Self Esteem and Social Anxiety
The study searched measures of self- esteem and social anxiety using self-report. Social Anxiety Disorder is someone who has the fear of being social with anyone or anything, said (Rasmussen and Pidgeon, 2011). Low self-esteem is a cause of Social Anxiety Disorder. Research stated that there is evidence that individual’s with social anxiety show low self-esteem (Baumeister & Twenge, 2003). (Kocovski and Endler’s, 2000) Social anxiety showed that low self-esteem had a gain in fears of negative evaluation, which in turn showed gains in social anxiety. A person who checks themself in a negative way will think that others are of the same opinion, and this anticipation of negative evaluation of the self might result in anxiety in social situations (Kocovski & Endler, 2000).
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It was hypothesized that higher levels of mindfulness would significantly predict higher levels of self- esteem. Recent experimental evidence has shown that mindfulness buffers self-esteem from negatively valenced social experiences, which in turn reduces defensive reactions to social threats. It was hypothesized that higher self- esteem would significantly predict lower social anxiety. It was predicted that mindfulness indirectly predicted lower social anxiety via self-esteem. (Fennel & Jenkins, 2004) In this experiment it was an experiment to see the levels of low or high self- esteem, which would inflict a difference on social anxiety. The mean age for this was 23.1 years old. The standard deviation was 6.72. In this experiment the percent of female students was 59%. There were coefficients ranging from 0.82- 0.86 in different studies. Results showed higher increases in self- esteem and said there were lower levels of social anxiety. This study for future research can be questioned like what variables influence the effectiveness in mindfulness practice in relation to self-esteem and social anxiety?
These three different study groups could not differentiate on treatment dropout also families were more intrigued by GANA and PCIT, instead of TAU. We even hypothesized that PCIT would outperform TAU. Participants included 58 Mexican- American families. In this clinical sample, the children were in dire need of treatment. As stated, the IV is PCIT (Parent Child Interaction Therapy), treatment as usual. GANA guided active children. The DV stated that there would be lower dropout, higher father participation, better outcomes, higher parent satisfaction. The studies psychological perspective is social cultural. This is social cultural because it is studying the different social groups of different cultures of the society. A new question raised for possible future study is why dropout rates do not differ?
(Bandura, A. Ross, D., & Ross, S.A) The advancement concerning the influence of the gender of the model and the sex of the children in imitation of a sample experiment. The number of participants was 72. 36 boys and 36 girls had participated as the imitators of the experiment. The mean age of the children equals 37 to 69 months. The IV with operational definition was Aggressive vs. Non- aggressive children and same vs. Different sex. The DV is imitative responses (physical aggression, verbal aggression, and non-verbal responses. The result of this experiment was participants who observed aggressive models scored significantly higher in imitative responses including physical and verbal aggression as well as non aggressive verbal responses. The psychological perspective is social learning. The perspective is social learning because a child observing a behavior from an adult will impact the way they react to the independent variable of the experiment. A questioned raised to continue this study in the future is how much aggression was transmitted through imitation of the aggressive models?
It is important to go about studying hypotheses using different psychological perspectives because it gives us a better and more accurate hypothesis as well as more accurate results. The study I will discuss further is Mallet Aggression (Bandura 1961). The hypothesis explored in this study was subjects exposed to aggressive models would reproduce aggressive reactions resembling their models and would differ in this of both from participants who observed nonaggressive models and those of no prior witness to any model. They tested the hypothesis with the psychological perspective known as social learning. Mood personality is another psychological perspective because a participant’s mood if experiencing anger will show that the individual will be destructive with the mallet after learning from the model. An individual could test the hypothesis with the new psychological perspective by bringing in participants experiencing anger and participants who are not experiencing anger and have them observe the model and see what their reaction is.
Rasmussen, Michael K., Pidgeon, Aileen M., (2010) The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self- esteem and social anxiety, Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24, (2), 227-233.
McCabe, K., Yeh, M. (2009) parent- child interaction therapy for Mexican Americans: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, (5), 753-759. 10.1080/15374410903544
Bandura, Ross A., D., & Ross, S. A, (1961) transmission of aggressive through imitation of aggressive models, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, (3), 575-582.