Marine Science Review Guide

Know that the 3 adaptations that allow phytoplankton to float are: cavities in the center of their cells, cells contain oils and fats, and spines around the cavities Are phytoplankton the base of the oceanic food chain?

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What things do phytoplankton need to survive?
What percentage of the Earth’s oxygen are phytoplankton responsible for producing? Which type of phytoplankton are responsible for red tide?
What negative effects can red tide cause for the marine environment? If upwelling aids in phytoplankton growth, would less upwelling affect phytoplankton numbers? How? How does a decrease in phytoplankton affect the rest of the food web? Would harmful algal blooms cause erosion?

If phytoplankton help reduce carbon dioxide on Earth, what would an increase amount of phytoplankton do for carbon dioxide amounts? Marine Iguanas (Lesson 4.07)
What do they primarily feed on?
What adaptations allow them to live and eat in the water?
Where do the marine iguanas live (they are only found in this one area of the world)? Why do these cold blooded organisms lay on the rocks instead of stay in the cold water? What is the main reason for their decline in population?

Galapagos Islands (Lessons 4.04, 4.06, 4.07)
Why do the same species on different Galapagos Islands have slightly different traits? What is the process of adapting to live more successfully and survive in a habitat called? Food Chains/Webs (Lessons 4.08, 4.09)

Know order of organisms in a food chain. (primary producer, consumers – tertiary, quairtinary, primary, secondary, and the role of the decomposer) Would bacteria be considered a decomposer?
What happens to the 90% of energy that does not transfer to the next trophic level in a food chain? What amount of energy gets transferred to each level of the food chain as you move up it? Know how to choose organism types in a
food chain

EX: phytoplankton = primary producer
Be able to create a food chain from a list of marine organisms Be able to explain the difference between a food chain and a food web Are higher trophic level animals generally larger in size and fewer in numbers? Which organism in a food chain has the most energy?

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