From a food and beverage manager’s perspective – Why is managing the diversity of an international food and beverage operation so important? Discuss this by using a system, or process, or method and/ or technique
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In the hospitality industry, managing the diversity of international food and beverage operation which is important from a food and beverage manager’s perspective can improve the quality of the hospitality services, reduce high turnover in hospitality management and make more profit from the food and beverage operation. Hospitality workforce is consisted of diverse population and visible and non-visible differences which are included gender, age, background, culture, religion, race, disability, personality, and work style. According to this, the establishment of processing food and beverage operations is able to effectively manage people who work in hospitality workplace. And also, the hospitality education and training can provide hospitality worker an opportunity that improve themselves and understand the diverse workforce.
Jones (as cited in Igram, 1999) indicated that “operations concern the way that organizations deliver their product/ service to the consumer” (p. 142). This is the key of concerning for the effective practice hospitality. Johnston (as cited in Igram, 1999) indicated that the operations could be divided into three activities; customer processing operations, information processing operations and product processing operations. As manager must understand these three activities which reflect employees how they plan and control the processing operation. Thus, effective hospitality operations must incorporate planning with technology and people management. Furthermore, Mullins (as cited in Igram, 1999) pointed that hospitality operations are heterogeneous group, but they share a number of common characteristics.
For example, there are a wide range of skilled staff required, but there are also high numbers unskilled staff needed; most employees are from different countries, they have different background and use English as second language; there is a large proportion of female, part time, casual staff. Due to this situation, the labour mobility and turnover are high. Thus, managing diversity in food and beverage operation must need a perfect system or an improved method as foundation. Systematic in the design, planning and control of a food and beverage operation must be concerned by international food and beverage manager. And also, management of the operation systems within a food and beverage operation must be considered by international food and beverage manager. What benefits will be brought into international food and beverage operation by understanding the systems? To sum up, there are three benefits. Firstly, control of resources which is implemented the systems inputs aim to reduce wastage. Secondly, efficient and effective operation can perfect international food and beverage services by using systems processes. Finally, the systems outputs assure what goal the hospitality organization can achieve.
The hospitality education and training can provide hospitality worker an opportunity that improve themselves and understand the diverse workforce. The hospitality education and training are the techniques which can complement the international food and beverage management. Lynch (as cited in Robinson, 2005) pointed that” business management foci currently in vogue with hospitality and food and beverage operations education and practice” (p. 70). In other words, in order to provide effective services to consumer, the hospitality organization will implement the food and beverage operations education and practice to guide and develop skilled and high standard staff. Ingram (1999) indicated that “effective academic abilities (including abstraction, attention to detail, “hair splitting”) are not always found in conjunction with personal organization skills (such as planning, delegation, prioritizing tasks)” (p. 146). Thus, the academic education implemented in hospitality organization can incorporate to the international food and beverage operations with staff.
2 From a food and beverage manager’s perspective – What are the important thing to consider when planning, designing and allocating space for storage, preparation, production and service for a food and beverage operation.
From a food and beverage manager’s perspective, the design and plan of a food service facility effect on the attraction from customers and on productivity of employees, and also on making profit from hospitality business. If facilities are poorly designed, customers will be inconvenienced and food services are inefficient. If a manager wants to perfect a food service, he/she must consider what requirements are needed when planning, designing and allocating space for storage, preparation, production and service for a food and beverage operation. The considerations will be the market and operational needs, the food production areas and equipment, sustainability and hygiene and health issue.
As described above, first of all, as the operational needs, food service facility design will be the first consideration in planning space for food and beverage operation. The better food service facilities design will appeal to customers and employees when manager plans space for production and service. Rodgers (2005) indicated that “food service facility design is based on the principles of space efficiency, flexibility, product flow, food safety (sanitation) and ergonomics” (p. 308). In other words, an effective food service facility design can provide safe workplace for staff and set up an environment for efficient operation flow of people and product. The facility can make employees work efficiently so that the organization can reduce the labour costs. Furthermore, the costs on facility maintenance are low. Finally, the maximum profit is gained from investment.
Secondly, manager must consider the food production areas and equipment. An efficient workflow established can create a tight, smooth and productive food service operation. Afterwards, an adequate work space and suitable work sections are required to provide to employees. For example, kitchen space sometimes will be minimized in order to make more room for customers. That lead to the kitchen space is limited. The quantities of food can be supplied, however, the narrow kitchen design cannot provide employees enough room so that the food service will be delayed which dissatisfied the customers. Another thing that manager must consider is the kitchen layouts. Ninemeier (2010) indicated that “work flow-the traffic patterns employees form as they go about their work-is another factor that muse be considered” (p. 5). Different kitchen activities must be done in individual work stations. For example, as the figure below, it is a bakery kitchen. Different number stands different stations. Employees can follow the work flow step by step to prepare food. As we can see from the figure, the food preparation space must be divided into specific areas. The station 2-5 are the places which are for food preparation and storage. The station 1 and station 6 are used for washing and waste disposal. Due to this kitchen layout design, the food contamination will decrease and the food storage time can extend. As a food and beverage manager must consider of the food contamination.
Figure 1 kitchen layout (Source: Ninemeier, D. J. 2010)
Ingram, H. (1999). Hospitality: a framework for a millennial review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(4), 140-147. Ninemeier, D. J. (2010) Management of Food and Beverage Operations (2nd ed.). American: American Hotel & Lodging Educational Foundation. Robinson, R. S. (2007). Plain Fare to Fusion: Ethnic Impacts on the Process of Maturity in Brisbane’s Restaurant Sector. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 14(1), 70-84. Rogers, S. (2005). Applied research and educational needs in food service management. International Journal of contemporary Hospitality Management, 17(4), 302-314.