1. 1850-1864 : Taiping Rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan. He worked for reforms to abolish private property, share communal wealth, free education for all, end the system of concubine, and create equality between men and women. He wound up capturing Nanjing, but it was put down by the British and the French.
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2. During the Second Opium War in 1860, the allegiance of European imperialist occupied the Chinese capital of Peking (Beijing). The Old Summer Palace, the Qing Chinese equivalent of a national museum, was looted and subsequently burnt down.
3. British started selling Opium to the Chinese to make a profit and eventually try to gain power over them by getting the Chinese addicted. This eventually leads to the Opium War.
1. During the 1700s, a joint-stock company called the British East India Company was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I of England. The company’s main objective was to make a profit for shareholders by exploiting the abundant natural resources and gaining access to the markets in India.
2. To do this, the British East India Company successfully used “divide and conquer” tactics to increase their control over entire regions of the Indian subcontinent. This strategy entailed fanning the flames of religious division between native Muslim and Hindu groups, and taking advantage of the political rivalries that existed between local native rulers.
3. By the 1830s, the British government had taken over control of the East India Company. Under British rule, native customs such as sati, the ritual suicide of a wife after her husband’s death, were banned. The British built schools and railroads, and missionaries spread Christianity.
4. British held most of the political and economic power and they used this to restrict Indian-owned industries including cotton textiles. This led to a loss of self-sufficiency for many locals and, in the late 1800s, India experienced a severe famine.
1. The incomes of the members of the population who work for the imperialist are very small. If one discounts the amount paid to the overseas managers, goods bought at the “company store,” and the housing furnished by the company, the total is minute.
2. Nutritionally, the underdeveloped country’s workers are frequently worse off after the imperialist country’s intervention. Although bulkier food is eaten because the employer wants a more productive worker, the diet is often deficient nutritionally. Political
1. Resentment against the British mounted in the mid-1800s. In southern India, the British and the French allied with opposed political factions to extract Indian goods for their domestic uses. A strong sense of nationalism began to take hold. In 1857, Indian Sepoys came to believe that the cartridges of their rifles were greased with pork and beef fat. This was important because to use the cartridges, the user had to bite off the ends.
2. This was a religious concern for Hindu and Muslim Sepoys who were forbidden to eat these meats. This led to the Sepoy Mutiny when 85 soldiers refused to use the cartridges. The soldiers were jailed by the British and on May 10, 1857 the Sepoys marched to Delhi. Once there, they were joined by other soldiers and eventually the captured the city.
3. The Sepoy Mutiny spread to much of northern India, sparking an intense battle between British forces and the Indian soldiers. It took the East India Company more than one year to regain control. However, the event weakened Britain’s political position. Growing nationalism led to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885 and then to the Muslim League in 1906.
1. Self-Strengthening Movement: an attempt to restore value, and as implied by the name strength, to the weakened country through the application of Western technology and learning. Students, at home and those sent abroad, studied Western thought, languages, and science. Factories, shipyards, and arsenals were based on Western models.
2. The actual partitioning of the Empire was only prevented by the fact that the Great Powers were too evenly matched for any one of them to be able to steal a march on the others. Instead they extorted concessions, “unequal treaties” and extra-territorial rights from the weak Chinese Government. Great Britain had led the way by actually going to war with China to force her to accept imports of Indian opium.
1. In the North African dependencies of the declining Turkish Empire France and Germany intrigued and counter-intrigued, twice coming to the verge of war; in Persia and Afghanistan, still nominally independent, Britain and Russia worked against one another for effective control.
2. In South Africa the opening up of the Transvaal goldfields and the Kimberley diamond mines led to an influx of British adventurers whose interests clashed with those of the Boer settlers; backing them up, the Imperial Government was drawn into war in 1899, and achieved a not very glorious victory two years later.
1. British held most of the political and economic power and they used this to restrict Indian-owned industries including cotton textiles. This led to a loss of self-sufficiency for many locals and, in the late 1800s, India experienced a severe famine.
2. The British had a more-or-less hands-off policy when it came to religious and social customs in India. However, British missionaries increased during the imperial era, with hopes to spread Western Christianity. Many of the British officials working in India were racist, impacting the political climate. Many Indians who worked with British officials for administrative purposes were portrayed as disloyal or deceitful to their Indian brethren by the British.
1. By dividing African territory across tribal and established boundaries, the Euros trapped previous enemies within the new political units created by the Berlin Conference and left those previous warring factions to get along with their old enemies and their new ones (Euros) at the same time. The slaughter in Rwanda and Burundi a few years ago (mid-90’s) was a direct result of the 1884-85 Berlin Conference. Enemies within the same territory simply revived an old struggle and killed 600,000 people in the process.
1. Chinese cultural and art no longer had great influence worldwide. Westerner people started to appreciate their own culture and art, Japan turned completely western. People started to appreciate western stuff more than Chinese, from culture, to art, to fashion, to ideology, to everything. Chinese were discriminated throughout the whole world, even till today. Their collective spirits are no longer shared their traditions and customs are often attack under prejudices.
2. Before the rise of 19th century imperialism, China was viewed by western people and most people of the world as the dreamland. People around the globe praised their society and values, then suddenly after they were beaten down by the western military might, they turned into nothing.
1. Educationally, the workers are taught such “crucial” items as free enterprise economics. The nature of this set-up gives rise to a very small group of local wealthy opportunists who have a vested interest in maintaining the status quo. This group uses whatever type of government (monarchy, dictatorship, fascism) that will keep it in power to repress the masses.
2. The U.S. supports these governments that suppress all popular movements for social and national liberation, which allows the stifling of economic and social development and therefore continued exploitation. Another result of this is that the top leaders of the underdeveloped countries spend money extremely wastefully on their own pleasures. Of course, a lot has to be spent to keep the military and inner police force of these dictators.
1. India became increasingly valuable to British interests after a railway network was built there. The railroads were used to transport raw products from the inner parts of the Indian sub-continent to the ports. Manufactured goods made at the ports would be transported back to the inner zones. Nearly all the materials used in manufacturing were produced on plantations, including tea, cotton, opium and coffee.
2. The British would ship opium to China in exchange for tea that was sold in England. The trade goods had an enormous impact on Indian politics. The 1850s Crimean War, for example, cut off supplies of Russian exports to Scotland. The exports of products in the Indian province of Bengal increased. The U.S. Civil War boosted cotton production in India. The British further replaced India’s political aristocracy with a bureaucratic military adept at maintaining law and order. This led to a reduction in fiscal overheads, leaving a larger share of national product available to the British while simultaneously stripping self-governance rights and natural products from the Indian people.
1. Opium had been grown in Asia for hundreds of years. The Chinese emperor outlawed opium distribution in 1729. British traders had been smuggling in small amounts of Indian-grown opium for years. With the British need for trading revnue from China becoming dire, the British East India Company increasingly turned a blind eye to opium smuggling. (The British government granted the British East India Company a monopoly on British trade in and out of India).
2. When China tried to stop in the illegal opium trading in 1839, British traders manipulated the situation so that the British sent warships into the harbor at Canton and easily vanquished Chinese forces. While opium still remained illegal, the Chinese were forced to open additional ports to western traders. Opium began flooding into the country, and addiction became a chronic problem. Government officials, soldiers, and many citizens became addicts. Again, China tried to stem the tide. Again, British traders generated a pretext for a military attack. After the British won the second Opium War in 1860, China was forced to legalize opium (and make other concessions).
3. Addiction worsened throughout China. Workers and peasants fell to the drug. China’s opium problem came as the country was sinking into a slow but severe decline. Its once-vaunted economic, technological and political structures were collapsing. So the Chinese began growing opium, and soon dwarfed India’s output. British trading profits in opium declined, and moral opposition to the practice grew at home. Finally, about 1910, the British government stopped the repugnant trade.