The anesthesia technician & technologist’s manual: All you need to know for study and reference

Improvements of Anesthesia

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            From nineteenth century, there have been important and continuous improvements in the field of medicine in United States, particularly in discovery of microorganisms as the root cause of disease and anesthesia. The improvements have been of great importance in facilitating effective, convenient, and safest methods of treatment. The paper below discusses anesthesia improvements, and importance of its improvement in treatment.

Improvements of anesthesia

            The direct use of volatile anesthetics and intense cold were the most important steps in anesthesia in nineteenth century. The steps were used in surgical sites during treatment of traumatic injuries. This was possible by bringing down local temperature of body tissues by the application of salt and ice during the surgeon. However, to estimate the cold projection was extremely complex when using salt and ice. This gave rise to new techniques such as topical application of Dutch oil and vaporization of ether and ethylene chloride by fumigation and spraying. Since then, there was continuous discovery of more anesthetic liquids such as amyl hydrate and vaginal Dutch. Having improved the anesthetic liquids, there was a major challenge in obstruction of sprays used. As a result, there came need to improve the jet, which was possible by designing different systems of nozzles. Almost to the end of the century, some medical practitioners recommended the improvements best for surgeon but many individual called for alternative approach, especially in minor surgery (Walter, 2014).

            All the way from 19th century to transition into the twentieth century, there have been many improvements of anesthesia care (Woodworth, 2012). For instance, the common practice discussed above changed by introduction of cocaine around 1884.Later in 1934, the sodium Pentothal was introduced for intravenous anesthetic administration. Despite its many challenges associated with its negative side effects when administered to some patients, it remained the most effective until 1977 when Dr.Brian Kay introduced muscle relaxants and rubber endotracheal tubes. In 1980s, pulse oximetry and end tidal CO2 were introduced that facilitated EKG monitoring.

Use of the improvement in medical practice today

            Some of above discussed improvements are still used across the United States. For instance, the improvement of EKG monitoring makes it possible to manage neuromuscular blockade .In addition, the use of muscle relaxants and rubber endotracheal tubes makes it easy for anesthesiologists to monitor the condition of the patient .The monitoring of the patients’ condition primarily involves checking of blood pressure as well as pulse rate. Being able to process EEG measurement, end tidal CO2 and pulse oximetry have made it possible to quantify the depth of anesthesia. The monitoring incorporated with some of discussed advances has led into the best anesthetic practice by improving patient’s safety.

            Indisputably, there is significant from the use of advances though some of the anesthetic practices used today for surgery have changed tremendously. Unfortunately, while bringing the changes in transformation of anesthesia surgery, the dramatic change in body knowledge and skills developed from the improvements has resulted to inseparable and complex medical disciplines.

Future developments in anesthesia

            Aside from the above important improvements discussed such as introduction of pulse oximeter in aesthesia practices in United States today, there are many cases of mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. It is therefore obvious that the discoveries are not the “end of the road” but the push to new heights .However, with improved, optimal, and creative anesthetic management evident in United States ,there is hope of continued improvement to develop most safer and effective anesthesia practices while cutting down the pressure from medical economics. This will only be possible if anesthesiologists rise to the challenge.


Walter. (2014). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from

Woodworth, G., & Kirsch, J. (2012). The anesthesia technician & technologist’s manual: All you need to know for study and reference. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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