Instructive Text Types


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In this work I will try to approach different types of text, how texts affect our lives and how we understand them. Special attention will be given to directive and instructive texts, without realizing these texts are parts of our own lives, we encounter them daily, for example in: instructions, recipes, notices, political texts, religious texts, commercial texts, etc. I think that texts are important for us, because the message that is aimed to affect in a good way or bad, everything depends of how it is written and if it respecting the rules for a good text, with a beginning, meaning and end. In the first chapter I try to develop the text types according to Beaugrande and Dressler’s typology, Longacre’s classification, Werlich’s textual typology and Biber’s text typology.

In my opinion these typologies, are based on criteria such as text classes, styles, genres, depending on the criteria adopted, there are several possibilities of classifying texts. Using some of the most obvious criteria, texts can be classified as spoken or written, dialogical or monological, spontaneous (unprepared) or ritual (prepared), informal or formal, individual (personal) and inter individual (interpersonal), private or public (official, institutional), subjective or objective, interactional (contact-oriented) and transactional (message-oriented). In the second chapter I deal with text forms like descriptive, narrative, expository, argumentative and instructive. This classification helps to establish specific correlations between purpose and extra-linguistic context. The third chapter represent the directive instructive text type; here we have legal texts, statutory instructions, practical instructions, persuasive texts, and the last one being classified in commercial advertisements, political texts, religious and ethical appeal.

I focus on these texts because I find them appropriate to daily routine, where the rules make our lives and we follow them but of course each rule may have a deviation. Chapter1. Text and Text type: definitions and classifications Werlich defined texts as an extended structure of syntactic units such as words, groups, and clauses and textual units that is marked by both coherence among the elements and completion”. If the encoder establishes coherence and completion in a text by specific sets of text structural sequence forms, distinct types of text structuring are the result. The encoder’s selection of dominate and subsidiary sets of text structural sequence forms in the text structuring is determined by the thematic text base from which the encoder has started.

There are two types of classification of text structure and they are: normal and expressive text. We can speak of normal text structuring when the encoder establishes coherence and completion in a text by complying with the conventional textual presuppositions of a linear progression from a beginning through middle to an end. In the expressive text structuring the encoder deviates from the conventional textual presuppositions of a linear progression from a beginning through middle to an end.

Rene Dirven believes that texts are the basic units of communicative language use, and he identifies six conditions that have to be found in texts: * Coherence is created when a thematic base is expanded in ordered and completed sequences of linguistic units. Here the base is descriptive and the sequences are fundamentally functional and topical. * Completion is created by introducing elements that indicate the beginning and end of one or more of the sequences established by coherence. Initiation and termination can be functional and topical. The functional initiators are the indefinite article (a, some) and adverbials (firstly to begin with). Topical initiators depend on textual presuppositions and become impossible to list because they depend on the encoder’s choice. * Communicative aims;

* Intelligibility;
* Socio-cultural context
1.1 Texts types

If groped together on the basis of their dominant context, texts may be classified into five text types. A text type is an idealized norm of distinctive text structuring which serves as a deep structural matrix of rules and elements for the encoder when responding linguistically to specific aspects of his experience. The encoder can choose between five text types: description, narration, exposition, argumentation and instruction.

The descriptive text
It is the type of textual communication in which the encoder deals with factual phenomena in space like persons, objects, relations. The distinctive base includes a linking verb (seem, look) either in present or past form plus a locative adverbial. Structure of sentence: S (NP) +P (V +Pres\Past) +A (Adv P\PP) The Slobozia Mare village is in south of Moldova. These texts are based on representation of phenomena in space. Encoders can deal with this contextual focus from a subjective pint of view in impressionistic descriptions, or objectively in technical descriptions. In impressionistic descriptions, the functional coherence is often archived by the first person singular point of view, while the topical coherence is determined by the impressions of phenomena in space. On the other hand, technical descriptions are composed in third person and topicalization focuses on the elements of a whole. The cognitive process in these texts is the differentiation and interrelation of perceptions in space. The narrative text

Is the type of textual communication where the encoder deals with factual conceptual phenomena in time. Typical bases include dynamic verbs of action and process in transitive or intransitive patters with locative temporal adverbials.

Structure of sentence: S (NP) +P (V +Past) + (OD) +A (Adv P\PP) The passengers arrived in Cahul in the middle of the night. Represent phenomena in time and can be reduced to an action recording sentence. This representation can be done in a subjective or objective manner. The cognitive process is the perception in time. * The expositive text

Is the type of text were the encoder chose for presenting either constituent elements which can be synthesized into a composite concept or a mental construct, or those constituent elements into which concepts or mental contracts of phenomena can be analysed. This type bases on two types, either simple phenomenon-identifying sentences with verb be and a subject complement realized a NP or simple phenomenon-attributing sentences with verb have and a complement. Structure of sentence: S (NP) +P (V +Present) +C (NP)

The electron is composed of protons and neutrons. The cognitive process is the comprehension of general and particular concepts.

* The argumentative text
Is the type of text were encoder proposes relations between concepts of
phenomena, makes his propositions in explicit or in implicit opposition to deviant or alternative propositions. The argumentative texts focus on the validity of relations among concepts. Structure of sentence: S (NP) +P (V +Not +Present) +Cs (Adj P) The text base of an argumentative text can be reduced to the length and structural constituents of the negated quality-attributing sentence. The cognitive process is the judgement of relations between concepts by means of comparison.

* The instructive text
Is the type of textual communication in which the encoder tells himself what to do. He uses linguistic communication in order to plan the future behaviour of himself or others. Instruction is the text type related to the cognitive process of planning. These texts can be reduced to the constituents of a simple action-demanding sentence with a predicate realized by an imperative verb either in the affirmative or negative.

Structure of sentence: P (V) + Od (NP) P (V +Do +Not) + Od (NP) Remove the pits. Don’t remove the pits. The cognitive process is the planning of future behaviour what depends of subdivision or inclusion. Textual typologies have developed on functional bases by distinguishing parameters that identify type. The question of text types offers a severe challenge to linguistic typology; there are systemisation and classification on language sample. In 1972, a colloquium on text types was held at the University of Bielefeld, Germany. Attempts to apply or convert traditional linguistic methods failed to meet the special needs of a typology of texts.

From the early decades of linguistics’ studies, authors have classified texts in various ways. In this chapter I will present some of the classifications I came across in my readings.

Firstly, it must be mentioned that each author had used different parameters in his way of categorizing texts. Secondly, we must mention Roman Jacobson’s communication functions, since they were used often as parameters by authors in their classifications of text types. He distinguished six communication functions as follows: * The referential function

* The aesthetic function
* The emotive function
* The conative function
* The phatic function
* The metalingual function
One of the six functions is always the dominant function in a text and usually related to the type of text.

1.2 Beaugrand’s and Dressler’s typology

Beaugrande and Dressler’s typology (1981) is less developed in its linguistic characterization but provides some useful hints in terms of its organisation of knowledge across types. Figure1 presents the defining features of the three basic text types.

Figure 1
Knowledge| objects, situations| actions, events| beliefs, ideas| Conceptual relation| attributes, states| cause, reason time| reason, volition, value, opposition| Linguistic features| Modifiers| subordination| cohesive devices for emphasis| Global pattern| Frame| Schema| plan-goal|

The authors acknowledge the difficulty of comparing the actual system, is, the actual texts, with the virtual typology because many instances do not display neither the full nor the exact characteristics of an ideal type because the actualisations obey the requirements imposed by the context of occurrence. The global pattern of knowledge is descriptions in frame: the elements of a concept that belong together but without any order. Precisely, scheme, which characterize narratives, are patterns of events and states integrated in temporal and causal sequences. Argumentative texts are characterized by plans, defined as patterns of events and states leading to an intended goal.

1.3 Longacre’s classification

One of the important aims of a text grammar is to specify text types. Typologies provide the necessary backdrop against which to justify the generalizations made with respect to genres and varieties and the appropriate terms to allow comparison across varieties. A text type is asset of correlations between linguistic features and communicative purpose. Longacre in 1976 proposes a four-fold typology based on two parameters, temporal succession and agent orientation, summarized in figure1. The combination of these two parameters gives the four types of monological discourse: narrative, procedural, behavioural, and expository.

Figure 2
| + agent orientation| -agent orientation|
+ temporal succession| Narrative1,3 personagent orientationaccomplished timechronological linkage| Proceduralno specific personparticipant orientedproject timechronological linkage| + temporal succession| Behavioural2 personaddressee orientedmodalitylogical linkage| Expositoryno necessary personal ref.subject matter orientedtime not focallogical linkage|

1.3 Werlich’s textual typology

Werlich’s typology (1982) derives from the correlations among the features of text, context, and participants. In this way, particular linguistic features are not only linked to a communicative purpose but motivated by this purpose. He distinguished five basic or ideal forms that are fundamental to discourse types. Werlich relates these basic forms to specific sentence structures. The characteristic type of sentence for the instructive is the imperative.

The five basic forms are each divided into two methods of presentation: subjective (the writer’s perception) and objective (which can be verified by readers). The passive voice is, in Werlich’s opinion, a characteristic of objective presentation, while the active voice is typical of subjective discourse types. We can see his classification in figure 3 below. The most important aims in which concern linguistic features are: To check whether linguistic features
co-occur systematically; To establish linguistic similarities among texts;

To distinguish types according to linguistic form;
Characterize the full range of texts n English.
This author points out that rhetorical modes are not linguistic types in that they produce inconsistent definitions of texts and allow great linguistic variation within types.

Figure 3
| Text base| Contextual| Cognitive process|
Descriptive| Phenomenon registering| Phenomena in space| Perceptions in space| Narrative| Action recording| Phenomena in time| Perceptions in time| Expository| Phenomenon identifying linking| Analysis\synthesis of concepts| Comprehension of concepts| Argumentative| Negative quality attributing| Relations between concepts| Judging| Instructive| Action demanding| Future behaviour| Planning|

1.5 Biber’s text types
Biber’s typology(1989) is based on the hypothesis that linguistic co-occurrence reflects shared function, thus reversing the order of analysis, first identifying linguistic features and then interpreting them functionally. The five dimensions of Biber:

* Involved versus informational production
* Narrative versus non-narrative concerns
* Elaborated versus situation-depend reference
* Overt expression of persuasion
* Abstract versus non-abstract style
In dimension 1 are the one hand interactive and affective discourse types, like conversations and personal letters, and, on the other hand highly informative texts, like editorials and academic prose. The types are characterized by the presence or absence of a set of features. In dimension 2, narrative texts-with, among other features, many past-tense verbs and third-person pronouns-are distinguished from non-narrative texts. Dimension 3 sets the highly explicit context-independent texts, like official documents, apart from all other discourse type. Dimension 4 characterizes all text with persuasive elements, such as ads and politicians speeches. Dimension 5, with features like passives, characterizes the abstract and formal style.On the basis of these five dimensions Biber distinguished eight texts prototypes such as: * Intimate personal interaction;

* Imaginative narrative;
* Situated reportage.
With his statistical analysis of the co- occurrence of linguistic features and the linking to communicative functions Biber showed that general concepts like narrative form, explanatory form, expository form and interactive discourse in other models are much too vague. These scales of variation includes 16 groups of linguistic features such as tense and aspect markers, place in time adverbials, pronouns, questions, nominal forms and passives.

The co-occurrence of these features was analysed in 481 spoken and written texts representing 23 different genres with results that produced the typology presented in figure 4. Biber seems surprised to find two dialogue types (intimate interpersonal interaction and informational interaction), two expository types (scientific and learned exposition) or two narrative types (imaginative and general narrative exposition) but it is hardly surprising that linguistic characterization produces such subtle distinctions.

Text type| Features|
Intimate interpersonal interaction| Situated referenceNon-abstract styleInvolved production+ maintain interpersonal relationship| Informational interaction| Situated referenceNon-abstract styleInvolved production+convey information| Scientific exposition| Non-narrativeNon-persuasiveInformationalExplicit reference+abstract| Learned exposition| Non-narrativeNon-persuasiveInformationalExplicit reference-abstract| Imaginative Narrative| NarrativeInvolved |

General narrative exposition| NarrativeNon-involvedExpository-informational| Situated reportage|
Non-narrativeNon-persuasiveNon-abstract+situated in reference| Involved persuasion| +/- involvedNon-narrativeElaborated referenceNon-abstractPersuasive/argumentative|

Figure 4

Chapter2. Text forms

Between the text types and concreteness of genres, we can identify several text forms which correspond to five basic types. This classification helps to establish specific correlations between purpose and extra-linguistic context.

2.1. The descriptive text form
Descriptive forms are based on the representation of phenomena in space, the encoder can choose between the text form of impressionistic description, which is description from a subjective point of view, and that of technical description, which is description from an objective point of view. Impressionistic description, encoder presents phenomena from the subjective impressions of relations, qualities, positions and directions in space; also give expression to the associations, attitudes, feelings and moods. In impressionistic description the neutral style of the descriptive text is modified by the choice of the encoder, and styles can be hyperbolic, metaphorical, comparative and evocative. Usually the encoders speak from the singular point of view, which is combining with the second point of view. The encoders normally combine these person-oriented points of view in impressionistic description with a narrowing or a widening focus and the temporal point of view or ether the Present or the Past Tense group. In technical description, the phenomena are presented from the point of view of objective observation in space.

He chooses his words so that his subjective impressions and reactions are excluded from the description. Frequently, linguistic communication is supported in technical descriptions by non-linguistic visual communication in the form of diagrams and illustrations. In this type of description the neutral style of the descriptive text idiom is modified by the encoder’s choice of technical style. In what concerns the distribution, technical descriptions are most frequent as distinct text divisions of newspaper articles, scientific papers, non-fiction books and articles and encyclopaedias 2.2 The narrative text form

Represent the phenomena in time and the encoder can choose between the text form of the narrative, which is narration from a subjective point of view, the report, were is narration from an objective point of view and news stories. The narrative presents the changes of subjective selection and subjective emphasis. Here are included chronological narrative texts, climatic narrative texts and plotted narrative texts. Functional coherence is established by means of the person, either in first or third person singular, together with past tense verbal forms.

Topical coherence id developed through the focus on persons and events in time. In the report the encoder presents changes from the point of view of an objective situational frame of reference outside himself. He records actions and events which can be checked and verified by others. Here are present the formal style and technical style. Topical coherence is achieved by the focus on the various situational factors of events: time, place, agents, objects, and relations. Types of narratives:

* Chronological narrative
In the chronological narratives, the encoder places changes in a simple sequence consisting of one event happening after the other time. * Climatic narrative
In the climatic narrative, the encoder superimposes on the temporal sequence the pattern of climatic arrangement. * Plotted narrative

In the plotted narrative, the encoder adds a further ingredient to the previous two and partly replaces them by introducing a sequence of antithetically related cause-effect relationships among the narrative changes. News stories are devised to provide information that enables the addressee to form and opinion, differ according to which references to dominant situational factors the reporter topicalities in them. Journalists distinguish the fact story, action story; quote story, interpretive news story, and reportages.

2.3 The expository text form
Expository text forms exhibit the constituent elements of abstract concepts. The forms are basically analytic, synthetic of a combination of both. Variants include the expository essay, definition, summary. In expository essays, the encoder presents an explanation of concepts, usually from a subjective point of view. Functional coherence is achieved through the first person singular or plural point of view, or non-personal third person point of view. Topical coherence depends on the particular field of knowledge where the object of the essay is included. Definitions are specific forms of analytic expositions. They are typically represented by encyclopaedic entries. Summaries are specific forms of synthetic expositions. These forms are characterized by a high level of abstraction and their structuring depends on the original text (temporal, analytical).

2.4 The argumentative text form
Argumentative text forms focus on the validity of relations among concepts. The producer states a problem as to the classification of a given fact according to systems of thought. This can be done from a subjective or objective point of view. In the first case we have a comment, typically exemplified by leading articles, and the second takes the form of scientific argumentation. In both cases the sequence that establishes cohesion and competitions are inductive, deductive or dialectical. The comment is a text form of the argumentative text; here the encoder passes judgement by relating concepts of events, objects and ideas to his private systems of thought, values and beliefs. Another form of argumentative text types is scientific argumentation, in this type the encoder passes judgement by relating concepts of events, objects and ideas to systems of though and knowledge so that the resultant propositions can be verified as valid or as valid hypotheses.

2.5 The instructive text form
Instructive text forms communicate about the planning of future behaviour either of the encoder or the decoder. In instructions the point of view is personal and the encoder usually adopts the first or second person point of view depending on whether instructions are directed to sender or to receiver. Directions, rules, regulations and statues stem from impersonal authority. In directions, rules, regulations and statues the encoder conventionally bases his demands for certain behaviour in two different kinds of impersonal authority: * On the authority of practical validity with reference to observable proprieties of phenomena. This applies to all text form variants of practical instructions; * Statutory instructions which can be sub-classified as some kind of regulations or statues proper: rules of games, contracts, testaments, treaties, Acts of parliament, etc.

The functional coherence is archived through the third person point of view. Topical coherence is achieved by reference to physical phenomena in the case of practical instructions and concepts and relations in rules and regulations Text forms are posited as intermediate between types and genres. For example, the instructive text type includes the form instructions which in turn, have variants such as recipes. Combinations of the above forms are very frequent and indeed necessary to account for the fact that actual texts rarely display the whole set of features established for the abstract category.

Chapter3. The directive-instructive text types

In this chapter I will expose the general characteristics of the directive instructive texts, how these texts are divided and what are the influences in our lives. 3.1 General characteristics

There are several text forms of the directive-instructive text type. All these texts aim at the direction or regulation of people behaviour. With the text type of instruction and direction speakers or authors attempt to elicit certain reactions on the part of their hearers or readers (that is, concrete actions, cognitive acts and\or emotions), or they try to plan the future behaviour of the others. The prominent function of this use of language is the directive or regulatory function of language. The regulatory function of directive and instructive texts may be represented as follows (fig.5). Figure 5



regulatory function



Within this text type, two main groups cam be distinguished: * First of all we have legal texts, which are normative and socially binding in character. * Secondly we have directive texts which are also guiding and regulative, but do not impose sanctions if the desired actions of the address do not come up to the speaker’s or author’s expectations. Directive texts can be further sub classified into instructions (practical vs. statutory) and persuasive text.

3.2 Directive and instructive texts
When we are talking about the planning of future behaviour of the encoder, he can chose between the text form of instructions, which are instruction from a subjective point of view, and text form variants of directions, rules, regulations and statues, which are instruction from an objective point of view. The instructive text idiom is marked by action-demanding commands and their variants in sequence. Important variants of the imperative action-demanding sentence are:

* commands introduced by an emplacing do and commands reduced to the rank of a minor sentence; * statements introduced by if- marked conditional clauses whit verbal groups modified by could ,would, or can ; Statements with verbal groups premodified by should, ought to, have to, must, or shall; and statements with verbs that refer to the encoder’s will of intention, such as would like, want, beg, hope, entered, expect; * questions introduced by auxiliaries could, would, can, and will.

3.2.1 Legal texts
According to Dirven people’s behaviour, as we all know, can be regulated by law, because society has imposed certain sanctions or certain modes of behaviour. The communicative effects of legal texts derive from authorities outside the actual text producer. It is a public authority with institutionalized powers and fairly well defined formal procedures that imposes certain norms as morally, socially or legally binding on other people’s behaviour in the world outside. The legal text one is likely to come into contact with abroad are notices like the ones issued by the police, the customs and excise of office etc., but also laws, statues and decrees. One may also come across deeds and private contacts, and other legal documents such as testaments, birth or marriage certificates, treaties, declarations and constitutions, credentials, proxies.

Example 1:
Birth certificate

Certified birth certificates are either original or copied documentations of a live birth. These documents are legal documents and provide proof of citizenship, age and parentage. The information obtained on a certified birth certificate can vary across states, but it provides the most pertinent information about the child and his parents. I believe it is a proof that everyone exists, that we have rights and duties, that we are citizens. It has the elementary points what every certificate of birth has: the state (State of California), the number of birth (112-05-6743), the name of child (Victor Chan), the gender(Male), the parents (Bianca Anne Chan), the day of birth (13 July,1984), the day of registration(30 August, 1984) and the signature of the county.

Example 2:
Tarapoto March 11, 2012
Av Carpaccio 111 Tarapoto

Margarita Valle Solis
Calle Lucuma No. 222
Tel 65653228
Tarapoto – Peru
To whom it may concern:
Through this proxy, I Margarita Valle Solis, 26 years old, with ID No. 10322222, born in Andahuaylas and residing at Calle Lucuma No. 222 Tarapoto Peru, grant Ms Maria Concha Ganosa, 22 years old with ID No. 25658410, born in Iquitos Peru and residing at Av Libertad No 555 Tarapoto – Peru, the power to collect the check No 4455736520, corresponding to the payment for my services rendered for the supervision of a business management project. Ms. Maria Concha Ganosa is also my cousin and I give her the power to make such collection for me, because I am unable to travel to Tarapoto for personal reasons. This proxy has validity for that procedure from the date of signature of this letter until the day March 20, 2012. Margarita Valle Solis Maria Concha Ganosa Manuel Garcha Basto Carmelita Leiva D ID: 10322222 ID: 25658410 ID: 07985514 ID: 06953374 I GIVE THE POWER I ACCEPT THE POWER Witness 1 Witness 2

Proxies are an example of legal text because:
The language is typical for legal texts and is rather used by ordinary people (grant, the power to…). Here we can found the name of the city (Tarapoto,Peru), date (March 11,2012), the names (Margarita Valle Solis, Maria Concha Ganosa), the ID (10322222 , 25658410 ), the purpose (the power to collect the check No 4455736520, corresponding to the payment for my services rendered for the supervision of a business management project), the validity (this proxy has validity for that procedure from the date of signature of this letter until the day March 20, 2012), the witnesses (Manuel Garcha Basto, Carmelita Leiva D). All these represent the main information about a person, the basic details that we can never change. Here we notice the use of:

* prepositions: with (with ID No), for (rendered for), to(the power to, corresponding to, unable to, travel to), from (from the date), at (at Calle Lucuma), in ( born in), until (until the day) ; * conjunctions: and (and residing), also (also my cousin) * adverb of manner: such (such collection)

* pronouns: possessive whom, my (whom it my concern, personal I (I Margarita Valle Solis) objective me (for me)

Example 3:
The Pact
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 1939
Article I. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), the northern boundary of Lithuania shall represent the boundary of the spheres of influence of Germany and U.S.S.R. In this connection the interest of Lithuania in the Vilna area is recognized by each party. Article II. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish state, the spheres of influence of Germany and the U.S.S.R. shall be bounded approximately by the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San.

The question of whether the interests of both parties make desirable the maintenance of an independent Polish States and how such a state should be bounded can only be definitely determined in the course of further political developments. In any event both Governments will resolve this question by means of a friendly agreement. Article III. With regard to South-eastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinteredness in these areas. Article IV. This protocol shall be treated by both parties as strictly secret. Moscow, August 23, 1939.

For the Government of the German Reich v. Ribbentrop
Plenipotentiary of the Government of the U.S.S.R. V. Molotov

The Pact is an example of legal text because:
* Firstly it has the typical language for legal texts: political rearrangement, represent, influence, the interest, by each party, the interests of parties, agreement, sides, protocol, strictly * Secondly it includes mention of the year when it was adopted (at 23 august 1939), the place (Moscow), the parties (Germany and U.S.S.R), the purpose (peace between this to parts) and the number of articles (4).

* Thirdly, we observe the use of the modal verb shall (shall represent, should be bounded); the prepositions in ( in the areas), to (to the Baltic States), with (with regard); the adverbs by (by each part, by the line), how (how such), such (such a state); the articles the (the interest), a (a territorial), an (an independent); conjunctions and(and political), whiter (whiter the interest), as (as strictly secret) .

Example 4:
The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova
Article 12 National Symbols
(1) The Republic of Moldova has her own flag, coat of arms and anthem. (2) The State flag of the Republic of Moldova is a tricolor. The colors are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole: blue, yellow, red. The coat of arms is printed on the central yellow stripe of the tricolor. (3) Moldova’s coat of arms consists of a shield divided horizontally into two parts: the upper part is red, and the lower part is blue with a superimposed arch’s head showing between its horns an eight-pointed star. On its right the lurch’s head is flanked by a five-pedaled rose and on its left by a slightly rotated crescent. All heraldic elements present on the shield are of golden (yellow) color. The shield is laid on the breast of a natural eagle holding in its beak a golden cross, in its right claw a green olive-tree branch and in its left claw a golden scepter. (4) Moldova’s State anthem shall be established by organic law. (5) The flag, the coat of arms and the anthem are State symbols of the
Republic of Moldova, and are protected by law as such.

The constitution is the legal act of a state; a constitution is in essence a promise. It is designed to make the future orderly and just. It is a contract between generations. A constitution cannot work if its definitions and wordings are not clear and intelligible, and if they keep changing. Words refer to definite things and ideas. The language of this text is rather strange and difficult and that is, why some people need help to understand it. I have chosen the article above because it presents the national (State) symbols such as the flag, the coat of arms and the anthem, symbols that give us pride and honor. The words that define constitution are: national symbols, state, low, protection, promises, order, justice, act, structure, government, principles and articles, to establish. In case of the destruction of this symbols that are protected by law the guilty person will be punished by the government.

Example 5:
Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova
“…THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IS A SOVEREIGN, INDEPENDENT AND DEMOCRATIC STATE, FREE TO DECIDEIT’S PRESENT AND FUTURE, WITHOUT ANY EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE, KEEPING WITH THE IDEALS AND ASPIRATIONS OF THE PEOPLE WITHIN ITS HISTORICAL AND ETHNIC AREA OF ITS NATIONAL MAKING. In its quality as a SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATE, THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA, hereby requests all states and world governments to recognize the independence of the Republic of Moldova, as proclaimed by the freely elected parliament of the republic and is willing to establish political, economic and cultural relations and any other relations of common interest with European countries and all other countries of the world, and is ready to establish diplomatic relations with the above, in accordance with the norms of international law and common practice on the above matter, requests the United Nations to admit the Republic of Moldova as a full member of the world organization and its specialized agencies, declares that it is ready to adhere to the Helsinki Final Act and the Paris Charta for a new Europe, equally asking to be admitted to the CSCE and its mechanisms, with equal rights, requests the USSR to begin negotiations with the government of the Republic of Moldova to terminate the illegal state of occupation and annexation and the with drawl of Soviet troops from its national territory, decides that no other laws should be respected on its territory but those that are in conformity with the republic’s constitution, laws and all other legal acts adopted by the legally constituted organs of the Republic of Moldova, guarantees the exercise of social, economic, cultural and political rights for all citizens of the Republic of Moldova, including those of national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups, in conformity with the provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and documents adopted afterwards, as well as the Paris Charta for a new Europe.

Adopted in Chisinau, by the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova on this day, the 27 of August, 1991.

Declaration is also un example of legal text because he has: * A propiete language of a legal text mostly of political maner (SOVEREIGN, INDEPENDENT AND DEMOCRATIC STATE, governments, diplomatic relations, law, legal acts, requests the United Nations to admit the Republic of Moldova as a full member of the world organization, national territory, legally, political rights, the provisions, Act and documents adopted)

* Here is included when it was addopted (the 27 August, 1991), the place (Chisinau), the porpose (the independence of the Republic of Moldova) by whom(the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova) * We have: determiner its (its mechanisms, its territory), pronoun those (those that are in conformity), conjunctions and (and democratic, and future, and aspirations, and world governments), as (as proclaimed, as a fool member), prepositions in(in conformity), for (for all citizens), on (on the above matter), with (with the ideals, with European Countries with rights), to (to decide, to admit, to recognize, to establish), from (from national territory), adverb by (by the freely, by the legally).

3.2.2 Statutory instructions
Statuory instructions also govern people’s behavoir and are there fore binding, but not in the same way legal texts are. Essentially they take the form of rules and regulations. A very common variant of this text form, says Dirven, can be found in rules of game. Social life is full of regulations influencing and directing people’s behavoir.In British socialsecurity and post offices people willcome across leaflets giving them more information on this system by stating the conditions under whitch they can become eligible.

Example 6:
How to play Mahjong solitaire?
The object of Mahjong solitaire is to clear the playing area of tiles by matching pairs of tiles. Players can remove only those matching pairs of tiles where each tile has at least one side (left or right) free and no other tiles placed on top. Matching tile pairs can be removed by clicking on each tile in the pair. There are a total of 72 pairs in a game of Mahjong Solitaire. The tiles have standard suits.

These suits are Characters, Bamboos, Circles, Dragons, Winds and Seasons. When matching pairs, Seasons and Flowers are the only suits you do not need to match exactly. Reshuffle button can be used when no moves are available. A maximum of 5 reshuffles per game is allowed. You can play online internet game Mahjong Solitaire and win money prizes.

Here we can identify some of the linguistic means like: * Passive constructions like can be remove, can be used. * The conditions under which a role can be applied helped by the logical connectors such as only, or. * The verbs : to clear, to play, to match, to remove, to place, to have, to use, to allow are expressing the essential rules of the game

3.2.3 Practical instructions
Instructions of a more practical kind are, for example, techical instructions, work directions, stage directions, gudes, manuals, recipes, prescriptions and statements in horoscopes.Because of their reference to what actions are usefulin a certain context instructive texts have to express a number of a logical relationships like cause-and-effect or purpose as well as various communicative aims and intentions. Instructions are a step-by-step explanation of how to do something; they make difficult tasks
easier to understand.

It may seem that writing instructions would be easy, especially when writing about a task you are already familiar with. In actuality, writing instructions can be a very difficult and overwhelming task once you get started. Extreme preparation and maintaining your focus is of utmost importance in writing instructions. Make sure you stay on target and pay attention to detail, including everything, even menial steps. Do not assume your reader knows anything about the subject, unless instructed. It’s always better to have too many steps, than not enough.

Example 7:
Technical instruction
The telephone
Initially in the center of the top of the two cans, make two little holes, through which the ends of the wire can pass. This, tied in a knot, will not come undone even under the light pressure necessary for keeping it tight. You need an empty space big enough for the wire to be extended its entire length. One person will be on one end with the can at her or his ear and another person will be at the other end with the can to her or his mouth.

The conversation can start, with better results if the wire is coated with wax or shoe polish. Who knows why many call it the cordless telephone when just a simple wire taut between two cans is characteristic in this toy widespread in Italy? In the memory of older adults, recollections tied to the successes of Marconi and to his radio news broadcasts are mingled together. Let’s not forget that already in the ’30s, the telephone had a large diffusion, even if limited to the more well-off families. From this came the desire to possess such a mysterious and charming instrument constructed from what was available.

As far as the linguistic realization of this text is concerned we may note the following features: * The use of the imperative form of the verb and of the second person you (you need) * In accordance with the principle of practical utility the telephone instructions follow a listing text structure: initially, through, necessary, can start, still, when. A communicative intention like an advice “a better result will be if the wire is coated with wax or shoe polish”.

Work directions
What is it: A Work Instruction provides a detailed breakdown of instructions required to carry out one or more steps or tasks in a procedure. Work Instructions are usually the accomplishment of best practices by a team and are retained in the department or unit where the work is performed. A Work Instruction contains much more detail than a procedure and is created if very detailed instructions are needed.

Why use it: A Work Instruction is a tool that enables operators to observe a production process with an understanding of how assembly tasks are to be performed. It ensures the quality level is understood and serves as an excellent training aid, enabling replacement or temporary individuals to easily adapt and perform the assembly operation. The benefits of using a work instruction are as follows: * To convey very detailed instructions

* To standardize a process, by ensuring operators are consistently performing the same tasks and procedures which leads to reduced variation within a process * To reduce waste Training is simplified and consistent, the visual work instructions reminds the operator of the correct sequence and alerts the operator to any safety concerns Where to use it: Work Instructions are usually positioned and displayed near tasks that require attention and precision to detail.

Example 8:
Squeezer’s instructions:

1. Do not put any fruits or vegetables in appliance until power is turned on. 2. Let (allow) the appliance to work at least 10 s. before juicing. 3. Do not force the food into the juicer. Allow food to pass through slowly and stately using the pusher. Does not push until the juicer start to vibrate; in this case it is enough to push slightly harder to make it work properly.

4. Put just fruits or vegetables that fit in the chute. If these are too big, you can cut them into large enough pieces to fit into the chute. Do not cut pieces too small.

5. Remove large pits, such as the peach, mango, because it will damage the blade.

6. Cleaning can be mad easily by placing using a plastic bag inside the pulp collector contain or after finish juicing the bag can be removed leaving the pulp collector easier clean.

7. Let the juicer work for a few minutes before turning it off to allow the excess juice to be extracted from the pulp. Once stopped it is quite normal for the engine to get its balance. Before disassembling the appliance wait until the engine at ops entirely.

8. Do not use bananas or avocados, because they do not contain juice and will clog the machine, add them separately in a blender. 9. We do not recommend the use of over ripe fruits because they will leave to much pulp in the filter and clog the machine. 10. Do not poor liquids in the appliance.

11. Lower the juice spout before starting to juice.

The instructive text above is an example of work direction, here we notice the use of verbal forms such as do not (do not use, do not put, do not poor, do not force), let (let the juicer), put (put just), remove (remove large pits). We also note the use of determiners such as: a (a plastic bag,), much(much pulp in the filter), the (the appliance, the food, the pusher); adverbs through (to pass through), once (once stopped); prepositions in (in appliance), to (to work, to vibrate, to push), at (at least 10 s.), into (into the juicer), by (by placing), for (for the engine), over (over ripe fruits); conjunctions or (or vegetables), and (and astutely), until (until the juicer), because (because it will damage). The instructive text tells as how to do things, sets our steps in order and uses bullet points or numbers, often uses one sentence for each step and often starts each step with a verb, uses adverbs to make things clear.

Example 9:
Apple Coffee Cake Recipe
Prep time: 10 minutes
Cook time: 25 minutes

1 cup flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup of sugar
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/2 Tbsp unsalted butter, room temperature
1 egg, beaten
1/2 cup whole milk
1 medium Cortland or other baking apple, peeled and sliced
1. Preheat the oven to 375°F. Grease a 9-inch square baking dish with or pie pan with a 4-cup capacity. 2. In a medium bowl, whisk vigorously together the flour, baking powder, and salt. 3. In a separate small bowl, mix 1/4 a cup of the sugar with the cinnamon, set aside. 4. Using an electric mixer beat the butter with the remaining 1/4 cup sugar. Beat in the egg until blended. Add the flour mixture in three additions, alternating with the milk, beating after each addition until just combined.

5. Pour half of the batter in the bottom of the baking dish. Lay the apple slices on the batter so they just cover the batter (you may have to overlap some slices). Sprinkle the apples with the cinnamon-sugar mixture, reserving a teaspoon or two to sprinkle on top. Spread the rest of the batter over the apples. Sprinkle the remaining cinnamon-sugar on top. 6. Bake the cake for 25 minutes or until it is golden brown and apples start to bubble at the edges.

The recipe is an example of work directions to. I have chosen an apple coffee cake recipe where the characteristic items are: prepare time (10 min), cook time (25 min), ingredients (flow, baking powder, salt, sugar, ground cinnamon, butter, egg, milk, apple), method of prepare, amount of ingredients ( 1 cup, 1 teaspoon, ½ tbsp).There are also verbs like: to preheat, to grease, to whisk, to bake, to separate, to use, to beat, to add, to combine, to sprinkle, to spread.

Example 10:

The example 10 is also a sample of work directions of a medicament prescription. It contains: location (123 main street any town, USA 11111), number (NO0060023-08291), date (06-23-09), the doctor’s name (Jane Smith), the name of medicine (amoxicillin), the prescription ( take one capsule by mouth three times daily for 10 days until all taken), quantity (no refills), the use (before 06/23/12). 3.2.4 Persuasive texts

Within the text form of persuasive texts we can again distinguish between numbers of different variants. By producing a persuasive text the author or speaker of that text hopes o gay some sort of advantages for himself oriented advertising or in political matters. Commercial advertisements

Advertisements can be found in all kind of media nowadays; for example, in newspapers and magazines as well as on television or on the radio. Advertising matter is also printed on the walls of buildings (in the form of posters), and sometimes even people carry printed notices around (the so-called sandwich man). Advertisements are handed out in the street and they added to newspapers in the shape of leaflets or fliers Example 11 :


This text is an advertisement what in my opinion has all the features concerning the commercial advertisement and those are: * The use of the first person plural we (“we can help you”) and the second person you (“your dream house”)

* The occurrence of a direct and expressive speech.
* Is specified the location (North of Wisconsin), the address (6648 Sylvan Shore Rd. Hazlehurst, WI 545331), the phone number (715-356-9946), the website ( * The purpose is to help the people to build a dream house and to give more information

Political texts
In many ways the language of politics is quite similar to the language of advertising, althout political texts can have, of course, a wide functional
range going far beyond the level of persuasion. They can vary between:

* persuasion: as, for example, in election leaflets or on election posters

Example 12:
Election poster

Election posters convey the verbal and visual messages of political parties which may have a strong impact on the citizens. Election posters are classified into:
(a) posters designed according to direct message;
(b) posters designed according to comparative message;
(c) posters in which emotionalism is used.

The poster above is the one that Obama used in his first election campaign (2008). In this poster we notice the seal of the president of the United States which was designed by President Harry Truman on October 25, 1945. It depicts an Eagle holding 13 arrows in one talon and an olive branch with 13 leaves in the other, surrounded by a ring of 50 stars.

In the foreground is Obama, with a smiling face; the arms crossed showing confidence in himself and in his colleagues; the black suggests hope and life; the words American spirit, American promise design a wish to unite the American people to live united one and to forget about the differences between them because to be strong people, need to believe in themselves and open their eyes to see what is seen and unseen.

* appeal: as in political speeches, declarations, resolutions, open letters and posters.

Example 13:
Martin Luther King’s Speech: ‘I Have a Dream’ Aug. 28, 1963
“I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.

One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.”

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood…”

The Martin Luther King speech is a political text, because it is an appeal to the American Nation, to wake up from this world of misery where the Negro people have to live a life like hell. He explains all the things and problems that also we have an explanation and solution. It is time to change words into facts and just stop harming the Negro people because they also have rights and they need to fight for them. In this text is a hidden message that makes a direct appeal trough the use of the personal pronouns like we (“ we have”, “we refuse”) and possessive form our (“ our republic”). Even it is shown the wall between these two sides, the Negro and White, althout both sides are American people.

The words what should have an impression, results are:
“Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood” Important to know is that he is not doing that for himself but for them, for Negro’s people, for a better future were the chains of discriminations will be broken, the exile from them own land stopped and for the ensuring right of life, liberty and happiness.

Example 14:
Political poster

Political posters are used by political agitators, leaders, student activists, advocates and military recruitment officials. This political poster speaks a thousand words, the bold illustration and persuasive slogan drive straight to liberty, democracy and discrimination of women. In the poster above Rosie the Riveter made the most memorable political poster in the history of US. Her face expresses the determination and in her eyes the desire of liberty is clear.

Her arms prove strength and potency and her clothes show a very strong and hard -working person. The color of this poster is yellow, the most expansive and lively color, a male and self-control color which convey optimism, happiness, hope and courage. The slogan at the top of the poster “We can do it”- addresses to all women and tries to give power and courage to win the war. * agitation and manipulation: as in the many forms of propaganda and in polemic pamphlets

Example 15:

Definition: information, ideas, opinions, or images, often only giving one part of an argument, that are broadcast, published, or in some other way spread with the intention of influencing people’s opinions. Many companies, factions, groups, organizations, religions, and governments are relied on the act of propaganda to influence the audience. The most used style, outside the leaflets, is the poster. This poster symbolizes a warning to citizens that try to defy the government, if they speak out, or get out of line, and then they will have to deal with authorities.

“Quiet” means “do not speak out”, “know your place” is for the people who raise their head above and “shut your face” is a warning to not speak out the opinion about the nation or government or if they do they will regret it. The sleeve is a representation of American flag which is often called “Stars and Stripes”, is an interpretation of American government and is enplaning the slogan shut your mouth if you want to survive and to live in peace. “Know your place shut your face” is an association with the “know tour place shut your mouth”, a rude and angry way to telling someone to stop talking.

Example 16:
Polemic pamphlet

Pamphlet is a short publication generally having a paper cover, a short piece of writing, often of an apparently ephemeral nature. The almost pamphlets tend to be polemical, but they have also been used just for the dissemination of information and serve for the communication between people. The “Pyramid of Capitalism system” is a political pamphlet what was published for the first time in 1911. This political pamphlet represents a provocative illustration of the hierarchical system of capitalism what ruled in America in those times. It is a spectacular work, were the artist put in evidence the multiple classes of people. At the base of this pyramid are the workers that bring us the thought that they are the main cause of capitalism, because they work for all and they feed all; in conclusion they are the producers and the perpetuation of life in the capitalism system.

On the next level is the lazy class (we eat for you), the rich people what benefit and profit their labor power. Next class is the militaries (we shut at you) what has the responsibility not to defend the people but to defend the system (the capitalism). The religious leaders (we fool you) represent the next class; they encourage the workers, the lazy class and militaries to accept their fate; that the payment for them will be in the God’s hands. On the top of this pyramid is the state (we rule you), which protect and sustain the interest of the ruling class represented by Lords and King. I think that this political pamphlet is an example that the people have a great fantasy to represent the problems by pictures; he important here is the scope and understanding.

Religious and ethical appeal
Persuasion and appeal are also found in contexts of interaction in which speakers or authors aim particularly at asserting their influence on other people’s behavior along the religious, ethical or moral dimension. Text form variants of this kind are prayers, sermons, pastoral letters (an official letter sent by a bishop to the church members in his area) and encyclical letters (a letter sent round y he Pope to all his churches).

Example 17:

A pray is a religious text were the people put all their faith and hope. This example is a proof that we chose to live, to love and to follow the paths God shows us. Here we encounter verbs like: is, lead, will, want; pronouns: my (my life), me (lead me), your (your way), I (I will), you (follow you); adverbs: here (here is my life) and however (however you want), wherever (I will follow you wherever) and conjunction and (and I, and however).

Pastoral letter
February 24, 2009
Dear Congregation,
We’re going on a treasure hunt!
We won’t be digging holes around the church searching for buried gold,
though. Instead, we’re searching for God’s treasure. Scripture provides the map. For God, we are treasure: “You are children of the Lord your God. … It is you the Lord has chosen … to be his people, his treasured possession” (Deuteronomy 14:1-2). Although those words were spoken long ago to people in another part of the world, Galatians 3:26 assure us that we are included, too: “For in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith.” “Red and yellow, black and white, they are precious in his sight” goes the children’s song, voicing the truth that God treasures all people, throughout the world. One of the gifts of being God’s children is that sometimes we are called to be “treasure tenders” for God.

We tend God’s treasure here in our congregation with the love and care we show each other through special meals, visiting the sick and shut-in, teaching Christian discipleship, and praying for each other. We are also invited to tend God’s treasures beyond our congregation by participating in One Great Hour of Sharing. Life can be tough at times. Hurricanes, earthquakes, cyclones, and tsunamis smash communities to bits. Wars and ethnic conflicts shatter the very foundations of life, shoving people out of their homes and transforming them into frightened refugees.

Persistent hunger, drought, poverty, lack of education, and ill health shrivel the life and dry the spirit, leaving individuals to crumble from the inside out. Through One Great Hour of Sharing, we gently, persistently, and strongly care for God’s treasures. By sharing some of our earthly treasure—our money, our time, our energy—decisive aid can be sent when disaster strikes. Refugees receive help in the long term as they rebuild their lives. We help people help themselves through education, health care, tools, seeds, and resources to improve community infrastructure. And the sharing is mutual. When we care for people, we can be transformed by experiencing the presence of God. Seeing what others have lost, we are reminded what matters most in life. Seeing what others live through, we are inspired to live courageously. Seeing that new life is possible, our hope rises.

Working with others, we realize that God reaches out to all of us. Relying on God for the outcome, our faith increases. First Timothy 6:18-19a exhorts us “to do good, to be rich in good works, generous, and ready to share, thus storing up … the treasure of a good foundation for the future.” Our treasure is doing God’s will, loving God, and loving God’s treasured people, so we all “may take hold of the life that really is life” (1 Timothy 6:19b). Jesus said, “Where your treasure is, there your heart will be also” (Matthew 6:21). May you find your treasure, and your heart, by sharing resources and changing lives with a generous gift to One Great Hour of Sharing. Sincerely,

Pastor/Offering Leader

Pastoral letters are address to people whom the pastor leads them for a better life by curing souls and minds. All pastoral letters have the same vocabulary and style. The vocabulary always tries to attach people to God, to reach faith and repentance. Important in this letter is the form of address (dear), the use of the inclusive personal pronoun we (we’re going on a treasure hunt, we won’t be, and we’re searching), the extracts from the Bible (You are children of the Lord your God… It is you the Lord has chosen … to be his people, his treasured possession” (Deuteronomy 14:1-2; Galatians 3:26 assure us that we are included, too: “For in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through; Timothy 6:18-19 a exhorts us “to do good, to be rich in good works, generous, and ready to share, thus storing up … the treasure of a good foundation for the future.”;”Our treasure is doing God’s will, loving God, and loving God’s treasured people, so we all “may take hold of the life that really is life” (1 Timothy 6:19b). Jesus said, “Where your treasure is, there your heart will be also” (Matthew 6:21) and the closing phrase characteristic of formal letters (Sincerely, Pastor/Offering Leader).


The main purpose of my study has been to approach different types of texts; special attention was given to directive and instructive texts that we encounter daily: certificates of birth, proxies, pacts, the constitution, declarations, instructions, prescriptions, advertisements, political posters, election posters, political speeches, propagandas, prays and pastoral letters. These kinds of texts have an emotional and social impact on our lives which became a necessity. In this work I attempted to clarify the differences and the use of these texts.

Types of texts are any piece of writing paper that we encounter daily. This can be anything from newspapers, reports, textbooks, movies and even game instructions, but each one has its own purpose, structure and use specific language features. One type can entertain, instruct or inform the reader, another one can retell events or present information about different sides of an issue or topic but one is for sure they can be used to accomplish different purposes. I have shown that the aim of these texts is the direction or regulation of people’s behaviour; by using them the speaker or author attempts to elicit certain reactions on the part of hearers or readers and tries to plan their future behaviour.

According to Anna Trosborg the text types can be defined on the basis of cognitive categories or linguistic criteria.The cognitive categories appears to involve the understanding or utilisation of information in the form in which it was originally presented or learned but linguistic criteria guide the identification of verbs in each part of text. The directive and instructive texts are encountered in newspapers, books, websites, magazines and etc. and their purpose is to explain clearly the role of different discourse type in that way avoiding the misconceptions. When we take all these in consideration we can say that directive and instructive texts are combinations of types of texts what are present in our lives and we stalk with them every day.


1. Benjamin,John. Introduction to Discourse Studies
2. Martinez-Cabeza Miguel Angel. 2002. The study of language beyond the sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis 3. Werlich, Eagon. A Text Grammar of English
4. Dirven, René. A User’s Grammar of English: Word, Sentence, Text, Interaction. Frankfurt/M., Bern. New York, Paris: Verlag Peter Lang. 1989 5. Trosborg, Anna .1997. Text Typology: Register, Genre and Text Type. Text Typology and Translation: 3-23. John Benjamin

6. Beaugrande, Robert and Dressler, Wolfgang. Introduction to text linguistics. London and New York : Longman, 1981 7. Jakobson, Roman. Closing statements: Linguistics and Poetics. Style in Language. Cambridge Massachusetts : Thomas Sebeok, 1960 8. Biber, Douglas. Variation across Speech and Writing. New York : Cambridge
University Press, 1988

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[ 4 ]. Beaugrande, Robert and Dressler, Wolfgang. Introduction to text linguistics. London and New York : Longman, 1981 [ 5 ]. Jakobson, Roman. Closing statements: Linguistics and Poetics. Style in Language. Cambridge Massachusetts : Thomas Sebeok, 1960 [ 6 ]. Martinez-Cabeza Miguel Angel. The study of language beyond the sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis. 2002. p. 66-67 [ 7 ]. Martinez-Cabeza Miguel Angel. The study of language beyond the sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis.2002 p. 66 [ 8 ]. John Benjamins. Introduction to Discourse Studies. Amsterdam\Philadelphia. 2004. p. 62-63 [ 9 ]. Biber, Douglas. Variation across Speech and Writing. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1988 [ 10 ]. John Benjamin’s. Introduction to Discourse Studies. Amsterdam\Philadelphia. 2004. p.63-64 [ 11 ]. Martinez-Cabeza Miguel Angel. The study of language beyond the sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis. 2002. p.69 [ 12 ]. Egon Werlich , A Text Grammar of English. p. 46

[ 13 ]. Martinez- Cabeza. Miguel Angel. The Study of Language beyond the Sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis. p.70 [ 14 ]. Martinez- Cabeza. Miguel Angel. The Study of Language beyond the Sentence: From Text Grammar to Discourse Analysis. 2002. p.121 [ 15 ]. Dirven. René. A User’s Grammar of English: Word, Sentence, Text, Interaction. Frankfurt/M., Bern. New York, Paris: Verlag Peter Lang. 1989 [ 16 ]. retrieved on 15.12.2012

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[ 29 ]. retrieved on 29.04.2013. [ 30 ]. Rosie the Riveter- is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II ( [ 31 ].

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[ 35 ]. According to the information found at [ 36 ]. retrieved on 03.05.2013. [ 37 ]. retrieved on 03.05.2013. [ 38 ]. Anna Trosborg. 1997. Text Typology: Register, Genre and Text Type. Text Typology and Translation: 3-23. John Benjamins

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