Role for bioremediation

Chapter 1

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– Which one of the following is not a role for bioremediation? Curing infectious diseases

– All of the following are examples of new emerging infectious diseases except Chickenpox

– Normal microbiota: Beneficial microbial inhabitants of the body

– Golden Age of Microbiology: Rapid discovery of basic microbiology principles

– Re-emerging diseases: Once controlled by preventative public health measures they are now on the rise

– Prions: Resistant to the usual sterilization procedures for pathogens

– Spontaneous generation: The converse of biogenesis

– Acellular infectious agent: Chemical composition includes RNA or DNA

– In the scientific name Bacillus anthracis, the term Bacillus is the genus name

– include the agents responsible for stomach ulcers and plague: Bacteria – are prokaryotes: Bacteria

– impart distinctive flavors in foods such as yogurt and cheese: Bacteria – are obligate intracellular parasites: Viruses

– have a protein coat that surrounds the genetic information: Viruses – include molds and yeasts: Fungi

– contain the protozoa and algae: Protists

– derive their energy from degrading organic materials: Fungi – are the most metabolically diverse group: Bacteria

– Which one of the following sequences exhibits increasing size? Viruses to bacteria to protozoa

– Which one of the following would be consistent with the idea of spontaneous generation? Sick people give rise to microorganisms in their body

Chapter 3

– The gram stain technique is valuable in distinguishing: different types of bacteria One of the below is wrong
– permit eukaryotic motility: Flagella
– are involved in group translocation: Chromosomes
– Contain components of the electron transport chain for ATP generation: Plasma Membranes – may have peritrichous or polar arrangements: Flagella
– are linear rods contained within a nucleus: Chromosomes
– replication is followed by binary fission: Chromosomes
– are closed circular single molecues: Chromosomes
– are used for chemotaxis: Flagella
– involved with signal sequences in secretion: Plasma Membranes – Nucleoid: Stores essential genetic information
– Glycocalyx: Prevents phagocytosis; attachment
– Plasmid: Contains a few genes; not essential for cell
-Metachromatic granules: Site of nutrient accumulation in cell – Fimbriae: Short straight hair-like fibers
-Gram (-) cell wall: Rigid outer boundary
– A bacterial arrangement called a sarcina has which of the following morphological shapes? Spheres in packets of eight
– All of the following characteristics apply to the prokaryotes except they reproduce by mitosis

Chapter 4

– A differential medium is one that distinguishes colonies of one type of bacterium from those of another type

– Which of the following conditions are most likely to affect the growth of bacteria? temperature, oxygen, and pH
– At what point in the bacterial growth curve are bacteria the most vulnerable to antibiotics log phase
– Which of the following methods of measuring population growth is a direct count standard plate count using a dilution series
– Faculative bacteria are those that grow in the presence of absence of oxygen
– Most of the human pathogens are: mesophiles 10.0001 out of 11 points
– Mesophiles: this group has most of the the pathogens as they grow at body temperature

– Halophile: would grow on selective media containing relatively high levels of salt

– Alkaphile: they can tolerate a pH above 8.5

– Psychrotroph: can be found growing in the human stomach

– Anaerobe: they do not or cannot use oxygen

– Hyperthermophile: these have been found in seawater from hot water volcanic vents

– Microaerophile: they survive in environments where O2 concentration is relatively low but are inhibited by high O2 levels

– Obligate aerobe: this group requires oxygen for metabolism, just like humans

– Acidophile: can be found growing in the human stomach

– Facultative Anaerobe: they grow best in the presence of oxygen but can grow in the absence of oxygen

– Barophile: they are able to live at the bottom of the ocean

-The interval of time between successive binary fissions of a cell or population of cells is known as the: generation time -Psychrophiles and thermophiles differ with respect to their best temperature for growth

– A soil sample is added to a culture medium that has been designed to promote the growth of the genus Pseudomonas while inhibiting the growth of fungi. This test uses a: selective medium

Chapter 5
– Low temperature is: bacteriostatic
– Heavy metals generally kill microorganisms by reacting with protein sulfhydryl groups to disrupt function
– Chlorhexidine is a biguanide used to wash hands and clean wounds superficially
– The chemical counterpart of the autoclave uses ethylene oxide with an inert gas
– HEPA filters are used to filter which one of the following? Air
– Ultraviolet light is valuable for reducing the microbial population in the air of a hospital room
– Of the following, the most efficient method for sterilization of a bacteriological transfer loop is the direct flame
– Triclosan destroys bacteria by disrupting cell membranes
– Which one of the following elements would be classified as a halogen Chlorine
– Moist heat kills microorganisms by denaturation
– A substance that has been pasteurized is not considered sterile
5 out of 8 points

Autoclave: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores
Direct Flame: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores
Boiling water for 10 minutes: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores Hot air oven for 2 hours at 160 degrees

Celcius: Vegetative microorganisms, and endospores Pasteurization: Pathogenic microorganisms, not endospores

Gamma radiation: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores
Filtration: Pathogenic microorganisms, not endospores
Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing: Vegetative microorganisms, not endospores

When food has been salted water diffuses out of microorganisms causing them to shrivel

Chapter 6

– The Krebs cycle accounts for all the following except production of pyruvate from glucose
– Heat is useful in the destruction of bacteria because heat denatures enzymes by altering their tertiary structures
– 10.99956 out of 13 points
– yields pyruvate for use in the TCA cycle: Glycolysis
– requires cytochromes for electron transport: Oxidative phosphorylation – requires electrons eventually be passed to NADPH: Photosynthesis – Requires energy from light to take place: Photosynthesis

– ends with acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms: Oxidative phosphorylation – starts with the oxidation of NADH: TCA Cycle
– requires an “investment” of 2 ATP’s: Glycolysis
– uses chlorophyll as the pigment in the cyanobacteria: Photosynthesis – results in the formation of water: Photosynthesis
– is essentially the opposite of aerobic respiration: Photosynthesis – begins with a glucose molecule: Glycolysis
– results in the net gain of 2 ATP’s: Glycolysis
– generates two carbon dioxide molecules per turn: TCA Cycle

– Which one of the following does not involve a phosphorylation reaction? The hydrolysis of ATP
– Which of the following states is the most correct for enzyme reactions Enzymes are specific for only one reaction, generally in one direction – All of the following apply to the process of anabolism except the process is exergonic

– You are studying an obligate anaerobe. Which one of the following pathways can you be assured is occurring? Glycolysis
– A bacterium that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated from an anaerobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic. When analyzed, the medium is found to have a high concentration of lactic acid. This bacterium is most likely metabolizing by a process known as fermentation

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