is clumsy due to poor coordination. Has growth spurts. May occasionally wet or soil him-/herself when upset or excited. Has marked awareness of sexual differences; may want to look at bodies of opposite sex (playing doctor, house, etc.); touches and plays with genitals less frequently; will accept the idea that a baby grows in the womb. Has unpredictable preferences and strong refusals. Eats with fingers and talks with mouth full. Commonly suffers more colds, sore throats, and other illness, because of exposure at school. * Social and emotional development: Feels insecure as a result of drive toward independence. Finds it difficult to accept criticism, blame, or punishment. Child is centre of own world and tends to be boastful. Generally is rigid, negative, demanding, inadaptable, slow to respond; exhibits violent extremes; tantrums reappear. If not the winner, often makes accusations that others are cheating. May blame mother for anything that goes wrong. Male children will identify strongly with father. Child doesn’t like being kissed in public, especially boys. Identifies with adults outside the family (e.g., teacher, neighbour). Friendships are unstable; is sometimes unkind to peers; is a tattletale. Must be a winner; changes rules to fit own needs; may have no group loyalty. In school, may develop problems if expectations are too high; has trouble concentrating; may fool around, whisper, or bother other children. Perpetual activity makes meals difficult. Breakfast may be the most difficult meal. * Intellectual development: May develop stuttering when under stress. Wants all of everything and finds it difficult to make choices. Begins to have organized, continuous memories; most children learn to read and write, although some don’t until after age 7. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviours, especially around food; persistent speech problems and problems centring around toileting; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Is very concerned with personal behaviour, particularly as it affects family and friends; sometimes blames others for own wrongdoing.

7-8 Years
* Physical development: Drives self until exhausted. May frequently pout.
Now has well-established hand-eye coordination and is likely to be more interested in drawing and printing. May have minor accidents. Is less interested in sex play and experimentation; can be very excited about new baby in family. Has fewer illnesses but may have colds of long duration; appetite is decreasing. May develop nervous habits or assume awkward positions, e.g., sitting upside down on the couch, constant foot tapping. * Social and emotional development: Will avoid and withdraw from adults; has strong emotional responses to teacher; may complain that teacher is unfair or mean. Likes more responsibility and independence. Is often concerned about doing well. Participates in loosely organized group play. Concerned with self and others’ reactions. May fear being late; may have trouble on the playground; “kids are cheating” or “teacher picks on me” often said. May use aggression as a means to solve problems. Starts division of sexes (girls play with girls/boys with boys). May complain a lot (“Nobody likes me,” “I’m going to run away,” etc.). May not respond promptly or hear directions; may forget; is easily distracted. May withdraw or not interact with others, in an attempt to build a sense of self. * Intellectual development: Is eager for learning. Uses reflective, serious thinking. Thoughts can be based on logic; child can solve more complex problems. Attention span is good. Enjoys hobbies and skills. Likes to collect things and talk about personal projects, writings, and drawings. Favours reality. Likes to be challenged, to work hard, and to take time completing a task. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent unconcern with completion of tasks (procrastination); overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks, e.g., combing hair, going to the store, tying shoes, finding a restroom in a restaurant; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting;. * Moral development: May experience guilt and shame.

8-9 Years
* Physical development: Is busy and active; has frequent accidents. Makes faces, wiggles, clowns. May frequently urinate as a result of anxiety. Has
good appetite; wolfs down food; belches spontaneously; may accept new foods. Has improved health with a few short illnesses. * Social and emotional development: Demands love and understanding from mother. Makes new friends easily; works at establishing good two-way relationships; develops close friend of own sex. Considers clubs and groups important; enjoys school, doesn’t like to be absent, and tends to talk more about it. Is not interested in family table conversations; wants to finish meal in order to get to other business. May “peep” at each other and at parents. Tells dirty jokes, laughs, and giggles. Have more secrets. May be excessive in self-criticism; tends to dramatize everything; is very sensitive. Have fewer and more reasonable fears. May argue and resist requests and instructions, but will obey eventually. Likes immediate rewards for behaviour. Is usually affectionate, helpful, cheerful, outgoing, and curious; can also be rude, selfish, bossy and demanding, giggly and silly. * Intellectual development: Wants to know the reasons for things. Often overestimates own ability; generalizes instances of failure with such statements as, “I never get anything right.” Wants more information about pregnancy and birth; may question father’s role. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches, nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; extreme procrastination; overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks, e.g., combing hair, going to the store, tying shoes, finding a restroom; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; fire-setting. * Moral development: May experience guilt and shame.

9-10 Years
* Physical development: Engages in active, rough-and-tumble play (especially boys); has great interest in team games. Has good body control; is interested in developing strength, skill, and speed; likes more complicated crafts and work-related tasks. Girls are beginning to develop faster than boys. * Social and emotional development: Boys and girls differ in personalities, characteristics, and interests; are very group and club oriented but always with same sex; sometimes silly within group. Boys,
especially, begin to test and exercise a great deal of independence. Is most interested in friends and social activities; likes group adventures and cooperative play. May have some behaviour problems, especially if not accepted by others. Is becoming very independent, dependable, and trustworthy. * Intellectual development: Has definite interests and lively curiosity; seeks facts; capable of prolonged interest; can do more abstract thinking and reasoning. Individual differences become more marked. Likes reading, writing, and using books and references. Likes to collect things. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent lack of concern with completion of tasks (procrastination); overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; * Moral development: Is very conscious of fairness; is highly competitive; argues over fairness; has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them. Is clearly acquiring a conscience; is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right, but sometimes overreacts or rebels against a strict conscience.

10-11 Years
* Physical development: Girls may have rapid weight increase. Boys are more active and rough; motor skills are well-developed. * Social and emotional development: Is affectionate with parents; has great pride in father; finds mother all-important. Is highly selective in friendships; may have one best friend; important to be “in” with the gang; may develop hero worship. Is concerned with style. Is casual and relaxed. Likes privacy. Girls mature faster than boys. Not an angry age; anger, when it comes, is violent and immediate; seldom cries but may cry when angry. Main worries/concerns are school and peer relationships. * Intellectual development: Is alert, poised, and concerned with fads; argues logically. May like to read. May begin to show talent. Have many interests of short duration. * Language development:

* Moral development: Has strong sense of justice and a strict moral code. More concerned with what is wrong than what is right.

11-12 ears
* Physical development: Is increasingly aware of body. Possibility of acting on sexual desires increases. Girls begin to show secondary sex characteristics. Boys are ahead of girls in endurance and muscular development. Rapid growth may mean large appetite but less energy. May show self-consciousness about learning new skills. * Social and emotional development: Is critical of adults and is obnoxious to live with. Strives for unreasonable independence. Has intense interest in teams and organized, competitive games; considers memberships in clubs important. Anger is common; resents being told what to do; rebels at routines. Often is moody; dramatizes and exaggerates own positions (e.g., “You’re the worst mother in the world!”). Experiences many fears, many worries, many tears. * Intellectual development: Challenges adult knowledge; has increased ability to use logic. May have interest in earning money. Is critical of own artistic products. Is becoming interested in world and community; may like to participate in community activities. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent procrastination; overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; * Moral development: Has strong urge to conform to peer-group morals.

12-15 Years+
* Physical development: Experiences sudden and rapid increases in height, weight, and strength with the onset of adolescence. Girls are gradually reaching physical and sexual maturity. Boys are beginning to mature physically and sexually. Acne appears, especially with certain types of skin. Is concerned with appearance. Increased likelihood of acting on sexual desires. * Social and emotional development: Withdraws from parents, who are invariably called “old-fashioned.” Boys usually resist any show of
affection. Usually feels parents are too restrictive; rebels. Needs less family companionship and interaction. Has less intense friendships with those of the same sex; usually has whole gang of friends. Girls show more interest in opposite sex than do boys. Annoyed by younger siblings. Commonly sulks; directs verbal anger at authority figure. Worries about grades, appearance, and popularity; is withdrawn, introspective. * Intellectual development: Thrives on arguments and discussions. Increasingly able to memorize; to think logically about concepts; to engage in introspection and probing into own thinking; to plan realistically for the future. May read a great deal. Needs to feel important in world and to believe in something. * Language development: Delays in physical and sexual development, depression, sense of isolation, loneliness, impulsiveness, extreme rebellion, denial of feelings, poor hygiene, fantasy as an escape from problems, alcohol/drug abuse, nervosa, obesity, sexual activity to provide missing nurturance, stealing, pathological lying, , truancy, running away, pregnancy, juvenile delinquency. * Moral development: Knows right and wrong; tries to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone. Is concerned about fair treatment of others; is usually reasonably thoughtful; is unlikely to lie.

16-19 Years
* Physical development: Has essentially completed physical maturation; physical features are shaped and defined. Probability of acting on sexual desires increases. * Social and emotional development: Relationships with parents range from friendly to hostile. Sometimes feels that parents are “too interested.” Usually have many friends and few confidants; dates actively; varies greatly in level of maturity; may be uncomfortable, or enjoy activities, with opposite sex; may talk of marriage. May be strongly invested in a single, romantic relationship. Worries about failure. May appear moody, angry, lonely, impulsive, self-centred, confused, and stubborn. Has conflicting feelings about dependence/independence. * Intellectual development: May lack information or self-assurance about personal skills and abilities. Seriously concerned about the future; beginning to integrate knowledge leading to decisions about future. * Language development: Depression, sense of isolation, loneliness,
impulsiveness, extreme rebellion, denial of feelings, poor hygiene, fantasy as an escape from problems, drug/alcohol abuse, obesity, sexual activity to provide missing nurturance, prostitution, stealing, pathological lying, violent assault, truancy, running away, pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, hatred and rejection of family. * Moral development: Is confused and disappointed about discrepancies between stated values and actual behaviours of family and friends; experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation. May be interested in sex as response to physical-emotional urges and as a way to participate in the adult world (but not necessarily an expression of mature intimacy).

1.2. Analyse the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important The rate of development is the pace of which a child develops at. It has a link to the childs age and a guide for what they may be achieving. Through all areas of development, up to maturity. The pace differs for each individual. The sequence of development is where the child must first develop one stage to begin the next. It is still perfectly normal for children to develop at different rates for example a child at 10 months may start to walk while another child may not start till age 18months. The sequence is the fact that a child has to do one stage like crawl before they can walk etc. one has to be achieved before the next but the rate to what the child will do them at will vary between each individual child. It is important not to rely upon the rate of development linked to their age/stage of development as every child progresses at their own pace when they’re ready. However it does give you a guidance and guidelines of what to expect and what the individual child needs support in. also if there are any concerning developmental delays and how to assit learning development.

1.3. Analyse the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected.

There are many reasons why children’s development may not be what it expected of their age/stage. Such as a child may be unsettles for many reasons such as family life. For instance if parents argue and fight this will have an
effect on the child such as stress. If parents are no longer together there may be difficulties for the parent in having to do everything on their own for themselves and their child and the child may suffer through time spent with their parent for nurturing and encouragement/ boosting of the child’s development. The child may be at a disadvantage in their environment due to their housing or area in which they live. If the house isn’t kept warm it may lead to health issues due to dampness. Overcrowding may make it harder for the child to play and explore as easily. The area in which the child lives may make it harder to access certain services or amenities. The child’s diet can have an effect on the child’s development as it can affect the child’s growth and in connection can hinder physical development. It is also connected to income as to how healthy a child’s diet is. Some children’s genetic code may affect the pattern in which they develop. This can mean that they are slower to develop but no reason can be found. Culture may affect the child’s development as some cultures have different diets/beliefs which could affect the child’s development physically. Social and emotional factors; in the child’s development family is a big part of children’s development as they are influenced by those close to them. Parent’s guide their children’s development. However some parents have differences of opinions which can cause conflict. Chronic illness is an issue with development as some conditions can effect motor skill development; For example asthma. This affects the lungs so that they cannot breathe properly. They can be allergic to pollen. This can also affect their emotional development and social development as if they have a group of friends that are doing something strenuous then they may not be able to join in and may feel alienated and left out.

2. Understand the factors that impact on children and young people’s development 2.1. Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors

Personal factors may include:
* Health status – Genetic
* Disability
* Learning difficulties
* Background

Health status:
General colds and viruses could have an influence on the child’s development. The environment may cause health issues. The environmental conditions can affect all aspects of a child’s development. The child’s genetic makeup can influence the child’s development as such conditions as sickle cell (abnormally shaped red blood cells which can cause infections, anaemia and affect organs), diabetes, cystic fibrosis (s condition that affects the lungs with mucus), etc. Disability:

Anything in which the child has any physical problems can influence their physical development. Disability can vary a lot. There are minor disabilities and major disabilities. These can influence children in many ways depending on the severity of their disability, from physical, emotional, social, and intellectual and language development. It could mean that their development is simply delayed or the area may not develop.

Background:
Many things that can influence the child’s development is their background. If parents are going through divorce, breakdowns or separation. This can cause stress. It can cause them to withdraw and make them self-conscious and have low self-esteem. They can lose focus due to family problems and changes in their routine and cause them to doubt themselves/their abilities. Having a big family could influence the child’s development by lack of attention/having to help out with younger siblings causing social and emotional problems.

Learning difficulties:
Learning difficulties in a child cause developmental delay. Disabilities e.g. (sensory impairments) The disability may effect one area of development which in turn may effect another area, meaning that overall development cannot occur, this can lead to low self-esteem and self- worth.

2.2. Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a
range of external factors

External factors may include:
 Poverty and
deprivation
 Family environment
and background
 Personal choices
 Looked after/ care
status
 Education

External factors can really affect a child’s learning. Such things could be poverty and deprivation, family environment, personal choices, care status/ looked after care and education. Poverty and deprivation

This is still an issue as poverty can result in children not being able to do extracurricular activities, tuition, trips to educational places, school trips/vacations etc. they may not get a good diet if parents are struggling to make ends meet and so it may affect their physical development. Diet can also effect concentration so may affect their overall development. Family environment and background.

Some families are where both parents are full-time workers so that has a knock on effect sometimes where the education or learning isn’t at the front of their to do list. Also parents of lower education may find it difficult to help a child especially with homework in the later years. Which means that the child may not be getting the support at home as the parents don’t understand the educational elements needed to complete the work. Personal choices.

If the child for whatever reason decides they don’t want to be educated or continue later education that is their choice which we cannot always help but can show alternative choices for staying at school. If a child isn’t committed to learning new skills we cannot force them but just encourage
them and praise them when they try, and reward when they succeed to promote their positive learning. Care status or looked after care.

This could influence the child in ways such as if they move around a lot. The teachers/ nursery staff won’t know the child’s learning style and the child may suffer until they get to know and form a relationship with teachers/nursery staff. This will affect their learning a lot. Separation and attachment issues are often the reason why children don’t want to come to nursery or school. This is constantly worked on in settings to try to make sure that the children are happy and have a good day being included in activities and provided for to give them a good standard of education. Education:

If a child for example hasn’t settled into a nursery, crèche or some kind of play group this may set the child back from what developmental stage they should be at when they start school, such as social interactions.

2.3. Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.

Theories of development may include:
 Cognitive
 Psychoanalytic
 Humanist
 Social Learning
 Operant conditioning
 Behaviourist
 Attachment
 Social pedagogy

• Cognitive (e.g. Piaget)
• Psychoanalytic (e.g. Freud)
• Humanist (e.g. Maslow)
• Social Learning (e.g. Bandura)
• Operant conditioning (e.g. Skinner)
• Behaviourist (e.g. Watson)

Piaget
Piaget’s theories allow us to take the idea of ‘schema’ into practice and use it to effectively plan for the development of a child. Using these ‘schema’ and Piagets stages (sensorimeter, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational) we can assess where and how a child is currently learning, and plan activities and observations to help them develop into the next stages.

Freud
While Freud’s theories do not necessarily fit in with our rigorous scientific standards, and are today not considered to be very accurate he has been very influential as lots of theorists used his theories as a starting point. He has also helped those working with children understand that there is a link between our mind and our unconscious actions.

Maslow
While Maslow’s theories have been called into question they have however formed as a basis for other theorists who expanded on his hierarchy of needs to build their own 5-level and 8 –level models. His explanations and interpretations are still useful today when trying to understand the behaviours and motivations of humans. This can be extremely useful in childcare when addressing a child’s personal needs, ensuring that their basic needs are met to help them develop.

Skinner
Skinners theories are used widely in practices as we praise children for positive behaviour or for performing an action correctly; as well as giving time out to negative behaviour.

Watson
These theories are implemented in current practices by the reward of good behaviour, and the punishment of unwanted behaviour to encourage a child to behave positively. This include stickers, prizes, privileges, and in the
case of unwanted behaviour time outs, and ignoring of attention seeking behaviour.

The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell. His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to. The theorist who theory is language development is B.F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behaviour when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by carers and parents. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how to react correctly. The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behaviour they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby. His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main carers generally have high self-esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. The theorist whose theory is Behavioural Development is B.F. Skinner. His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioural modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave.

3 Understand the benefits of early intervention to support the development of children and young people. 3.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of development delay An analysis that shows the importance of
early identification of speech, language and communication delays or disorders and the potential risk of late recognition.

There are many reasons why a child may develop a speech, language or communication problem. Having hearing difficulties/impairment can prevent them from hearing what is being said and sounds properly. Having dummies past 1 year may cause speech problems/difficulties. Sometimes children used to dummies try talking around the dummy and get into the habit. Children who aren’t exposed to enough communication, language they may not see the need to talk because parents may speak for their children or give orders. This can lead to communication problems. Most of the time the causes of communication, speech and language problems are unidentifiable. Early identification of speech, language and communication delays/disorders means that the child can receive the right treatment and support sooner and hopefully correct the problem, increasing the chances of improving their skills and helping their development get back on track as quickly as possible. Late recognition of speech, language and communication delays can lead to problems with the child’s understanding or the child being able to express their feelings or wants leaving them frustrated and possibly lead to behavioural problems or acting out. It can also affect the child’s confidence and self-esteem in being able to make/build relationships with peers. Making them feel isolated at the fear of being laughed at or bullied. It can cause learning delays particularly in literacy later on in children’s development when they reach school having problems with sounds and letters and possibly reading and spelling delays.

3.2 Explain the potential risks of late recognition of development delay

Early identification of speech, language and communication delay is extremely important because then the chances of the child improving these skills are higher. Other outside agencies can be brought in and informed and then the child may receive the support (specialist) that they need/ require. If the delays aren’t noticed and go unidentified the child can suffer from not being able to communicate their thoughts and may be more than likely to act out and experience emotional problems. The child may also suffer with lack
of confidence. Other areas that the child may be affected in their development are cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural in late recognition. The child may find it difficult to form relationships with others and may feel frustrated and angry which can then lead to behavioural problems and isolation. If a child suffers a delay in development from this area there are a number of outside agencies that could be involved. They may be speech and language therapists that will establish the delay/disorder and advise parents/carers/settings/schools how they can support that child and their needs. The parents and child will be closely involved in the observing and monitoring and reviewing of the child’s developmental progress. Senco will encourage the communications between the agencies, so that they work together and organise meetings at their settings or schools to discuss progress, if the child however isn’t progressing then the educational psychologists may become involved and do some assessments and give ideas and recommendations of what to do next. Autism advisory teacher may come into school to suggest how to support the child who has autism. They will have a problem with social interaction and communication. A sensory support teacher may provide resources to children who have visual or auditory impairment and how give advice how to best support the child.

3.3 Evaluate how multi agency teams work together to support all aspects of development in children and young people

Information sharing helps practitioners work together more effectively to meet children and young people’s needs through sharing information legally and professionally. Integrated working in delivering services to meet the needs identified for a child or young person where more than one agency is involved, one of the practitioners takes a lead role to ensure that meetings of all the practitioners concerned are convened, and services are delivered that are integrated, coherent and achieving intended outcomes. This practitioner is called the lead professional and should be supported by a TAC (team around the child). This team is made up of professionals from across the children and young people’s workforce convened together to meet the needs of the child or young person. The lead professional is not responsible for delivering all of the services needed by the Child or young
person. Some examples of the tasks a lead professional may need to carry out to deliver the functions are to build a trusting relationship with the child or young person and their family (or other carers) to secure their engagement in the process. Be the single point of contact for the child or young person and family, and a sounding board for them to ask questions and discuss concerns. (In most cases, other practitioners will also need to make direct contact with the child, young person or family, and it will be important for them to keep the lead professional informed of this). Be the single point of contact for all children and young people’s workforce practitioners who are delivering services to the child or young person (including staff in universal health and education services, and Sure Start Children’s Centres) to ensure that the child or young person continues to access this support. Convene the TAC meetings to enable integrated multi-agency support in the delivery of services and appoint a suitable LP. Co-ordinate the effective delivery of a package of solution-focused actions; and ensure progress is reviewed regularly. Identify as part of the TAC where additional services may need to be involved and put processes in place for brokering their involvement. (In some instances, this may need to be carried out by the line manager or other designated person rather than by the lead professional themselves). Continue to support the child, young person or family, as appropriate, if specialist assessments need to be carried out. Support the child or young person through key transition points (e.g. between universal, targeted and specialist services; or between children and adult services). Ensure a safe, careful and planned ‘handover’ takes place if it is more appropriate for someone else to be the lead professional. TAC is a model of multi-agency service provision. The TAC brings together a range of different practitioners from across the children and young people’s workforce to support an individual child or young person and their family. The members of the TAC develop and deliver a package of solution-focused support to meet the needs identified through the common assessment. The model does not imply a multidisciplinary team that is located together or who work together all the time; rather, it suggests a group of practitioners working together as needed to help a particular child or young person. The model is based on the ethos that a flexible workforce is essential if children’s services are to be able to meet the diverse needs
of each and every child or young person. TAC places the emphasis firmly on the needs and strengths of the child or young person, rather than on organisations or service providers. Members of the TAC are jointly responsible for developing and delivering the delivery plan to meet the needs of the child or young person, and achieve the intended outcomes identified through the common assessment. Each member of the TAC is responsible for delivering the activities they agreed to carry out as part of the delivery plan. Each member of the TAC is responsible for keeping the other members of the team informed about progress in their area of responsibility providing reports promptly when requested and attending meetings. All TAC members should contribute to taking minutes and chairing meetings, and take on other tasks as necessary. TAC members should support the lead professional by providing information, offering guidance and advice. TAC members should contribute actively and positively to solving problems or resolving difficulties In order to ensure that these activities are well co-ordinated, and that there is clear communication with the child or young person and family, the TAC agrees (with input from the child or young person and family) a particular practitioner who will act as the lead professional. Information sharing is a key part of the government’s goal to deliver better, more efficient public services that are co-ordinated around the needs of children, young people and families. Information sharing is essential to enable early intervention and preventative work, for safeguarding and promoting welfare and for wider public protection. Information sharing is a vital element in improving outcomes for all. Effective integrated working is underpinned by the following: Information sharing:

Guidance, training and support materials are available to support good practice in information sharing by offering clarity on when and how information can be shared legally and professionally, in order to achieve improved outcomes. The guidance also explains how organisations can support practitioners and ensure that good practice in information sharing is embedded. Common Core of Skills and Knowledge for the Children and Young People’s Workforce: this sets out the knowledge and skills all practitioners (including volunteers) need to work effectively with children, young people
and families. Championing Children: a framework that establishes a shared set of skills, knowledge and behaviours for those who are leading and managing integrated children’s services. A resource book to support implementation is also available. Multi-agency working: there are a number of ways of delivering multi-agency services; an online resource is available for managers and practitioners in a range of settings who are starting to work with families in new ways.

3.4 Explain how play and leisure activities can be used to support all aspects of development of children and young people

Play can be fun and play can be a very serious and absorbing activity. Play is what you do when you are able just to please yourself. Playing is what you do when you interact with friends, families, teachers or even the environment around you. Play should be stimulating, challenging, enjoyable and satisfying. Some children will also require adult support to achieve good play experiences. A guiding principle is that play should be freely chosen and self-directed. Play is a process that is freely chosen, personally directed and intrinsically motivated. That is, children and young people determine and control the content and intent of their play, by following their own instincts, ideas and interests, in their own way for their own reasons. All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and wellbeing of individuals and communities. If children and young people are not allowed to explore and learn through playing and taking part in positive activities, they will not learn how to judge risks and manage them for themselves. These skills learnt through play and other activities can act as a powerful form of prevention in other situations where children and young people are at risk. Play supports all aspects of a child’s development – learning, socialisation, physical development, self-esteem, and well-being and understanding risk. Children have the opportunity to learn skills through creative play and play, within a group setting, can support children’s socialisation skills as they learn to set and follow rules and work with others. It is crucial that children, in their early years, get the opportunity to interact with adults,
e.g. their parents, in a way that supports and enables them to take their play forward. Physically active play shows health benefits for the developing child into adulthood. There are 16 different play types and these are woven into the fabric of a child’s daily life, sometimes simultaneously. Symbolic Play – Play which allows control, gradual exploration and increased understanding without the risk of being out of one’s depth. Rough and Tumble Play – close encounter play which is less to do with fighting and more to do with touching, tickling, gauging relative strength. Discovering physical flexibility and the exhilaration of display. Socio-dramatic Play – the enactment of real and potential experiences of an intense personal, social, domestic or interpersonal nature. Social Play – play, during which the rules and criteria for social engagement and interaction can be revealed, explored and amended. Creative Play – play which allows a new response, the transformation of information, awareness of new connections, with an element of surprise. Communication Play – play using words, nuances or gestures for example, mime, jokes, play acting, mickey taking, singing, debate, poetry. Dramatic Play – play which dramatizes events in which the child is not a direct participator. Deep Play – play which allows the child to encounter risky or even potentially life threatening experiences, to develop survival skills and conquer fear. Exploratory Play – play to access factual information consisting of manipulative behaviours such as handling, throwing, banging or mouthing objects. Fantasy Play – play which rearranges the world in the child’s way, a way which is unlikely to occur. Imaginative Play – play where the conventional rules, which govern the physical world, do not apply. Locomotor Play – movement in any or every direction for its own sake. Mastery Play – control of the physical and affective ingredients of the environments. Object Play – play which uses infinite and interesting sequences of hand-eye manipulations and movements. Recapitulative Play – Play that allows the child to explore ancestry, history, rituals, stories, rhymes, fire and darkness. Enables children to access play of earlier human evolutionary stages. Role Play – play exploring ways of being, although not normally of an intense personal social, domestic or interpersonal nature.

4 Understand the potential effects of transition on children and young people’s development. 4.1 Explain how different types of transitions can
affect children and young people’s development

Types of transitions may include:
 emotional, affected by personal experience e.g. bereavement, entering/ leaving care  Physical e.g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another, between a range of care givers on a regular basis  physiological e.g. puberty, long term medical conditions  Intellectual e.g. moving from pre-school to primary to post primary

Children and young people naturally pass through a number of stages as they grow and develop. Often, they will also be expected to cope with changes such as movement from primary to secondary school and, for children with disabilities or chronic ill health, from children’s to adults’ services. Such changes are commonly referred to as transitions. Some children may have to face very particular and personal transitions not necessarily shared or understood by all their peers. These include: family illness or the death of a close relative; divorce and family break-up; issues related to sexuality; adoption; the process of asylum; disability; parental mental health; and the consequences of crime. It is also vital to recognise the role of parents and carers in supporting children and young people at points of transition and to understand the need for reassurance, advice and support that parents and carers may express at these points (Common Core of skills and Knowledge for the children and young people’s workforce) Transition can impact on a child or young person’s development and it’s important they are supported through this helping them to prepare and overcome fears.

The children and young people placed in care will experience many social changes in their lives and will need support to build self-esteem and confidence to fulfil their potential. Children and young people need strong attachments, consistency and trust; having someone they can trust will make transitions easier. Children and young people with positive relationships have the ability to cope better A child coming to a new setting they might experience a sense of loss from another setting, from their friends, feel disorientated, withdraw, be depressed, regress with what
they do, have separation anxiety, see changes in their behaviour, not have any motivation. practitioners would support them by providing activities, explain what’s going on, discuss what’s happening, share information, be positive, get in touch with others who can help support the child and professional practice etc. listen to what they say and be truthful, reassuring. Try explaining bereavement using some words such as gone to heaven, sleep, gone away, turned to earth, be in memories not around you. Having have routines in place so children feel reassured,

Types of transitions are
• Emotional – personal experiences such as parent’s separating, bereavement, beginning or leaving a place of care. • Physical – change in environments
• Intellectual – maturation, moving from one educational establishment to another. • Physiological – puberty or medical conditions
How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Short term effects:
• Outbursts of anger
• Crying and tearfulness
• Clinginess/need for affection
• Withdrawal
• Unreasonable behaviour
• Tantrums in younger children
• Regression in behaviour
• Difficulty sleeping
• Loss of appetite
• Loss of motivation
• Lack of concentration
How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Long term effects:
• Self harming
• Withdrawal
• Avoiding social contact
• Lack of concentration
• Not learning/developing
• Low self-confidence and self esteem
• Strained relationships
Supporting children through transition involves
• Explaining what’s going on
• Discussing what is happening
• Providing activities that help to distract focus and give opportunities for communication, language and literacy • Have routines that reassure children of what’s next
• organise visits that help children be familiar with places they’ll be attending

4.2 Explain the importance of children and young people having positive relationships through periods of transition

The role of the Key Person in transitions
The relationship developed between the Key Person and the parents/carers involved in the child’s life beyond the setting is crucial in ensuring that children are supported to make successful transitions. In many settings this relationship will commence with an induction visit at which the Key Person begins to complete the setting’s documentation with the parents. This will often include finding out about a child’s likes and dislikes, favourite toys and how he or she likes to be comforted, as well as current routines. Parents and carers are encouraged to share information that can help the practitioner to understand behaviour changes caused by transitions. It is also important that the Key Person shares details of the setting’s policy and practice with the parents to inform them about the transition into the setting. Sometimes transitions within the setting can be a cause for concern for parents who may become worried about how their child will cope with, for example, a room change. The Key Person will need to ensure that parents are fully informed about the management of the transition, the visits the child makes to the new room in preparation for the move and details about routines and expectations in the new environment so parents can support their child with the transition process. Recognising ‘transition anxiety’

Practitioners must ensure that they learn to recognise the signs of transition anxiety in the children that they care for. This may be
particularly difficult when many of the children concerned do not yet have the language to explain the experiences that they are finding difficult. Skilled practitioners will learn to listen to children’s body language and other changes in behaviour that indicate children who are struggling to cope. They will reflect on the behaviour they see and consider whether something has changed for the child. The importance of clear communication

Children will experience a range of transitions. Some will be common to the majority of their peers and they may be able to support each other. Others will be unique to the child or family involved and children may feel isolated. With information from parents or carers the Key Person will be able to play a significant role in supporting the child during the transition process. An on-going dialogue between the Key Person and the family will help ensure a consistency of approach for the child. The three main areas in which transitions take place are shown in the table below. For each area, a few of many possible examples are given. Consideration of each of the areas highlights once again the significance of clear detailed communication between all those involved in the care and education of the child. If the transitions are understood by everyone any change in the child’s behaviour can be understood and the child supported appropriately.

4.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of positive relationships on children and young people’s development

Having a positive relationship helps them to settle due to feeling comforted by the person being present, having someone to look up to as a role-model. Having someone who knows the child/young person in which means they can help monitor their transition and be provided with extra support. Bereavement, serious illness or separation in a family can affect children and young people’s emotions. This can be displayed by anger, and depression. They might even show aggression or be withdrawn. Physically they might suffer from a lack of sleep, have little or no appetite or they could possibly self-harm. Older children or young people might cut themselves or do something like drugs. Physiologically they might change their behaviour. This can include regressive behaviour, extrovert behaviour or maybe just
uncooperative behaviour like slamming doors, staying out late or getting into trouble. Intellectual changes can include a lack of concentration and not joining in activities. Moving into a new setting like changing schools, preschool to school, changing young groups or leaving care can be emotionally upsetting. Some children might be showing anxiousness at moving, sadness at moving and or loss of friends. This can change their behaviour younger children might show regression and clinginess. Children and young people might change behaviour and some might withdrawal. Others might show extroverted behaviour or illness. They might have a real illness or pretend so they don’t have to go. Older and younger children might have sleepless nights. Young children might have night mares, young people might be frightened of their future or where they might live. This can affect eating habits they might not have an appetite. Moving home can be very stressful. Like moving settings children and young people can lose friends. They face the same emotional, physiological and intellectual affects as the moving settings but they also have the problem of a new county/country this can also affect them as they might be viewed as an outsider. Young people might self-harm because of this. Puberty can affect children and young people emotionally hormones are pumped into the body causing mood swings. Teenagers become more self-conscious and can become aggressive and behavioural changes that can cause some teenagers to experiment with drugs etc. Physically the body will have growth spurts and sexual maturity will be reached as the sexual organs fully develop their bodies will look more like adults than children’s.

All children and young people need strong attachments as the theorist Bowlby has explained. They need consistency, trust and a good bonding whether it is with their key worker, teacher etc. Having someone that they can trust will make transitions easier for the child. Children with positive relationships on transitions can have long term positive impacts of their ability to cope and be more resilient. They are likely to be more successful academically and socially they will feel cared for, valued and respected their learning development will continue instead of dip. They will feel more confident to explore and have self esteem and confidence so feel more relaxed. Children will feel able to make new friendships. Young people might feel they need
guidance and will not be afraid to ask for help even on sensitive subjects. If a child has good transitions early in life this will make it easier for transitions later in life. Having positive relationships with children or young people makes them aware that your there for them and that you care and would like to help them through their adjustment.

5 Understand how assessing, monitoring and recording the development of children and young people informs the use of interventions 5.1 Explain different methods of assessing, recording and monitoring children and young people’s development

Observation, assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation Regular checks on children in the setting involve an on-going process that begins with observation and ends with evaluation:
* Observation – gathering information about a child.
* Assessment – analysing the information collected against expected patterns of development.
* Planning – using the information to set goals and plan strategies to help children progress and develop, change behaviour or just consolidate existing skills.
* Implementation – put the plans into action.
* Evaluation – consider how successful the implemented plans were in meeting the required goals. This information should then be used as a basis for the next observation.
These techniques include:
• Time sampling
• Event sampling
• Structured observation
• Naturalistic observation
• Participative observation
• Longitudinal observation
• Target child observation
Time sampling
This means observing the chosen child for pre-planned periods throughout the day, at pre-planned times. It should be decided beforehand if there is one
particular aspect of the child’s development to focus on. In this method notes should include: * what the child was doing or trying to do

* what help they seemed to need
Event sampling
This method is useful for monitoring particular forms of behaviour, especially those where change is desired. It helps the carer to get an accurate perspective of the behaviour as the basis for planning how to respond to it. Each time the particular behaviour occurs, it should be noted briefly:

* What actually happened
* When the incident occurred, the time of day or the point in the daily routine * How long the behaviour lasted on each occasion, or for what proportion of the day
* Whether other children were involved, if so in what way * Who else was around at the time
Structured observation
This technique involves setting up an organised situation. The carer should arrange a particular activity so that they can observe how the child is doing with a specific skill. This is usually a quite narrowly defined skill such as: * Completing an exercise

* Completing a puzzle
* Building a tower with wooden blocks
* Drawing a particular item
* Reading a passage in a book
The practitioner should try to choose an activity that interests the child that is being observed so that they enjoy it and the observer gets a true picture of what the child can achieve. It should be an activity normally offered, not something entirely new which may puzzle or unsettle the child. A structured observation when a child is tired, grumpy or out of sorts should be avoided.

There are many different methods of monitoring/observing and recording
children and young people behaviour and performance. There are two types of assessment formative and summative assessments. Formative assessment:

There are many observations and assessment methods that we use to record children’s development and will be on going. This is what is called formative assessment, which means even though you get to know a child’s strengths and areas that they may need more support in and will plan for them and carry on observing them. With Formative assessment there are many different methods that can be used such as target child, tick box/checklists, free description, time sampling methods…..all would be used in different settings and for different purposes by different people Summative assessment:

Every now and again you may need to do a report on a child’s development so that the child’s parents can see how that child progressing in their development, these sorts of reports can also be used to pass information between from one professional to another like teachers do these sorts of reports at the end of the school year so the children’s next teacher can see how their developing. Free description uses to record the behaviour of a child over a very short period of time or when doing a certain activities the observe notes down what he or she is seeing which paints a picture of the child activity during the time the observation was being done. Checklist and tick charts are normally quick and simple too.

5.2 Explain how and in what circumstances different methods for assessing, recording and monitoring children and young people’s development in the work setting.

Assessment Frameworks
The assessment framework is used to determine whether a child is in need and if so, the nature of their needs. Once the needs have been established the interventions can be put in place.

Observations
These can be carried out formally and informally. Information from
observations on a pupil’s progress is passed onto the teacher who will then report it to the parent/carer. Information observations

These are carried out daily when working with a pupil and overtime a picture can be built of the pupil’s progress and if there are any issues, however they may not always be recorded and information gathered may not be passed onto others. Formal observations

This may be carried out to support the teacher on assessing a pupil’s level of development such as a controlled assessment or a speaking and listening test. Standard Measurements
This is usually carried out by medical practitioners to ensure that a child is growing at the expected rate for their age. Information from carers and colleagues
Information from carers can be vital if there is a factor that may be influencing the development of a young person an example may be that the pupil is being bullied or they don’t understand the learning objective but are too scared to ask for help. As a colleague if you see a change in the child you must communicate this to the class teacher to help them to assess what assistance may be required. * Look – know and appreciate what aspects of the child’s responses/behaviour/achievements etc. you are looking out for. * Listen – take notice of the child’s conversations with other children and how they interact with different adults.

* Record – make an accurate note of any important aspects of the child’s responses, behaviour or achievements as soon as possible after observing them.
* Think – consider what you have seen. What assessment would you make from your observations? You may need to confer with other practitioners or talk with the child’s parents to help you clarify your thoughts.

5.3 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the pattern normally expected.

Early intervention means intervening as soon as possible to tackle problems that have already emerged for children and young people So, when early intervention is understood in this way, it means that it targets specific children who have an identified need for additional support once their problems have already begun to develop but before they become serious. It aims to stop those problems from becoming entrenched and thus to prevent children and young people from experiencing unnecessarily enduring or serious symptoms. Typically it achieves this by promoting the strengths of children and families and enhancing their ‘protective factors’, and in some cases by providing them with longer term support.

There are a number of reasons why early intervention with very young children makes sense:
● Some problems emerge in children when they are very young and the sooner they receive help, the less the damage to their development. ● the healthy growth of very young children’s brains can be impaired by poor early life experiences. In that early period, interactions and experiences determine whether a child’s developing brain architecture provides a strong or a weak foundation for their future health, wellbeing and development. ● If a problem is identified early on in a child’s life and effective help is given; this can have a positive ‘multiplier effect’ as the child grows up, so that the eventual benefit is disproportionately great compared either to the original problem that was spotted and successfully treated, or to the scale of the help given.

●Parents are often particularly open to asking for and accepting help when their children are very young, compared to when their children are older.
● This means the potential cost savings that can accrue to services as a result of effective early intervention are potentially greatest when children are very young
The timing of interventions has been found to be significant in other ways too. It has been suggested that there are critical times. When early intervention is likely to be more successful because parents and children tend to be more receptive; for example, i, around the time of the birth of a child, and when the child starts school or is moving from primary to
secondary school.

5.4 Evaluate the importance of accurate documentation regarding the development of children and young people

Record keeping is an important key role and the main aspect is to assist planning and set future learning goals to the learner. Records may contain learner’s information as well as teacher’s observation on the learner’s performance. They need to continually reassess to meet changing needs, e.g. personal situations may change and they may need to be considered to assist the learner to complete their studies/training. Records can also assist the teacher or college to evaluate the teaching programme, in other words, whether the teacher needs to improve or redesign any aspects of their teaching or the programme. Good and accurate records are important for teachers, learners, verifiers, training providers, and inspectors and for employers as they can keep a track on the individual’s development and progress as well as in the performance and professionalism in delivering the subject. Additionally, it is a legal requirement to keep accurate and up to date records on learners as it serves as a clear channel for external, as well as internal, audits. In other words, providing accurate and up to date records is to prove and account for the training/lesson effectiveness and the progress of learners or even special needs for other learners. Records, such as attendance register, are of extreme relevance as it may indicate why a learner is falling behind in their studies and it can also indicate, if a learner is regularly not attending, that this could be an indication that they are not satisfied with either the programme or the teacher or both. Furthermore, it can also indicate external problems which could be addressed. An external referral can be made to the appropriate professional in order to assist the learner get back on track. These types of records facilitate to track issues with both the teaching programme and the learner. Reasons to Observe Children

If I watch the children play, I can discover their interests. By observing children, I can assess their developmental levels. I look to see what strategies children use to attain their goals. Observing children helps me
know what skills the children need to practice. When I observe children at play, I learn a lot about their personalities. We want to use these reasons again, so we will provide an example that illustrates the general meaning of each:

Interests—He loves to play with trucks.
Developmental level—She throws the ball either very hard or not at all, but she does not vary the throw along a continuum of very hard, hard, and soft. Strategies—She tries to influence her friend’s actions by controlling all of the crayons. Skills—She has trouble stringing beads onto a knotted shoestring. Personality—She is reserved and does not like to take risks. In essence, we can learn at least five attributes of our children when we observe them closely:

Their interests and preferences
Their levels of cognitive and social development
Their strategies for creating desired effects
Their skills and accomplishments
Their personalities and temperament.

Understand How to Safeguard the Well-being of Children and Young People

1.1 The united nations convention on the rights of the child 1989, which ensures that children are safe and looked after. Children act 1989, parents and professionals must work together to ensure the safety of the child. The education act 2002, this sets out the responsibilities to ensure that children are safe and free from harm. Children act 2004, this provides the legal framework for every child matters. Working together to safeguard children 2010, which sets out the duties of organisations and how they must work together to safeguard children and young people.

1.2 Child protection is about everything that is undertaken to protect children who are/might be suffering from any form if abuse or neglect. Also ensuring that children are raised in positive circumstances by providing safe and caring environments. Safeguarding is ensuring that children have the opportunity to achieve their true potential and have the right to be protected.

1.3 When coming into a new work you will need a CRB check to make sure you have no criminal convictions. You will need to be aware of all the settings policies and procedures for safeguarding so you will know how to spot signs of abuse and how/who to report your concerns. When you are about to carry out an activity with children you need to do risk assessments to check the environment and children are safe. You constantly need to be checking that all areas are safe so that no children are at risk of being harmed.

1.4 Serious case reviews are required when a child dies and it is known or suspected that abuse or neglect is a factor in the death. Sometimes reviews may also be carried out where a child has been seriously harmed or suffered life-threatening injuries. When professionals are found to be negligent in their involvement or procedures, the review is able to highlight where the mistakes were made.

1.5 At my work setting they only collect information that is used for a specific purpose, for example the children’s address and parents/carers contact information. The school ensures that all information is safe and that it is relevant and accurate. The school keeps the information up to date by sending reminders on newsletters to contact school if any changes are made. All information is kept until the child is no longer attending the school. Parents/carers have the right to access this information if they wish to see it and all information is only used when needed.

I have left out tack B, point 2 as it was all correct.

3.1 It is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm in the work setting so that they and others are at no risk. Also if a child and young peoples work setting has a safe environment it gains the trust of parents/carers. It is also a legal requirement for the work setting to keep all children and young people safe from harm.

3.2 In my setting the policies and procedures to protect children and young people and the adults that work with them are, Data Protection, Confidential Reporting, Safe Guarding, Behavior Policy, Health & Safety Policy, Special Educational Needs Policy, Accessibility Policy, Child Protection and Internet Safety.

3.3 Ways that practitioners can protect themselves within their work setting during both on site and off site visits are, making sure that you are aware and fully understand all the policies and procedures about working on site and off site. You also need to make sure that you follow these at all times. There will be risk assessments for both on site activities and off site, make sure that you read through these carefully especially off site as they will be carefully thought through and planned. When you go on a off site visit you need to make sure that a member off staff who is first aid qualified is going in case any incidents happen, also you need to take a small first aid bag with you and some spare clothes so you have what’s required if an incident does happen. Try to avoid being alone in a closed room with a child especially if there isn’t a member aware and if you are ever in doubt about anything just check it through with your manager.

3.4 Every setting will have a whistle blowing policy and procedure which should be follow by anyone who has any concerns about poor practice by another member of staff. It can be very difficult to report someone that you work with but you must never ignore poor practice. Before reporting any concerns you need to have a good think about what is worrying you and why. Then you should pick an appropriate time and place to report your concern to your manager or supervisor. You will need to write down the details of poor practice, giving background details, history, names, witness names, dates and places where you can. All information disclosed from both the whistleblower and the accused are all kept confidential and they are investigated discreetly and support will be offered to both parties if they require this. If anyone suffers or loses their job as a result of whistle blowing then the UK Public Interest Disclosure Act will protect them.

4.1 When working in a school environment you are always aware, being observant and looking out for any signs of possible child abuse/neglect. Things to look out for would be like change in behaviour, a child might become withdrawn or very aggressive. They may become nervous and dislike physical contact. Also a change in appearance can be an indicator, for example a child may come to school looking dirty/unwashed. You may also notice a child wears the same clothes for a long period of time. Also they might say something that could cause concern, for example saying that they don’t want to go home or to visit someone.

4.2 Action Description

1. Know and understand the settings policies and procedures. All staff within a childcare setting should have a clear understanding of their settings policies and procedures so they know exactly who to turn to in any given situation.

2. Listen and respect Communicate with the child in a way that is appropriate to their age, ensure you make no promises to the child and that you will do everything possible to help them. Record everything that the child says with dates. Do not start asking the child leading questions or attempting to investigate.

3. Reassure. Reassure the child that they have done the right thing by telling you and not to worry but explain to the child that you may have to pass the information on.

4. Report to the manager. You need to report your concern as soon as possible to your manager or supervisor with details you have recorded. Then you and your manager will write an official report together.

5. Further actions. Your manager would then contact the police or social care to discuss and plan what actions need to be taken.

6. Ensure the child is not at risk.  Check that the child is not at risk or harm when they go home. If it is someone at home that the child is making an allegation about then social care would be contacted and temporary accommodation could be made while the investigation took place.

7. Meeting with parents. If it isn’t anyone at home that the child is making allegations about your manager will request a meeting with parents/carers as soon as possible.

8. Staff meeting. Your manager will arrange a meeting for all staff who is involved with the case to update you as to what has happened so far.

9. Child Protection Register. The child would be on a protection plan that is reviewed every 6 months and support from support workers should be given to both the child and the parents/carers.

10. Providing care and support. While the child remains in the setting give plenty of support and care to avoid any added set back’s in their development.

4.3 Three examples of the rights children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected are; If a child or young person makes a disclosure alleging abuse then we must follow our settings procedures on disclosures and protect the child or young person as they have the right to be protected from harm and abuse at all times. Also they have the right to know what we would do next and to be involved in decisions that are being made about them.

Wherever possible the child may be allowed to remain in their family home and protection will be achieved by working with the child’s parents/carers without the need to remove the child. However if they are suffering from physical or sexual abuse then they will be removed from their home to protect them from any further harm.

Parents/carers have a right to be informed what is being said, too see the reports and to contribute their own views and opinions. However if the child or young person is suffering significant harm then the parents/carers have no immediate rights

5.1 There are different types of bulling such as someone appearance, for example weight or their style. This can effect a child as it can make them have a low self esteem and feel anxious. It can also make them have a loss in appetite. Physical bulling e.g. punching or kicking, this can have a big effect on a child as they may become afraid and not want to leave the family home. Indirect bulling for example spreading rumours/stories about someone. This can make a child feel anxious and lonely. It can also make them find it hard to trust others. Cyberbulllying, for example bulling through messages or email. Although this is more common in older ages if a child is bullied this way it can effect them in ways such as finding it hard to trust others, being very anxious and scared and not wanting to attend school.

5.2 Some relevant policies and procedures are, behaviour policy, bullying policy, child protection and safeguarding policy, E-safety and equal opportunities policy.

5.3 A child came up to me and told me that another child for a long period of time has/is calling them names at playtime. I would talk to the child and look further into it. I would reassure the child and let them know that they can talk to me and any other member of staff at any time. I would also tell the child that I would confront the other child involved and put a stop to it. I would inform both children’s parents/carers so they are aware of what is going on and that we are solving it and also so that they can give feedback if any information to do with the situation if it is mentioned at home.

6.1 Examples of how to support children and young people’s confidence and self esteem are, using lots of positive language and giving them individual attention. When a child shows you their work instead of saying yes that’s good show interest and tell them what you like about it and if you feel something needs improving don’t be negative, discuss it with them for example ask the child if they think anything could be better. Go at the child’s pace, don’t rush them into anything just encourage and support them. Try and get children that are quieter than others to join in with group activities and make sure that they have the chance to speak. Valuing work, use their work as examples or put it up on display in the classroom.

6.2 It is important to support resilience so that children don’t give up and keep trying. The more resilient a child is, the easier it will be for them to deal with life as they grow up. Also resilience can give a child more confidence and can increase the child’s value in themselves. It can make a child more able to cope with problems so then they can be happier and enjoy their lives. You can support resilience by making the child feel important and encourage them to try things and to not give up. If a child says something like “I cant do it” or “I’m doing it wrong” while they are doing a task then explain to them that they aren’t doing it wrong and that they just need to keep trying their best. Give them an example of something you had to do lots of times before learning how to do it, for example painting or cooking. When you can see the child is trying their best give them lots of appropriate praise.

6.3 It is important for children and young people to develop safety strategies and the risks so they can keep themselves and others around them safe and so that they are aware of the dangers that can be around them. Children need to learn how to protect themselves so they need to know the difference between what is acceptable and what is not. They also need to have the chance to take risks so that they can learn from them.

6.4 Ways to help children to protect themselves and keep themselves safe are, teaching them about strangers and some of the dangers to do with adults. Explain to them that strangers are mainly nice people but to still not approach adults that we don’t know, as sometimes adults try to hurt or take children. Remember we don’t want children to feel scared or uncomfortable when around people so make sure you reassure them and explain that this should never happen to them. Teaching them how to do things safely and with minimum risk, for example on a climbing frame or crossing the road. On a climbing frame don’t tell a child what to do and what not to do, let them explore themselves and take the risks, just be their to support and to make sure they aren’t taking too big of a risk.

Talk to them about what they are doing, ask them if they are sure if they can reach or if they say they cant do it then encourage them to keep trying and reassure them that you are there and that they are safe. When crossing a road first hold their hand and ask them look both ways and ask if they can see a car, then ask if they hear any cars if the child says no tell them that it is safe to cross. When you feel the child understands the dangers on the road let them cross without holding your hand and then gradually over time move onto crossing with supervision and then none. Use things like pictures, role-play and discussions that are age appropriate. For example you could stick pictures around the area of and have a group of children to walk around and look at them and think about whether it is a risk/sensible behaviour or not. You could have things like water near electrical objects, riding a bike with no helmet, playing near roads etc. After gather the children together and discuss their thoughts and go through the pictures explaining them.