Principles of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings

Diversity – The concept of diversity is to encompass acceptance and respect. It means that each individual is unique and recognizing our individual’s differences, these can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, social- economic status, age, physical abilities or religious beliefs. An example of diversity is to accept someone’s views even if you don’t agree Equality – Equality basically means access or provision of equal opportunities, where individuals are protected from being discriminated against. Equality can occur in race, sex, health, religion, family structure, age, disability or in terms of believes. An example of equality is not treating anyone different just because they have money or don’t and that everyone has the same changes if that be being prime minster or access to the same drugs or medications. Inclusion – the term inclusion is seen as a universal human right and aims at embracing all people irrespective of race, gender, disability, medical or other needs it is about giving equal access and opportunities and getting rid of discrimination and intolerance. Discrimination – discrimination is the equal treatment of individual. Usually on the basis of gender, race, age or disability. It is a negative action towards members of a specific social group.

The potential effects of discrimination can be different for different people. The effects can be physical, emotional or a combination of both. For example children with disabilities may not be given a chance to join in with activities due to others thinking that their disability prevents them from being able to do so. This will make the child feel very different from others. I have listed other possible effects below:

* Feeling isolated
* Low self-esteem
* Depression
* Fear of rejection
* Stress
* Low self-worth
* Feeling withdrawn from society
* Humiliation
* Weight loss/ gain
* Fear
* Anger

Long term effects may be:
* Loss of motivation
* Restricted opportunities
* Limited access to services
* Long term depression
* Increased behaviour problems
* Difficulty communicating
* Lack of education
* Lack of achievement

The effects listed above are not only ones that affect the individual child/young person; they are effects that can be experienced by the individual’s family and friends too. The individual’s family can become isolated from society through trying to protect their family member and will often experience verbal abuse for having a family member that is perceived to be different. Family members can sometimes feel embarrassed about the shame the victimised individual brings to them and may distance themselves from the individual.

Those who discriminate others often do so because they have been discriminated against themselves, are unhappy or because they have watched people close to them discriminate against others and are copying and responding to their actions. People that discriminate against others sometimes end up being isolated as many members of society disagree with it and make a stand against those who victimise others. If enough people challenge those who discriminate they may reconsider their views and actions. It can cause a split in society between those who go along with it and those who see it as an injustice. There will also be those (often the majority) who might not agree with it but don’t want to get involved – until it actually starts to affect their own lives.

Practicing active participation – Active participation allows individual to realise their value and reduce isolation. Such a way an individual can gain self esteem which helps to reduce any form of abuse and discrimination.

Quick and effective complaint procedure – Quick and serious effective complaint procedure helps to let individual to know that how seriously the act has taken and the consequences of discrimination. And it restrains people to engage in such act knowing the consequences of these acts.

Meeting and discussion – It helps to increase awareness and carefulness to discriminatory acts. Also discussing and exercising this issue in day to day tasks help individual to challenge discrimination.

Direct confrontation – this method can encourage the abuser to see and understand what they have done wrong this is more likely to promote change in their behaviour then leaving them unchallenged it would also send a message to others that discrimination is not accepted


Legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination Anti-discrimination Act 1977

The Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 is an Act of the Parliament relating to discrimination in employment, the public education system, delivery of goods and services, and other services such as banking, health care, and property and night clubs. The Act renders unlawful racial, sexual and other types of discrimination in certain circumstances and promotes equality of opportunity for all people. The Act covers the following types of discrimination:

• Sex (including breastfeeding, pregnancy and sexual harassment)

• Disability
• Race (including ethno-religion)
• Homosexuality (actual or perceived)
• Marital or domestic status
• Age (present or future)
• Transgender (including trans sexuality)
• Carer’s responsibilities (but only within employment).

Racial discrimination act 1975

The Race Relations Act 1976 was established by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to prevent discrimination on the grounds of race. Items that are covered include discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, and nationality, ethnic and national origin in the fields of employment, the provision of goods and services, education and public functions. The Act also established the Commission for Racial Equality with a view to review the legislation, which was put in place to make sure the Act rules, were followed. The Act incorporates the earlier Race Relations Act 1965 and Race Relations Act 1968 and was later amended by the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000, notably including a statutory duty on public bodies to promote race equality, and to demonstrate that procedures to prevent race discrimination are effective. The Act was repealed by the Equality Act 2010, which supersedes and consolidates previous discrimination law in the UK

The Equality Act 2010

The primary purpose of the Act is to codify the complicated and numerous array of Acts and Regulations, which formed the basis of anti-discrimination law in Great Britain. This was, primarily, the Equal Pay Act 1970, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976, the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and three major statutory instruments protecting discrimination in employment on grounds of religion or belief, sexual orientation and age. This legislation has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.[2] It requires equal treatment in access to employment as well as private and public services, regardless of the protected characteristics of age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation.

In the case of gender, there are special protections for pregnant women. However, the Act allows transsexual people to be barred from gender-specific services if that is “a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim”. [3] In the case of disability, employers and service providers are under a duty to make reasonable adjustments to their workplaces to overcome barriers experienced by disabled people. In this regard, the Equality Act 2010 did not change the law. Under s.217, with limited exceptions the Act does not apply to Northern Ireland. The Mental Health act 1983 and 2007 amendments

The 1983 Act is largely concerned with the circumstances in which a person with a mental illness can be provided with treatment without his or her consent. This is to ensure that people with serious mental illnesses can be treated where it is necessary to prevent them from harming themselves or others. Most people who receive psychiatric treatment in hospital are there on a voluntary basis and have the same rights as people receiving treatment for physical illnesses. However, a small number of people may need to be compulsorily detained under a section of the Mental Health Act. The Act explains who is involved in the decision about compulsory admission, the processes to be followed and the appeals and safeguards that are available to the patient and to their nearest relative. An application for compulsory admission must be supported in writing by two authorised practitioners. The recommendations must include a statement about why assessment or treatment is necessary and why other options are not appropriate. People detained under the Act may have a right to apply to a Mental Health Review Tribunal to challenge their detention.

Legal advocates are available to represent people at MHRTs and can be contacted at Sheffield Mental Health CAB From November 2008 new amendments to the 1983 Act were introduced. The following are the main changes to the Act: • Introduces of the new role of Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP) which replaces the Approved Social Worker (ASW). As well as social workers other professionals such as nurses, psychologists and occupational therapists can now be involved in compulsory admissions. • Introduces of the Approved Clinician (AC) replacing the Responsible Medical Officer (RMO). T

he RMO had to be a doctor, but the AC can now include other professions.

• Introduces a new ‘appropriate medical treatment’ test meaning that for a patient to be compulsorily detained there has to be appropriate medical treatment available to the patient.

• Gives patients the right to make an application to displace their nearest relative and appoint an alternative.

• Introduces Supervised Community Treatment (also known as Community Treatment Orders) for some patients following a period of detention in hospital. It will allow some patients to live in the community whilst they continue with compulsory medical treatment.

• Introduces additional safeguards for patients by way of ‘Independent Mental Health Advocates’ who must be available for all patients who are detained. These are in addition to having a legal representative at a Mental Health Review Tribunal. It also reduces the time before a case can come before a Mental Health Review Tribunal.

• Introduces new safeguards for patients with regards to electro convulsive therapy (ECT). Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004

The Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004 (c 15) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom aimed at helping carers achieve fair access to training, work and leisure opportunities. It was introduced as a Private Member’s Bill by Dr. Hywel Francis and sponsored in the House of Lords by Lord Ashley of Stoke. 5.2 million People in England and Wales identified themselves in the 2001 Census as providing unpaid care to support family members, friends, neighbors or others because of long-term physical or mental ill-health, disability or old age. That represented nearly 10 per cent of the population and of those, 21 per cent (1.09 million) provided care for 50 or more hours per week. The Act requires assessments to be offered to carers, to consider the needs of carers in relation to leisure, education, training and work. Not all carers will wish to pursue all of these opportunities but practitioners completing assessments with the care should be able to signpost carers to other relevant agencies.

Human Rights Act 1998

The Human Rights Act 1998 (c 42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.[1] Its aim is to “give further effect” in UK law to the rights contained in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, but more commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights. The Act makes available in UK courts a remedy for breach of a Convention right, without the need to go to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In particular, the Act makes it unlawful for any public body to act in a way which is incompatible with the Convention, unless the wording of any other primary legislation provides no other choice. It also requires the judiciary (including tribunals) to take account of any decisions, judgment or opinion of the European Court of Human Rights, known as the Strasbourg court, and to interpret legislation, as far as possible, in a way which is compatible with Convention rights.

However, if it is not possible to interpret an Act of Parliament so as to make it compatible with the Convention, the judges are not allowed to override it. All they can do is issue a declaration of incompatibility. This declaration does not affect the validity of the Act of Parliament: in that way, the Human Rights Act seeks to maintain the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty (see: Constitution of the United Kingdom). However, judges may strike down secondary legislation, so long as the legislation does not derive its power from primary legislation.

Disability Discrimination Act 1995

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (c 50) (informally, and hereafter, the DDA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which has now been repealed and replaced by the Equality Act 2010 ([1]), except in Northern Ireland where the Act still applies. Formerly, it made it unlawful to discriminate against people in respect of their disabilities in relation to employment, the provision of goods and services, education and transport. The DDA is a civil rights law. Other countries use constitutional, social rights or criminal law to make similar provisions. The Equality and Human Rights Commission combats discrimination. Equivalent legislation exists in Northern Ireland, which is enforced by the Northern Ireland Equality Commission. It is still permissible for employers to have reasonable medical criteria for employment, and to expect adequate performance from all employees once any reasonable adjustments have been made. Explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, social care workers if the legislation and codes are not followed.

An explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, care workers and others if the legislation and codes of practice are not followed. If this codes of practice and legislations where not to be followed the consequences can be diverse. They can affect just one individual or can affect an entire team of social care workers. By not following the codes of practice and the legislation you could cause a service user to feel discriminated against which would have negative effects such as making them feel isolated or un-heard and could lead to more problems that would affect the people around them as well as the individual . By not using inclusive practice you may find that the S.U might be put in a situation in which they are not happy which could make them act out in a way that could affect their future and how other team members interact with them? For example by failing to us an inclusive practice with an service user by taking them to a public park, without first consulting or discussing this with the service user they could miss out on important information. How inclusive practice can promote equality and diversity.

A successful and reliable health care sector requires the promotion of diversity and equality throughout its setup. The fundamental need for this is the ability of the health care workers to promote an unwavering sense of fairness and indiscrimination for all persons involved; patients, employees, and colleagues. Inclusion refers to providing the opportunity to everyone to avail all available resources, services and facilities. Acceptance is one of the vital traits of any person who is working in the health care sector. Workers who realize the need for understanding, comprehending and respecting the needs of all patients, regardless of their diverse nature and background will be the most effective ones. Valuing the beliefs of others and keeping a wide ranging and accepting perception will aid considerably in the promotion of impartiality and equality.

A community which is based on the fair rights of humanity realizes that consciousness, self-esteem, culture and physical and mental health are interrelated. In order to provide a balance in society the health care sector must be free of all prejudice and discriminatory practices. The most important factor in developing inclusive practices is to provide the necessary training to all health care and support workers. A good care worker will be ingrained with the value of accepting, accommodating and respecting the diversity of all patients /clients, therefor providing an enriched level of care. How to support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion. You can support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion by ensure they can life a fulfilling and healthy lifestyle, ensure they have skill development opportunities

see they can have meaning full relationships with Friends and family
encourage meaningful activities in their life
enable them to access appropriate services
ensure they can take an active part in their local community are involved in decision making (service user involvement and in their local area) have access to appropriate care and support

all of the above regardless of age, sex, race, religion, sexuality and disability.

Each support agency usually follows a particular model to summarize this in 5 point – but there is no way of telling what model is used. Try calling them and asking. All models pretty much cover what I have said.

All support agencies base this on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs too – definitely look this up. I personally don’t think it is all that – it is very capitalist, fine for someone who can work, and ignores those who make sacrifices for spiritual enlightenment (actualization) such as monks. I once saw a manager freak a depressive out by trying to teach him about it. It made him feel he had a mountain to climb before feeling better – not good.

Some examples of how you could raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion are Through Training and Discussion: Training and discussions are essential to raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion in any work settings. Discussion in meetings or group discussion among staffs play a vital role to raise awareness of equality, diversity and inclusion. The more they will engage in discussion or obtain trainings about this issue the more they will learn and be aware of and also they will be able and put them in their every day’s practice.

Through providing leaflet, information and policies and procedures: Providing leaflets and sufficient information regarding diversity and equality can raise awareness to a social care worker by acquiring adequate knowledge about it. It also helps them to know about the consequences if agreed ways of working are not followed which restrain them from doing any form of discrimination relating this issue.

Task C

My personal preferences, attitudes, heritage, and beliefs might impact on my working practice because I have to honor service users believes and other religion or non-religion. It is most important to remember that my own preferences are different to others and that I can never expect others to think, act or feel the same as I do about something for example I like to bath at night and have a shower in the morning but some of the service users have a fear of water and they really hate the idea of being showered, washed or baths even once a week. I have to respect their decision but at the same time I need to encourage them to maintain a health and clean state of mind and body, in cases like this I will spend more time encouraging the service user that they will feel better and not try and tell them how I feel when I am clean and fresh.

It is important to understand that your attitude might have an impact on your working practice because your attitude can be broken down into a few things such as your mood, tone of your voice and your body language. So if one day you go into work in a bad mood and have an angry tone to your voice and your body language to match arms crossed etc. then the service user could feel intimidated, scared and uncooperative and less likely to do something that you ask them to do. Whereas if you go to work in a good and have a smile on your face and a cheery tone to your voice then the service user is more likely to be more cooperative and happier also it could put them in a better mood.

Your heritage as a person could also have an impact on your working practice because if you have had a good caring up bringing or your parents have worked in the care industry then you would be more likely to understand what is required and a better understanding of the care sector. To ensure that your own practice is inclusive and respects the beliefs, culture, values and preferences of an individuals by knocking on the service users door asking them what they want to wear or what they wish to eat and if they go to church getting them ready even though I am not religious and you/I should also have a little understanding of a service users culture as it could make them feel more welcome and understand the service user better improving the quality of the care that you give to that person.

Mary is a 80 year old lady and before entering her room I would knock on the door and making sure that my mood, language, tone of voice, body language and approach are good and appropriate, Mary also likes to sit in her room watching TV however I like to encourage Mary to join in activates and events in the lounge so she interacts with others, Mary likes to chat and has questions so I like to chat and has questions so I like to take time to pay her attention and answer any questions she may have so that she feels listened too by listening to Mary’s ideas and concerns and taking onboard what she has said with also help make Mary more confident and by using some of Mary’s ideas may also help Mary feel more valued, by doing this will make Mary feel accepted and welcome.

Types of practice that excludes an individual and that is also discriminatory is if you were to leave a service user in bed and not get them up washed and dressed or not allowing them to join in on act ivies another example is if you did not give a service user the pills that they needed therefor leaving the service un comfortable and maybe in pain also leaving them in their room with the TV on but the volume so low that the service user can’t hear the TV or if a service user is in a wheel chair and if they can’t get access to certain rooms or parts of the house, another example is if a service user is deaf and there is a meeting and they can’t join in or get their views across.

What do you think?

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