Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care

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21 April 2016

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1.1 Define the following types of abuse:

•Physical abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm.

•Sexual abuse is the forcing of undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another.

•Emotional/psychological abuse may involve threats or actions to cause mental or physical harm; humiliation; isolation.

•Financial abuse is the illegal or unauthorised use of a person’s property, money, pension book or other valuables.

•Institutional abuse involves failure of an organisation to provide appropriate and professional individual services to vulnerable people. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour that amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness, stereotyping and rigid systems.

•Self-neglect is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any medical conditions they have.

•Neglect is a passive form of abuse in which the perpetrator is responsible to provide care, for someone, who is unable to care for oneself, but fails to provide adequate care to meet their needs. Neglect may include failing to provide sufficient supervision, nourishment, medical care or other needs.

1.2Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse:

•Physical abuse when you have Bruises, pressure marks, broken bones, abrasions, and burns may indicate physical abuse or neglect.

•Sexual abuse can be bruises around the breasts or genital area, as well as unexplained bleeding around the genital area, pregnancy, STI’s may be signs of sexual abuse.

•Emotional/psychological abuse can be unexplained withdrawal from normal activities, changes in behaviour and unusual depression may be indicators of emotional abuse.

•Financial abuse can be no money, food, clothes. Large withdrawals of money from the bank account, sudden changes in a will, and the sudden disappearance of valuable items may be indications of financial exploitation.

•Institutional abuse can include poor care standards; lack of positive responses to complex needs; rigid routines; inadequate staffing and an insufficient knowledge base within the service; lack of choice, individuality.

•Self neglect can be bedsores, poor hygiene, unsanitary living conditions, and unattended medical needs may be signs of neglect.

•Neglect by others can be failure to take necessary medicines, leaving a burning stove unattended, poor hygiene, confusion, unexplained weight loss, and dehydration may all be signs of self-neglect.

1.3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse: If an individual is not mobile, is confused, has dementia, or is aggressive or challenging then this can increase the risk of abuse as the carer might not know how to deal with this, get frustrated and might take it personally and abuse the individual.

2.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused: If I suspected any kind of abuse I will record the facts on appropriate paperwork and let my manager know.

2.2 Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused: If an individual alleges that they are being abused, I will record the detail of all allegations that the individual tells me using the individual’s own words, I will not ask any questions or make any judgements about what I have been told. I will take the allegations seriously and reassure the individual that they are right to tell me as their safety is the most important. I will make sure that I record the date and time when the abuse was report it to the manager.

2.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved: •Record the facts immediately
•Report immediately
•Do not tamper with evidence

3.1 Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse: •National policies – Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, the Vetting and Barring Scheme run by the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA), Criminal Records Bureau, Human Rights Act 1998. •Local Systems – Safeguarding Adults Boards, Safeguarding policies and procedures for vulnerable adults.’

3.2 Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse:

Safeguarding Adults Boards Role:
The overall objective of the board is to enhance the quality of life of the vulnerable adults who are at risk of abuse and to progressively improve the services of those in need of protection The Police Role:

Serving the community, respect and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons. CRC Role:
We monitor, inspect and regulate services to make sure they meet fundamental standards of quality and safety and we publish what we find, including performance ratings to help people choose care.

3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse:

•October 2013: Police have arrested 7 care workers from the Veilstone Care
Home in Bideford in Devon over alleged abuse of people with learning disabilities. •February 2011: Julie Hayden was designated safeguarding champion for the London Borough of Hounslow’s older people’s team at the time the thefts were reported, but failed to follow correct safeguarding procedures in either case.

•August 2012: The serious case review into events at Winterbourne View, near Bristol, comes after 11 ex-staff members admitted offences against patients

3.4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse: You can obtain information from Care Quality Commission, Local authority Adult Services Department like Social Services and Independent Safeguarding Authority. Can get advice on own role from my manager, care workers and my company’s policies and procedures on safeguarding from the office.

4.1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
Working with person centred values:
Person-centred values include the individuality of the person, the rights of the individual, the individual’s choice, the individual’s privacy, the individual’s independence, the individual’s dignity and the individual being respected. Encouraging active participation:

Active participation is a way of working that recognises an individual’s right to participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible; the individual is regarded as an active partner in their own care or support, rather than a passive recipient. Promoting choice and rights:

Individuals are supported to make their choices in anything they want like in choosing food or drink, in what to wear, whether to use hot or cold water to bathe. No individual will choose what will hurt him or her therefore abuse is reduced to the minimum. Individuals’ rights are promoted throughout the service. My service user has the right to do anything that they wish to do and if it is what they want as long as it is not dangerous; a risk assessment is then done to stop any abuse happening.

4.2 Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse:

•The complaints procedure gives the complainant the right to be heard and supported to make their views known. An accessible complaints procedure is understandable and easy to use. It sets out clearly how to make a complaint, the steps that will be taken when the complaint is looked into. It also provides flexibility in relation to target response times.

•An accessible complaints procedure resolves complaints more quickly as the complainant feels that they are being listened to and their complaint taken seriously. This sets up an open culture of making sure that abuse will not be tolerated in any form and encourages the complainant to not accept this.

5.1 Describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals: •Unsanitary conditions can spread infection as cross-contamination can occur and can affect the well-being of the individual and others. •Dirty kitchen surfaces and equipment can spread infections. •Improper hand washing can also pose a risk.

•Staff not recording in care plans about a service user’s wellbeing and health and not monitoring them. •Staff not checking when a service user is ill or unsteady on their feet. •In terms of health and safety not having risk assessments in place when a service user hurts themselves. •leaving a service user on the toilet too long, ignoring or not listening to them.

5.2 Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified: If I identify unsafe practices, I must follow the whistle-blowing procedure and immediately report to my manager or if it involves my manager then to another appropriate person.

5.3 Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response: •If suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response or if it has to do with my manager then I will report to the next level or manager. •If it has to do with my manager then I will report to management, then to the social worker and safeguarding team and to the care quality commission and even to the police depending on the response I get.

Principles of communication in adult social care settings.

1.1 Identify different reasons why people communicate?
•expressing and sharing ideas, feelings, needs, wishes and preferences •obtaining and receiving information
•getting to know each other

1.2 Explain how effective communication effects all aspects of working in adult social care settings? •service provision
•participation, support and trust
•empathy and shared understanding
•recording and reporting

1.3 Explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them

•to understand what an individual is trying to express
•to meet the individual’s needs
•to identify any changes in an individual’s needs
•to enable effective communication

2.1 Explain why it is important to find out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences

An individual is someone requiring care or support

Preferences may be based on:

Importance of finding out an individual’s needs, wishes and preferences may include:

to enable effective communication
•to understand what an individual is trying to express
•to understand an individuals’ needs, wishes, beliefs, values and culture •to avoid the individual feeling excluded
•to avoid the individual becoming distressed, frustrated or frightened •to support the individual to be fully involved in their daily life

2.2 Describe a range of communication methods

Communication methods include:

Non-verbal communication:
•written words
•facial expressions
•eye contact
•physical gestures
•body language
•visual aids e.g. flash cards, pictures, symbols

Verbal communication:
•linguistic tone

3.1 Identify barriers to communication

Barriers may include:
•not understanding or being aware of an individual’s needs, wishes, beliefs, values and culture •not making communication aids available or checking they are working

•a noisy environment
•an uncomfortable environment e.g. lighting, temperature •a lack of

•different language, use of jargon

3.2 Describe ways to reduce barriers to communication

Ways to reduce barriers may include:
•understanding and being aware of an individual’s needs, wishes, beliefs, values and culture •supporting individuals to communicate their needs
•avoiding using jargon in written documents and when speaking •speaking slowly and clearly
•ensuring communication aids are available and working properly •showing you are listening and interested
•providing a quiet and private environment
•making sure the environment is comfortable

3.3 Describe ways to check that communication has been understood

Ways to check may include:
•observing the person you are communicating with
•‘reading’ facial expressions and body language
•checking with the individual that they have understood
•asking questions, re-phrasing
•consulting others

3.4 Identify sources of information and support or services to enable more effective communication

Sources of information and support may include:
•individual’s care plan
•individual’s communication profile
•individual’s communication passport
•individual themselves
•key worker
•speech and language therapist
•family or carers

Services may include:
•translation services
•interpreting services
•speech and language services
•advocacy services

4.1 Define the term “confidentiality”

Meaning of confidentiality may include:
•keeping information private and safe
•passing on private information with the individual’s permission •only passing on information to others who have a right to it and need to know it

4.2 Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication

Ways of maintaining confidentiality may include:
•keeping written records safe
•not leaving written records in places where others might see •ensuring confidential information is passed on only to others who have a right to it and who need to know it
•password protecting electronic files
•checking the identity of the person before passing on information •not discussing personal information about individuals outside of work •providing a private environment

4.3 Describe situations where information normally considered to be confidential might need to be shared with agreed others

Situations may include:
•when working with others
•when a criminal act has taken place
•when an individual or another person is at risk of danger, harm or abuse •when an individual or another person is being placed in danger, harmed or abused
Agreed others may include:
•social worker
•occupational therapist
•speech and language therapist
•specialist nurse
•dementia care advisor
•family or carers

4.4 Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality

How to seek advice may include :
•the organisation’s confidentiality policy
•speaking with the manager

When to seek advice may include when:
•confidential information needs to be shared with agreed others •clarification is needed

Cite this page

Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care. (21 April 2016). Retrieved from

"Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care" StudyScroll, 21 April 2016,

StudyScroll. (2016). Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2 October, 2023]

"Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care" StudyScroll, Apr 21, 2016. Accessed Oct 2, 2023.

"Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care" StudyScroll, Apr 21, 2016.

"Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care" StudyScroll, 21-Apr-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 2-Oct-2023]

StudyScroll. (2016). Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2-Oct-2023]

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