Kansas Is Flatter Than a Pancake

This essay is based on two articles, one is “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” and other is “portable devices as visual noise during lectures. User and non-user differences on distractions from internet access during lectures”. This essay also explains about independent variable and dependent variable and helps in finding them in these articles.

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A variable is a value that may change within the scope of a given investigation that has two or more possible values. Independent variable: A variable that you can (or nature) manipulates. Dependent variable: A variable that is influenced or affected by independent variable. For example, if you are studying the effects of usage of social websites on student education, then the usage of social websites is the independent variable and your measure of education are the dependent variable. “KANSAS IS FLATTER THAN A PANCAKE”:

Here, the pancake is compared with Kansas. So, Kansas is independent variable and pancake is dependent variable.
Kansas is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern of United states. An American geography professor MARK FONSTAD of south west Texas University with his colleagues WILLIAM PUGATCH and BLAME BRANDON VOGT showed that the topography of Kansas is flatter than a pancake. Once, the three researchers were eating breakfast where they started discussing about how flat their pancakes really were. Brandon Vogt, a doctoral student at Arizona state university, suggested comparing pancake with Kansas. Vogt previously had been a student at Colorado in boulder and made frequent trips across the state to visit friends in Colombia, Mo. Vogt said that “its flat-there is nothing to see, nowhere to stop”. {from the article written by Terry Rombeck in Lawrence Journal-world}.

The common method to measure the flatness is “flattening ratio”. Flattening ratio is define as the length of an ellipse’s semi-major axis ‘a’ is compared with this measured semi-minor axis ‘b’ using the formula for flattening, f=(a-b)/a. for perfect flatness, the flatting ratio ‘f’ will be one. Where as an ellipsoid with equal axis length, the ratio ‘f’ will be zero. For calculating the flatness of pancake, they purchased a pancake
from international house of pancakes. They took the macro-pancake topography through digital image processing and ruler for scale calibration. Then they measured a west-east profile across Kansas taken from merged 1:250,000 scale digital elevation model data from the United states geological survey. Then they extracted the surface flatness estimates from the Kansas and pancake DEM data using a geographic information system. After all experiments, done by them, they calculated the value of flatting ratio of Kansas is 0.9997 and the value of flattening ratio of pancake is 0.957. This proves that Kansas is much flatter than a pancake. If the flatness is measured by using the difference between highest and lowest elevations, Kansas stands in 22nd position with Florida leading the way. If the measurement is based on elevation change in 1 kilometer section, Kansas is 32nd with Delaware flattest. REFERENCES:

1) “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” article from Annals of Improbale research (AIR) 2) “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” Article written by Terry Rombeck in Lawrence journal-world. 3) “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” CBC news ( 4) “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” Article written by Miss Cellania in 5) “Kansas is flatter than a pancake” Article written by Erin Podolak in

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