Precision Agriculture

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11 January 2022

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Today vitality sources have turn out to be scarcer and so further valuable. In conjunction with the expansion during the last century, the necessity for finding new, further economical, and property methods of agricultural cultivation and food manufacturing has turn into further crucial. To facilitate this method, we are designing, constructing, and evaluating a system for exactness agriculture that gives farmers with helpful data regarding the crop prediction based on NPK values of soil, the water offer, and additionally, the final data of the diseases in a user_friendly, simply accessible manner.

Our system aims to create cultivation and irrigation extra economical as a outcome of the farmer is prepared to make higher informed choices and so save time and sources. The variety of location and environmental condition results upon agricultural cultivation, together with different environmental parameters over time makes the farmer’s call making technique extra refined and wishes further empirical data. Applying wi-fi sensing element networks for statement climate parameters and mixing this data with a user-customized service may modify farmers to make use of their knowledge in associate diploma economical manner in order to extract the only outcomes from their agricultural cultivation.

The system will scale supported each farmer’s demands and additionally the ensuing ensemble of collected data may characterize a priceless useful resource for future use, additionally to its use for real-time choice creating. The look of the precision agriculture system incorporates a model resolution concerning the sensing factor platform and a customizable service which may be used in numerousKeywords”K-Nearest-Neighbour, Farmland, NPK sensor.

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As the world is trending into new technologies and implementations it’s a necessary goal to development up agriculture additionally. Several research has been wiped out the sector of agriculture. Most of comes signify using wi-fi sensor community gather information from completely totally different sensors deployed at diversified nodes and ship it by way of the wi-fi protocol. The collected knowledge provides knowledge concerning the numerous environmental elements such as NPK values of soil etc. Monitoring the environmental elements isn’t the entire answer to extend the yield of crops. There is vary of other factors that decrease productivity to a larger extent. In Republic of India around eightieth of individuals rely on farming. Sensible Agriculture is one among the solutions to the present draw back. To highlight options of this project includes NPK value of soil, water level, forecasting, canal dominant in each automatic affiliate degreed manual modes and each one these information is hold on and displayed in an exceedingly cell application. By dominant of those operations by a cellular that’s linked to the online and it’ll give greater performed by interfacing sensors, native area network, and so forth. consists of Machine Learning algorithm for crop prediction based mostly on NPK value.


This project is implemented utilizing Arduino Micro-controller. Here we have a tendency for using Hardware like moisture sensor and Motor On and off switch. Here we’ve dynamically monitored agriculture parameters using IoT. The projected system consists of the Soil moisture sensor, Temperature sensor, fire detector, humidity sensor and NPK detector, Bluetooth module and Field telephone to store the information acquired from the farm. All the sensors are interfaced to Arduino. This system displays and records the values of temperature, soil moisture, Fire and moisturize level of the soil of the natural environment which are constantly updated so as to optimize them to realize most plant progress and prevention from illness. All this information is distributed via Bluetooth module to the sphere cell where we’ve designed android APP to monitor the parameters. This subject cell acts as a server. The user will continuously monitor and control the parameters as per his want. The Sensors are mounted on plywood where NPK detector is mounted contained in the soil and held beneath the bottom level. The NPK sensor will examine nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium quantity within the soil and based mostly on that the system can predict which crop is beneficial. The moisture system is held which is prepared to sense the moisture level and switch the motor on and off consequently. Firing device is used to sense the fire existence within the area if the hearth gets exist the buzzer will constantly make noisy. The disease prediction will be analyzed based mostly on evaluation of the parameters comes from the sensor consequently.


It protects the crops by notifying the farmer regarding weather adjustments and the probabilities of disease assaults. The system can facilitate the farmer to get info on fire exist within the field. The system can predict the profitable crop based mostly on NPK Water Conservation “Weather predictions and soil moisture sensors enable for water use solely when needed. Remote Monitoring “Local and industrial farmers will monitor a quantity of fields in a quantity of areas across the globe from a web connection. selections are made in real-time and from anyplace.


A.DefinitionK nearest neighbors is simplest algorithm which shops all functonal knowledge points and classifies a brand new sample primarily based on a similarity measure (eg.Euclidean distance functions). Its a non-parametric algorithm used to foretell the classification of the new pattern level. Classification is done by a majority vote to its neighbors. The data is assigned to the category which has essentially the most closest neighbors. As you enhance the number of nearest neighbors, the value of k, accuracy would possibly increaseB.Algorithm steps Let m be the number of coaching information samples. Let p be an unknown level. 1. Store the training samples in an array of knowledge factors arr[], this implies every factor of this array represents a tuple (x, y). 2. for i=0 to m: Calculate Euclidean distance d(arr[i], p). 3. Make set S of K smallest distances obtained. Each of these distances correspond to an already categorised information point. Return the bulk label among S.C.Pseudo Code1. Load the training and test data 2. Choose the value of K 3. For each level in check information: – discover the Euclidean distance to all coaching information points – store the Euclidean distances in a list and type it – select the first k factors – assign a class to the check level primarily based on the overwhelming majority of courses present in the chosen points4. EndD.Mathematical Model S2={s, e, X, Y, F} Where,s = Initial State: Input information set without classificatione = End State: Classified datasetX = Input to the system. Here it is coaching and testing knowledge set in any suitable file format similar to XLS, CSV, ARFF, class attribute with the defined class Y = Output. Classified dataset as per outlined class F = Algorithm/Function used in this system. E. Algorithmic AnalysisWe have successfully completed the comparative analysis of varied algorithms and primarily based on that we have used the KNN(K-Nearest-Neighbors) algorithm for crop prediction using NPK values of soil. In Algorithmic Analysis we got KNN algorithm Accuracy as ninety one.8% i.e highest accuracy, So we have implemented a KNN algorithm in or project.


The dataset contains soil attributes together with macronutrients (N, P, K)A.datasetTable 1: Labelled Dataset(crop )Id Name nitrogen phosperous potassium1 Rice 10 20 02 Wheat 12 26 183 Maize 18 0 a hundred and forty four Sugarcane 20 10 55 Potato 8 18 266 Mustured a hundred 30 157 Jowar a hundred and twenty 60 08 Cotton 15 15 159 G-Hisrsutum 75 30 010 Groundnut 15 15 1511 Onion 15 15 1512 Banana 15 15 1513 Tomato 15 15 1514 Leafy Veg 15 15 1515 Redgram 4 2 1Table 2: Labelled Dataset(crop calendar)id crop season from to period1 Maize Kharif June(Beg) Dec(Beg) sowing2 Maize Rabi Jan(Beg) Jan (Beg) Harvesting three Wheat Rabi Oct (Beg) Dec (End) Sowing4 Wheat Rabi Feb (Beg) March(End) Harvesting5 Rice kharif May(Beg) Nov (Mid) Sowing 6 Rice Rabi Dec(Beg) Jan (Beg) Harvesting7 Redgram Kharif June(Beg) Dec(Beg) Sowing eight Redgram Kharif July(Beg) July (End) Sowing 9 Sugarcane Rabi Nov(Beg) Dec(End) Sowing 19 Sugarcane Rabi Oct(Beg) April(End) HarvestingB. Results We got the crop suitable for the soil depending on NPK values and crop calendar. The period can be related to it for sowing or harvesting of the crop. There are Various functionalities like the Fire sensor is alerted when fire is caught, Temperature and Humidity sensors for offering precautions and options for the diseases of various crops. VII. CONCLUSIONIn the suggest, a fully unique System Enabled: IoT based mostly mostly on Live observance Soil moisture has been deliberate utilizing Arduino. The sensors have high potency and accuracy in engaging the live knowledge of soil moisture. The system permits efficient soil, water, moisture, parameters have been observance and change utilizing IOT. This permits efficient crop prediction based mostly on NPK value, soil maintenance, and disease prevention mechanism. This overcomes the manual operations wanted to watch and preserve the agricultural farms. The system permits the farmer to go looking regarding the various maladies. Our goal is to develop a farmer-friendly agricultural system. Earlier, the farmer had to keep tons of vigil on his fields nevertheless with this project the time wasted in monitoring the fields has been lowered with the help of sensors and alert techniques which have been enforced therefore, the project has been created preserving both the farmer’s but as the setting in thoughts.


The authors wish to categorical and acknowledge honest because of Dr. J. S. Umale Sir and our seminar information Prof. S. R. Vispute Madam for assist and steerage for the useful ideas on totally different topics on a number of occasions.

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Precision Agriculture. (11 January 2022). Retrieved from

"Precision Agriculture" StudyScroll, 11 January 2022,

StudyScroll. (2022). Precision Agriculture [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 6 December, 2023]

"Precision Agriculture" StudyScroll, Jan 11, 2022. Accessed Dec 6, 2023.

"Precision Agriculture" StudyScroll, Jan 11, 2022.

"Precision Agriculture" StudyScroll, 11-Jan-2022. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 6-Dec-2023]

StudyScroll. (2022). Precision Agriculture. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 6-Dec-2023]


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The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United States. The beginning of industrialization in the United States is started with the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by Samuel Slater.

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