Evaluation should bebased on clearly stated objectives. An objective is defined as the statement of the expected behaviors that the student should display after instruction or teaching. These objectives serve as basis for constructing and using assessment instruments to assess students’ learning. The expected behaviors are somehow related to either of the following, but not limited to: 1) knowledge; 2) reasoning; 3) skills; 4) products; or, 5) affects.
Knowledge – refers to the cognitive activities which include memorizing, recalling of facts, understanding of concepts and meanings, analysing the relationships of related facts, synthesizing or related facts and principles, and evaluating the outcomes of the relationships of concepts and principles. Reasoning – is a behavior which refers to the cognitive activities which require the use of presentation, justification, and rationalization of the existence of facts, concepts, theories, and principles.
Skills – defined as the ability to use once knowledge effectively and readily in the execution of performance of a specific task. This requires three elements in the skill: 1) sensing; 2) precision (accuracy); and, 3) timing. Products – refers to psychomotor activities that show the end result of using the abilities to manipulate, apply, and operate facts, concepts and principles in real-life situations. Affects – refers to the activities that show values, morals, ethics, ideals, and standards in life.
B. The Principle of Appropriateness of Assessment
Evaluation procedures and techniques should be selected in terms of the clearly stated objectives (Gronlund, 1981).There are various formats of assessment instruments from which the teacher can choose for classroom use. The suggested general formats are the following: Objective test – are those that require one and only one correct answer and no possible answers.
Reganit, et al.(2004) posits that an objective test is made up of items for which correct responses maybe set up in advance. There are different types of objective test item formats, these are: 1) supply type; 2) matching type; 3) alternate-response type; 4) labelling; 5) enumeration; and, 6) multiple choice. Subjective test – res are evaluated by giving an opinion about the issue, concepts, ideas, and the like.
In an English class, a test for the assessment of students’ writing skills are often considered as subjective because it require the teacher to rate a piece of work based on his/her personal interpretation.
The raters can assign the corresponding points depending upon the quality of the piece of writing output. Performance test – when the objective of the lesson requires that at the end of the lesson the student are required to perform in an activity, the appropriate test to measure the achievement of this objective is a performance test. Oral Reasoning– when the instructional objective states that “ at the end of the lesson the pupils orally defend their stand on the issue,” then an oral reasoning test is appropriate.
Observation – Reed and Bergmann (2001) observation is one effective means of learning…how students response to classroom environment. This assessment method can be done by the teacher, co-student, or even parents. Self – Reports – students may be required to write personal opinions, journals, and reflection about a learning activity.Fromthese self-made reports, the teachers evaluate whether or not these students have learn the concepts taught in the classroom.