B.Assuming Josephs heart stopped, what cellular processes and membrane functions are going to be affected by loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal? Joseph’s blood pressure got so high due to the vessels being blocked with plaque, therefore circulation of blood has been blocked and it can no longer receive the nutrients required for it to pump. The body can’t breakdown glucose to make energy, and the increase in CO2 lowers the pH. Active transport on the plasma membrane stops which also stops ATP, and sodium and potassium start to leak out destroying the chemical gradient.
C.What intracellular organelles have membranes as part of their structures? How would the breakdown of the membranes of these structures affect the function of josephs heart cells? Endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex, the mitochondria and the lysosomes all have membranes in their structure. Whenever calcium levels rose to high the heart went in to a prolonged contraction, the lysosomes usually in the vesicles start to destroy its own membranes.
D.Two important pieces of information-instructions josephs body needs to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease- are both contained within the cell on which structures?
The instructions and information are in the mitochondrial DNA, the body needs this information along with a blood supply to create new cells. Mitochondria contains its own DNA and genes so it can replicate.
E.Joseph’s heart attack has caused the function of his cells to change. What types of proteins in the cell membrane were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of his heart cells? Without ATP the sodium potassium ion channels can’t operate. The heart can’t contract properly. Increased Calcium sent the heart in to a prolonged contraction, it convulsed recklessly.
F.Why was reestablishing oxygen flow to Joseph’s body so important? What processes would be affected by lack of oxygen? Without oxygen everything stops. Everything in the body requires oxygen. That’s why breathing is important and involuntary. Without oxygen we can’t the body can’t create ATP, ATP is required for all processes. When Joseph was administered oxygen and given chest compressions he was able to get rid of CO2 which started bringing the pH back to normal and the body was able to make more ATP.
H.Explain why josephs heart failed based on what you have learned so far about the function of the cells in the human body. It was caused from a number of things. Hypertension, atherosclerosis, poor diet, lack of exercise. All of these things cause heart disease. Also build of plaque blocks blood flow which increase pressure and eventually it has nowhere to go. Something’s got to give eventually when the body can’t circulate blood quick enough.