Sound – any sensation that is perceived by the aural senses. – Physically, sound is vibrational, mechanical energy that moves through matter (usually air) as a wave.
The Hearing Process – Vibration, resonation, transmission, reception, interpretation, music appears.
Pitch – relative highness or lowness of a sound, speed of vibration.
Tone – a sound that has a definite pitch.
Interval – the distance in pitch between any two tones, ex: half step.
Accent – emphasis on a certain tone.
Tone Color/Timbre – quality of sound that distinguishes on instrument or voice from another.
– timbre contrast, one instrument vs. another.
Dynamics- Associated Terms – Degrees of loudness or soften in music:
Pianissimo (pp) – very soft
Piano (p) – soft
Mezzopiano (mp) – moderately soft
Mezzoforte (mf) – moderately loud
Forte (f) – loud
Fortissimo (ff) – very loud
Crescendo – gradually get louder
Decrescendo – gradually get softer
Chordophones – make their sound when a stretched string vibrates. – there is usually something they makes the sound reverberate such as the body of a guitar or violin. – the strings are set into motion by either plucking, strumming or by rubbing with a bow.
Membranophones – Any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by the way of a vibrating stretched membrane.
non-pitched drums snare drum (S. Dr.)
tenor drum (T. Dr.)
field drum (F. Dr.)
bass drum (B. Dr.)
Idiophones – Ex: Marima
Tam-Tam (t.t) and other Gongs
Sleigh Bells (sl.b.)
Bell Tree (bl.t.)
Brake Drum (br. dr.)
Thunder sheet (th. sh.)
Wood Blocks (w.bl.)
Temple Blocks (t.bl.)
Aerophones – any musical instrument that produce sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate.
1st class: where the vibrating is not contained in the instrument itself.
2nd class: where vibrating air is contained by the instrument.
Identify Basic String Instruments – Violin
The Koto-Koto Music
Identify Basic (Wood)Wind Instruments – Piccolo
Identify Basic Percussion Instruments – Timpani
Identify Basic Keyboard Instruments – Piano
Notation/Identify Basic Symbols
Staff/Identify Lines and Spaces
Tied vs dotted rhythms
Major vs minor vs chromatic scales
Sub Dominant Chord
Must Be Prepared to Write Scales and A Chord Progression I –IV-V-I on the staff. Be prepared to insert the Minor chord. Four flats or sharps is the max. .
Must be prepared to identify musical instruments and the families they belong to.