Rizal Journey

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Rizal’s Life, Works and Writings Rizal Law and the Teaching of Rizal Course|
Republic Act of 1425Or Rizal Law| * Mandates the teaching of the life, works and writings of Rizal in all schools in the country.| Jose P. Laurel | * Sponsored the law because Rizal was the founder of Filipino nationality and the architect of the Filipino nation. * Believed that by reading and studying Rizal’s life, teachings and writings, Filipino youth will gain incorruptible confidence, direction, courage and determination. | Objectives of Rizal Law (1956)| * To rededicate the lives of the youth to ideals of freedom and nationalism. * To pay tribute to our national hero for devoting his life and works in shaping the Filipino character. * To gain an inspiring source of patriotism thru the study of Rizal’s life, works and writings.| …Goals by the Board of National Education(Capino et al, 1997) | * To recognize the relevance of Rizal’s ideals, thoughts, teachings and life values to present condition in the community. * To apply Rizal’s ideas in the solution of day-to-day situations and problems in contemporary life. * To develop an understanding and appreciation of the qualities, behavior and character of Rizal. * To foster the development of moral character, personal discipline, citizenship and vocational efficiency among the Filipino youth.| Rizal, An American Sponsored Hero|

Constantino (1969)| * Claims that Rizal was an American-sponsored hero.| Taft Commission of 1901| * Not the Filipino people chose Rizal to become our country’s national hero.| Contenders of the Title of National Hero| * Rizal, Aguinaldo, Bonifacio and Mabini| Act No.137| * Organized a politico-military district and named it as the province of Rizal in honor of the most illustrious Filipino.| Act No. 243| * Authorized a public subscription for the erection of a monument in honor of Rizal at Luneta. | Act No. 345| * Set aside the anniversary of Rizal’s death as a day of observation.| Agoncillo (1986)| * Rizal was accepted as a national hero to the Americans because he was the symbol of assimilation, which was the American policy then in the Philippines.| Factors according to Constantino (1969) that affected Rizal’s acceptability as official hero of the Philippines| * Rizal was already dead when the Americans began their aggression in the Philippines. * No embarrassing
anti-American quotation could ever be attributed to Rizal. * Rizal’s dramatic martyrdom had already made him the symbol of Spanish oppression. | Guerrero (1998)| * Asserts that it is the Filipinos who have chosen Rizal to be the symbol of our nationalism as a people even before he died. * Rizal was the first Filipino.| Guerrero’s Conclusions| * Since the Filipinos love peace, they have chosen to magnify a man of peace above the men of war. * Because Filipinos are lovers of freedom and justice, they have given their worship to a man who gave up all comforts and pleasures of the peace for their sake. * Filipinos prize virtue more than victory and sacrifice above success. | Rizal, Pioneer Asian Nationalist Leader|

De Ocampo (1969)| * Rizal was the first exponent of Asian nationalism since he was the source of inspiration for the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution of 1896.| Fisher (1962)| * Called Rizal the Pioneer Exponent of Liberal Democracy in Asia. * Said even before Gandhi and Sun Yat-Sen began their political career, Rizal had already spoken out with firmness and courage ideas on liberal democracy by his writings. * Worth and dignity of the individual. * Inviolability of human rights * Innate equality of all men and races * Necessity for constitutional government * Due process of law * Popular sovereignty as basis of all political authority. * Faith in human reason and enlightenment * Rights of the masses to public education. * Belief in social progress through freedom | Major Periods in the Life of Rizal (Celedonio, 1982)|

First Period (1861-1872)| * Rizal learned how to read, write and listened to stories that triggered imaginative and critical thinking on his part. * He developed industriousness, creativity, rationality and dignity.| Second Period (1872-1882)| * First turning point in the life of Rizal. * He was 11 and enrolled in Ateneo Municipal despite his mother’s objection. * It was the period when Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were unjustly executed by the Spanish government. * Their martyrdom made Rizal aware of the abuses of the regime and led him to devote himself in the future to avenge injustices and cruelties of the Spanish. * Strengthening of his religious foundation. * Cultivation of the drive toward excellence * Conception of the Philippines as his fatherland. *
Envisioning the Philippines receiving light thru education. * Perception of the intimate alliance between religion and education.| Third Period (1882-1892)| * Second major turning point in Rizal’s life. * He decided to leave the Philippines to escape persecution. * He traveled and everywhere he went, he was always an observer and a student, learning from everything he saw, read and heard. * He took part in the Propaganda Movement based in Europe. | Fourth Period (1892-1896)| * The last turning point of his life before his martyrdom in December 30, 1896. * Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. * He detached his connections with politics and devoted more of his time in practical service and usefulness to the community.|

Chapter 2: The 19th Century World of Jose Rizal
Growth and Development of Nationalism |
Nationalism | * (Jackson & Jackson, 2000) A sense of loyalty or psychological attachment members of a nation share, based on a common language, history, culture and desire for independence. * It is a feeling that drives a people together as a nation. * McKay et al, 1995 * Has evolved from a real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common language, history and territory. * Nationalists have usually sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries. * Nationalists believe that every nation has the right to exist in freedom and develop in character and spirit. * It can lead to aggressive crusades and counter-crusades and can stress differences among people. | Rise and Gradual Spread of Liberalism and Democracy|

Black,1999| * The rise and spread of Liberalism and Democracy was actually a consequence of the growth and development of nationalism.| Liberalism| * Principle ideas are liberty and equality. * Demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes. * Also meant specific individual freedom: freedom of the press; freedom of speech; freedom of assembly; and freedom from arbitrary arrest.| Democracy| * Was gradually established thru the following means: * Promulgation of laws
that advance democracy * Undertaking of reforms thru legislation * Abolition of slavery * Adoption of a liberal constitution * Providing the citizens the opportunity to propose laws * Adoption of manhood suffrage and granting of political, economic and social rights to the people * The ecclesiastical and civil authorities then were not inclined to grant basic human rights to the Filipinos as it will be disadvantageous to the Spain’s colonial administration of the Philippines fearing that it will motivate the Filipinos to work for independence and bring down the Regime.| The Industrial Revolution|

Stearns et al, 1991| * One of the most crucial developments in the 19th century was the Industrial revolution.| Industrial Revolution| * Refers to the transformation of manufacturing brought about by the invention and use of machines.| Positive Effects| * Rise of the factory system. * Mass production of essential and non-essential goods. * Improvement of people’s standard of living. * Greater Urbanization of Society. * Beginnings of specialization or division of labor. * Invention of labor-saving devices. * The beginning of industrial capitalism * Fostering of liberalism and nationalism. * Encouragement of people’s mobility. | Negative Effects| * Widening the gap between the rich and poor * Unending economic warfare between labor and capital * Pollution and other environmental problems * Beginning of child and women labor * Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialized countries. | Doreen, 1991| * To solve the evils created by the industrial system, different measures were proposed by concerned sectors of world society. | Liberals| * Laissez-faire policy or government’s non-interference in the conduct of trade and business has to be sustained for the continuous expansion of the economy.| Socialists| * Assert that the government has to control vital industries and resources. * Necessary in promoting equality of opportunity and people’s welfare in society.| Communists| * Suggest that all factors of production be owned and controlled by the government. * Equality can be achieved if social classes are destroyed and dictatorship of the proletariat is established. | The Advances of Science|

Consequences| * Everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the importance of science on the minds of ordinary citizens. * As science became more prominent in popular thinking, the philosophical implication of science spread to broad sections of the population. Technical advances led people to develop optimistic faith in man’s capability to achieve progress. * The methods of science acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850. For many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only route to the truth and objective reality.| The Upsurge of Western Imperialism|

Industrializing West| * In the 19th century, they entered the third and most dynamic phase of its centuries-old-expansion into non-Western lands.| Consequences of Western Expansion| * The world became in many ways a single unit. * Diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization. Yet the west relied on force to conquer and rule and treated non-western people as racial inferiors. * Non-western elites launched national, anti-imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence and modernization. * Colonized people started to assert their right to self-determination or the right to choose the kind of government under which they would live.| Optimism and Confidence in Progress|

Chodorow et al,1994| * Optimism or faith in society and man’s ability to progress was brought about by the advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered industry and the spread of liberalism and socialism.| Marquis de Condorcet| * Summed the optimism of the century in his work Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. * Saw that “the strongest reasons for believing that nature has set no limit to realization of our hopes” and foresaw “the abolition of inequality between nations, the progress of equality within nations and the true perfection of humanity. Progress was now independent of any power that might wish to halt it and will never be reversed.”| Achievements| * Extension of human rights to many people * Promotion of higher education for men and women * Education for nationalism in schools * Investment in science to serve mankind * Improvement of public health thru the establishment of numerous hospitals * Emergence of realistic literature, depicting the life of the time |

Chapter 3: Spain and the Philippines in the 19th Century

Spain in the 19th Century|
Zaide, 1994| * The 19th century was a turbulent century of politics in Spanish history. * Frequent rise and fall of ministries and constitutions. * Force to abandon the policy of mercantilism and adopted the laissez-faire policy.| Maguigad et al, 2000| * To save the country from political disunity, the Spanish crown worked out the canovite system or rotativism.| Canovite System or Rotativism| * The liberals and conservatives in Spain took turns in administering the affairs of the country.| Mercantilism| * An economic doctrine based on the idea that a country’s wealth and power can be measured in terms of its stock of gold and silver.| Romero et al, 1978| * Spain was forced to abandon this policy on account of her felt need to follow the trend of economic development in Europe and at the same time speed up the growth of her commerce and trade.| Capino, 1977| * Spain’s adoption of laissez-faire policy affected the Philippines in several ways. * Spain ended the Galleon Trade or the Manila-Acapulco trade in 1873. * This directly opened the Philippines to the world commerce * Ended the economic isolation of the Philippines from the rest of the world. * Created a middle class imbued with civic courage and personal independence which started the questioning the abuses of the Spanish Regime. | The Philippines During Rizal’s Time|

Consequences of the Spanish Conquest| * The Filipinos lost their ancestral lands on account of Spain’s institution of the encomienda system. * Forced to accept Spanish culture and religion. * This change was evident in the administrative organization of the country, social structure and educational system of the Philippines and economic situation in the 19th century.| Administrative Organization|

Ministry of Colonies| * Thru this, the Spanish Crown was able to govern the Philippines.| Governor-General| * Appointed by the Spanish monarch * The head of the Spanish colonial government in the country. *
Represented the Crown in all governmental matters. * Vice Royal Patron over religious affairs meaning he could nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes. * Commander in chief of the colonial army. * Chief executive of the colonial government, he was an ex-officio president of the Royal Audiencia, the Supreme Court in the Philippines during those times. * Had legislative powers. * Had the power of cumplase or the power to decide which law or loyal decree should be implemented or disregarded in the colony. | Actos Acordados| * Laws enacted by the governor-general.| Alcaldias| * The provinces during the Spanish Regime. * Divided into towns or pueblos.| Alcalde Mayor or Provincial Mayor| * Each one headed a province who exercised executive and judicial functions.| Indulto de Commercio| * The provincial government was the most corrupt unit in local government then, owing to the privilege to engage in the monopolize trade called ______.| Gobernadorcillo or Town Mayor| * Each one headed a pueblo. * At first, he was elected by all married males. * Then, he was voted by 13 electors, chaired by the outgoing gobernadorcillo. * His principal responsibility was tax collection. * To ensure collection and remittance of these taxes, he was required to mortgage his properties to the government at the beginning of his term.| Romero et al, 1978| * Each town was divided into barrios or barangays.| Cabeza de Barangay | * Headed a barangay, the smallest unit of government. * His function was to maintenance of peace and order and collection of taxes and tributes in the barangay.| Ayuntamiento| * City government during the Spanish Regime. * Governed by a cabildo or city council composed of a city mayor (alcalde en ordinario), councilors (regidores), chief constable (aguacil mayor) and a secretary (escribano). | Spanish friar| * A key figure in the local administrative set-up (Schumacher,1997) * Because of the union of the church and state in the Philippines, a principle upon which the Spanish colonial government in the country was founded. * Supervising representative of the Spanish government for all local affairs. * Practically the ruler of the town as he was the local school, health, prison, inspector and inspector of accounts of the gobernadorcillos and cabeze de barangays. * His approval was required in census lists, tax lists, lists of army conscripts, and register of births, deaths and
marriages. | Frailocracia| * Friars became more powerful and influential that even civil authorities feared them. * Termed by Lopez Jaena.| Guardia Civil| * Another institution feared in the Philippines. * Organized in1867, as a corps of native police under the leadership of Spanish officers for the purpose of dealing with outlaws and renegades (Maguigad et al,2000)| Filibusteros| * Enemies of the government.|

Erehes| * Enemies of the Catholic Church.|
Audiencia Real| * Vested the judicial power of the government. * The Supreme Court during those times and the lower courts (De Leon,2000). * Highest court in the Philippines. * Also served as a forum for settling important issues on governance and an auditing agency of the finances of Spanish colonial administration in the country.| Residencia| * The trial of an outgoing governor-general to account for his acts during his tenure of office.| Visitador| * Investigating officer to probe on complaints against the governor-general, he was not able to resist corruption for his personal advantage.| Capino, 1977| * Another source of weakness and abuse of Spanish government was the widespread selling of lower position to highest bidders. | The Social Structure of Filipino Society|

Romero et al, 1978| * Philippine society then was feudalistic as a consequence of the encomienda system imposed by the colonizers. | polo y servicio| * Forced labor to the government and the Catholic Chruch.| Limpieza de sangre| * Purity of Blood * The social structure implemented by Spain was pyramidal due to the colonizer’s adherence to the doctrine…(Maguigad, 2000). | Social Pyramid:| |

Peninsulares| * Spaniards born in Spain.|
Insulares| * Spaniards born in the Philippines.|
Spanish and Chinese Mestizo| |
Principalia| * Ruling class of native elites.|
Indios| * Masses|
Educational System|
Weakness of the Educational System:| * Over-emphasis on religion * Limited and irrelevant curriculum * Obsolete classroom facilities * Inadequate instructional material * Absence of academic freedom * Racial prejudice against the Filipinos in school.|

Chapter 4: The Dawn of Filipino Nationalism
Unification of the Philippines Under Spanish Era|
Reduccion Plan| * Implemented by Fr. Juan de Plasencia * Required the natives to live in the area near the church.| Results of the Reduccion Plan| * Spanish encomenderos found it easier to collect taxes. * Transformed the Filipinos into law-abidding citizens. * The independence of the barangays was lost because of the relocation of the natives under the influence of the church. | Early Resistance to Spanish Rule|

Revolts caused by the desire to regain their lost freedom:| * Revolt of Raha Sulayman and Lakan Dula (1574) * Tondo Conspiracy (1587-1588) * Revolt of Malong (1660-1661) * Dagohoy’s Revolt (1744-1829) * Revolt of Diego Silang (1762-1763) * Revolt of Palaris (1762-1764)| Revolts caused by resistance to Spanish-imposed institutions:| * Magalat Revolt (1596) * Revolt of the Irrayas (1621) * Cagayan Revolt (1639) * Sumuroy Rebellion (1649-1650) * Maniago Revolt (1660)| Revolts caused by the agrarian unrest:| * Provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Pampanga and Bulacan.| Revolts caused by the desire to revert to their native religion:| * Igorot Revolt (1601) * Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622) * Revolt of Lanab and Alababan (1625-1627) * Tapar Revolt (1663) * Revolt of Francisco Rivera (1718) * Revolt of Hermano Apolinario dela Cruz (1840-1841) * Revolt of the Muslims in Southern Philippines| Divide et Impera Policy| * Factor for the failure of the revolts. * They failed to realize that their common enemy was the Spanish| The Emergence of the Filipino Sense of Nationhood |

Cause of the Development of Nationalism | * Opening of the Philippines to world commerce * Rise of clase media * Liberal regime of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre * Racial Discrimination * Secularization controversy * Cavite Mutiny of 1872| The Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce|

John Locke’s Theory of Revolution| * People can overthrow a government that is not working for the good of the governed.| The Rise of Clase Media|
Clase Media or New middle class| * Can be traced to the prosperity of a relatively small class of mestizos and the principalia or ruling elite who benefited from the opening of the country to foreign commerce and trade.| Liberal Regime of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre|

Carlos Ma. Dela Torre| * Was appointed governor-general after the fall of Queen Isabella and the triumph of liberalism in Spain. * Encouraged the aspirations of the reformists and abolished the censorship of the press. * During his term, freedom of speech and of the press as guaranteed by the Spanish Constitution were recognized.| Rafeal de Izquierdo| * Replaced Carlos Ma. Dela Torre * Boasted that he came to the Philippines with a cross on one hand and a sword on the other.| Racial Discrimination|

Indios| * What the Spanish called the Filipinos * Means inferior race| Fray Miguel de Bustamante| * Portrayed the Filipino as an individual with low mental ability, incapable of acquiring European education and fitted only to work in the field and tend a carabao in his pamphlet called Si Tandang Basyong Macunat.| Secularization Controversy|

Secularization of Parishes| * The transfer of the monitories established by regular Spanish clergy to Filipino seculars.| Fr. Pedro Pelaez| * An insulares, who rose to the position of vicar capitular of Manila in1861. * Led the fight against royal decrees turning secular parishes over to the friars. * Appealed to the Queen Isabella II for ecclesiastical equality between the Spanish regulars and Filipino seculars.| Fr. Burgos| * Continued the struggle later after the death of Fr. Palaez. * He exerted all efforts to defend the Filipino clergy from all the attacks by the Spanish regulars. * Applead to the Spanish queen that the Filipino priests the chance to prove that they can equal the Spanish regulars.| Cavite Mutiny of 1872|

Sgt. La Madrid| * Lead a mutiny with Filipino soldiers in the arsenal of Cavite on the night of January 20,1872 brought about by Izquierdo’s abolition of their exemption from tributes and forced labor.| Rizal and the Cavite Mutiny of 1872|

Execution of Gomburza| * When Rizal heard of the martyrdom of Gomburza when he was 11 years old, he changed his mind of becoming a priest and become a Jesuit father and dedicated his life to avenge the victims of the Spanish government.|