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1. The Definition and Discrimination of HRM and PM
1.1 The Definition of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization achieved the best from their highly motivated people and it is new management techniques to ensure the effective use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals. Human Resource Management is the process of recruitment, selection of employee, providing proper orientation and induction, providing proper training and the developing skills, assessment of employee (performance of appraisal), providing proper compensation and benefits, motivating, maintaining proper relations with labour and with trade unions, maintaining employees safety, welfare and health by complying with labour laws of concern state or country. (http://www.whatishumanresource.com/human-resource-management)
1.2 The Definition of Personal Management Personal Management (PM) is includes the functions that Human Resources staff perform relative to the organization’s employees and include recruiting, hiring, compensation and benefits, new employee orientation, training, and performance appraisal systems. The management of the people in working organizations. It is also frequently called personnel management, industrial relations, employee relations, manpower management, and personnel administration. It represents a major subcategory of general management, focusing exclusively on the management of human resources, as distinguished from financial or material resources. The term may be used to refer to selected specific functions or activities assigned to specialized personnel officers or departments. It is also used to identify the entire scope of management policies and programs in the recruitment, allocation, leadership, and direction of employees.
1.3 The difference between Personal Management and Human Resource Management.
Human Resource Management
Driven by employer needs for competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Operates within competitive markets and a change agenda
Is a distinctive approach to managing people, with a strong strategic purpose
Adopts a unitary frame of reference to organisation and people management
Manages employees individually rather than collectively
Driven by employer needs to treat people fairly in organisation.
Operates in relatively stable market conditions
Is a traditional approach to managing people, with a strong administrative purpose
Is long term, with a strategic time perspective Is short time, with an ad hoc perspective
Adopts a pluralist frame of reference to organisation and people management
Negotiates with trade unions where they are recognized
2. The four major stages of the evolution of Personal and Human Resource Management.
2.1 Social Justice
2.1.1 Explain the Social Justice
The origin of personnel management lies in the 19th Century, deriving from the work of social reformers such as Lord Shaftesbury and Robert Owen. Their criticism of the free enterprise system and the hardship created by the exploitation of workers by factory owners led to the appointment of the first personnel managers. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, some large employers began to appoint welfare officers to manage new initiatives designed to make life less harsh for their employees. The results were higher productivity, improved retention of the workforce and a bigger pool of applicants for each job. 2.1.2 Robert Owen (14 May 1771-17 November 1858) The Industrial Revolution provided the impetus for developing various management theories and principles. Preclassical theorists like Robert Owen made some initial contributions that eventually led to the identification of management as an important field of inquiry. This led to the emergence of approaches to management: classical, behavioral, quantitative and modern. The classical management approach had three major branches: scientific management, administrative theory and bureaucratic management. Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve worker efficiency. Bureaucratic management dealt with the characteristics of an ideal organization, which operates on a rational basis. Administrative theory explored principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations. The behavioral approach emerged primarily as an outcome of the Hawthorne studies. Mary Parker Follet, Elton Mayo and his associates, Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor and Chris Argyris were the major contributors to this school.
Cadbury Schweppes employs more than 50,000 people and has manufacturing operations in more than 35 countries. It is the world’s third largest soft drinks company and holds either the top or second position in the market share of 24 of the world’s top 50 confectionery markets. This illustrates that the large Quaker company has its value in the market where it is important for HR to manage their employee’s performances, working culture and management in an efficient and positive way. Resource based model, the SHRM role becomes one of the creating systems and procedures that focus not on external relationships but on how staff and their abilities are used. The resource-based model recognizes that many aspects of capability can be formally defined in skill terms and allows the integration of the intangible aspects of work alongside other more visible areas such as patents, trademarks and other intellectual. The core competencies include many things such as aspects change of the management, capability of staff, strategic development capability and speed of response.
2.2 Human Bureaucracy
2.2.1 Explain the Human Bureaucracy
Marked the beginning of a move away from a sole focus on welfare towards meeting various other organisational objectives. The fostering of social relationships in the workplace and employee morale thus became equally important objectives for personnel managers seeking to raise productivity levels.
2.2.2 Henri fayol (1841-1925)
Fayol’s “14 Principles” was one of the earliest theories of management to be created, and remains one of the most comprehensive. He’s considered to be among the most influential contributors to the modern concept of management, even though people don’t refer to “The 14 Principles” often today. In 1916, two years before he stepped down as director, he published his “14 Principles of Management” in the book “Administration Industrielle et Generale.” Henri Fayol’s “14 Principles of Management” have been a significant influence on modern management theory. His practical list of principles helped early 20th century managers learn how to organize and interact with their employees in a productive way. Although the 14 Principles aren’t widely used today, they can still offer guidance for today’s managers. Many of the principles are now considered to be common sense, but at the time they were revolutionary concepts for organizational management.
2.3 Consent by Negotiation
2.3.1 Explain the Consent by Negotiation
The elements of hard bargaining or win-lose bargaining were illuminate how to set aggressive target, start high, concede slowly and employ threats, bluffs, and commitments to positions without triggering an impasse from 1950s to 1960s.
2.3.2 Collective Bargaining Process
The process of negotiating the terms of employment between an employer and a group of workers. The terms of employment are likely to include items such as conditions of employment, working conditions and other workplace rules, base pay, overtime pay, work hours, shift length, work holidays, sick leave, vacation time, retirement benefits and health care benefits. In the United States, collective bargaining takes place between labor union leaders and the management of the company that employs that union’s workers. The result of collective bargaining is called a collective bargaining agreement, and it establishes rules of employment for a set number of years. The cost of this employee representation is paid by union members in the form of dues. The collective bargaining process may involve antagonistic labor strikes or employee lockouts if the two sides are having trouble reaching an agreement.
2.4 Organisation and Integration
2.4.1 Explain the Organisation and Integration
At the late 19th and early 20th century, there are some social problems in British, which is social injustice and Rich-poor gap. So British make some legislation on the basis of economic situation, political democracy, the international environment and social thoughts.
2.4.2 Race Relations Act 1976
The Race Relations Act 1976 applies to discrimination on the grounds of colour, race, nationality and ethnic and national origins. It applies in Great Britain but not in Northern Ireland. Religious discrimination is not explicitly covered in Britain but separate legislation covers this in Northern Ireland. “Ethnic origin”, however, has been interpreted broadly to cover groups with a common or presumed common identity such as Jews or Sikhs. There are important exceptions to the legislation which, for example, allow discrimination on grounds of nationality to preserve immigration controls. Both direct and indirect discrimination are covered by the legislation which applies to all stages of employment: arrangements made for deciding who is offered a job; the terms on which the job is offered; opportunities for promotion, training and transfer; the benefits and services granted to employees; and in job termination or other unfavourable treatment of employees. The Act provides for a few, specific exemptions where it may be a genuine occupational qualification (GOQ) to be a member of a particular race, ethnic group, etc.
2.4.3 Disability Discrimination Act 1995
The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 aims to end the discrimination that faces many people with disabilities. This Act has been significantly extended, including by the Disability Discrimination (NI) Order 2006 (DDO). It now gives people with disabilities rights in the areas of: employment, education access to goods, facilities and services, including larger private clubs and transport service buying or renting land or property, including making it easier for people with disabilities to rent property and for tenants to make disability-related adaptations functions of public bodies, for example issuing of licenses.